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Long-Term Care Administration
Long-term care refers to the wide range of medical activities designed to assist the needs of people living with chronic health issues. Debates concerning hospital quality, and nursing care often occur independently to one another. The activities that ensure adequate performance of hospital nursing play a role in quality improvement, and realization of effective control of hospital costs. In addition, the nursing homes practitioners are critical to the provision of quality and efficient care. Facilities that adopt front-line staff motivated performance improvement approaches, such as Transforming care at the bed-side demonstrate how practitioners (Needleman, 2009), driven by effective leadership can play a role in improving both the quality and efficiency of hospital care.
The healthcare organization may adopt strategies, or approaches that will improve the provision of quality care. Organizations should lay emphasis on the engagement of front-line staff as a strategy to achieving quality care. A…
Fleming, O.M. (2013). Improving patient outcomes with better care transitions: The role for home health. Cleave land clinic journal, 80(1) doi: 10.3949/ccjm.80.e-s1.02
Goldsmith, S.B. (1993). Long-term care administration handbook. Gaithersburg, Md.: Aspen
Joseph, A. (2006). Health promotion by design in long-term care settings. The center for Health
The nurses are however trained not to get too intimate with the patients as this is against professionalism Braithwaite, Makkai, & Braithwaite, 2007.
They also offer informational sup-port giving the resident the right information and guidance in making certain decision.
The facility also helps some resident who have been unable to foot their bills to pay up. However, this is after the facility has ascertained beyond doubt that the individuals are not in a position to clears such bills. The targets of this facility is the older generation who are often suffering from several ailments and need long-term care nursing services. It also targets people with temporary and permanent disabilities either inborn or resulting from ailments such as diabetes.
Sources of the Finance for the facility
Willow oak nursing is a profit making institution and get some of its finances form Medicaid and the rest from the clients' contribution. Old…
Allen, J.E. (2011). Nursing home federal requirements: Guidelines to surveyors and survey protocols. New York: Springer Pub. Co.
Beaulieu, E.M. (2001). A supplemental guide for nursing home social workers. New York: Springer Pub.
Berkman, B., & D'Ambruoso, S. (2006). Handbook of social work in health and aging. New York: Oxford University Press.
Braithwaite, J., Makkai, T., & Braithwaite, V.A. (2007). Regulating aged care: Ritualism and the new pyramid. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.
Medical procedures, like chemotherapy and radiation, are frequently used to alleviate pain and symptoms and for cure. Intravenous medications tackle pain but are also costlier than other forms. The appearance of new and costlier drugs blurs the fine line between life-saving and mere comfort-giving. Chemotherapy can shrink a tumor to allow swallowing and radiation can ease or reduce pain. If the hospice is not well financed, one or two patients who demand these procedures can bring cost problems to the hospice. Shareholders who fear that the return on their investment is jeopardized may decide to cut down on staff. They may also shed off community grief centers, extensive bereavement care, alternative therapies, and inpatient care centers.
The multicultural view of death is another issue in hospices in the United States and Western Europe (Wexler & Frey, 2004). Migrants with Easter cultures have an entirely different perspective from those with Western…
Carlson, M.D.A., et al. (2007). Hospice care: what services do patients and their
Families receive? Health Services Research: Health Research and Educational Trust.
Retrieved on November 20, 2008 at http://findarticles.com./articles/p/mi_m4149/os_4_46/ai_n27331524?tag=content;col1
Indiana Hospice & Palliative Care (2007). Crossroads. Indiana Hospice & Palliative
Funding options include Medicaid and certain aspects of Medicare, which can help to offset costs. Frequently, however, this sort of funding needs to be supplemented with payments made by an individual and his or her family.
Employers of long-term care facilities are affected by the issues related to this service in extremely pragmatic ways. They are the ones who must ensure that they have adequate resources to provide care for a multitude of people with a bevy of different needs and specialized areas of treatment. In addition to procuring sufficient funds to obtain these resources, one of the primary concerns of employers of long-term care facilities is staffing their locations with people who have been sufficiently trained to handle the various levels of treatment that patients will inevitably need. Thus, it is vital that employees implement policies which reinforce the level of professionalism and quality treatment provisioning that is key…
Avitzur, O. (2013). Lower the costs of long-term-care coverage. Consumer Reports Money Adviser. 10(12), 6-7.
Freudlich, N. (2014). Long-term care: what are the issues? Robert Wood Johnson Foundation. Retrieved from http://www.rwjf.org/en/research-publications/find-rwjf-research/2014/02/long-term-care -- what-are-the-issues-.html
Just because people grow older does not mean they abandon their dreams and desires, and it is important to help find ways that the elderly can continue these pursuits.
Interview No. 2: "Ron D.":
hat do you see as the most important needs for long-term care residents in skilled nursing facilities?
Loneliness is far and away one of the biggest problems we see in our facility. It breaks my heart to see elders who we know have family members never receive a visit from anyone. Some of our residents just seem to become depressed, give up and lose the will to live when they are lonely.
How does your facility address these needs?
e have regularly scheduled activities in our center, of course, but we also try to get our residents out in the world as much as possible. e take those who are physically…
Osgood, Nancy J., Barbara a. Brant and Aaron Lipman. Suicide among the Elderly in Long-
Term Care Facilities. New York: Greenwood Press, 1999.d
Cassidy, Thomas M. (1998, February 16). "Long-Term Care Financing Traps Seniors in a Squeeze Play." Insight on the News 14(6): 30.
Donlin, Johanna M. (2003, March). "Moving Ahead with Olmstead: To Comply with the Americans with Disabilities Act, States Are Working Hard to Find Community
Health care [...] long-term care, and its' affect on the health care industry today, and in the future. Long-term care is becoming much more prevalent in our society because people are living longer, and as the Baby Boom generation ages, there will be even more elderly and infirm that will need this special type of health care.
What is long-term care? "Long-term care has been described as 'a set of health, personal care and social services delivered over a sustained period of time to persons who have lost or never acquired some degree of functional capacity'" (Johnson, 1999, p. 306). Long-term care is important for a number of compelling reasons. First, our society is aging, and already there are "13.5 million Americans who need long-term care under the age of 65 and are expected to live longer than their counterparts did a generation ago. [ ... ]. By 2050, their…
Batavia, A.I. (2002). Consumer direction, consumer choice and the future of long-term care. Journal of disability policy studies, 13(2), 67+.
Fox-Grage, W., & Shaw, T. (2000, April). The crisis ahead in long-term care. State legislatures, 26, 30.
Johnson, T.F. (Ed.). (1999). Handbook on ethical issues in aging. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.
Palley, H.A., & Hollen, V.V. (2000). Long-term care for people with developmental disabilities: A Critical Analysis. Health and social work, 25(3), 181.
Medicare, as long-term care policy, is not a key component for long-term care. Medicare covers only sensitive care costs and its skilled home health and nursing facility care aims at offering short-term health coverage for post- acute care after hospitalization of a beneficiary. On the other hand, private long-term care insurance is a policy that covers a small portion of a patient's bill.
2. Medicare offers an array of coverage and options to receive health insurance coverage. Explain eligibility and its various components. To satisfy this question, you must include the major parts to the program and the benefits to each of these parts
Medicare is a federal social program of insurance provided by the government of the United States from 1965. Medicare ensures access to health coverage for people above sixty-five years and young persons with disabilities. Medicare also covers people with terminal illness such as those suffering from…
long-term care settings, ranging from legal issues typical of any care setting such as malpractice suits, accusations of negligence, licensing procedures and/or violations, etc., to issues that are more specific to long-term care provision such as an increased duty of care, issues involving decision-making and the ability to recommend and/or dictate care, and non-medical issues such as potential thefts and other abuses (THCA, 2012). All of these legal issues relate to ethical issues in one way or another, some with very clear and direct links, and they must be carefully considered in the planning and carrying out of long-term care and long-term care settings. If a nurse administrator were to find that an ethical violation has occurred, the healthcare team members should be approached first in an inquisitive and instructive manner, ensuring that team members are aware of ethical and legal guidelines as well as the justifications behind these guidelines.…
Phillipsen, N. & Hayes, D. (2007). The Multi-State Nursing Licensure Compact: Making Nurses Mobile. Journal for Nurse Practitioners 3(1): 36-40.
THCA. (2012). Legal issues in long-term care. Accessed 22 February 2012. http://www.txhca.org/pie/legalissuesinlongtermcare.htm
Long-Term Care Sustainability as a Major Issue Affecting Canadian Healthcare System
The Canadian Health Act (CHA) provides that provincial governments should cover the entire cost of hospital and physician services. There are however two components that the CHA doesn't require provincial governments to pay for including two other components of healthcare; drug costs and non-acute care provided in nursing homes and other kinds of long-term care facilities. Thus, it is up to provincial governments to decide this element of medical care. This leaves policymakers with the responsibility of using funds available to make sure that long-term healthcare needs of the elderly are taken care of (Blomqvist and Busby, 2012).
Long-term planning for non-acute care is crucial to ensure that Canada's aging population is catered for (Blomqvist and Busby, 2012). Long-term care can be defined as a continual, indeterminate (in terms of duration) care for persons who are no longer able…
Alexander, T. (2002). The History and Evolution of Long-Term Care in Canada. In Stephenson, M., & Sawyer, E. (Eds.), Continuing the Care: The Issues and Challenges for Long-Term Care, 1-55. CHA Press, Ottawa, ON.
Banerjee, A. (2007). An Overview of Long-Term Care in Canada and Selected Provinces and Territories. Ontario: Women and Health Care Reform Group. Retrieved October 27 from http://www.womenandhealthcarereform.ca/publications/banerjee_overviewLTC.pdf
Blomqvist, A. and Busby, C. (2012). Long-Term Care for the Elderly: Challenges and Policy Options Commentary No. 367. C. D. Howe Institute. Retrieved on 1st November, 2105 https://www.cdhowe.org/pdf/Commentary_367.pdf
Canadian Healthcare Association. (2009). New Directions for Facility-Based Long-Term Care Retrieved on 1st November, 2105 http://www.healthcarecan.ca/wp-content/uploads/2012/11/CHA_LTC_9-22-09_eng.pdf
Advising Parents on Long-Term Care Options
Advising Parents on long-term care (LTC) Options
Long-term care refers to the services or support that one might need in their cognitive impairments while either at home or in an organisations facility. Long-term care helps those who are unable to take care of themselves financially from the effects of old age, disabilities or sickness to live a healthy life. This paper provides appropriate information useful for parents seeking long-term care options. It considers a case study in which it recommends suitable long-term health care options.
Long-term care has been in time proved to be hard, expensive, time consuming and stressing to about 70% of American citizens. According to the case scenario, Don gave everything he could to boost his lifetime love, Mary, but it was not enough. Had the two of them sat and lay down the right, effective and efficient long-term care concepts…
McSweeney-Feld, M.H., & Oetjen, R.M. (2012). Dimensions of long-term care management: An introduction. Chicago, Ill: Health Administration Press.
Frolik, L.A. (2006). The law of later-life health care and decision making. Chicago, Ill:
American Bar Association.
Signh, D.A. (2010). Effective Management of Long-Term Care Facilities. London: Jones & Bartlett Publishers.
Long-Term Care on the Family
Social Factors Affecting Care Giving
Effects of Divorce
Effects of Abuse and Neglect
Effects of omen in the orkforce
Proximity and Other Factors
The Long-term Care Shortage
Formal Long-term Care: The Impact on Society
Financial Impact on Family
Social orkers and Home Caregivers
The Effects on the Caregiver
Physical and Emotional Symptoms
Five Major Causes of Stress Among Home Caregivers
earing Many Hats
The Impact and Cost of Long-term Care on the Family
Long-term care can be needed for a variety of reasons from accident injuries, debilitating and long-term illness, or simply due to becoming elderly. There are sometimes when persons cannot care for themselves and must rely on others for their daily needs. Sometimes the care takes place in a facility designed to provide such services. However, sometimes the burden of caring for loved ones falls on family…
Berkman, B., (2000) Chapter 9. Geriatric Social Work. In The Merck Manual of Geriatrics. Beers, M. And Berkow, R. (Eds.) Internet Edition Provided by Medical Services, USMEDSA, USHH. http://www.merck.com/pubs/mm_geriatrics/sec1/ch9.htm Accessed February, 2003.
CASA for Children, Inc. (2001) The Economic and Social Impact of Child Abuse on the Community. 2001. http://www.casahelpskids.org/economic.htm Accessed February, 2003.
Cox, C. (1999) Race and Caregiving: Patterns of Service Use by African-American and White Caregivers of Persons with Alzheimer's Disease. Journal of Gerontological Social Work, 1999, 32 (2): 5-19.
Craig Hospital (2003). Long-term Caregivers. Rehabilitation Research & Training Center on Aging with Spinal Cord Injury. METS brochure. http://www.pridemobility.com/Rehab_Zone/Rehab_Articles/Long_Term_Caregivers/long_term_caregivers.html Accessed February, 2003.
Facility Planning Long-Term Care
Facility Planning for Long-Term Care Facility
With the increasing urban population and the rate of disease, the healthcare facilities developed decades ago need to be upgraded or renovated. In the same way, the Escondido Hospital has recently renovated its long-term facilities. The facilities are upgraded in terms of technology as well as equipment. The research and development in medical care results into new equipment that is more facilitating. The original health care facility expands over an area 14.5 acre. The existing structure was developed 50 years ago. The paper discusses the changes introduced in the facility and the costs and scheduling involved in the renovation process.
The facility renovation of Palomar Pomerado in Escondido will involve purchasing new machinery to replace old one and to expand behavioral health care ward and also to have an upgraded skilled nursing facility. These changes will require time…
Fried, D. (2005). "PPH rolls out renovation plan for Escondido hospital," Retrieved from:
http://www.utsandiego.com /news/2005/Jul/29/pph-rolls-out-renovation-plan-for-escondido/' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
Ethics in Long-Term Care Administration
When it comes to offering options to competent adults who are able to make their own health care decisions, there are several things to consider. The main consideration is that these people are indeed adults, and what they decide for themselves should be honored when it comes to long-term care (LTC) decisions (Amaradio, 1998; Costa-Font & Patxot, 2005). In this case, the woman coming to the LTC facility was presented with all the facts of her case, and she clearly understood that she could (and most likely would) die if she did not have a lifesaving blood transfusion.
However, her religious beliefs did not support getting a transfusion, and her family supported her in this belief. The first question here is whether it is ethical to speak to this woman in private, without her family present, and offer her a transfusion in secret that others…
Amaradio, L. (1998). Financing long-term care for elderly persons: What are the options? Journal of Health Care Finance, 25(2): 75-84.
Costa-Font, J., & Patxot, C. (2005). The design of the long-term care system in Spain: Policy and financial constraints. Soc. Society 4(1): 11 -- 20.
Lewin Group. (2010). Individuals living in the community with chronic conditions and functional limitations: A closer look. Report prepared under contract #HHS-100-95-0046 for the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation.
Mulvey, J., & Li, a. (2002). Long-term care financing: Options for the future. Benefits Quarterly, 18(2): 7-14.
medicare.gov/MedicareEligibility/home.asp?version= default&bro wser=IE%7C7%7CWindows+Vista&language=English and following the prompts to enter personal information that will serve to assist the establishment of eligibility for Medicare. Generally, one is eligible for Medicare if they or their spouse "worked for at least 10 years in Medicare-covered employment" and if the individual is at least 65 years of age or order and is a permanent resident of the United States.
IV. Medicare Premiums
One qualifies for Medicare Part a at age 65 without the requirement of paying premiums if: (1) They already get retirements benefits from Social Security of the Railroad Retirement oard; (2) They are eligible to get Social Security or Railroad benefits but haven't yet filed for them; or (3) They or their spouse had Medicare-covered government employment.
If the individual is under the age of 65 they can receive Part a without the requirement of paying premiums if they have: (1) Received Social…
Long-Term Care (2009) Medicare. Online HHS.gov available at: http://www.medicare.gov /' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
Policy Process: on LONG-TEM CAE Part II
Policy Process 3292
Health care and nursing is more complex today than ever before. New technologies and ever-growing population demands a much more disciplined and organized health care industry (Abood, 2007). This is possible when there are policies, rules and regulations about medical procedures. The medical industry involves some policies today that a person could never imagine few centuries ago. For example there are policies for sperm donation, use of organs after death for research purposes and saving human genome in labs. In the same way there are many other medical procedures that are in policy making phase for example abortion, long-term care, state sponsored insurance of immigrants etc. (Jones, 2000). This paper discusses the policy making process of long-term care. The stages of policy making discussed here are evaluation, analysis and revision.
Some topics are too controversial that they cannot…
Abood, S. (2007). Influence health care in the legislative arena. The Online Journal of Issues in Nursing, 12(1), 1-7
Crimm, N.J. (2006). Toward facilitating a voice for politically marginalized minorities and enhancing presidential public accountability and transparency in foreign health policymaking. Vanderbilt Journal of Transnational Law, 39(4), 1053-1059
Jones, W.J. (2000). Medicare and the rules of national policymaking: If A, then B.
Journal of Healthcare Management, 45(2), 84.
Policy Change for Long-Term Care
Too many nursing homes and long-term care facilities have become complacent and are happy to engage in the absolute minimum when it comes to the level of care that they provide for elderly residents and for patients who experience long-term care. Common signs of a low level of treatment are things like the television being on in patient rooms all the time, not enough socializing and social events for residents, not enough activities outside of movie-watching for residents, and very low levels of cultural competency from staff members. These trends will continue unless formal pieces of legislation and policies are in place in order to change them. One reason that these mediocre trends are allowed to continue is because clinicians and members of staff who work on the front lines are so overworked, undercompensated and generally burnt-out that they have almost no energy to put…
Bowers, B., Nolet, K., & Roberts, T. (2007). Implementing Change in Long-Term Care. The Commonwealth Fund, 4-22.
Hendren, R. (2010, June 25). Seven Strategies to Reduce Nurse Burnout. Retrieved from healthleadersmedia.com: http://www.healthleadersmedia.com/content/NRS-252471/Seven-Strategies-to-Reduce-Nurse-Burnout
Laschinger, H., Grau, A., & Finegan, J. (2010). New graduate nurses' experiences of bullying and burnout in hospital settings. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 2732 -- 2742.
Japanese-American Attitudes on Long-Term Care
Scheppersa, Dongenb, Dekkerc, (2006) defines the use of healthcare services as "the process of seeking professional health care and submitting oneself to the application of regular health services, with the purpose to prevent or treat health problems." On the other hand, the long-term healthcare is variety of services that include both medical and non-medical procedures for people with disability or chronic illness for a long period. A long-term care involves non-skilled or custodian that includes performing daily tasks for patients such as using the bathroom, dressing and toileting.
Saltman, Dubois, and Chawla, (2006) argue some categories of long-term care involves delivering a level of healthcare that requires the expertise of a skilled health practitioner to address the needs of older generation. While people of any age may require the long -- term healthcare service, however, the use of healthcare is common among older generation.
Census (2012). The Asian Population:2010. United Census Bureau.
Kolb, J.B. (2013). Social Work Practice with Ethnically and Racially Diverse Nursing Home Residents and Their Families. New York. Columbia University Press.
Naoko, M. (2007). Culturally sensitive long-term care for Japanese Canadians
Metz, Naoko. Trinity Western University. (ProQuest, UMI Dissertations Publishing,
practicum experience is the need of ongoing education of acute and long-Term care nurses on cardiac rhythm interpretation.
Ongoing education for nurses is essential to ensure high-quality patient care. "For professional nurses, continuing education is essential to safe and effective nursing care. The amount of knowledge required to take care of critically ill patients cannot be obtained simply through experience on the unit or at the bedside" (Witt 2011). Anecdotal knowledge must be informed with evidence-based practice that can only be learned in the classroom. In particular, cardiac rhythm interpretation requires a great deal of sensitivity and knowledge of current best practices.
Most hospitals offer continuing education in this specific field. An example of a description of such a course is as follows: "Basic Arrhythmia Cardiac hythm Interpretation (BACI) class is a non-consecutive two-day course designed to prepare nurses and other select staff of VUH to recognize cardiac arrhythmias. Basic…
Basic arrhythmia cardiac rhythm interpretation (BACRI) class. (2014). Vanderbilt.
Juengel, M. (2012). How should a nurse prepare for a dysrhythmia / ECG interpretation exam?
Health Care Changes
Over the past two to three decades there have been dramatic changes in the healthcare system globally, largely due to the improvements in technology, stakeholder expectations and increased globalization and access to care. Many of these changes have been the result of the costs associated with healthcare and their continual rise, changing demographics and psychographics, and new attitudes and media attention towards the industry. Overall, the healthcare industry has changed in terms of its previous overt reliance on hospital-based care to more private and emergency clinics based on neighborhoods, more home based and nursing services, and even a greater dependence on managed care (illiams, S., et al., eds., 2008). Much of this is a direct statistical cause of the aging Baby Boomer population and the global percentage increase in older adults needing more and more healthcare. Most experts see this aging population as a key influence on…
Chideya, D. (2012, July 2). Healthcare - 5, 10, 20 years in the past and future. Retrieved from Forbes Magazine: http://www.ritholtz.com/blog/2010/12/u-s-health-care-costs-since-1980/ Chid' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
Long Term Care Administration
What are some of the ethical issues in this case?
Mrs. Beaudoin appears to be in a real ethical dilemma given the fact that she does not have formal power of attorney and her husband also lives in the same facility with her with moderate dementia and is very frail. The ethical issue involved in this case is that Mrs. Beaudoin’s health is failing steadily. She is known to have cancer throughout her body, a failing heart, moderate dementia and diabetes type II. Due to the cardiac arrest she suffered after a short stay in the intensive care unit she subsequently suffered a severe brain injury occasioned by lack of sufficient oxygen. Since she cannot make healthcare decisions on her own and her husband is in a state that is just as bad, the ethical issue here is; who will make healthcare decisions and end of…
Long-Term Care in South Korea: Strengths of the Korean Long-Term Care Insurance Scheme (LTCI)
Adopted in 2008, the South Korean Long-Term Care (LTCI) Insurance seeks to advance care to the elderly, and assumes the social insurance format (Rhee, Done, Anderson, 2015).
To begin with, LTCI succeeds in the further enhancement of the health of the country’s elderly citizens. It is important to note that the incidence of chronic diseases, as it has been demonstrated in various research studies, rises with advancement in age. These diseases and conditions could have a serious impact on not only the health of those affected, but also on their overall wellbeing. South Korea, as Rhee, Done, Anderson (2015) observe, “is an example of a rapidly aging country that is currently experiencing the demographic transition that many middle-income countries will soon experience…” LTCI ensures that the livelihood of the country’s citizens is stabilized. This is particularly…
Strengths of the Korean Long-Term Care Insurance Scheme (LTCI)
As Kang, Park, and Lee (2012) point out, “with the rapid aging of the population, Korea introduced public long-term care insurance for older people in 2008.” It is important to note that South Korea’s long-term care insurance (LTIC) has a number of strengths. These will be highlighted in this text.
First, the United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific – UNESCAP (2016) points out that the LTCI scheme has greatly enhanced the welfare of not only the aging population, but also families taking care of older persons. This, according to the UNESCAP, is more so the case given that with the LTCI scheme, the country effectively transformed the long-term care services which were largely residual and selective into universal care services. It is important to note that prior to the introduction of the LTCI scheme, older person…
The health of the person usually starts declining with every passing day after 65 years of age and as Mrs. Smith is 82 years old, she is also suffering from some problems. She is in mid stage of dementia because of which she suffers from recent memory impairment, hypertension and mental confusion. Due to dementia, she has already been in problems several times. Like, once she left the pan over the stove and also fallen number of times due to syncope. Moreover, she forgets to take her medicines on time. So, she needs an attended that takes care of her medication, diet and exercises and must not be left alone or unattended at home.
In an old age, a person is in need of company more than any medication. Healthy routine and happiness is the best treatment for various diseases. However, Mrs. Smith lives alone at home during…
AHRQ. (n.d.). Choosing Long-term Care. Retrieved from Agency of Healthcare Research and Quality: http://archive.ahrq.gov/consumer/qnt/qntltc.htm
Brodaty, H. (1988). 'Minimal brain damage in the Adult II: Early dementia'. Patient Management, August, 127-150.
Better Health Channel. (2011). Dementia -- Support Services are available. Retrieved from Better Health Channel: http://www.betterhealth.vic.gov.au/bhcv2/bhcarticles.nsf/pages/Dementia_support_services_are_available-open
Shea, D.E. & Reilly, M.S. (1999). An Action Plan for Dementia. Dublin 2: National Council on Ageing and Older People.
Long-Term Financial Planning
FedEx Corporation was established in 1971 and the company has four distinct business segments that include FedEx Express, FedEx Ground, FedEx Office and FedEx Freight. Over the years, the company has obtained 6-year of CAG (compounded annual growth of 5%). However, the company is likely to obtain similar CAG of 5.9% over the next 8 years based on current economic environment. (FedEx Corporation .2010.
The WACC (weighted average cost of capital) is the average interest rate that a company should pay in order to secure a project. Moreover, WACC is the average rate of return that a company must earn from its current assets to satisfy investors, shareholders and creditors. Since FedEx Corporation is always trying to create value for shareholders, the paper calculates the WACC of the FedEx to evaluate the company ability to generate returns from its assets.
Estimation of WACC of the…
FedEx Corporation (2010. Annual Report.USA.
Long-Term Productivity in Business orkers and Machinery
Productivity is important to every kind of business. This does not mean that every possible bit of work has to be squeezed out of every single worker until they drop into an exhausted heap on the assembly line. Indeed, this would certainly not be productive because having to replace on a continual basis workers who quit from being exhausted - not to mention having to settle disability suits - is hardly the goal of any business.
Productivity means getting the most out of one's machines and workers on a long-term basis. Sometimes this means that everyone has to put in overtime. Sometimes this means that people need to spend an afternoon staring out the window and thinking up new ideas. It all depends upon the business involved and the stage of a project that business and that worker is at.
Something that every…
Ackoff, Russell & Patrick Rivett. A Manager's Guide to Operations Research. New York: John Wiley, 1963.
Anton, C. And Anton. D. ISO 9000: 2000 Survival Guide. San Francisco: AEM Consulting Group, 2000.
Brunsson, N. And Jacobsson, B. A World of Standards. Oxford: Oxford University, 2000.
Buffa, Elwood. Operations Management. New York: John Wiley, 1976.
According to Cleverley, Song and Cleverley (2011), there are four options for health care organizations for finding long-term debt financing. These four options are tax-exempt revenue bonds, Federal Housing Administration (FHA)-insured mortgages, public taxable bonds and conventional mortgage financing. Tax-exempt revenue bonds are issued against the facility's revenue and these are a low-cost source of debt financing. FHA-insured mortgages need to be approved, which is a tricky process. The approval allows the hospital to have mortgage insurance that lowers the cost of borrowing for hospitals. Public taxable bonds are a typical corporate bond issued with an investment bank as underwriter to the public markets. Conventional mortgage financing often involves placing the mortgage with an investor, but the drawback is these usually cannot cover entire projects.
A health care firm can increase its equity in three ways. The first is through retained earnings, the second from contributions…
Cleverley, W., Song, P. & Cleverley, J. (2011). Essentials of Health Care Finance. Sudbury, MA: Jones & Bartlett Publishing
Instead of trying to build a brand, Pfizer hoped to 'buy into' the next big drug solution, and failed in its Patton-like strategy of focusing on the goal, and trying to leap over the many hurdles in creating its own new drug.
In contrast, the athletic shoe store Foot Locker has shown a successful Eisenhower-style approach by focusing on tightening its budget and cutting costs. Although streamlining is not a sexy 'big picture' strategy, by shying away from seeking market domination and taking a conservative strategy, Foot Locker showed a fourth quarter profit, despite a dismal market overall in the apparel industry. "Foot Locker announced another wave of store closures and a revamped management structure that combines the Lady Foot Locker chain with its three other brands. [CEO] Sterne Agee said it was 'essential' for the company to reduce its store base in the U.S. By at least 300 stores…[but]…
Jannarone, John. (2010, March 3). Big Pharma best skip course in Medivation. The Wall Street
Journal Online. Retrieved March 3, 2010 at http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424052748703862704575099991122047042.html?mod=WSJ_business_IndustryNews_DHC
Kell, John. (2010, March 3). Foot Locker swings to profit. The Wall Street Journal Online.
Retrieved March 3, 2010 at http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424052748703862704575100010642743540.html?mod=WSJ_business_whatsNews
Often home-based caregivers, either a spouse or adult child, rely on institutional care only as a choice of last resort, and this is often reported only after their own health and well being begins to be perceived as degraded by caring for the individual in the home, relevant to supplemented home care services as well. (Ducharme et al. 2007, p. 3-31) Researchers in fact contend that individuals will employ a vast variety of coping mechanisms to attempt to remain independent, and though these mechanisms should be supported in the community, when they are productive and effective rather than destructive but that alternatives should be better, in a number of fundamental ways. (Robichaud & Lamarre, 2002) What this trend of last resort means, according to Clemmitt, is that those with dementia and other functionally debilitating and progressive chronic diseases, i.e. he most vulnerable of populations are those who end up in…
Though this work has briefly touched on the issue of collaborative care, regarding caregivers and family, these structures also need to be expanded to a picture that more broadly develops the idea of holistic care. In general this issue has been dealt with in the literature in the case of specialization, such as follow up care and collaboration between institutions and caregivers from hospital and surgical settings. Yet, the continuity of care issue needs to be addressed in a more formal way. The discussion of the desire of previous care providers, such as hospital staff and physicians having follow up information as well as to influence future care needs to be addressed in the future long-term care setting. The days of LTC being an oasis of its own should end as more and more previous care givers seek to have at least a minimal understanding of the future well being of patients they have treated and families as well as patients tend to seek the same connectivity. Some caregivers are in fact so concerned about this disconnect that they present the idea of creating better outcomes if intermediate care offerings were provided in hospital, rather than in separate LTC facilities. (Raj, Munir, Ball, & Carr, 2007) This call for research on this subject likely has as much to do with the overall disconnect that exists between previous care providers and LTC rehabilitative service provisions as it has to do with the medical community, as well as the public having serious and enduring questions about the quality of care offered in such facilities, i.e. real and fear poor patient outcomes. (Kane, 2001) (Torres et al., 2006)
Reinardy & Kane contend that decisions made about future care are often associated with many factors and autonomy is one of the most important to most. Many often stress the choice of an unregulated assisted living facility, even if they could benefit from more skilled care because they perceive that their privacy as well as their autonomy will be better protected in such as situation. The system of future long-term care must address this issue with regard to autonomy and privacy likely by building on more private room structures and better individualization options for individuals. The days of the stark white institutional flooring and a single hospital bed, arm chair setting may very well be over and for good reasons. Long-term care centers of the future need to integrate the ideation, physical, social and emotional aspects of each cohort, i.e. those who are primarily concerned with rehabilitative care and those who are primarily concerned with privacy and autonomy, to create an environment that would meet the needs of both cohorts, possibly improving physical/medical offerings in assisted living and improving issues of privacy and autonomy in nursing homes. (2003)
Finally, and last but certainly not least LTC facilities of the
Bed and Chair Alarm in to Help educe Falls in Short-Term Care Facility
In long-term care facilities (e.g., assisted living centres and nursing homes), a fall is one of the single most devastating category of unpleasant events. In consequence, there is need for long-term care facilities to pay attention to issues of resident falls. To a significant extent, adequate fall prevention depends on the ability of caregivers to hold on to a well-structured process that comprises of timely fall risk and post fall evaluations and targeted multidisciplinary involvements, which are based on recognized risk factors and reasons why falls occur. To lend support to nurses in their attempts to control these falls, certain technologies that relate to minimizing the number of hazards linked to falls have been found to be vital strategies against the luxury of resident protection. Some of the most popular technologies used for fall management include:
Aberg AC, Lundin-Olsson L, Rosendahl E. (2009). Implementation of Evidence-Based Prevention of Falls in Rehabilitation Units: A Staff's Interactive Approach. J Rehabil Med 41(13): 1034-40.
American Nurse Today. (2012). Special Supplement to American Nurse Today - Best Practices for Falls Reduction: A Practical Guide - American Nurse Today. Retrieved January 22, 2016, from http://www.americannursetoday.com/special-supplement-to-american-nurse-today-best-practices-for-falls-reduction-a-practical-guide-2/
KanolanK. (n.d.). Nursing 110 final. Retrieved January 22, 2016, from https://quizlet.com/20498057/nursing-110-final-flash-cards/
McHugh, M. D., & Lake, E. T. (2010). Understanding clinical expertise: nurse education, experience, and the hospital context. Research in nursing & health, 33(4), 276-287.
It is critical that NHAs are first qualified nurses, as their ability to relate to other nurses is essential to the organizational success of the nursing home ("Nursing home administrator jobs," 2011). Career paths for an NHA are rooted with education background and nursing experience. Although experience is necessary for being a successful NHA, a career path at minimum requires clinical licensing (Decker, & Castle, 2009).
The NHA is the management body over the facility, and their positions are in high demand. In the U.S. In 2008, approximately 17,000 nursing home administrators were responsible for the oversight of care for 1 million elderly adults and 1.3 million employees (Leister, 2009). Overseeing a large nursing staff, as well as vulnerable residents, are the daily demands of the NHA. The future of NHA field is concerning to researchers and professionals, as the number of licensed NHAs is on the decline. In Maryland,…
Decker, F, and Castle, N. (2009). The relationship of education level to the job tenure of nursing home administrators and directors of nursing. Health Care Management, 34(2), 152-160.
Leister, D. (2009). The vanishing nursing home administrator: stress and intent to leave.
Informally published manuscript, Capella University, Minneapolis, MI. Retrieved from http://gradworks.umi.com/3359575.pdf
Nursing home administrator jobs. (2011). Retrieved from http://www.nursinghomesjobs.org/nursing-home-administrator-jobs/
My short-term goals are to make the most out of my academic talents and abilities and fulfilling the core values of Respect, Compassion, Excellence, Justice, and Stewardship. The Medical focus Program will be an opportunity for me to begin specializing in science and healthcare-related subjects and to get to know other students who share my academic and career interests. I look forward to being able to the first-hand experience of volunteering in the healthcare professions so that I can interact with patients and experienced healthcare professionals. I also look forward to being as creative as possible, such as in the way that I duplicated several classic scientific experiments in my school science fairs.
My long-term goal is to become an orthodontist. I have had this goal since I was six years old, when I had an accident that broke some of my teeth and required orthodontic care. My…
While some states agreed with the approach decided by President at the time George Bush, other states would have opted for a more peaceful approach. Otherwise put, the seed of these international political conflicts was represented by the War on Terrorism, or the violent response of the Bush Administration to the terrorist attacks on September 11. The national opinions were also diverse, with some groups voicing their concern that the WOT was merely a pretense to invade the rich-in-oil Afghanistan and Iraq (Shah, 2007), whilst others sought refuge, peace, security or even revenge in the endeavor. egardless of the stand taken by each individual, fact remains that the War on Terror has generated numerous effects upon the national economy.
Gary North (2006) is rather cynical relative to the War on Terror and argues that it is being led by the same organization which ran the unsuccessful war on drugs --…
Dolfman, M.L., Wasser, S.F., June 2004, 9/11 and the New York City Economy: A Borough-to-Borough Analysis, Monthly Labor Review
Makinen, G., 2002, Report for Congress: The Economic Effects of 9/11: A Retrospective Assessment, Federation of American Scientists, Retrieved from www.fas.org/irp/crs/RL31617.pdf on April 22, 2009
North, G., April 1, 2006, War on Terrorism's Economic Effects, Economic Edge, http://econedge.org/01/war-on-terrorisms-economic-effects / last accessed on April 23, 2009
O'Rourke, M., Spring 2005, The Impact of the "War on Terrorism" on Internal Conflicts, The Ploughshares Monitor, http://www.ploughshares.ca/libraries/monitor/monm05d.htm last accessed on April 23, 2009
long-term success in your specific area of interest. How have your previous experiences prepared you for this professional career? What areas of specialization within the Carroll School of Management do you believe will be most valuable in achieving your goals? What specific short-term career objectives have you set to assist you in achieving your long-term career plans?
I will never feel successful if success means putting up my feet and feeling satisfied. I don't work that way. I will only feel successful for small moments, like when I solve a huge problem in my company or when we avert trouble: when we can turn around a failing operation or stay afloat in spite of falling stock prices. Personally, I could be working in a behind-the-scenes managerial position in a company that I cared about and even if my salary was not great I would be successful because every day I…
Instead, the survey suggests that the majority of Americans favor a combination of tax increases and benefit cuts to achieve this end.
Throughout the publication, empirical publications are used to substantiate the author's points. He makes frequent and ample use of published data without letting these override his own conclusions from the works used. Instead, there is a good balance between the use of data and the author's own views regarding the financial future of the United States.
Viard's assertions are therefore soundly substantiated without simply being a repetitive review of already existing literature. Instead, he combines the literature, survey data, and his own views in such a way as to provide a valuable contribution to existing investigation.
As mentioned, it can be said that the author makes a valuable contribution to the field of finance with this article. At the beginning of his article, Viard notes that some…
Viard, A.D. (2009). Four Long-Term Fiscal Realities. Business Economics. No. 44, pp. 143-149.
The purpose of the take-or-pay clause is to allocate the respective risks of the production and sales of natural gas between buyers and sellers.
According to Gaille, "The seller bears the risk of production. To compensate seller for that risk, buyer agrees to take, or pay for if not taken, a minimum quantity of gas. The buyer bears the risk of market demand. The take-or-pay clause ensures that if the demand for gas goes down, seller will still receive the price for the contract quantity delivered each year."
Although there are other salient risks involved, the two main risks hedged against are the two described above.
220.127.116.11 Transfer of volume risk. According to Meyer, Myers, Kolbe, Leonard and Baker, "Take-or-pay contracts are often signed in transportation industries precisely to shift risk of revenue variances away from the suppliers who have sunk costs in the right-of-way to the suppliers of the…
The emphasis is on normal, everyday activities provided for residents. According to the authors, however, little research has been conducted to investigate the actual effect of such activities and settings upon residents. The assumption is that such settings have a better effect that traditional institutions, but there is little empirical research to support this.
Hence, Verbeek et al. (2010) conducted a study to compare small-scale living with regular care in nursing homes in the Netherlands. Interestingly, they found no significant difference between the quality of life experienced by residents in traditional institutional settings and those in small-scale living facilities. Furthermore, there was also no significant difference in the job satisfaction levels of nursing staff between both types of institution was found. Another important aspect, namely neuropsychiatric symptoms and agitation were also significantly similar for both institution types. According to the authors, a difference was found in the satisfaction level of…
Gaugler, J.E. (2005, Mar.). Family Involvement in Residential Long-Term Care: A Synthesis and Critical Review. Aging and Mental health, Iss. 9, vol. 2. Retrieved from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2247412/
Lyness, J.M., Yu, Q., Tang, W., Tu, X., and Conwell, Y. (2009, Dec.). Risks for Depression Onset in Primary Care Elderly Patients: Potential Targets for Preventive Interventions. American Journal of Psychiatry. Retrieved from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2982671/
Simonazzi, a. (2009, Jun). Home care and cash transfers. Effects on the elderly care-female employment trade-off. Retrieved from: http://www.aiel.it/bacheca/SASSARI/papers/simonazzi.pdf
Verbeek, H., Zwakhalen, S.M.G., Van Rossum, E., Ambergen, T, Kempen, G.I.J.M., and Hamers, J.P.H. (2010, Nov.). Dementia Care Redesigned: Effects of Small-Scale Living Facilities on Residents, their Family Caregivers, and Staff. American Medical directors Association. Retrieved from: http://www.unimaas.nl/hcns/websiteVW/publications/Publication%20scans/Verbeek.%20Dementia%20care%20redesigned.pdf
Ethics in a Long-Term Healthcare Business
Ethics in the health care industry spans a wide spectrum of activities and most of the obligations are cast by law on the professionals and the second by the common practice and morals of the profession. Both are important to the progress of the institution and also the health care industry. Compliance of statutes is of primary importance.
There are many rules and statutes that must be complied with by all organizations and one such recent legislation is the hospital information access system. The HIPAA rules apply to all personnel in the system and extend to laboratory technicians, and lawyers and insurers. The culpability comes if the information was disclosed to a third party who did not have an association with the entity -- the clinic and was permitted to access the information. In such cases where the physician discloses information to another…
Andre, Claire; Velasquez, Manuel. (2013) "Aged-Based Health Care Rationing" Retrieved 8
June, 2013 from http://www.scu.edu/ethics/publications/iie/v3n3/age.html
Chaikind, Hinda R. (2004) "The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability ACT
(Hipaa): Overview and Analyses" Nova Publishers.
Lee is only the first step in the process of building a team that is able to cover all aspects of Mrs. Lee's care. The team approach involving a social worker, nurse, physician, pharmacist, and physical therapist affords Mrs. Lee a full range of professionals attending to her various needs.
Although Mrs. Lee has a number of problems that need to be addressed the one problem that must be addressed immediately is her elevated blood pressure. Hypertension is an important risk factor for the development and worsening of many complications of diabetes and an elevated blood pressure is like walking around with a detonated bomb. Within moments, and with little warning, a diabetic patient can suffer a stroke or heart attack as a result of an elevated blood pressure. Well over fifty percent of diabetics suffer from hypertension and proper treatment of hypertension can minimize most of the tangential problems…
Calle-Pascual, A.L. (2002). A preventive foot care programme for people with diabetes with different stages of neuropathy. Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice, 111-117.
Caminal, J. And Barbara Starfield, et. al.(2004). The role of primary care in preventing ambulatory care sensitive conditions. European Journal of Public Health, 246-251.
Deichmann, R.E. (1999). Improvements in Diabetic Care as Measured by HbA1c After a Physician Education Project. Diabetes Care, 1612-1616.
Epstein, M. (1997). Diabetes and hypertension: the bad companions. Journal of Hypertension, 55-62.
All of the 98 women were between the ages of 75 and 85, and had low bone mass at the outset of the study. No records were given regarding any increase of bone mass after the exercise regime or a year after, during the follow-up research. While the authors concluded that the benefits from all three types of group-based exercises were sustained for at least 12 months without participating in a formal exercise program and noted that participation in any exercise program at all appeared to motivate the women to continue to exercise after the completion of the study, no monitoring on what percentage of women continued, and if this gave further protection was noted. Also, was a lesser likelihood to fall dramatically lower when the exercise regime was being administered?
On one hand, the study could have a positive effect upon seniors, encouraging them to exercise by alleviating some…
Write the memo with the purpose of convincing the vice president of operations to keep one if the company facilities implied the use of numerous concepts regarding persuasion. First and foremost, there was the order of the presented arguments, as well as the organization of the information. The introductory part took care of the parts revealing what, why and how. The content presented the arguments for and against the discussed matter. The arguments against the desired outcome were presented first, which allowed for their deconstruction through the presentation of the pro arguments, which were also more numerous and better supported. The problem was stated from a bigger perspective and it has been insisted upon the long-term advantages of reaching the desired goal. The problem was explained through a variety of perspectives, thus making it easier for the reader to understand its complexity. The expected outcome has been described in terms…
Bowman, J.P. Writing Persuasive Messages, 11 Jun. 07, http://homepages.wmich.edu/~bowman/c4eframe.html
Littlefield, H., Syverson, J. Memo: Business Administration 3033: Business Communication, 11 Jun. 07, http://writing.umn.edu/tww/WID/business/resources/BA3033memo.htm
Treatment for Emergency Medical Conditions and Women in Labor healthcare system is at a tipping point. This is because facilities are facing rising costs and they must provide services to individuals who are poor or undocumented. These factors are having an adverse impact on the available services in Congresswoman Moody's district. To create a workable solution she must do something that is within her power and consistent with her values. These objectives will be achieved by looking at the options available, the criteria that is used to evaluate them and the pros / cons. Together; these areas will highlight the best choices for addressing the different problems inside the Congresswoman's district. (Anderson, 2011) (Davidson, 2010)
Identify 3-5 options for Congresswoman Moody's consideration
There are a total of three options which are available to deal with the underlying challenges impacting Moody's district. The most notable include: bringing in non-profits to work…
Anderson, R. (2011). Changing the U.S. Healthcare System. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
Davidson, S. (2010). Still Broken. Stanford, CA: Stanford Business Books.
Shi, L. (2009). Essentials of the U.S. Healthcare System. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett.
Tate, J. (2012). The Obama Care Survival Guide. West Palm Beach, FL: Humanix Books.
Describe the background of the problem
Diabetes is considered to be one of most manageable and frequent problems impacting a large number of Americans. As someone becomes older, they are more likely to develop the condition from poor lifestyle choices, diet, the lack of exercise and genetics. According to the Centers for Disease Control (CDC), there are a total of 29 million Americans who are impacted every single year. Out of this, number 17.7 million are between the ages of 40 to 60 years old. In many cases, learning to manage their diabetes and making healthy choices are critical for avoiding other complications. The most notable include: heart disease, stroke, blindness and the loss of limbs. This issue deserves attention as the inability to live with and manage the condition will result in premature death and the inability to function normally on a daily basis. ("National Diabetes Statistics…
National Diabetes Statistics Report. (2014). CDC. Retrieved from: http://www.cdc.gov /diabetes/pubs/statsreport14/national-diabetes-report-web.pdf
Campbell, J. (2012). Diabetes Empowerment. Diabetes Technology and Therapeutics, 14 (7), 630-634.
Fisher, E. (2012). Peer Support for Self-Management of Diabetes. Health Affairs, 31 (1), 130-139.
Saydah, S. (2013). Socio Economic Status and Mortality. Diabetes Care 36 (1), 49-55.
egistered nurses are both qualified, educated, and certified to provide a high quality of various care services that an individual may need in a home setting or elsewhere. Hence, providing these practitioners with the power to certify and provide home care is a solution to an overwhelming problem that has plagued the health care environment in recent years. Nursing practitioners, as a result of the nature of their work, are closely connected to the needs of individual patients. This means that they, more than many other health care providers and institutions, are able to assess the needs of individuals, their households, and the level of care they require. This places them in a position to accurately determine the need and/or of such individuals to obtain long-term home care and when such home care becomes unviable. As such, registered nurses who serve individuals in the home setting are able to maintain…
AARP Public Policy Institute. (2013). FAQs. Retrieved from: http://assets.aarp.org/rgcenter/ppi/ltc/ltss_faq.pdf
Brassard, A. (2011). Removing Barriers to Advanced Practice Registered Nurse Care: Home Health and Hospice Services. AARP Public Policy Institute. Retrieved from: http://www.aarp.org/content/dam/aarp/research/public_policy_institute/health/removing-barriers-advanced-practice-registered-nurse-home-health-hospice-insight-july-2012-AARP-ppi-health.pdf
Doty, P. (2000, June). Cost-Effectiveness of Home and Community-Based Long-Term Care Services. U.S. Department of health and Human Services. Retrieved from: http://aspe.hhs.gov/daltcp/reports/2000/costeff.htm
Lynch, M., Estes, C., and Hernandez, M. (2007, June). Long-Term Care Policy Option Proposal: Consumer Controlled Chronic, Home, and Community Care for he Elderly and Disabled. Georgetown University Long-Term Care Financing Project: Working Paper No. 4. Retrieved from: http://ltc.georgetown.edu/forum/4lynch061107.pdf
Day treatment programs can provide services at less cost because the patient goes home at night after being treated during the day, which often is used for rehabilitating chronically ill patients (Sharfstein, Stoline, & Koran, 1995, p. 249). The mere fact of having more choice benefits some patients by giving them more say in their care.
Patient-focused care involves a method for containing in-patient costs for hospitals and for improving quality by "restructuring services so that more of them take place on nursing units rather than in specialized units in other hospital locations, and by cross-training staff on the nursing units so that they can do several 'jobs' for the same small group of patients rather then one 'job' for a large number of patients" (Kovner, 1995, p. 186). Kovner notes a number of barriers to this type of care. One reason has been that hospitals have not had to…
Doctors Say Managed Care Strains Patient Relationships (1997, June 9). Westchester County Business Journal 36(23), p. 24.
Kovner, a.R. (1995). Hospitals. In Jonas's Health Care Delivery in the United States, a.R. Kovner (ed.), pp. 162-193. New York: springer Publishing.
Moore, G.T. (1991,
April 24). Let's provide primary care to all uninsured Americans ? now! JAMA, pp. 2108-2109.
Diversity of Aging Population -- Innovative Healthcare
Over the past several decades there has been an avalanche of research and scholarly narratives focusing on the aging of millions of Americans -- among them the "baby boomers" that were born between 1946 and 1964 -- including their numbers and their health vis-a-vis the impact on the sometimes struggling healthcare system. But there has been a dearth of research on how American healthcare services will respond -- and is currently responding -- to an increasingly diverse older population when it comes to racial, cultural and ethnic identities. This paper points to the numerous issues and challenges that not only face an increasingly diverse older American population when it comes to healthcare, but also the challenges that the healthcare system itself faces as these Americans move into the twilight of their lives.
hat should be the Vision and Mission of Healthcare Professionals in…
Administration on Aging. (2010). A Statistical Profile of Black Older Americans Aged 65+.
Retrieved April 2, 2014, from http://www.aoa.gov .
Bookman, A. (2008). Innovative models of aging in place: Transforming our communities for an aging population. Community, Work & Family, 11(4), 419-438.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2007). The State of Aging and Health in America
History Of Health Care
Few professions offer the opportunity to make a difference in the lives of others on a daily basis. Health care is one of those professions. There are life and death situations, but there are also quiet moments such as routine office visits in which health care professionals can make a difference to someone with a kind and genuinely caring demeanor. Being a health care professional is more than a career. It is a choice one makes as someone who cares deeply about fellow human beings. Personally, I have always had a desire to make others feel comfortable, secure and cared for. I am interested in how this aspect of health care evolved. Health care professionals treat illness and injuries but it must be remembered that along with those are whole human beings who may be frightened, confused or angry. The emotional aspects of patient care have…
Kret, D.D., 2011. The qualities of a compassionate nurse according to the perceptions of medical-surgical patients. MEDSURG Nursing 20(1), pp. 29-36.
Oreopoulos, D.G. (2001). Compassion and mercy in the practice of medicine. Humane Medicine
Health Care 1 (1). Retrieved from http://www.humanehealthcare.com/Article
This is the strategy used in Canada, where drug costs have been substantially reduced.
The challenges presented by this law have spilled over into the current health-care reform debate. Many people and many legislators who might have been more open to engage in productive dialogue during the current debate were no doubt made more leery of the process and of the possibility that there could be significant reform that would bring benefits to more people while bringing down the federal deficit.
The fears of opponents of the bill were correct in their fears that the bill would been even more expensive than originally budgeted. The initial estimate for the net cost was $400 billion for the period from 2004-2013. However, only a month after the bill's passage, that estimate was raised to $534 billion. It has since been raised to over $550. The cost over-runs in this bill will no…
Surgeons in Canada report that, for heart patients, the danger of dying on the waiting list now exceeds the danger of dying on the operating table. Emergency rooms there are so overcrowded that patients awaiting treatment frequently line the corridors. Not only is there a long wait for care, but care is frequently denied to patients who prognosis is poor. In ritain kidney dialysis is generally denied patients over the age of 55. At least 1,500 ritons die each year because of lack of dialysis.
Countries with national health care systems also lag far behind the U.S. In the availability of modern medical technology. In Canada, high-technology medicine is virtually unavailable. In addition to being biased against new medical technologies, national health care systems generally discriminate against nontraditional practitioners, such as naturopaths and chiropractors.
It is true that Canada spends only about nine percent of its GDP on health care,…
Financing National Health Insurance." (2003, February 4). Available:
http://www.pnhp.org/nhibill/nhi_financing.html (Accessed 9 Feb. 2005).
Health Care Policy Issues. Sept. 2004. Available:
http://www.newsbatch.com/healthcare.htm (Accessed 9 Feb. 2005).
Further, in order to be covered by Medicare, the stay at the nursing home must include care that requires skilled nursing. In other words, Medicare will not cover custodial, non-skilled or long-term care that includes activities of daily living, such as cooking, cleaning and hygiene. A stay at a skilled nursing facility under Medicare is limited to one-hundred days per ailment. Medicare will pay for the first twenty days in full. The remaining eighty days requires the patient to pay a co-payment of approximately $124.00 per day.
Under Medicare Part , Medicare will provide medical insurance to a qualified individual. This coverage includes physician and nursing services, x-rays, laboratory and diagnostic testing, influenza and pneumonia vaccinations, blood transfusions, renal dialysis, outpatient hospital treatment, some ambulance transportation, immunosuppressive drugs for organ transplant recipients, chemotherapy, hormonal treatments and other outpatient medical care treatments as administered in a physician's office. However, medication administration…
Marrelli, Tina M. (2001): Handbook of Home Health Standards and Documentation Guidelines for Reimbursement. Elsevier Health Sciences.
Matthews, Joseph L., Dorothy Matthews Berman. (2007): Social Security, Medicare and Government Pensions: Get the Most out of Your Retirement and Medical Benefits. New York: NOLO.
Vogel, Ronald J. (1999): Medicare. Anne Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
S. than in any other developed nation, yet the quality of care, even for those who are insured, is mediocre at best (Hawkins, 2007).
Doctors and hospitals often treat patients free of charge, if they do not have health insurance. However, that raises costs for other patients and makes healthcare and insurance even more costly. Most Americans recognize that the country's healthcare system is not sustainable and that without significant reform, it is headed for a complete meltdown.
In the U.S., identity theft is a major concern. Now, that, too, has gone into the medical arena. Medical identity theft is being described as the newest frontier in the ever-evolving crime of identity theft and presents a major opportunity for a wide range of criminals as the healthcare industry evolves into an electronic culture. Yet this environment is not properly protected by present law enforcement agencies and criminal offenses (Latour, 2007,…
Andrews, J. (2006). Where the jobs are: eldercare is already creating more jobs than there are people willing to do them. And the market is just heating up. Here's a look at where some of the greatest demand will be. Assisted Living 4(6) S6-9.
Hawkins, D.(12 February, 2007). Bush's Remedy Isn't a Cure; the President's health-care won't help those who need insurance most or the underinsured who can't afford primary care. Business Week Online
Institute of Medicine (2007). Preventing medication errors. National Academies Press, Washington, D.C.:
Lafferty, L. (2007). Medical identity theft: the future threat of health care fraud is now: lack of Federal Law Enforcement efforts means compliance professionals will have to lead the way. Journal of Health Care Compliance 9 (1) 11-21.
However...generally a vast difference exists between what healthcare providers understand and what laypersons are able to comprehend. This immeasurability of knowledge was evident in the participants' narratives and was exacerbated by the conveying of "false hope" or "false optimism" to patients and patients' family members.
Seconding Robichaux's argument is ackstrand's (2006) findings that hospital-based EOL programs are not the "ideal" form of healthcare that elderly patients should receive, according to a survey of nurses. For the nurses, "no patient should face death alone," which ultimately happens when patients are confined in a hospital facility receiving palliative care. Comparing ICU EOL care against the hospice and nursing home care programs, 'dying with dignity' is remote in this kind of program, since "[t]he ICU is no place to die. It would be nice to have a comfortable, quiet, spacious room for those who are dying. Let everyone in and let the rest…
Anderson, R. (2003). "Nursing home quality, chain affiliation, profit status, and performance." Journal of Real Estate Research, Vol. 25, Issue 1.
Backstrand, R. (2006). "Providing a "good death": critical care nurses' suggestions for improving end-of-life care." American Journal of Critical Care, Vol. 15, Issue 1.
Elliot, D. (2006). "Determining the financial impact of hospice." Healthcare Financial Management, Vol. 60, Issue 7.
Imhof, S. (2005). "What do we owe the dying? Strategies to strengthen end-of-life care." Journal of Healthcare Management, Vol. 50, Issue 3.
health care for the disabled. The writer explores the health care stages that are available for the disabled in every stage of life. The writer uses published works from various sources to illustrate and underscore the need for solid health care access for all disabled individuals in the nation. There were six sources used to complete this paper.
"Different stages of available health care for people with disabilities"
The issue of health care has been a hot topic of debate in this country for many years. Health care costs are skyrocketing, available services are dwindling and the public is screaming with outrage and demand for improvements to the entire health care system. While those who can speak for themselves are having no trouble voicing their upset about the current state of the nation's health care system, there is a population that cannot always speak up. The disabled in this country…
HEALTH CARE DECISIONS FOR THOSE WHO CANNOT CARE FOR:DIANE COLEMAN THEMSELVES. Congressional Testimony; 4/19/2005
Congressional Testimony. 04-19-2005
LONG-TERM HEALTH CARE:MARK R. MEINERS
Congressional Testimony; 4/19/2005
Strategic Healthcare Management
How is the strategic planning process for a healthcare organization different from that of other service industries?
It is often said that there is no good time to become ill -- however, from the health care provider's point-of-view, an unplanned rise in community ailments is an unfortunate unplanned excess cost to the organization as well as an unfortunate blow to a number of individual's states of health. This is why strategic planning of health care costs for organizations must evaluate the appropriateness, necessity, and quality of the prescribed services on a retrospective basis, as well as on a prospective or concurrent basis. ((ProPAC, 1996)
In contrast to other service industries, it can be more difficult for healthcare organizations to plan for seasonal rises and lows in demands placed upon the institutions and its works. True, flu and allergy season brings certain predictable demands for flu shots and…
CDC. (14 Nov 2005) "Patient Screening Form: Who should and who should not get a flu shot?" Retrieved 12 May 2005 at http://www.cdc.gov /flu/professionals/flugallery/shortageflyers.htm
CDC (20 Jan 2005) "Updated Infection Control Measures for the Prevention and Control of Influenza in Health-Care Facilities Retrieved 12 May 2005 at
The problems facing Medicare recipients and the federal government almost seem to be overwhelming. There are proponents of a plan to privatize Social Security and health insurance, placing the onus on the individual to pay for his own health care through savings specifically for this. Some others would have the program go through the private HMOs who have, in the past, contained the costs of care by having primary care physicians manage a patient's care and purposely keeps the costs of care down.
As with Medicaid, the recipients of Medicare would have difficulty obtaining health care without this program. The recipients would most likely have no other health insurance. The trend being what it is, a lot of individuals retiring today are fortunate to have pensions from their companies, much less health benefits. ithout a national health insurance plan, like Medicare, those individuals would have to pay for health care…
Kay, Joseph. "Bush Plans renewed Assault on Medicaid." World Socialist Website. 8 Feb. 2005.
13 Aug. 2005. http://www.wsws.org/articles/2005/feb2005/medi-f08.shtml .
Kay, Joseph. "U.S.: States, Federal Government Prepare Massive Medicaid Cuts." World
Socialist Website. 11 May 2005. http://www.wsws.org/articles/2005/may2005/medi-m11.shtml .
Strategic Management of a Healthcare Facility in St. Louis
In the late 1800's and early 1900's St. Louis was a major center for automotive and other heavy manufacturing but the industrial restructuring of the Midwest during the latter half of the century has resulted in consistent economic decline of the St. Louis region. Today however as the rest of the country faces a slowing economy this region is showing new signs of growth. [Kotkin, 2002] Due to changing socio-demographics, the demand for health care and advanced medical technologies is growing consistently with a concomitant rise in health expenditure. [Zhou 2001] Health expenditure in the U.S. has risen from 7.4% of the GNP in 1970 to 15% of the GNP in 1995.[Zhou, 2001] The Health care sector deals with not only the clinical medical services, but also include methods which finance them, for e.g. insurance, benefit schemes, Medicare and Medicaid. eforms…
1. Kotkin, J, 2002 St. Louis: On the Way to Somewhere? Rebuz Inc.
2. Author not available, 1997, Economic Report of the President. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. [accessed on 4/4/03]: http://www.umsl.edu/services/govdocs/erp/1997/chap3.htm
3.Author not available, 1996, Focus... Non-Elderly Missourians without Health Insurance, March 1996, Vol. 30, No. 1 [accessed on 4/4/03]: http://www.dhss.state.mo.us/MonthlyVitalStatistics/March96Vol30No1.html
4. Author not available, January 1999, Focus... Managed Care (MC+) in Medicaid Population, January 1999 Vol. 32, No. 11[accessed on 4/4/03] at http://www.dhss.state.mo.us/MonthlyVitalStatistics/Jan99Vol32No11.html
affordable Care Act (also known as the ACA or Obamacare) on the elderly
Obamacare: Its impact upon the elderly
The impact of the Affordable Care Act (ACA) (often called 'Obamacare') upon America is often discussed by politicians as if it had a uniform impact upon all citizens. However, the ACA's effects have been relatively disparate, depending upon the nature of the population. This paper will specifically focus upon the impact of the ACA on the elderly of a variety of socio-economic categories.
One of the criticisms of the American healthcare system before the passage of the ACA was the spiraling cost of entitlement programs such as Medicare, the federally-provided health insurance program for seniors. "One good result of all this [ACA] is that the burden of Medicare for taxpayers in future years has been drastically lowered. In fact, the day Barack Obama signed the ACA into law he cut the…
ACA. http://www.hhs.gov/healthcare/rights / Accessed November 6, 2014.
FAQ: What retirees and seniors need to know about the ACA? NPR. October 11, 2013.
http://www.npr.org/2013/10/11/231101137/faq-what-retirees-and-seniors-need-to-know-about-the-affordable-care-act Accessed November 6, 2014.
Goodman, John. What seniors have to fear from Obamacare? Forbes. October 28, 2014.
Then, when you combine this with the fact that Medicaid serves 53 million people with an annual budget of $329 billion, means that rising costs is severely affecting this program. ("Medicaid Reform," 2005) the inflexibility of this program has contributed to problem as a one size fits all approach is taken. Then, when you combine the different state programs offered through Medicaid, means that an uneven standard of inflexibility is used. An illustration of this can be seen by looking no further than the overall focus of Medicaid, where an emphasis is placed on addressing major health issues. This is problematic because like with Medicare, an approach must be taken of dealing with the patient once they are facing major health issues. Then Medicare has to engage in multiple functions to include: comprehensive acute / primary care, long-term care services (for those who qualify), a source of funding for uncompensated…
Medicaid Reform. (2005, June 15). Retrieved March 3, 2010 from National Governors Association website:
President Cuts Medicare, Medicaid to Help Reform Costs. (2009, June 15). Retrieved March 3, 2010 from California Health Line website: http://www.californiahealthline.org/articles/2009/6/15/president-outlines-cuts-to-medicare-medicaid-to-help-cover-reform-costs.aspx
Anderson, L. (2009, July 9). Research Project Finds Medicare Part D Increases Spending on Prescription Drugs.
The relationship between the doctor and a possible patient is established when the physician asks the person for the first time as how he could be of possible help. This direct and simple enquiry is the beginning of the trust of the patient that has to be put in the physician for any treatment to proceed. The patient is in need of help at that time, and has to trust the professional for getting the help and the patients want to do it. They need a person to take care of them during their period of suffering from illness. This relationship between the patient and the physician in the financial sphere also involves the same amount of reliance, confidence and trust, as otherwise, not treatment can be undertaken. This makes it essential that the physicians clearly mention to the patients when there is any conflict of interest in…
"Changes in Health Care Financing and Organization: Deriving Best Practice Models for the U.S. Health Care Safety Net: A Cross-State Meta Analysis of Finance, Organization and Outcomes" Retrieved from http://18.104.22.168/search?q=cache:h3F83ojarhYJ:depts.washington.edu/eprc/areas/proposalnarrative%2520web.pdf+Changes+in+Health+Care+Financing+and+Organization+& ; hl=en Accessed on 7 June, 2005
'Health Administration Press" (March/April 2003) Journal of Health Care Management.
Volume 48, Number 2. Retrieved from http://22.214.171.124/search?q=cache:p36ZB3H0T4AJ:www.ache.org/pubs/jhm482.cfm+healthcare+finance+relationship+centered& ; hl=en Accessed on 7 June, 2005
"The Core Program: Trust and the Patient -- Professional Relationship" (September, 2000) The
Within this section of Chapter One, a historical perspective of NHS will be provided. This discussion will identify problem areas that have emerged in relation to NHS with an attempt made to address the manner in which such problems have historically influenced reform efforts.
With the passage and associated provisions of the NHS Act of 1946, NHS was implemented in the UK in 1948. The NHS Act of 1946 served as the means by which a pattern of health service finance and provision was established in the UK following World War II (Baggot, 1998). According to Baggot, on the basis of the Act, the principle of collective responsibility by the state for the establishment of a comprehensive health service system was introduced, allowing for the planned use of services by the entire population at no cost. It was also intended that equality of access to services would be…
Baggott, R. (1998). Health and Health Care in Britain. London, Macmillan,
Barlow, M. (1998). The Fight of My Life. Toronto: Harper Collins
BMA Central Consultants and Specialists Committee (1990). Guidance on Clinical
Directorates London: BMA.
Leadership & Management, Health Care
Leadership & Management in Health Care
President Clinton's Secretary of Health and Human Services, Donna Shalala, used to tell a story about her mother, who was 86 at the time but still a full-time attorney representing several clients who lived in nursing homes. She would tell Shalala, "Donna, I don't care whether they are good nursing homes or bad nursing homes, you have to watch them like a hawk" (Cited in White House, 1998, quoted by Hovey 2000, 43). Clinton's presidency was very aware of health care issues, even if it was unable to solve them. Shalala's remarks were delivered at a press conference regarding nursing home regulation; arguably, under the current administration, issues of health care for the aged have gotten more problematical rather than less.
Despite relatively little action regarding health care for the aged by the federal government, there is little…
Fox-Grage, W., & Shaw, T. (2000, April). The crisis ahead in long-term care. State Legislatures, 26, 30. Retrieved June 30, 2004, from Questia database, http://www.questia.com .
Froeschle, M.L., & Donahue, P.M. (1998). Academic health care: Leadership in time of change. Journal of Leadership Studies, 5(4), 60. Retrieved June 30, 2004, from Questia database,