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Integration and Reflection Managing Logistics Operations
Managing Logistics Operations
As your study of this course content draws to a close, it is important to integrate the course content to ensure a comprehensive understanding of the concepts presented in each module. It is also important to "step back" and reflect on new levels of understanding, skills, and knowledge that you developed as a result of your efforts put forward in completing this course. It is particularly important to reflect on the course objectives (what you were intended to learn in this course).
Explain how effective inventory management benefits an organization (Module 1).
The primary benefit to an organization from effective inventory management is knowledge about how much of a product or supplies to purchase. In our studies, our learned that inventory management has far-reaching implications for many functions in a company. An inventory management system that prevents a company from over-buying…
Quality ought to be a fundamental concern for any organization that wishes to, at the very least, survive in the marketplace today. In a logistics system, quality entails ensuring that customer needs and expectations are met by delivering the right products, for the right cost, in the right condition and quantities, and at the right time and place (Korinek & Sourdin, 2011). The concept of total quality management is born when the quality imperative is integrated into a logistics system. It can, therefore, be defined as a concept "supported by a managerial system focused on meeting customer expectations with respect to all needs, from all departments or functions of an organization" (Bowersox, Closs, Cooper & Bowersox, year).
Total quality management is crucial because it enables an organization to meet the requirements and expectations of its customers and to subsequently ensure that they stay loyal to it. No organization can afford…
Bowersox, D.J., Closs, D.J., Cooper, M.B. & Bowersox, J.C. (2012). Supply Chain Logistics Management (4th ed.). New York: McGraw Hill.
Korinek, J. & Sourdin, P. (2011). To What Extent are High-Quality Logistic Services Trade-Facilitating? OECD Trade Policy Papers, No. 108. Retrieved 27 May 2014 from http://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/docserver/download/5kggdthrj1zn.pdf?expires=1401193404&id=id&accname=guest&checksum=15B5A0503B794CCDAAAC85B1D677DAA6
Instead, companies must take steps to make sure that all points of their documentary trail are easy to audit and make random, surprise audits. One of the most important things that a company can do is to "make sure that one individual doesn't control receiving, inventory, disbursements, and adjustments" (Bolger, 2005). By making more than one individual responsible for various aspects of cargo transit, a business may not decrease the likelihood of theft, but they will at least increase the likelihood of a leak if a crime ring develops in the business. When theft is detected, companies should investigate it immediately, due to the fact that many incidents of internal theft are part of larger long-range schemes; investigating a single theft incident may uncover greater losses and point to security breaches that need to be remedied. In addition, companies need to make sure that their cargo contracts clearly specify security…
Bolger, D. "Big employee theft problem." (2005). Retrieved October 27, 2005 from The Bolger
Web site: http://www.bolgergroup.com/articles/0405.html
Bolger, D. "Managing inventory theft." (2002). Retrieved October 26, 2005 from The Bolger
Logistic Planning and Collaboration in Complex Relief Operations by teven J. Romano
It seems to me that Romano is addressing his article to the Department of Defense (DOD) pointing out various issues in their humanitarian missions that he thinks need addressing. I found the article heavy and intense, although it is lightened up, to some extent, by photographs. Nonetheless, I wondered how the photographs were related to the issue at hand.
Romano is unhappy with the way that the DODF conducts its humanitarian missions saying that the DOD violates many logistical concerns in their operations:
Most humanitarian assistance/disaster relief (HA/DR) operations are characterized by rapidly changing circumstances and a lack of clear and accurate information; they are also distinguished by substantial pressure to quickly provide relief supplies and materiel to an affected area.
Romano maintains that DOD does have "the airlift capacity, disaster funding, critical supplies, and logistics systems to…
Romano, SJ. Logistics Planning and Collaboration in Complex Relief Operations
Westminster Company case study to analyze the firm's logistics. Aspects like supply chain, cost factors, and design of the company's logistics system will be discussed. isk definitions are also included among other aspects evaluated in the paper.
Instituted in the year 1923, Westminster Company is among the largest 'consumer healthcare product' producers. The company, its logo, and the merchandise it produces, are renowned locally, and worldwide. The firm's active living groups comprise a healthcare center, residential living, and support services. Westminster has offices in Latin America, Pacific im, and Europe, as well.
With globalization and market expansion, the firm is now faced with fresh challenges with regards to customer satisfaction (Case Study Images Provided by Customer). Consequently, three alternative strategies may be applied to deal with this issue, namely, Point of Sale (POS) information system, individual customer specifications, and reduction of order cycle duration. The following question will have to…
Bhattarai, H. (2011, August ). Logistics Management Information System Software Used in The Antiretroviral Therapy Program In Karnat Aka State, India: Recommendations For Improvement . Retrieved June 22, 2015, From Http://Apps.Who.Int/Medicinedocs/Documents/S21037en/S21037en.Pdf
Case Study Images Provided By Customer
(2015, March 18). Free Term Papers, Research Papers, Essays, Book Notes | ***.com. Case Study Of Westminster Company - College Essays - Sukhidhillon. Retrieved June 22, 2015, from http://www.***.com/essays/Case-Study-Of-Westminster-Company-69699355.html
(n.d.). ***** - term papers, essays, book reports, research papers. Westminster Company Case Study - Term Papers - Isaacpr. Retrieved June 22, 2015, from http://www.*****/essay/125696/Westminster-Company-Case-Study
Logistics in Aviation
Aviation logistics: Competitive advantage and technological innovation
In the modern era, the worldwide logistics and supply chain is very cut throat and keeping an edge over others is important for all the firms in operation. Worldwide competition in aviation logistics business is cut throat with numerous firms. Firms in this business survive only when they maintain an edge over their rivals in the business in order to keep the clients in check. Most of the firms are very lenient to their clients as they listen to their client's needs and requirements, complaints along the way, implementing long-term marketing programs as well as short-term. Companies also make use of their resources in order to acquire competitive edge over their rivals in the marketplace which leads to satisfactory profits (Sakchutchawan, 2011). The resource advantage theory stipulates that having edge in resources paves way for competitive edge in the…
Abrahamsson, M., Aldin, N., & Stahre, F. (2003). Logistics platforms for improved strategic flexibility. International Journal of Logistics: Research & Applications, 6 (3), 85-106.
Bardi, E.J., Raghunathan, T.S., & Bagchi, P.K. (1994). Logistics information systems: The strategic role of top management. Journal of Business Logistics, 15(1), 71-85.
Barney, J. (1991). Firm resources and sustained competitive advantage. Journal of Management, 17(1), 99-120.
Bowersox, D.J., and Daugherty, P.J. (1995). Logistics paradigms: the impact of information technology. Journal of Business Logistics, 16 (1), 65-80.
Logistics Cost Benefits
LMT 305 Cost and Benefits Analysis in everse Logistics-- Fall 2015
When it comes to a company that moves any sort of raw material, products or shipments in general, the subject of logistics is a very important one. Whether one is speaking of forward logistics or reverse logistics, there should be a fairly constant amount of cost/benefit analysis used and harnessed so as to maximize profit and logistical capacity. Indeed, there is almost always more than one way to do something form a logistical standpoint but the benefits of each method as well as the costs should always be assessed to make sure the proper method is used. Both cost and benefits need to be taken into full account because both matter a great deal.
Some people might be confused by forward logistics as compared to reverse logistics. However, the subjects are…
Andrade, R., Vieira Junior, M., Lucato, W., & Vanalle, R. (2013). Reverse logistics and competitiveness: a brief review of this relationship. InPOMS ANNUAL CONFERENCE, 24th.
Choudhary, A., Sarkar, S., Settur, S., & Tiwari, M. (2015). A carbon market sensitive optimization model for integrated forward -- reverse logistics. International Journal Of Production Economics, 164433-444. doi:10.1016/j.ijpe.2014.08.015
Fernie, J., Sparks, L. (2009). Logistics & Retail Management: Emerging issues and new challenges in the retail supply chain. London: Kogan Page Limited.
Fortes, J. (2009). Green supply chain management: A literature. Otago Management Graduate Review, 7(1), 51-62.
Describe the company, the business problem the company was addressing with the system implementation, the system chosen to implement, and the company's rationale for selecting the system to solve the problem.
Wal-Mart, a company that enjoys a significant market share in the U.S. food industry, rolled out its multi-phased project. This marked the beginning of implementing the company's long ditched in-house IT systems, which favored their operations with vendors. However, implementation of the SAP system is already raising red flags. This is because the system comes with costly financial works, which have strained the company (Scheck, 2010). While the project was aimed at leading the firm to growth, Wal-Mart recorded a significant sales decline. This was one of the company's worst performance over three decades now, been beaten by new corporations from Germany and South Korea. As local competitors maintained the pace set by Wal-Mart, most…
Hellens, L, Nielsen, S., Beekhuyzen, J., & Ebrary, Inc. (2008). Qualitative case studies on implementation of enterprise wide systems. Hershey, PA: Idea Group Pub.
Jacobs, A.J. (2012). Information system implementations: Using a leadership quality matrix for success. S.l.: Authorhouse.
Ramachandran, S. (2007). Digital VLSI systems design: A design manual for implementation of projects on FPGAs and ASICs using Verilog. Dordrecht, Netherlands: Springer.
Scheck, D.E. (2010). Implementation project for traffic signal monitor/recorder and analysis system. Athens, Ohio: Dept. Of Industrial & Systems Engineering, Ohio University.
To the extent the totality of circumstances suggest that possibility, even acceptance of the most nominal gratuities (i.e. A cup of coffee) is ethically inappropriate.
Similarly, even where the gratuity involved is of nominal value and there is no potential misunderstanding on the part of the individual proffering an otherwise appropriate gratuity, there is the issue of creating the appearance or inference of an improper relationship from the perspective of others observing the exchange. For example, while the proffer and acceptance of a single cup of coffee is excusable within the framework of ordinary positive community relations, the conspicuous regular transfer of even nominal gratuities in the presence of third parties can create an apparent inference of inappropriate influence regardless of whether or not that inference is necessarily accurate.
The SOI is intended to ensure that police officers do not misuse their duly authorized latitude to take different degrees…
Conlon E. (2004). Blue Blood. Riverhead, NY: Bantam.
Peak K. (2002). Policing America: Methods, Issues, Challenges. New Jersey: Prentice
Schmalleger F. (2008). Criminal Justice Today: An Introductory Text for the 21st
System Operational Feasibility great deal of time and intellectual resources go into the conceptual design stage of a systems engineering process once a need is clearly defined by the end-user. However, this initial development step is a moot point if the product is not operationally feasible, which means, according to Benjamin Blanchard in his book Systems Engineering and Analysis, "that the system will perform as intended in an effective and efficient manner for as long as necessary."
In order for the systems engineer to determine operational feasibility, it is necessary to properly integrate the design-related specialties such as reliability, maintainability, human factors and supportability.
Reliability is one of the most important design elements, since it confirms or denies the long-term use of the product without major maintenance and repair. Unreliable systems do not meet the original project goals and lead to unnecessary expenditures of valuable resources. Simply stated, "reliability is…
Salee Company Limited suffers this setback. Therefore, it should align itself in a position to maximize profits by looking in to the ways of reducing the loss. Mr. Somsak Pruksawan of the Salee Industry Public Company Limited admits that every organization, large or small businesses suffers various types of obstacle when performing businesses. Their problem is the management of the waste and the plastic defects. The management of the company notes that the company faces various difficulties. These problems range from the upstream of supply chain processes to the end customers or the consumers of their products. The material cost varies with the mass of material that that facilitates the process and the price unit of that material. The heaviness of material is vividly a result of the proportion volume and material density. However, the fraction's maximum wall widths play a role (Lindsay, 2010, p.57).
The weight of raw material…
Packham, D. (2010). Mould sticking, fouling and cleaning. Shropshire: Rapra Technology.
Groover, M.P. (2010). Fundamentals of modern manufacturing: Materials, processes, and systems. Hoboken, N.J: Wiley.
ASM International. (2009). Characterization and failure analysis of plastics. Materials Park,
OH: ASM International.
Wal-Mart maximize its logistics efficiency through facility location planning
Logistics today is much more than transfer or delivery of goods as the investigation of the systems of Wal-Mart would show. Logistics is intertwined with a lot of things like infrastructure, information and system planning based on the type of industry and the motives of the organization. In the case of Wal-Mart, the system has to be very cost effective and for this they take the supply side seriously. They have also put in one of the best information infrastructure and created the necessary physical infrastructure with independent management for the outlets. This with the company's planning for supplies even in extreme conditions including disasters has made its system robust.
Logistics and facility planning are intertwined. One cannot exist without the other. Facility planning is necessary for distribution and logistics is the method of taking the wares to the facility. The…
Achtmeyer, W.F. (2002) "Wal-Mart Stores Inc."
Tuck School of Business Dartmouth College.
Bergdahl, M. (2006) "Wal-Mart is a Company Obsessed with Lowering Costs . . . Is
Yours?" Retrieved 17 September, 2012 from www.michaelbergdahl.net
Analyze the appropriateness of HM technologies and best practices to recommend applications and strategies for your selected organization, in order to improve organizational effectiveness, workforce productivity, and systems integration
HM technologies are essential towards reduction of the cost of operations as well as an increment in the level of consumer satisfaction hence effective management of the resources and available opportunities. Wal-Mart should focus on the quality and efficient automation of the processes and departments for the purposes of eliminating errors and overhead costs. This is essential through management of the HM technologies such as CM, FID, and EP with the aim of achieving maximum profit levels and revenues at the end of the fiscal year.
Ho, C. (2007). Measuring system performance of an EP-based supply chain. International Journal of Production esearch, 45(6), 1255-1277. doi:
Karimi, J., Somers, T.M., & Bhattacherjee, A. (2007). The ole of Information Systems
Ho, C. (2007). Measuring system performance of an ERP-based supply chain. International Journal of Production Research, 45(6), 1255-1277. doi:
Karimi, J., Somers, T.M., & Bhattacherjee, A. (2007). The Role of Information Systems
Resources in ERP Capability Building and Business Process Outcomes. Journal Of
Army has been modernizing its logistics function for the past half century, and a wide range of legacy systems remain in place. For example, logistics automation systems, collectively termed the Standard Army Management Information Systems (STAMIS) have been deployed by the combat service support community to provide improved logistics support to warfighters. Although these systems have proven valuable to warfighters in the field, supporting these legacy systems has become a challenge for Army logisticians due in large part to their lack of interconnectability. These legacy systems also have a number of limitations that require updating and efforts have been underway to replace these systems with more efficient approaches to provide warfighters with the materiel and information they need to prosecute military actions on the 21st century battlefield. The purpose of this study was to provide empirical observations and views from Army subject matter experts to determine what constraints may be…
Academy of Management. The Academy of Management Review. Briarcliff Manor: Oct 2008. Vol. 33, Iss. 4; pg. 825
Andersson, Ake E. (1981). Structural Change and Technological Development. Regional Science and Urban Economics, 11(3), 351. Retrieved November 13, 2008
Besaw, B. (2005, August). Army Logistician (Improving Logistics Automation Support). Army
Logistics University. Retrieved September 18, 2012, from http://www.almc.army.mil/alog/issues/sepoct05/logautosupprt.html
These are stated to be the reason that these systems "lend themselves to investigation using simulation methodology." (ienstock, 1996) Simulation is stated to offer an alternative "for understanding these systems, since experimenting with the actual systems would be too costly." (ienstock, 1996) Furthermore, simulation is stated to facilitate the "examination of dynamic processes or systems over time by allowing the compression of real time." (ienstock, 1996) ienstock states that the methods for adjusting the sample size 'n' in simulation studies are as follows:
(1) simulation runs for each experimental condition (each cell) may be replicated 'n' times;
(2) observation of 'n' subintervals of the simulation of an experimental condition may be increased by decreasing the length of the subintervals; or (3) the simulation of an experimental condition may be continued for a longer period of time, thereby increasing the number of subintervals (i.e. The sample size). (ienstock, 1996)…
Bienstock, Carol C. (1996) Sample Size Determination in Logistics Simulations. International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management. Vol. 26. No. 2, 1996. MCB University Press.
Chandra, Pankaj and Fisher, Marshall L. (nd) Coordination of Production and Distribution Planning. DecisionCraft Analytics. No. 108.
Chang, Yoon and Makatsoris, Harris (nd) Supply Chain Modeling Using Simulation. Institute for Manufacturing, University of Cambridge. International Journal of Simulation. Vol. 2, No.1
Cohen, Morris a. And Lee, Hau L. (1987) Strategic Analysis of Integrated Production Distribution Systems: Models and Methods. Operations Research. Vol. 36. No.2 March-April 1988.
Some types of business however prefer a higher visibility of goods, which entails lower transportation and overall storage costs. The choice of balance between the two should be the result of careful analysis in order to achieve cost optimization.
Because inbound logistics can become very complicated and interfere with optimal operations, some companies prefer to outsource their non-core functions to third-party logistics services providers. These providers then focus upon analyzing the supply and demand flows within the industry. Warehousing and lead times can then be optimized according to predictions resulting from these analysis.
IT systems are often used to help with this by analyzing information sets and yielding optimal inbound logistics programs. By using these systems, third party logistics suppliers then save time and money by consolidating and analyzing all the fragmented information available for inbound logistics. In this way, an optimal lead time is combined with optimal storage options.…
Improvements to Target's Logistics Processes
As one of the leading retailers in North America, Target Corporation (NYSE:TGT) has one of the most advanced logistics, supply chain management and planning systems and series of processes in the retail industry. Target has specifically designed their entire value chain to deliver higher-end electronic products that can compete with WalMart, specifically in the areas of flat screen televisions, laptop computers and increasingly, Apple-branded iPads and iPod products. Target is also using their advanced supply chain processes including Collaborative Planning, Forecasting and eplenishment (CPF) to compete in the high-end women's clothing lines that WalMart is not choosing to compete in (Target Investor elations, 2012). At the close of their latest fiscal year, Target was operating approximately 1,760 stores in 49 states. Target finances its operations through its retail and credit card business units, using the profits from those two operations to finance the operations of…
Columbus, L. (2008, The perfect order meets customer expectations. Supply & Demand Chain Executive, 9(4), 37-38.
Copacino, W.C. (1993). Creating the perfect order. Logistics Management, 32(2), 27-27.
Henderson, T.P. (2001). Kmart, Target outline best practices for ensuring vendor supply chain compliance. Stores, 83(3), 74-78.
Debra Hofman (2004, September). The HIERARCHY of SUPPLY CHAIN METRICS. Supply Chain Management Review, 8(6), 28-37.
Logistics refers to all the move and store actions from the point of raw materials attainment to the point of final use. Effective and efficient logistics management is a key to the success of business firms as well as to Just in time (Lai and Cheng, n.d.).
Logistics management is so crucial for JIT because the entire premise is that a company orders just the product that it needs and it is supposed to arrive just as they need it. If the product does not arrive on time them the company has no product to sell and if they product arrives too early then they more than likely will have storage issues in regards to the product.
Azaria, Erez. (2009). Supplier Consolidation in Weakening Economy. etreived May 20, 2010,
from Supply Excellence Web site:
Fernie, John and Sparks, Leigh. (n.d.). etail logistics: changes and challenges. etreived May
Azaria, Erez. (2009). Supplier Consolidation in Weakening Economy. Retreived May 20, 2010,
from Supply Excellence Web site:
Fernie, John and Sparks, Leigh. (n.d.). Retail logistics: changes and challenges. Retreived May
Information Systems over the Last Century:
Synchronizing and Streamlining Transportation and Logistics Systems
The pace of change and its complexity continues to drastically redefine entire industries, with those reliant on supply chains, logistics and transportation services seeing the greatest benefits and risks. Globalization is also re-shaping industries the fastest who rely on transportation as a key part of their value chains. United Parcel Service is a company that is representative of the pace and complexity of change that has occurred in business processes, strategies, and information systems over the last one hundred years. UPS was founded in 1907 in Seattle, Washington by Jim Casey, and today is one of the leading transportations services companies globally. The intent of this analysis is to explain the differences between business information systems and methods widely used in 1910 and how they compare to the common enterprise-wide systems and methods of today. The telephone,…
Nabil Alghalith. (2005). Competing with IT: The UPS Case. Journal of American Academy of Business, Cambridge, 7(2), 7-15.
Ata, B., & Van Mieghem, J. (2009). The Value of Partial Resource Pooling: Should a Service Network Be Integrated or Product-Focused? Management Science, 55(1), 115-131.
Barrett, J.. (2007, November). Demand-Driven is an Operational Strategy. Industrial Management, 49(6), 14-19,5.
Das, K.. (2011). Integrating effective flexibility measures into a strategic supply chain planning model. European Journal of Operational Research, 211(1), 170.
Distribution Centers: The elevance of a Good Transportation System
Distribution centers, in basic terms, "are special forms of warehouses that focus on throughput where products from various manufacturers are combined into shipments of precise quantities for distribution according to customer needs" (Wang and Adams, 2010).
A good transportation system helps in the reduction of transportation costs. From the onset, it is important to note that the relevance of cutting down on transportation costs cannot be overstated. One way of cutting transportation costs is optimizing the location of distribution centers. The resulting shorter delivery routes come in handy in cost cutting attempts. As will be discussed elsewhere in this text, using Wal-Mart as an example, an appropriate location and multiple distribution centers mesh together to make the movement of products more efficient. The availability of transportation at warehouse locations, as Wang and Adams (2010) point out, "significantly impacts transportation costs and…
MWPVL. (2014). The Wal-Mart Distribution Center in the United States. Retrieved from http://www.mwpvl.com/html/walmart.html
Wang, B.X. & Adams, T.M. (2010). Warehousing and Distribution Centers. Retrieved from https://ceprofs.civil.tamu.edu/bwang/CVEN672/Warehousing-DC-Chapter-Wang-Adams.pdf
Accounting Information System
Improving Transactional Processing in Accounting Information System (AIS)
Propose two (2) innovative technology changes that would be appropriate for a firm's:
evenue (sales to cash collection) cycle
evenue cycle represents the description of the financial progression of a business entity in relation to the accounts receivable from the point of acquisition of products to the stage when the company or business organization receives full payment for the products (omney, 2012). One of the innovative technological changes that can transform the revenue cycle is leverage technology. This technology would allow the company or business entity to adopt appropriate way of providing crucial information to essential parties in relation to consumers or market audience. Application or adoption of this technology would allow the company to maximize consumer relationships and production or profit levels. The other innovative technological change is automation of the management systems of the firm or organization.…
Dolgui, A., & Proth, J.-M. (2010). Supply chain engineering: Useful methods and techniques. London: Springer.
Hall, J.A. (2011). Accounting information systems. Mason, OH: South-Western Cengage Learning.
Langevin, A., & Riopel, D. (2005). Logistics systems: Design and optimization. New York, NY: Springer Science+Business Media.
Romney, M.B., & Steinbart, P.J. (2012). Accounting information systems. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Healthcare Delivery Systems Annotated
Parnaby, J., & Towill, D.R. (2008). Seamless healthcare delivery systems. International Journal of Health Care Quality Assurance, 21(3), 249-73.
Towill, D.R., & Christopher, M. (2005). An evolutionary approach to the architecture of effective healthcare delivery systems. Journal of Health Organization and Management, 19(2), 130-47.
everse Logistics Trends and Practices
everse logistics is a concept that has attracted considerable attention in the recent past because of the new interest in its processes. The increased interests in reverse logistics occur regardless of the little information regarding the size and extent of reverse logistics processes and activities. As the interests on reverse logistics have grown, the concept and its processes have been characterized by the emergence of new trends and practices. The focus of this project is to describe the current state of reverse logistics and attempt to determine and evaluate trends and practices. The determination of the recent trends and practices in reverse logistics incorporates examining the degree of its activities and processes in supply chain management. The author will focus on determining existing practices and trends, assessing them, and generating information regarding the trends in today's reverse logistics practices.
Overview of everse Logistics Processes
Greve, C. & Davis, J. (2010, April). Recovering Lost Profits by Improving Reverse
Logistics. Retrieved February 28, 2015, from http://grevedavis.com/files/2010/04/Greve-Davis-View-of-Reverse-Logistics.pdf
Hawks, K. (2006). What is Reverse Logistics? Reverse Logistics Magazine. Retrieved February 28, 2015, from http://www.rlmagazine.com/edition01p12.php
O'Reilly, J. (2005, July). Rethinking Reverse Logistics. Retrieved February 27, 2015,
The implementation of sustainable rules and regulations as well as constraints in the markets across the world, have compelled international industries, in this case, the food and beverage industry, to establish reverse logistics, which is the backflow management of the supply chain system. everse logistics encompasses the waste management of products and merchandises in the backward supply chain. There has been a gap or limitation in research studies on the implementation of reverse logistics on the food and beverage industry. Due to the fact that food and beverage products are delicate in nature, the backward flow of packing and food supplies compel the formation of a free-flowing reverse logistics system throughout the supply chain. The development of an efficacious reverse supply chain practice for the food retail industry necessitates the conduction of studies on prevailing reverse procedures, and their enactment across the diverse retail set-ups.
Hawks, K. (2006). What is Reverse Logistics. Reverse Logistics magazine. Retrieved 1 October 2015 from: http://www.rlmagazine.com/edition01p12.php
Kabir, M. I. (2013). Reverse Logistics in Pharmaceutical Industry. International journal of supply chain management, 2(1).
Rogers, D. S., Tibben-Lembke, R. S. (1998). Going backwards: reverse logistics trends and practices. Reverse Logistics Executive Council.
Sharma, S. K., Panda, B. N., Mahapatra, S. S., & Sahu, S. (2011). Analysis of barriers for reverse logistics: an Indian perspective. International Journal of Modeling and Optimization, 1(2), 101-106.
moves any sort of raw material, products or shipments in general, the subject of logistics is a very important one. Whether one is speaking of forward logistics or reverse logistics, there should be a fairly constant amount of cost/benefit analysis used and harnessed so as to maximize profit and logistical capacity. Indeed, there is almost always more than one way to do something form a logistical standpoint but the benefits of each method as well as the costs should always be assessed to make sure the proper method is used. Both cost and benefits need to be taken into full account because both matter a great deal.
Some people might be confused by forward logistics as compared to reverse logistics. However, the subjects are actually fairly easy to absorb and interpret with the proper definition. Products and materials, even if slightly compromised, typically retain their value even if…
Choudhary, A., Sarkar, S., Settur, S., & Tiwari, M. (2015). A carbon market sensitive optimization model for integrated forward -- reverse logistics. International Journal Of Production Economics, 164433-444. doi:10.1016/j.ijpe.2014.08.015
Hatefi, S., Jolai, F., Torabi, S., & Tavakkoli-Moghaddam, R. (2015). A credibility-constrained programming for reliable forward -- reverse logistics network design under uncertainty and facility disruptions. International Journal Of Computer Integrated Manufacturing, 28(6),
Kim, T., Goyal, S., & Kim, C. (2013). Lot-streaming policy for forward-reverse logistics with recovery capacity investment. International Journal Of Advanced Manufacturing
Technology in everse Logistics
everse logistics has developed to become one of the most important elements in supply chain management because of its benefits. As a result, reverse logistics has become a concept and process that manufacturers and retailers cannot ignore. Given the advantages of reverse logistics in the supply chain, manufacturers and retailers have enhanced investments in technology to enhance their reverse logistics systems. These huge investments in technology to improve reverse logistics systems have been made in automated material handling equipment, barcodes, electronic data interchange, automated return tracking, radio frequency, and automated returns entry in many downstream segments in supply chain (Hawks, 2006).
The increased investments in technology to enhance reverse logistics systems have been influenced and driven by trends occurring in software. The recent trends in the software industry have been revolved around development of programs with easy-to-use characteristics, use of natural languages, and the increased utilization…
Hawks, K. (2006). What is Reverse Logistics? Reverse Logistics Magazine. Retrieved January
13, 2015, from http://www.rlmagazine.com/edition01p12.php
Rogers, D.S. & Tibben-Lembke, R.S. (1998). Going Backwards: Reverse Logistics Trends and Practices. Retrieved January 13, 2015, from http://www.rlec.org/reverse.pdf
A comparative study of logistic operation in the military vs. commercial organization
The past two decades have witnessed drastic transformations in civilian as well as military logistical settings. The commercial sector has been transformed by mass retailing, technological advancements, deregulation impacts, supply chains, etc. which have posed challenges to the commercial logistical setting. Simultaneously, military logisticians saw the Cold War era and associated strategies, a whole new kind of enemy, evolving military employees and sustained combat maneuvers within Third-World settings (Rutner, Aviles & Cox, 2012). Both groups have encountered tough choices, in addition to being pressured to review and perfect their corresponding logistical processes. But the question of whether both have been growing at the same rate remains to be answered.
Contemporary corporations are required to simultaneously achieve reduced costs, superior quality and superior logistics performance. They are facing increasing pressures to modify their offering to address changing requirements, promote…
The first step in attaining best practices in ERP system performance begins not with technology or system integration at an enterprise scale, but with a re-orientation to the key processes that need to be automated to make selling strategies more effective (Chtioui, 2009). In fact best practices in ERP systems performance is more attuned to aligning ERP systems to the key strategic plans and initiatives of an organization first, then selectively using technologies to attain higher levels of performance over time. This alignment of ERP systems to strategies is critical for companies to attain profitability in the midst of a recession as well.
To attain the greatest value from this first recommendation companies need to re-evaluate their quoting and product configuration strategies from the perspective of their customers. And then determine how best to integrate their ERP systems' into the workflows to make this customer-facing process as efficient as…
Chtioui, T.. (2009). Understanding the Impact of ERP Standardization on Business Process Performance. International Journal of Business, 14(2), 151-162.
Shahin Dezdar, & Ainin Sulaiman. (2009). Successful enterprise resource planning implementation: taxonomy of critical factors. Industrial Management + Data Systems, 109(8), 1037-1052.
Helena Forslund. (2010). ERP systems' capabilities for supply chain performance management. Industrial Management + Data Systems, 110(3), 351-367.
Helo, P., Xu, Q., Kyllonen, S., & Jiao, R.. (2010). Integrated Vehicle Configuration System-Connecting the domains of mass customization. Computers in Industry, 61(1), 44.
Fo Toyota to meet o exceed custome expectations, its citical the links ae eal-time, which ae often the most expensive to initiate and maintain yet the most eliable ove time (Shaif, Iani, Love, 2005).
Analysis of Best Pactices in Entepise Resouce Planning and Systems Integation
Integation is a stategic advantage when done well, significantly inceasing the accuacy, speed and eliability of esponses of companies to thei customes. Integation pedicated on unifying business pocesses that ae aligned on the custome and thei needs with defined levels of pefomance as measued with key pefomance indicatos (KPIs) and metics have a significantly highe pobability of success (Shaif, Iani, Love, 2005). The technology elated to integation is seconday to the business benefits that these technologies povide acoss ERP instances, all aimed at attaining a stategic objective (Gatne, 2010)(a).
The best pactices that ae emeging in the aea of ERP integation ate quickly pogessing beyond…
references is prominent in the methodology, further ensuring that companies relying on this analysis to define which ERP systems they purchase align with critical success factors included in systems integration.
Gartner (2010)(b) Manufacturing 2.0: A Fresh Approach to Integrating Manufacturing Operations With DDVN
The Manufacturing 2.0: A Fresh Approach to Integrating Manufacturing Operations with DDVN (Demand Driven Value Network) defines how integration across ERP systems is fueling an entirely new class of value-based network. These networks are capable of responding quickly to variations in customer demand. A DDVN becomes a strong differentiator from a strategy execution standpoint. The analysis shows how Manufacturing 2.0 is being driven by intelligence and insight over competing purely on price alone.
LMT 307 Food and Beverage everse Logistics -- Fall 2015
The implementation of sustainable rules and regulations as well as constraints in the markets across the world, have compelled international industries, in this case, the food and beverage industry, to establish reverse logistics, which is the backflow management of the supply chain system. everse logistics encompasses the waste management of products and merchandises in the backward supply chain. There has been a gap or limitation in research studies on the implementation of reverse logistics on the food and beverage industry. Due to the fact that food and beverage products are delicate in nature, the backward flow of packing and food supplies compel the formation of a free-flowing reverse logistics system throughout the supply chain. The development of an efficacious reverse supply chain practice for the food retail industry necessitates the conduction of studies on prevailing…
Gustavsson, J., Otterdijk, R. (2011). Global food losses and food waste: extent, causes and prevention. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, pp. 1-29.
Hawks, K. (2006). What is Reverse Logistics. Reverse Logistics magazine. Retrieved 1 October 2015 from: http://www.rlmagazine.com/edition01p12.php
Kabir, M. I. (2013). Reverse Logistics in Pharmaceutical Industry. International journal of supply chain management, 2(1).
Petersen, J.A., Kumar, V. (2009). Are product returns a necessary evil? Antecedents and consequences. Journal of Marketing, Vol. 73, No. 3, pp. 35-51.
e if he considers some to be more important tthan others). If the reverse is the case, it can confuse him.
3. The Stepwise method
Here is where John can use the forward selection, the backwards elimination, or a combination of both.
In the forward selection, John tries out the variables one by one (starting with none at all) and including those that are statistically significant. In the backward elimination, the reverse occurs; John starts with all variables, tests them for significance and eliminates those that lack significance. John can also amalgamate both methods for greater security.
This method is advantageous for a study that yields a large number of possible explanatory variables, but there is no underlying theory which John can use to base his selection. Given the huge amount of potential candidates, screening out the variables that are significant can be helpful to John. He may be able…
Logistics Report Template to Alberta Government on Test Oil Rig Deployment-Team Employment Environmental Issues
The Alberta government is currently under severe pressure to manage the environmental impact of the drilling for oil in environmentally sensitive sites. For this reason, this report will have much the same format as environmental compliance report that will be issued later. This will include the consideration of issues such as waste management, land use, and air and water pollution resulting from the extraction/processing of oil. Additionally, combustion and thermal processing produce waste material. These must be disposed of. Harmful atmospheric emissions (CO2) will also be captured, stored and recycled or disposed of in order to qualify for Canadian and Alberta carbon credits which may financially offset waste disposal/recycling costs. On site experimental conversion processes and carbon capture/storage technologies may reduce some of these costs in the future (more carbon credits), but may raise others, such…
Government of Alberta. Alberta Environment Department. Assessing Drilling Waste Disposal Areas:
Compliance Options for Reclamation Certification. Edmonton: Alberta Governmental.
"Turning the Corner: Canada's Offset System for Greenhouse Gases."
Environment Canada. Ec.gc.ca, 07 March 2008. Web. 15 Nov 2011.
Third, subsystems engineers are more attuned to how their specific product and technology areas are driven by external market forces and market dynamics than system engineers typically are. The reason is that subsystem engineers, both hardware and software, seek to understand how customer and market needs impact their existing and future designs. As both of these classes of subsystem engineers are more focused on how to create valuable contributions to their specific area of expertise, monitoring market and customer trends tends to be a passion for many of them. It is not unusual for example to see an engineering team know more about market trends, research, unmet customer needs and competitors than a marketing department for the same product (Hoberman, 2009). This is precisely why subsystem engineers in high technology companies often end up running product management, product marketing and corporate marketing because they have a better grasp of the…
David Carrington, Paul Strooper, Sharron Newby, & Terry Stevenson. (2005). An industry/university collaboration to upgrade software engineering knowledge and skills in industry. The Journal of Systems and Software, 75(1-2), 29-39.
George T. Dasher. (2003). The interface between systems engineering and program management. Engineering Management Journal, 15(3), 11-14.
R. Harrison, a.W. Colombo, a.A. We-st, & S.M. Lee. (2006). Reconfigurable modular automation systems for automotive power-train manufacture. International Journal of Flexible Manufacturing Systems, 18(3), 175-190.
Steve Hoberman. (2009). How to Produce Adequate Definitions: Clear and complete attribute definitions improve data deliverables. Information Management, 19(5), 45.
Apple: Supply Chain Management System
Today, Apple is regarded not only one of the most successful, but also one of the most innovative companies in the world. The company has in the past raked in significantly higher returns than its peers, thanks to its unique approach to doing business. As a matter of fact, when it comes to supply chain management, Apple is regarded a market leader by most analysts.
Apple's Logistics and Supply Chain Management System
The company's supply chain management system could be broken into four general parts. These include, sourcing, manufacturing, warehousing, distribution and finally, return. It is important to note, from the onset, that Apple sources most of its raw materials from diverse locations -- particularly Europe, China, and the United States. The most critical raw materials for the manufacture of the company's numerous electronic devices include integrated circuits, the appropriate optical drives, microprocessors, and LCDs…
Crandall, R.E., Crandall, W.R. & Chen, C.C. (2014). Principles of Supply Chain Management (2nd ed.). CRC Press.
Farr, C. (2014). Apple Tries to Lift Online Sales by Cutting Refund Times in Half. Retrieved from http://www.reuters.com/article/2014/05/12/us-apple-returns-idUSBREA4B07P20140512
Samson, A. (2013). Apple Lifts Veil on Far-Flung Supply Chain, Exposes Flaws. Retrieved from http://www.foxbusiness.com/technology/2013/01/25/apple-lifts-veil-on-far-flung-supply-chain-exposes-flaws/
Warehousing Management Systems
When it comes to warehousing, times are definitely changing. The past meant a lot of paperwork for the warehouse, and it was still possible for things to get lost in the shuffle. That brought about the realization that state-of-the-art warehouse management systems are critical to the operate of a modern warehouse, for a number of reasons (Atkinson, 2002). Those reasons will be explored here, along with how warehouse management systems have changed the landscape and what they have provided to people in that industry. It is now much easier for items to travel to and from the warehouse on schedule, and more likely that items leaving the warehouse will arrive at the right destination (Atkinson, 2002). But warehouse management systems do much more than that. They also ensure that everything is handled correctly within the warehouse. They are vitally important in the modern warehouse because of the…
Anonymous. (2002). WMS drives efficient parts distribution. Modern Materials Handling, Boston, 57(12).
Atkinson, W. (2002). Value-added services from 3 PLs and public warehouses: What to look for. Logistics Management, 41(10): W8-11.
McKnight, D. (1999). A practical guide to evaluating the functional utility of warehouses. The Appraisal Journal, 67(1): 29-37.
Supply Chain Logistics
The objective of this study is to provide an example of the relationship between the four supply chain objects: (1) products; (2) facilities; (3) vehicles; and (4) routes and what tradeoffs can be made between these four objects to get lower overall supply chain costs.
It is reported that logistics strategies and specifically decisions about transportation "can be considered as key factors to increase supply chain effectiveness." (, p. 1) Transportation services play a key role in the supply chain seamless operations and specifically "moving in-bound materials from supply sites to manufacturing facilities, repositioning inventory among different plants and distribution centers and delivering finished products to customers." (Geospatial World, 2014, p. 1) Reported is that there is spending by organizations on new technologies and software that provide for "seamless integration of the supply chain, to increase overall supply chain profitability." Geospatial World, 2014,…
Routing Analysis in Supply Chain Management (SCM) -- A Manager's Perspective (2014) Geospatial World. Retrieved from: http://www.geospatialworld.net/paper/application/ArticleView.aspx?aid=371#sthash.xTWUF42w.dpuf
Wal-Mart's growth and profitability to become the leading retailer across the world is partly attributed to its seemingly effective logistics system that has enabled the firm to manage its wide range of goods effectively and efficiently. Actually, the company's logistics system generates results that have enabled Wal-Mart to become one of the top revenue earning firms. In addition to being the top generating company in 2007, Wal-Mart was the first retailer to place first sales in the Fortune 500 rank (Khade & Lovaas, 2009). During this period, the organization overtook other giants like General Motors, Chevron, and Exxon Mobil. Generally, the growth of the organization is based on a business model whose foundation is logistics excellence since logistics is vital. One of the major aspects of the firm's logistics operations is maximization of its efficiency through facility location planning.
In light of the significance of logistics,…
D'Innocenzio, A. (2012, October 10). Wal-Mart Plans to Open Small Stores Faster. USA Today.
Retrieved June 18, 2014, from http://www.usatoday.com/story/money/business/2012/10/10/walmart-small-stores/1624485/
Gustafson, K. (2014, February 20). Wal-Mart Places Big Bet on Going Small, But is it Enough?
CNBC. Retrieved June 18, 2014, from http://www.cnbc.com/id/101432274
Many businesses in this day and age seek to demonstrate stewardship and resolve to do business within a guideline of corporate social responsibility. In this quest many have chosen to focus on greening their business often including both procurement and manufacture, seeking to reduce the effect of their business on the environment. The different systems approaches that an organization can utilize to demonstrate more effective environmental sustainability are almost as varied as the companies themselves. The utilization of pollution prevention programs depends almost entirely on what it is a company does and what wastes they challenge to control. Additionally companies seek to demonstrate their compliance utilizing various accounting tools that are often made public and become incorporated in their systems designs. These designs will incorporate procurement, logistics, on demand manufacture, i.e. lean manufacture and many other possible systems designs to both demonstrate cost savings and produce a more…
Barrow, C.J. (2005). Environmental Management and Development. London: Routledge.
Eyeontransport, Green Logistics Forum "Download the Green Transportation & Logistics Global Report Now," at http://www.greenlogisticsforum.com/2008/free_report.shtml
Motavalli, J., & Harkinson, J. (2002, September/October). Buying Green: Harnessing the Incredible Procurement Power of Governments, Hospitals, Colleges and America's Biggest Corporations to Protect the Environment. E, 13, 26.
New, S., Green, K., & Morton, B. (2000). 3 Buying the Environment. In The Business of Greening, Fineman, S. (Ed.) (pp. 35-53). London: Routledge.
Many argue if Gen. Patton truly made the above remarks, but he had a clear understanding of the importance of logistics. After the Normandy landing that occurred in the year 1944 in August as the allied forced France against Germany offensively, the third Army of General Patton went short of fuel and they had to cut short their advance (Neubauer, 2011).
According to Martin Van Creveld, several operations of the allied in the European theater, in the course of the Second World War, were implemented and frequently cancelled with reasons of logistics. This clearly displayed how logistics can limit the operations of the military if they are not well and managed properly. Operations of the military rely on logistics on all the existing levels, tactical, strategic, and operational. Strategic logistics usually assist the government with information useful in building, projecting and sustaining the power of military over time using its…
Parry, G., & Graves, a. (2008). Build to order: The road to the 5-day car. London: Springer.
Neubauer, R.M. (2011). Business Models in the Area of Logistics: In Search of Hidden Champions, their Business Principles, and Common Industry Misperceptions. Wiesbaden: Gabler.
Zanjirani, R., Asgari, N. & Davarzani, H. (2009). Supply chain and logistics in national, international, and governmental environment: Concepts and models. Heidelberg: Physica
Photovoltaic power system is a type of renewable energy that converts solar energy into solar photovoltaic electricity. Photovoltaic (PV) technology converts energy from the sunlight into the electricity. One of the advantages of the PV technology is that it is pollution free, and it is applicable with little maintenance.
(EPIA 2008). Since sunlight is available free of charge, there has been an increase in the research and development (&D) to make the Photovoltaic energy available to all households and industry in the future. With the advantages derived from the PV energy systems, varieties of research have been launched at national and international laboratories focusing on the mass production of solar power at possible lower costs. (Dahl, 2005). In German, there are varieties of efforts in the development of PV technology. There has been an increase in the collaboration of government, university and the industry consortia in the development of Photovoltaic…
Dahl, T ( 2005). Photovoltaic Power Systems. Technology White Paper
El-Beyrouty, K. Meimanaliev, A. Petrosyan, L. et al. (2009). Germany's Photovoltaic Cluster. Competitiveness of Microeconomics: Clusters, Firms and Economic Development.
EPIA (2008). Photovoltaic Energy: Electricity from the Su
EPIA, (2011). Who is EPIA? Retrieved 25 October 2011 from http://www.epia.org/about-epia/who-is-epia.html
Decoding DNA Toyota Production System
Decoding the DNA of the Toyota Production System
In the article Decoding the DNA of the Toyota Production System (Spear, Bowen, 1999) (NOTE: this is OK per Harvard citing conventions to put this citation here, after the article) the authors provide a thorough analysis of what differentiates Toyota from other auto manufacturers specifically, and all manufacturers in general terms. The analysis includes key findings with regard to the Toyota Production System (TPS) lean manufacturing best practices including the findings from Black (2007, p. 3663 which states "lean manufacturing calls for redesigning the mass production system" which is exactly what Toyota did in the development of their TPS. Toyota was also able to instill a very strong reliance on the scientific method of learning and instruction as part of the leadership process while also defining an innate ability of this production system to support the foundational…
Black, J.T. 2007, "Design rules for implementing the Toyota Production System," International Journal of Production Research, vol. 45, no. 16, pp. 3639.
Dyer, J.H. & Nobeoka, K. 2000, "Creating and managing a high-performance knowledge-sharing network: The Toyota case," Strategic Management Journal, vol. 21, no. 3, pp. 345-367.
Liao, N.N.H. 2008, "Performance of Suppliers Logistics in the Toyota Production System in Taiwan," Journal of American Academy of Business, Cambridge, vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 195-200.
Spear, S. & Bowen, H.K. 1999, Decoding the DNA of the Toyota Production System, Boston, United States, Boston.
The panels could also be assembled quickly often within a day. Some panels have an in-built wiring in them making the housing construction to be faster. The panelized off-site building technologies could also involve exterior wall of building designed to provide the load bearing structural support, and the panelized building system could be made of light gauge steel, timber, structural insulated panels (SIPs), non-structural or concrete, which could be used to create the whole building.
(Parliamentary Office of Science and Technology, 2003). On the hand, Burwood and Jess (2005) reveal another method of panelized building system which is closed system. However, closed system is more complex because it involves the use of more factory fabrication such as insulation and lining materials. Different type of panels may include steel frame or timber frame and they may consist of prefabricated load bearing panels.
There are several advantages that could be derived from…
AMA Research (2011). Bathroom and Kitchen Pods Market-UK 2010.2014. AMA Research Ltd., UK.
Azman, M.N.A. Ahamad, M.S.S. Majid, T.A. et al. (2010). The Common Approach in Off-Site Construction Industry. Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences, 4(9): 4478-4482.
Barker 33 Cross Industry Group (2006) Modern Methods of Construction (MMC) for the Provision of Housing: Barker 33 Review: Recommendations, Barker 33 Cross Industry Group, London.
Barker, K. (2003) Review of Housing Supply: Securing our Future Housing Needs, Interim Report: Analysis, HMSO, London.
Product Costing systems (ABC, job costing, put costing, .) advanced topic managerial accounting the thesis statemenit a position body paper show evidence support position. The paper discuss opposite point view discuss position valid.
Product costing systems
Product costing system is a management tool which identifies the actual cost of producing each product. It identifies the profits and loss which can be gained or incurred on each product, hence giving companies the opportunity of identifying and promoting of profitable product while dropping, re-pricing or redesigning of unprofitable products Brierley, 2008.
Product costing is a highly sensitive area for managerial accountants, recently, most of them have changed their focus such that they give their attention to appropriate treatment costs which are directly associated with resources that are committed to support activities, which within the company do not vary proportionally to production once the initial capacities have been set. In such as an…
Brierley, J.A. (2008). Toward an Understanding of the Sophistication of Product Costing Systems. [Article]. Journal of Management Accounting Research, 20, 61-78.
Brierley, J.A. (2010). The determinants of overhead assignment sophistication in product costing systems. [Article]. Journal of Corporate Accounting & Finance (Wiley), 21(4), 69-75. doi: 10.1002/jcaf.20597
Brierley, J.A. (2011). A Comparison of the Product Costing Practices of Large and Small- to Medium-Sized Enterprises: A Survey of British Manufacturing Firms. [Article]. International Journal of Management, 28(4), 184-193.
Drudy, & M. Tayles. (2005). The British Accounting Review Explicating the design of overhead absorption procedures in UK organizations, 37(1), 47 -- 84.
Role of Information Systems in Marketing
The objective of this study is to examine the role of information systems in marketing in terms of the information that is necessary for decision making. Additionally this work will examine the role of IS for this function within the organization and the benefits of IS for the functional users at the operational level, the use of data at all levels of the organization and how IS has affected processes for this functional perspective.
Decision Making and the Marketing Information System
The work of Ismail (2011) entitled "The Role of Marketing Information System on Decision Making: An Applied Study on Royal Jordanian Air Lines (RJA)" reports a study that has the objective of emphasizing the importance of the utilization of the marketing information system (MKIS) on decision-making through making clear the requirement for decision-making that is both "quick and effective…due to time saving and…
Bahloul, MY (nd) The Role of Marketing Information System Technology in the Decision Making Process Case Study: The Banking Sector in Gaza Strip. Islamic University of Gaza. Retrieved from: http://library.iugaza.edu.ps/thesis/98936.pdf
Chapter 9: Marketing Information Systems (nd) FAO Corporate Document Repository. Retrieved from: http://www.fao.org/docrep/w3241e/w3241e0a.htm
Hansen, W, (2000). Internet Marketing, Cincinnati, Ohio: South-Western Publishing.
Harmon, RB (2003) Marketing Information Systems. Retrieved from: http://www.iped-uk.com/marketing_information_system.pdf
The basic structure of the United States legal system comes from the Constitution. Constitutions are living documents that lay down principles and rules, as well as overall functions of how law should be used within society. Constitutions tend to be macro in scope, in that they define responsibilities between the three organs of U.S. Government (Judicial, Legislature and Executive). Laws are individual (micro) edicts that are made to define specific issues under the Constitution. The Constitution is the basic framework, or the strategic direction of law; defining relationships and allowing for reasons that are fundamental to other laws (e.g. privacy, search, etc.). Laws are the manner in which the tactics of the legal system and/or philosophy are carried out and used within society. A Constitution defines the theoretical basis of law, while laws incorporate the process of law and allow the government and its officers to use the…
Neubauer, D., et al., (2010). America's Courts and the Criminal Justice System. Belmont,
Plunkett, T. (2001). A Concise History of the Common Law. Clark, NJ: The Lawbook
Repatriation of profits have proven to be a problem as well. Fourth, as stated by Staff (2004) is the challenge presented by poor training in the sector which is stated to be "...weak both at a practical level as well as at a higher strategic level" and the problem has only been exaggerated due to the government and other regulatory authorities in China to promote logistics programs." (Staff, 2004) the fifth challenge stated is in relation to "information and communications technology" in China characterized by a: "...lack of it standards and poor systems integration and equipment. At a very basic level, the consistent supply of energy is also problematic leading to interruptions to communications through power outage." (Staff, 2004) Sixth presenting in the way of a challenge is the "undeveloped domestic industry" due to fragmentation of the logistics sector in China that is: "...dominated by commoditized and low quality transport…
Brown, Lester R. And Halweil, Brian (1998) China's Water Shortage Could Shake World Grain Markets. Worldwatch Institute 22 April 1998. Online available at http://www.worldwatch.org/node/1621.
China Logistics (2006) the Meridian Group. Hong Kong. Online available at http://www.meridiangrouphk.com/en/china_logistics/
Colby, Hunger; Diao, Xinshen, and Somwaru, Agapi (1999) Cross-Comodity Analysis of China's Grain Sector: Sources of Growth and Supply Response. Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service, Market and Trade Economics Division. Technical Bulletin No. 1884.
Country Profile: China (2006) Library of Congress - Federal Research Division. August 2006. Online available at http://lcweb2.loc.gov/frd/cs/profiles/China.pdf .
" (Rizzoli, Oliverio, Montemanni and Gambardella, 2004)
According to Rizzoli, Oliverio, Montemanni and Gambardella objectives are that which "measure the fitness of a solution. They can be multiple and often they are also conflicting. The most common objective is the minimization of transportation costs as a function of the traveled distance or of the travel time; fixed costs associated with vehicles and drivers can be considered, and therefore the number of vehicles can also be minimized." (Rizzoli, Oliverio, Montemanni and Gambardella, 2004) Vehicle efficiency is another objective to consider and this is stated to be expressed as "the percentage of load capacity" and it is held that the higher the load capacity the better. The objective function is also used in representation of 'soft' constraints described as constraints "...which can be violated paying a penalty." (Rizzoli, Oliverio, Montemanni and Gambardella, 2004) oth independent variables and dependent variables are contained within…
Bowersox, Donald J. And Closs, David J. (nd) Simulation in Logistics: A Review of Present Practice and a Look to the Future. ____ Vol. 10, No.1
Chang, Yoon and Makatsoris, Harris (nd) Supply Chain Modeling Using Simulation. Institute for Manufacturing, University of Cambridge.
Golden, Bruce, Raghavan, S. And Wasil, Edward a. (2008) the Vehicle Routing Problem: Latest Advances and New Challenges. Springer 2008.
Rizzoli, a.E., Oliverio, F., Montemanni, R. And Gambardella, L.M. (2004) Ant Colony Optimization for Vehicle Routing Problems: From Theory to Applications. Dalle Molle Institute for Artificial Intelligence. IDSIA. Online available at: http://www.idsia.ch/idsiareport/IDSIA-15-04.pdf
Many people think only of weapons when they think of military supplies, but these individuals have all of the same basic needs as everyone else, and these needs must be met or these soldiers will not be able to defend the country to the highest degree possible (Taylor, 2004). Anticipatory logistics, therefore, helps not only the soldiers that get what they need when they need it, but also makes the whole country less vulnerable.
Because supply chain management, in its modified form, works so well for the military, it is only logical that the anticipatory logistics, in a modified form, would work well for the corporate world. The similarities between the anticipatory logistics and the supply chain management are already very strong, and therefore they can both be adjusted to suit the needs of the opposite groups. ith some small changes to focus on profit instead of mission completion, anticipatory…
Cast, M. (2002). 'Smart' instruments enhance Army's testing capabilities. National Defense.
Lenzini, J.M. (Sep/Oct 2002). Anticipatory Logistics: the Army's answer to supply chain management. Army Logistician.
Taylor, R.W. (Jan/Feb 2004). Logistics risk in the Stryker Brigade Combat Team. Army Logistician.
One of the most important factors in the success and profitability of a business in relation to its supply chain management is logistics management. Logistics incorporates the flow of raw materials and information throughout supply chain processes of an organization. In the past few decades, logistics management has gained significant attention because of the emergence of new technologies and strategic alliances that are geared towards enhancing an organization's competitive advantage. For global companies like Mcdonalds Corporation, logistics management is vital for gaining access to new markets, taking advantage of technological competencies for overseas operations, and enhancing production efficiencies. This paper examines the importance of effective logistics management with regards to smoothing material flow, lessening inventory costs, and enhancing responsiveness across the supply chain. This analysis is done using Mcdonalds Corporation and challenges in its modern supply chain.
McDonalds' Modern Supply Chain Problems
McDonalds' Corporation, which is the largest fast food…
Development of technology has also improved the management of global logistics by encouraging firms to implement the EP systems. The global logistics planning as well as execution processes are still behind mostly when it comes to logistic management and supply chain. Therefore, creating a web-based system (EP) will create interactions with people around the world when purchasing goods and services online. The system created will also help the firms in managing the global transportation carriers, rates and execution in an environment.
Technology has improved the management of global logistics by impacting on the supply chain processes. The customers are now digitally connected by allowing the firms to have their personal portals updated again and again with the tracking numbers put in place.
Technology has also contributed to transparency in a supply chain, improving the links in the firms' chain, a trend that should be replicated among al big logistics companies…
Albright Brian, (2002). New technology reads 'hidden' bar codes. Frontline Solutions,3(12):47-49.
McCarthy, Jack, 2002, the wireless road taken. InfoWorld, 24(47): 38-40.
Compare Business Products, (2009). Technology impact on supply chain. Retrieved September 26, 2012, from http://www.comparebusinessproducts.com/briefs/technology-impact-supply-chain
This allows for greater levels of planning and cooperation, and fills in the information gap that currently exists between the factory floor and the rest of the supply chain.
Lexmark provides an example of waste. Recently, the company found itself with more than $1 million in scrap from one lot. Engineers had insufficient information to isolate and fix the problem, so were instead relegated to crisis control. With more accurate data from each step of the operation, the engineers could have been more involved in the process and made improvements along the way before it became a large-scale crisis.
Through web-based business applications, engineers can now examine a defective printer cartridge and then use a thin client to put a hold on the entire batch if necessary, regardless of its physical location (anywhere in the world)
In conclusion, it is apparent that e-business is making its mark on the business…
Alexander, Michael. (2001). Factory Floors Go Online -- Pioneering manufacturers close the final gap in their supply chains. InternetWeek; Manhasset; Mar 12, 2001.
2002) Automotive Design & Production. Cincinnati, 114(8), 70-72.
Steele, a.L. (2001). Cost drivers and other management issues in the JIT supply chain environment. Production and Inventory Management Journal. Alexandria, 42(2), 61-68
Drickhammer, D. (2001, May 21). Peak performance. Industry Week. Cleveland, 250(8) 36-40.
Why would 3 PLs consider a 4PL strategy, bearing in mind the nature of the 3PL industry?
Innovations in the logistics services business has resulted in the emergence of fourth-party logistics (4PL) providers. Generally, 4 PLs are involved in not only managing the physical movement of goods, but also more critical management and planning processes such as coordinating the movement of those goods. Despite intense competition in the industry and other inherent challenges, 3 PLs can consider a 4PL model for a number of reasons. First, a 4PL model offers an additional stream of revenue. Also, the 4PL model is less asset intensive compared to the 3PL model (Hoek, 2014). With cost being an emerging significant consideration, this may be detrimental to the bottom line. More importantly, as 3 PLs often boast lengthy operational experience, they enjoy strong relationships with their customers (Hoek, 2014). These customers are likely to embrace…
Wal-Mart's facilities are designed for logistics efficiency
In a business world where lack of sustainable infrastructure leads to unorganized logistics and primeval warehouses, Wal-Mart has embraced a revolution. Wal-Mart is the leading global retailer that has set benchmarks for its competitors. The store is expanding at a rapid rate. Its stores are well-known for their tough negotiation with suppliers; this forces the competitors to lower their prices. All this is in the hope that their customers will get quality products at the cheapest price. Wal-Mart has been successful in establishing its presence in the global markets through their cash and carry stores. The retailer is still expanding in other countries such as India (Bonacich & Wilson, 2008).
According to the company's senior manager, logistics efficiency remains at the heart of the company's operations for the purpose of achieving the top position ahead of its competitors. Wal-Mart owns the most sophisticated…
Mentzer, J. (2000). Supply Chain Management. Belmont, CA: SAGE.
Lee, H., & Lee C. (2006). Building Supply Chain Excellence in Emerging Economies. California:
Bonacich, E. & Wilson, J. (2008). Getting the Goods: Labor, Ports, and the Logistics
An effective logistics strategy is crucial for an organization that operates in the business of providing a range of products and services. The logistics strategy is important for such organizations because of its role in the company's health in relation to maintaining service levels at the highest levels at all times. The strategy is also vital for bigger companies with complex organizational and operational structures in order to ensure an effective and efficient supply chain management system. In this case, logistics is a term that refers to the network of systems or processes that control the flow of resources from one company to another through a supply chain or production process. As the increased competition has become a characteristic of modern business world, companies have been forced to change their approaches towards supplying products and services to customers. This change of focus has made logistics personnel and departments to…
Biondo, K. (2013, July). Business Process Improvement? Flexibility. Retrieved July 9, 2014,
Rodrigues, E.J., Alexandrino, P.A., & Carvalho, M.S. (2013, July 5). Implementation of a Logistics Process Improvement System -- a Case Study. Proceedings of the World Congress on Engineering, 1, 1-5. Retrieved July 9, 2014, from http://www.iaeng.org/publication/WCE2013/WCE2013_pp470-474.pdf
Third Party Logistics Provider
TLMT 352 Briefly describe role Third Party Logistics Provider (3PL). What advantages 3 PLs bring? Are disadvantages a company outsourcing logistics functions a 3PL?
A third party logistics provider is an independent company that provides single or multiple logistics services to other companies or shippers. The third party logistics provider will offer warehousing, freight weight negotiation, forecasting, transportation management software, in-depth reporting, and freight bill auditing (Hertz & Alfredsson, 2003). Currently 3 PLs provide strategic coordination for their clients supply chain. This means that they not only offer transportation and warehousing services, but they also offer on-time delivery of goods to the clients customers, and packing at reduced costs. 3 PLs offer value added services to the supply chain, which give the client a competitive advantage over their rivals. By outsourcing their supply chain activities, a client is able to focus in their core business and…
Halldorsson, A., & Skjott-Larsen, T. (2004). Developing logistics competencies through third party logistics relationships. International Journal of Operations & Production Management, 24(2), 192-206.
Hertz, S., & Alfredsson, M. (2003). Strategic development of third party logistics providers. Industrial marketing management, 32(2), 139-149.
In addition, outsourcing is seen as one way of freeing HR professionals within the client organization from more mundane and time-consuming tasks so as to better concentrate on core competencies and provide a more consultative and strategic role (Cooke 186). Although the growth of HR outsourcing business has been dramatically facilitated by the introduction of innovations in information and communication technologies (ICT) throughout China in recent years, many companies also report an increasing use of e-HR in-house. For example, in some large Chinese organizations, employees are encouraged and even expected to use e-HR to update their personnel records as a cost-saving initiative (Cooke 186).
Based on the available evidence from secondary sources of data, the outsourcing of HR in general remains relatively limited in China; however, there are trends of the increasing use of external providers for their services such as recruitment and training (Cooke 186). According to the atson…
Bielski, Lauren. (2006). "Outsourcing Success: It's All in the Governance Making Deals Work Daily Takes a Long-Term View." ABA Banking Journal 98(7):38.
Chow, Garland. (2007). "Outsourcing and Third-Party Logistics." Centre for Transportation Studies & Operations and Logistics Division: The University of British Columbia.
2000). "Outsourcing Logistics." Class notes: Supply Chain Management: The University of British Columbia.
Cooke, Fang Lee. HRM, Work and Employment in China. London:
supply chains continue to gain in importance as a core attribute of current and future business models across nearly every industry, the need for using IT resources more effectively in orchestrating each transportation mode becomes essential. Orchestrating supply chain processes from transaction to fulfillment provides third party logistics providers (3PLs) with the opportunity to manage and modify manual processes to gain greater performance on a consistent basis (Gilmore, 2002). In the article Global logistics solutions: A Guide to the problems Shippers face (MacDonald, 2007) the author provides an overview of how supply chains need to be managed as a strategic series of process and system assets, with specific attention paid to the orchestration of transportation modes. Four critical problems supply chains face are also discussed including a lack of supply chain visibility and forecasting, the need for continual quality improvement at the process level, more optimization of transportation network designs,…
Gilmore, D. (2002). Achieving transportation excellence. World Trade, 15(11), 36-38.
MacDonald, A. (2007). Global logistics solutions: A guide to the problems shippers face. World Trade, 20(5), 36-38, 40, 42.
Milmo, S. (2002). Logistics and distribution services begin to separate. Chemical Market Reporter, 262(13), 6-6, 28.
Trunick, P.A. (2002, 10). 4 logistics trends driving and driven by 3 PLs. Transportation & Distribution, 7.
Internet e-Systems to Support Purchasing Supply Chain Management Activities
Although the fundamental goals of effective supply chain management have not changed in recent years, companies of all types and sizes now have the ability to streamline their supply chain management activities in general and their purchasing function in particular through the use of Internet-based e-systems. Such e-systems include corporate intranets and business-to-business exchanges that can satisfy the entire spectrum of supply chain management needs in more efficient and cost-effective ways. To gain some further insights into recent and current trends in the use of Internet e-systems to support purchasing supply chain management activities, this paper provides a review of the relevant literature, followed by a summary of the research and important findings in the conclusion.
eview and Discussion
Innovations in telecommunications and transportation have profoundly affected the manner in which companies go about achieving their organizational goals. For instance, according…
Agrawal, M.K. & Pak, M.H. 2001 'Getting Smart about Supply Chain Management.' The
McKinsey Quarterly, p. 22.
Camm, F. 2001 Environmental Management in Proactive Commercial Firms: Lessons for Central Logistics Activities in the Department of Defense. Santa Monica, CA: Rand.
Chapman, K. & Ellinger, A.E. 2009 'Constructing Impact Factors to Measure the Influence of Supply Chain Management and Logistics Journals.' Journal of Business Logistics, vol.
National Incident Management Systems
Duty esponsibilities of Commander
National Incident Management System (NIMS) (PAT 1)
As the commander of the National Management System (NIMS), I have viewed the situation in a considerable amount of attention. The situation at hand needs to be carefully monitored and put into effect a counteractive method of operation. I and my unit's mission are to conduct this operation in the best way possible in order to rescue the hostages and apprehend the said terrorists who have no place in this kind of our society.
The NIMS occasionally deals with domestic incidents, but the situation at hand involves terrorists and Israeli citizens making this event a matter of international interest. My command structure will have the incident command system (ICS) which comprises of five major functional areas, the command, operations, logistics and finance/administration. The situation at hand being a complex situation has led to the need…
Walsh, D.W., Christen, H.T., Miller, G.T., Callsen Jr., C.E., Cilluffo, F.J., & Maniscalco, P.M. (2005). National incident management system: Principles and practice. Boston: Jones and Bartlett Publishers.
The DEP/GARD supply chain process has various areas where there is value addition and these include the manufacturing and packaging process of the products that are supplied to GARD. There is also the inbound transportation from the compound suppliers which is counted as a value addition process. The outbound transportation to GARD is also seen in the supply chain as a value addition activity. There are however some stages that are not value adding to the entire supply chain such as the inventory sitting idle in the DEP warehouses. The other activity that does not add value is the order transmission time that is wasted through handling and receiving and handling orders manually which leads to the products staying in the warehouse for unnecessary long duration of time. There are also too many paperwork involved in the supply chain as it is in the current form. The long duration that…