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We have recognized that Walmart does not view its wage and benefit structure as being a problem. On its Website, Walmart announces what the company is doing to improve its image in terms of sustainability and other ethical issues ("Walmart Announces New Commitments to Drive Sustainability Deeper into its Global Supply Chain," 2012). However, the company fails to mention anything about how their low wages are hurting communities and the economy as a whole. This approach to public relations must change if the company is to continue being successful. Walmart needs to be more proactive, and at least start pretending to care about its employees.
There are several political image-boosters that Walmart can use to improve its public relations without actually making changes to its human resources policies. One strategy is to feature an employee of the week on the company Website. This will make the company seem like…
Dube, A., Graham-Squire, D., Jacobs, K. & Luce, S. (2007). Living wage policies and Walmart: How a higher wage standard would impact Walmart workers and shoppers. UC Berkeley Labor Center. Retrieved online: http://laborcenter.berkeley.edu/retail/walmart_livingwage_policies07.pdf
Dube, A. & Jacobs, K. (2004). Hidden cost of Walmart jobs. UC Berkeley Labor Center. Retrieved online: http://laborcenter.berkeley.edu/retail/walmart.pdf
"Walmart Announces New Commitments to Drive Sustainability Deeper into its Global Supply Chain," (2012). Retrieved online: http://news.walmart.com/
Barbara Ehrenreich, Nickel and Dimed: On (Not) Getting by in America
Ehrenreich, Barbara. Nickel and Dimed: On (Not) Getting By in America. New York: Metropolitan Books/Henry Holt & Company. 221 pp. $23. ISBN-10: 0312626681
Barbara Ehrenreich was born in 1941, in Montana. She attended Reed College, where she studied chemistry, and graduated in 1963. She also received a Ph. D in cellular immunology from Rockefeller University. She has written fourteen books during her prodigious career as an essayist and activist. She labels herself as a Democrat Liberal, while being part, for a long time, of the Democratic Socialists of America. She has written both fiction and non-fiction, but, as the New York Times called her, she remains a "veteran muckraker"
. As the paragraphs below will discuss, the book "Nickel and Dimed: On (Not) Getting By in America" fits well into this category.
Nickel and Dimed is a book focusing…
Ehrenreich, Barbara. Nickel and Dimed: On (Not) Getting By in America. New York: Metropolitan Books/Henry Holt & Company. 2000
Galagher, Dorothy. Making Ends Meet- a review of Nickel and Dimed. The New York Times. 2001
Tremoglie, Michael. Barbara Ehrenreich: Nickel and Diming Truth. Front Page Magazine. 2003. On the Internet at http://archive.frontpagemag.com/readArticle.aspx?ARTID=17107. Last retrieved on July 29, 2014
Ehrenreich, Barbara. Bait and Switch. The New Yorker. On the Internet at http://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2005/09/26/bait-and-switch . Last retrieved on July 29, 2014
Wage and Benefit Determination
Individuals supply labor to the market at a price called the wage rate of labor. How much labor an individual supplies is related to his level of non-labor income, and cost benefits determination of time spent at leisure, vs. work.
A union can raise the wages of those who continue to be employed in a competitive labor market at the expense of the level of employment. So if the competitive equilibrium is at E0 and the wage is w0 employment is q0. If a union enters this market and sets a wage of W1, a new equilibrium will be established, e1. The supply curve has become w1xs0. At the new wage, W1, there will be q1q2 workers who would like to work but whom the industry will not hire. Employment will be q1. The decrease in employment due to wage increase is q1q2
Minimum wage is…
Keeping all these facts and figures in mind, it would not be wrong to conclude that low wage is one of the more serious problems of the country and needs urgent remedy. The government needs to address the issue properly and effectively keeping in view the current demographic trends.
1. Anthony Bimba, The Molly Maguires: The True Story of Labor's Martyred Pioneers in the Coalfields (1950; reprint, New York: International Publishers, 1975), pp. 54-66.
2. Ibid., p. 65.
3. Ibid., p. 66.
4. Edward Wolff, "ecent Trends in Living Standards in the United States," New York University and the Jerome Levy Institute of Economics, New York, 2002 p. 1.
5. U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, Occupational Outlook Handbook: Tomorrow's Jobs. Online. Available: http://www.bls.gov/oco/oco2003.htm. Accessed: September 9, 2006.
9. U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, Labor Force Statistics…
1. Anthony Bimba, The Molly Maguires: The True Story of Labor's Martyred Pioneers in the Coalfields (1950; reprint, New York: International Publishers, 1975), pp. 54-66.
2. Ibid., p. 65.
3. Ibid., p. 66.
4. Edward Wolff, "Recent Trends in Living Standards in the United States," New York University and the Jerome Levy Institute of Economics, New York, 2002 p. 1.
Low Income Housing Credit
The low income tax credit has been an issue of debate since it was created. Many believe that the federal government should do more to help the working poor gain access to affordable housing and that the current plan is extremely convoluted making it difficult for developers and tenants to comply with. The purpose of this discussion is to define and describe the low income housing tax credit and to explore the advantages and disadvantages presented by such a system.
Defining the Low Income Tax Credit
According to an article entitled "The Low Income Tax Credit" published by the Internal Revenue Service the low-income housing tax credit was created by Congress to promote the construction and rehabilitation of existing rental housing for the working poor in various neighborhoods throughout the United States.
Congress also believed that the credit would raise the quantity of rental housing for…
About the Low Income Housing Credit." http://www.novoco.com/Facts_Figures/Aboutlihc.htm
Affordable Housing Needs Boost." Real Estate Weekly. January 10,2001. http://www.findarticles.com/cf_0/m3601/23_47/69676209/p1/article.jhtml?term=low+income+housing+credit
Anderson, George. "Housing and Low Income Americans." America. July 29,2000. http://www.findarticles.com/cf_0/m1321/3_183/63649246/p1/article.jhtml?term=low+income+housing+credit
Low Income Housing Credit." Published by the Internal Revenue Service. Number 89018M
Human Resources Management: How to Improve Minimum Wage Policy Management in Hong Kong
The objective of this research is to analyze the advantages and disadvantages of minimum wage legislation in Hong Kong. When hike minimum wage can help lower skilled worker. This study will conduct an evaluation of the minimum wage hiking and how it can help the lower skilled workers and will additionally compare benchmarking minimum wage legislation with other countries, for example the standard of minimum wage.
Following minimum wage legislation the primary problems that employers and employees faced included for employers the turnover rate of lower-wage workers and how to reduce the cost of training that affects the quality of service and the working attitude and behavior of employee lack of enthusiasm. For employees problems included the increase in the unemployment rate and reduction in fringe benefits including such as medical insurance. Included in this study will…
Blundell, R., and H. Reed, 2000. The Employment Effects of the Working Families Tax Credit. Institute for Fiscal Studies Briefing Note No. 6, April.
Advisory, Conciliation and Arbitration Service, 2000. Annual Report 1999 -- 2000.October.
Bartlett, B., 2000. The Verdict on the Minimum Wage: Guilty on All Counts. Economic Affairs. September.
Bartwell, R., 2000. Age Structure and the UK Unemployment Rate. Bank of England Working Paper 124.
raising minimum wage relates supply demand analysis. • If raise minimum wage businesses compensate raise workers? • According United States Department Labor, Minnesota's current minimum wage large employer's small employer's hour? • How hard working people expect ahead minimum wage low? • Due cost living minimum wage increase? This a comprehensive paper a minimum library resources.
aising the minimum wage: Supply and demand analysis
Although there is a great deal of disagreement about how to regulate the minimum wage in America, statistics indicate that the minimum wage has not been keeping pace with inflation. "The federal minimum wage is just $7.25 an hour and hasn't been raised in three years. But a raise is much more overdue than that. If we look at the minimum wage 44 years ago, and simply adjust it for inflation, it would be more than $10 today" (Weisbrot 2012). However, there is tremendous resistance to…
Cahill, Ben. (2012). The effect of the minimum wage on getting a foot-long Subway.
Tutor2U. Retrieved: http://www.tutor2u.net/blog/index.php/economics/comments/the-effect-of-the-minimum-wage-and-getting-a-foot-long-subway
Characteristics of minimum wage workers. (2012). Bureau of Labor and Statistics. Retrieved:
Incentive Programs Among Low Income
The effects of work incentive programs in encouraging low income individuals to participate in employment depend on the income thresholds of reforms in whether the individual gains benefits that are equal to or greater than what they would receive by not working. The factors in the determination include after tax income plus benefits, such as Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC) and fixed work costs, compared to the total change in revenue received. If the loss of welfare is greater than the total change in revenue, work incentives have no value and discourage employment participation. On the other hand, if the total amount of changed revenue is greater than the welfare loss and compensates for fixed work costs, incentives encourage employment among the low income.
The Tax Reform Act of 1986 (TRA86) expanded EITC benefits by increases in the standard deduction, personal deductions, and favorable tax…
Elissa, Nada. Taxation and Labor Supply of Married Women: The Tax Reform Act of '1986 as a Natural Experiment. Feb 1995. working paper. 20 July 2013.
Elissa, Nada, Kleven, Henrick Jacobsen, & Kriener, Claus Thustrup. Welfare Effects of Tax Reform and Labor Supply at the Intensive and Extensive Margins. May 2004. working paper. 20 July 2013.
Riccio, Jim. Promoting Employment Stability and Advancement Among Low-Income Adults. Mar 2013. article. 20 July 2013.
Rothstein, Jesse. The Unintended Consequences of Encouraging Work: Tax Incidence on the EITC. May 2008. pdf. 20 July 2013.
This has caused many of the managers of these companies to go without a break for years and some of them have been without an extended holiday for four-year. The valid point here is how long with these managers be able to continue working like this and the effect it is going to have on the other aspirants for such job functions. The health worries and job monotony would definitely lead to a lesser number of skilled workers willing to opt for such jobs and this will only increase the shortage of skilled workers for these kinds of jobs in the near future and thereby cause a reduction in the flow of offshore jobs to India. (Future Projections and Concerns)
There are definite indicators that the flows of jobs from the United States of America to the low wage countries like India and China slowing down first and then…
Future Projections and Concerns" Retrieved at http://www.mapsofindia.com/outsourcing-to-india/future-for-outsourcing.html . Accessed on Ghanta, Babu. (February 17, 2005) "Look into the crystal ball - Outsourcing from India in 2010." India Daily. Retrieved at http://www.indiadaily.com/editorial/1636.asp. Accessed on How Long Will Indian/Chinese Outsourcing Last?" (February 28, 2005) Outsourcing
Times. Retrieved at http://www.blogsource.org/2005/02/. Accessed on March 9, 2005
Perry, Michelle. "Change of scene." Retrieved at http://www.accaglobal.com/publications/fsr/72/2279859Accessed on March 9, 2005
The place to be- Survey: Outsourcing" (November 11, 2004) the Economist. Retrieved from http://www.economist.com/displayStory.cfm?Story_id=3351503Accessed on March 9
Laws and Wages
Legislation and Wages: An Intricate Dance, but Who's Leading?
Government and employment have always had and will necessarily continue to have a complex and mutually influential relationship, not least in the area of wages. What people are able to earn has always been a pressing issue in any capitalist system, and can influence the formation and the actions of government in numerous direct and indirect ways. In the other direction, legislation enacted by the government can both directly impact employees' wages and have indirect impacts through the changing of burdens that employers must contend with in compensating employees and operating their businesses. This paper briefly examines the relationship between government and wages, and specifically between legislation and employers' abilities to pay wages and utilize wages as an effective workforce motivator and stabilizer. This examination shows that good intentions can sometimes have questionable results, even when the ethical…
Bernstein, D. (1993). The Davis-Bacon Act: Let's Bring Jim Crow to an End. Accessed 12 December 2012. http://www.cato.org/pubs/briefs/bp-017.html
Cornell. (2007). Lilly M. Ledbetter, Petitioner v The Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company. Accessed 12 December 2012. http://www.law.cornell.edu/supct/html/05-1074.ZD.html
US DOL. (2012). The McNamara-O'Hara Service Contract Act (SCA). Accessed 12 December 2012.
Even though minimum wage has been around for many years, and was established to make sure that working people could survive and pay their bills, there are still many problems with it. This paper address both the pros and cons to raising the minimum wage, discussing not only how people can be helped by the increase in pay, but also how they are ultimately hurt by it to a larger degree. Organized labor usually fights to raise the minimum wage, but every time it goes up, prices follow, until those that make minimum wage end up worse off than they were before their wage increase.
Some states also have minimum wage laws, and often the state minimum wage is higher than federal minimum wage. hen the federal minimum wage is raised, states are at a loss with whether to raise theirs or not, and sometimes employers go out…
Brown, C. (1988). Minimum wage laws: Are they overrated? Journal of Economic Perspectives 2:133-47.
Burkhauser, R.V., Couch, K.A. And Wittenburg, D.C. (1996). Who gets what from minimum wage hikes: A replication and re-estimation of Card and Krueger. Industrial and Labor Review 49:547-52.
Deere, D., Murphy, K.M., and Welch, F. (2004). Sense and nonsense on the minimum wage. Regulation: The Cato Review of Business and Government. [Table].
Minimum Wage. (2004). The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition.
Economists have consistently argued that the very existence of a minimum wage reduces employment opportunities for low wage workers. A small business, for example, may have work that needs to be done but can't afford to hire a minimum wage worker; that is one less job that will be offered and, perhaps, willingly taken. ecent research has supported this contention (Turner, 1999).
eduction of poverty is the crux of any argument for enacting a minimum wage, and yet in the 72 years since the first minimum wage was created in the U.S., poverty rates have not been substantially reduced (Joint Economic Committee, 1995). Instead, the existence of a minimum wage has been shown to offer opportunities for a few as they use entry-level employment as a stepping stone (Kersey, 2004), while at the same time negatively impacting some of the socio-economic groups most in need of assistance in the U.S.…
Fair Labor Standards Act. (1938). P.L 75-718.
Joint Economic Committee, Congress of the United States. (1995). 50 Years of Research
on the Minimum Wage. Washington, D.C.
Kersey, Paul. (2004). The Economic Effects of the Minimum Wage. Testimony before the House of Representatives; Small Business Committee; Subcommittee on Workforce, Empowerment, and Government Programs.
Only 2.1% of minimum-wage workers belong to a union, versus 12.0% of the overall working population. Nonetheless, labor unions fight passionately for a higher minimum wage (Sherk).
When the minimum wage rises, it becomes more expensive to hire unskilled workers. This makes the decision to employ highly paid and highly skilled workers, instead of unskilled workers, more attractive to businesses, and so businesses want to hire more skilled workers (Sherk).
With skilled workers in greater demand, their job opportunities and earnings rise. Unionized workers tend to be more highly paid and highly skilled than the population as a whole and, so, benefit from this effect. Raising the minimum wage could actually raise the earnings of union members who compete with minimum wage workers by 20 -- 40%. Meanwhile, non-union, low-skilled workers' earnings actually fall due to reduced working hours and fewer job opportunities (Sherk).
So the fact that unions are…
Gallaway, Lowell and Richard Vedder. "Does the Minimum Wage Reduce Poverty?" June 2001. Employment Policies Institute. 7 May 2009 .
Sherk, James. "Union Members, Not Minimum-Wage Earners, Benefit When the Minimum Wage Rises." 7 Feb 2007. The Heritage Foundation. 7 May 2009 .
Turner, Mark D. "Does the Minimum Wage Help or Hurt Low-Wage Workers? ." 14 Jan 2000. U.S. Department of Health & Human Services . 7 May 2009 .
Wage and Hour Division (WHD). "Handy Reference Guide to the Fair Labor Standards Act ." July 2007. U.S. Department of Labor. 6 May 2009 .
While it will certainly be helpful, especially given the cuts in student loans, for young people trying to work their way through college with their parent's help, a raise in the minimum wage is simply one step in what must become a greater war on poverty and its causes. Teach a worker to fish for a lifetime, not merely to eat a bit better on a slightly better wage for one day. Increase access to job training, institute a health care system so that low-wage workers will not have to divert their salaries to such costs, and create more access to safe and affordable day care to make the increase in the minimum wage meaningful, and not just minimal improvement.
.....social injustice and inequality. First, literature related to the fundamentals of discrimination and descriptions of gender discrimination are discussed in the literature. Following a detailed discussion of what the literature says about gender discrimination, the literature review shifts toward the quantifiable effects of gender discrimination in the workplace. Effects are examined both in terms of measurable effects on organizations and individuals.
Fundamentals of Discrimination
Discrimination is unfortunately pervasive in the workplace. Described as an "inaccurate perception of differences," discrimination can be based on independent variables like race, gender, language, and other demographics (Cleveland, Vescio & Barnes-Farrell, p. 149). The differences perceived are "inaccurate," and also have a direct impact on status, access to power, and access to avenues of promotion or pay increases. Most literature frames discrimination as being "subtle and covert," well concealed from the realms of legal scrutiny, and often difficult to define precisely (Marchiondo, Ran & Cortina,…
This is the case in northern Europe and Canada, where minimum wages are more or less reserved for students. Over the long run, American companies are forced to turn to innovation and American workers are driven to improve their education. Only in the short run do you see suffering in terms of job losses among workers who refuse to upgrade their skills and companies who insist on competing on the basis of price against foreign firms with deeply-embedded cost advantages.
If the price floor were eliminated, the American economy would ultimately suffer. In the short run, firms would be able to hire more people, but at lower wages. This would create jobs, but would have a negligible impact on purchasing power as companies would not spend more on wages, just spread their wages around to more people. There would be significant downward pressure on real wages. For many firms, however,…
Henderson, D. (2006) the negative effects of minimum wage. National Center for Policy Analysis. Retrieved November 5, 2009 from http://www.ncpa.org/pub/ba550
No author. (2006). Business owners, CEOs say higher minimum wage good for business. National Council of Churches. Retrieved November 5, 2009 from http://www.ncccusa.org/news/061031higherminimum.html
Krugman, P. (1998). The living wage. Paul Krugman. Retrieved November 5, 2009 from http://www.pkarchive.org/cranks/LivingWage.html
A minimum wage also gives businesses incentives to use fewer employees and to look for less expensive labor substitutes such as automation through technology. and, the minimum wage can force many small companies who operate on thin profit margins out of business.
Thus, the minimum wage, an artificial wage subsidy for unskilled workers, means job losses. This is a commonly accepted view by most economic experts. According to a 1978 article in American Economic Review, 90% of the economists surveyed agreed that the minimum wage increases unemployment among low-skilled workers (Kearl, J.R., et al. (1979). During troubling economic times like today, it's better to have workers employed at the rate the market will bear than not at all.
Kearl, J.R., et al. (1979). A confusion of economists? American Economic Review 69: 28-37.
Should the minimum wage be abolished (i.e. reduced to $0.00)? BalancedPolitics.org. http://www.balancedpolitics.org/minimum_wage.htm
Kearl, J.R., et al. (1979). A confusion of economists? American Economic Review 69: 28-37.
Should the minimum wage be abolished (i.e. reduced to $0.00)? BalancedPolitics.org. http://www.balancedpolitics.org/minimum_wage.htm
Many of these jobs are therefore filled with illegal immigrants, who are more than willing to work for the low wage of the current minimum wage because it is still better than what they would be paid in their home country.
Now, if the reason for the need for minimum wage workers is because these jobs do not pay enough, it would be reasonable to argue that by increasing the pay of these positions there will be more of an incentive for legal citizens and/or residents to take the jobs. Although most people are not willing to work for the current minimum wage, many will be willing to work for the $7.25 proposed rate. This will fill the vacancy of minimum wage jobs that have been hired out to illegal immigrants. If these jobs are filled by legal workers, then there will be less work opportunities for illegal immigrants. If…
Functionalist Perspective of Society
The sociological perspective that will be applied to the social phenomena discussed in this particular document is the functional perspective. The functional perspective is based on the basic principle that society functions somewhat akin to the human body (McClelland). Just the way there are different facets of the body that perform specific functions -- such as the fact that the brain was designed to think, the heart designed to pump blood, etc. -- there are different facets of society that perform specific functions. Those different aspects of society that serve specific purposes are referred to as social control mechanisms. There are a variety of different examples of social control mechanisms in society. For instance, schools and the education system are designed to prepare members of society for the basic skills necessary to enter and compete in the work force. The major tenet with the functionalist perspective…
McLelland, Kent. "Functionalism." http://web.grinnell.edu / Web. 2000. http://web.grinnell.edu/courses/soc/s00/soc111-01/IntroTheories/Functionalism.html
Renzulli, Linda, Grant, Linda, Kathuria, Sheetija. "Race, Gender, and the Wage Gap: Comparing Faculty Salaries in Predominately White and Historically Black Colleges and Universities." Gender and Society. 20(4), 491-510.
Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA) has several important roles in the American economy. The FLSA establishes standards for the basic minimum wage and for overtime pay in the United States. It was established by the U.S. Congress in 1938, and it also sets the standards for child labor, and for recordkeeping by employers, according to Susan Healthfield, writing in about.com. The FLSA " ... affects most private and public sector employment," which includes federal government employees, state and local employment as well (Healthfield, 2015). This paper delves into how the FLSA applies to compensation in a variety of ways and situations.
The Minimum age -- Issues and Differences
hile the FLSA sets the national minimum wage at $7.25 per hour -- that rate went into effect on July 24, 2009 -- it does not " ... provide wage payment collection procedures" for the additional wages that an employee may have…
CBS / KCBS. (2015). San Francisco Minimum Wage Rises to $12.25 An Hour. Ties Oakland For Highest in Nation. Retrieved January 23, 2016, from http://sanfrancisco.cbslocal.com .
FLSA Home Page. (2007). Coverage under the FLSA. Retrieved January 23, 2016, from http://www.flsa.com .
Healthfield, S. M. (2015). What You Need to Know About the Fair Labor Standards Act.
Retrieved January 23, 2016, from http://www.humanresources.about.com .
gender-based wage disparities still reflect serious issues of concern (Hirsch 2008). Major disparities remain for women. A 2008 article captured a good deal of interest with its simple declaration that "Across-the-board figures from February this year indicate that full-time female employees earned an average $1,004 a week compared to fulltime male average weekly earnings of $1,190" (The Lamp). Others too have sought to use drama as a way of heightening the reality of some of the disparities. Noting that for those who earn upwards of $1,000,000 annually the ratio of men to women is 13:1 is as profound a comment as is the fact that income equality doesn't even begin to appear until one looks at earnings of about $25,000 and $30,000 (Lips, 2003, pp. 87).
Baron and Cobb-Clark (2009, pp. 229) express concern that, as they put it, "Forty years after the 1969 Equal Pay Case there continues to…
Baron, JD & Cobb-Clark, WA (2009). 'Occupational Segregation and the Gender Wage Gap in Private- and Public-Sector Employment: A Distributional Analysis.' The Economic Record, vol. 86, no. 273. pp. 227-246.
Bertrand, M. (2010). 'New perspectives on gender.' Handbook of Labour Economics. Vol. 4b. DOI 10.1016/S0169-7218(11)02415-4. 1545-1592.
Cobb-Clark, D. And Tan, M. (2010). 'Noncognitive skills, Occupational attainment, and relative wages.' HILDA. Melbourne Institute of Applied Economic and Social Research.
Coelli, M. (2011). Occupation differences and the gender wage gap in Australia: a detailed re-assessment. HILDA. Melbourne Institute of Applied Economic and Social Research.
Why the minimum wage should not be abolished in the United States.
There are diverse issues that have been debated by politicians and critics concerning the minimum wage in the United States. Some say that the minimum wage causes an increase in the unemployment rate. In turn, it causes negative effects on the nation's economy. However, the truth on this proposition is still to be proven yet. Taking the side that the minimum wage should not be abolished in the United States, I have the following arguments to present. Most of these are obtained from debates that have been conducted concerning minimum wage, as well as from available articles providing reasons why minimum wage must stay.
Much of the arguments saying that minimum wage must be abolished argue that it causes a high unemployment rate. There are a number of studies, however, that present evidences that a minimum…
Alexopoulus, Zach. Minimum Wages: Helpful Not Harmful.
2004. Vibewire.Net. 31 July 2004. http://www.vibewire.net/articles.php?id=2642
Hornberger, Jacod. The Minimum Wage: Enemy of the Poor.
The Future of Freedom Foundation. 31 July 2004. http://www.fff.org/comment/ed1298a.asp
he ramifications for this in the economy would be that in order to maintain profits, prices would need to increase in order to match the rise in wages that stemmed from sustained constraints on the labor supply.
he Corn Laws were introduced in 1815 as import tariffs, designed to protect corn prices in Great Britain from lower-priced imports. Ricardo naturally opposed the Corn Laws, as he believed in free trade as espoused in his theory of comparative advantage. Ricardo viewed the corn tariffs as unnecessary -- if other nations can product corn better, labor would need to be repositioned in Britain to other activities in order to trade with those grain-producing nations.
he Corn Laws also had an adverse impact on wealth distribution. At the time, unemployment was high in Great Britain so it was more likely that usual that the iron law of wages would hold, given the surplus…
The Corn Laws were introduced in 1815 as import tariffs, designed to protect corn prices in Great Britain from lower-priced imports. Ricardo naturally opposed the Corn Laws, as he believed in free trade as espoused in his theory of comparative advantage. Ricardo viewed the corn tariffs as unnecessary -- if other nations can product corn better, labor would need to be repositioned in Britain to other activities in order to trade with those grain-producing nations.
The Corn Laws also had an adverse impact on wealth distribution. At the time, unemployment was high in Great Britain so it was more likely that usual that the iron law of wages would hold, given the surplus of labor. The Corn Laws essentially locked in prices for grain for local producers, meaning that land owners would see increased profits, precisely at a time when workers were seeing real wages decline.
Ricardo understood that the Corn Laws would produce unequal distribution of wealth. He saw that if protections of domestic grain markets were removed, labor would be redeployed to other areas of the economy. Real wages in the agricultural sector would increase and the workers' share of wealth would increase as a result. The nation would also benefit as the price of corn and grain would decrease due to foreign trade. Redeployed workers would be able to help other areas of the economy grow, in particular those free from tariff burdens, again achieving a greater distribution of wealth than occurred under the Corn Laws.
There has been a lot of news and talk about the minimum wage as of late. The talk has come from government, the lower-wage workers of America and other people who happened to be interested in the subject for whatever reason. However, many people that are speaking on the subject seem too interested in spouting soundbites and are concurrently not focused enough on economics and realities as they exist. While it is true that the minimum wage has not budged all that much in the last generation or so, it is also true that it is not a fix-all and there are consequences inherent to raising the minimum wage too much and/or too fast.
As noted in the introduction, the minimum wage has not moved all that much in recent years. It has gotten to the point that there have been times in the not-so-distant past that the minimum wage…
Fathers in a Dual-Wage Family
If media ever managed to convince you that fathers in a dual-wage family are now as involved in child rearing and nurturing as mothers, it is high time you consult some important research findings for a reality check. While fathers have definitely started sharing household and child-rearing responsibilities, the percentage of their involvement is dismally low.
As mothers continue to increase their involvement in outside paid employment, fathers are required to share family work equally with women so that both can spend equal amount of time at work and home. Unfortunately, this has not been the case as women's participation in the workforce increased. Fathers spend far less time with children than mothers do. Mothers almost do double the work in a dual-wage family as men's involvement in household chores increases at snail's pace. According to research, while women in two-salary homes spend 90 hours…
Low Cost Airline in Thailand
The Study on Improvement of Low Cost Airline in Thailand
Geography of Thailand
Nature of Airlines
Variables under Study
The Profitability of Low Cost Airlines in Thailand
Operating esults, Selected Airlines, Financial Year 1999
The Economies of Scale Attained By Airline Industry
Human esource Practices
The future of low cost Thailand Airlines
Contrasting Qualities of State Owned and Non-State Owned Airlines
The Study on Improvement of Low Cost Airline in Thailand
Thailand is a global source for customers seeking cheap labor or material inputs. The country is rich in natural resources -- tin, rubber, natural gas, tungsten, and timber being a few examples. The country is a major source for agricultural products1a.
Thailand also has an abundant supply of low-skilled labor with high participation rates in the workforce 86% for males and 67% for females in 1995. At the same time, the country…
Aharoni, Y. & Nachum, L. (Eds.). (2000). Globalization of Services: Some Implications for Theory and Practice. London: Routledge. Retrieved June 11, 2011, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=102764448
Alagappa, M. (Ed.). (1998). Material and Ideational Influences. Stanford, CA: Stanford University. Retrieved June 11, 2011, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=35541491
Asia Top Companies by Sales. (2000, June). Business Asia, 8, 38. Retrieved June 11, 2011, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5001764374
Beirman, D. (2003). Restoring Tourism Destinations in Crisis: A Strategic Marketing Approach / . Crows Nest, N.S.W.: Allen & Unwin. Retrieved June 11, 2011, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=102031189
Another serious con when it comes to the minimum wage is that raising it stops some people who would have otherwise gone on to further their education (Wellington, 1991). These people do not see the need for more education, because they realize that they can enter the job market and make enough money to survive. That makes them happy, so they are satisfied with what they have. Later, when they realize that they cannot advance without a better education, they become frustrated and stuck in their job (Wellington, 1991). They feel trapped, but by that time there is not a lot that they can do. They may already have a lot of bills and/or a family, and going back to school is not something that they can do at that time. The lack of education in the workforce brings the entire economy down and keeps companies that are looking for…
Black, John (2003). Oxford dictionary of economics. New York: Oxford University Press, p. 300
Sowell, Thomas. (2007). Basic economics (3rd ed): A common sense guide to the economy. New York: Basic Books, pp. 210-221.
Wellington, Alison J. (1991). Effects of the Minimum Wage on the Employment Status of Youths: An Update. Journal of Human Resources, 26(1), pp. 27-46.
Wage Equity for Women
Compensation and Gender Pay Gap
Compensation is one of the main functions of human resource management (HM), with the goals of meeting an organization's objectives, maximizing an organization's investment in a labor force, and rewarding employees for their contribution. Ideally, HM should implement a compensation policy that provides equitable and consistent treatment for all employees, thereby improving productivity, employee retention, and loyalty. The term 'procedural justice' has been used to describe this process and represents, for example, whether an employee perceives a compensation policy as equitable and fair.
Based on Taylor's (1989) analysis, the Equal Pay Act of 1963 fails to address procedural justice because it ignores jobs with 'comparable worth.' The Equal Pay Act requires equal compensation for equal work, but Taylor (1989) points out that jobs with equal value to an employer or society also deserve equivalent rates of compensation, regardless of whether comparable…
National Women's Law Center. (2013). 50 Years & Counting: The Unfinished Business of Achieving Fair Pay. Retrieved from http://www.nwlc.org/sites/default/files/pdfs/final_nwlc_equal_pay_report.pdf.
Perry, J., & Gundersen, D.E. (2011). American women and the gender pay gap: A changing demographic or the same old song. Advancing Women in Leadership, 31, 153-9.
Taylor, S.H. (1989). The case for comparable worth. Journal of Social Issues, 45(4), 23-37.
United States has waged a "War on Drugs." Within this endeavor the nation has passed and implanted some extremely tough laws regarding drugs, on a local, state and national level. The laws are meant to act as a deterrent for those who abuse drugs by way of sales, manufacturing and use. The laws send people to prisons for a long time as well as create probation and parole status for many who violate the laws.
The belief is that stricter laws will reduce the number of drug offenses and drug use in the United States. Those who draft and pass the legislation for tougher drug laws believe that the fear of jail and other punishments will deter people from drug use, manufacturing and sales. While this has been going on for the last few decades the nation has continued to wrestle with drug issues. It is unclear whether the tough…
Martin Kasindorf, Elders: Study Drug Legalization., Newsday, 12-08-1993, pp 17.
Holland's Drug Policies: The Lesson for Canada
President Obama recently raised military salaries by 1.6%, effective next year. Although the raise is welcome, service members were "supposed to receive" a pay raise commensurate with private sector wage increases, which would have amounted to a 2.1% increase instead (Garofalo, 2016). While the raise is still proportionally larger than that given to civilian government employees, military personnel are among the most valuable public servants in the nation and yet they remain poorly compensated for their selfless service. One reason military personnel should get paid more is that their work is indispensible; national security depends on a well-trained, dedicated military. A second reason military personnel should get paid more is actually national security itself. The military labor force needs financial incentives to remain motivated, attentive, and positive in outlook. Military officers do work most civilians cannot or will not do. Third, military personnel are supposed to receive veterans' benefits but…
Akerlof, G.A. & Kranton, R. (2010). Identity economics. The Economists' Voice 7(2).
Garofalo, A. (2016). How much do soldiers make? IBT. Sept 1, 2016. Retrieved online: http://www.ibtimes.com/how-much-do-soldiers-make-military-pay-raise-16-percent-ordered-obama-2017-2410259
Hegseth, P. (2016). The VA scandal: two years on. Retrieved online: http://www.nationalreview.com/article/433760/va-still-unreformed
Hosek, J. & Sharp, J. (2001). Keeping military pay competitive. Rand. Retrieved online: http://www.dtic.mil/cgi-bin/Gettrdoc?Location=U2&doc=Gettrdoc.pdf&AD=ADA388165
The viewpoint expressed in (b) is the closest to the way this paper will be presented. Indeed the roles that all Street (profit first, workers be damned) and the U.S. government played in this nonfiction book are the main reasons why Mollie's job was moved first to Mississippi and then to Mexico. To be sure, this sad legacy could have ended up with a more positive result for Mollie and a less negative result for the Mexican worker, Balbina Duque.
In fairness, statement (a) also has a ring of truth since the way corporations are moving jobs to cheaper locations (like China, where Apple employs many thousands of workers at low wages to assemble the iPads and other technologies) is good for business. But (a) is "not for the best" when it comes to corporate behaviors creating an inevitability that good people like Mollie and other hard-working employees…
Adler, William M. (2000). Mollie's Job: A Story of Life and Work on the Global Assembly
Line. New York: Touchstone Book / Simon & Schuster.
Staffing at Piedmont Airlines
Finding solutions at Piedmont Airlines
Overview of Organization
Piedmont Airlines is a fully owned subsidiary of U.S. Airways. U.S. Airways is the 6th largest airline in the United States (Piedmont Airlines, Inc., 2011). Piedmont flies 440 daily departures to 55 cities throughout the Eastern United States and Canada. They operate 44 DeHaviland DHC-8 Turbo prop aircraft as their primary fleet. The headquarters is based in Salisbury, Maryland. They employ nearly 4000 aviation professionals (Piedmont Airlines, Inc., 2011).
Like many organizations, Piedmont is facing problems with employee morale. Low employee morale is closely linked to high turnover rates in many organizations. Low morale also leads to low productivity. Employee satisfaction is one of the most important factors in maintaining an experienced workforce. Poor morale leads to excessive employee absences and a higher absence rate (CCH, 2007). This costs the company money and lost time. It also has…
CCH 2007 Unscheduled Absence Survey [Poor Morale Leads Up to Even More No-Shows. CCH Human Resources Management Ideas & Trends. 2007, Summer. Retrieved from www.CCH.com Web site: http://www.CCH.com
Grawitch, M., Gottschalk, M., & Munz, D. (2006). "The Path to a Healthy Workplace: A Critical
Review Blinking Healthy Workplace Practices, Employee Well Being, and Organizational Improvements." Consulting Psychology Journal Practice and Research.
58 (3): 129-147.
A living wage is intended to provide a certain minimum level to sustain life and to push toward the abolition of poverty. It is also based on the vie that money can be saved by the city if the city does not have to provide certain health and other services to the working poor because they can pay for it themselves or because their employers provide it as part of the package. By most measures, it saves money when the employer makes such arrangements because the employer is more cost-conscious than a government entity may be. In truth, it would be preferable if a larger political entity made such an ordinance binding, as is noted by Coverford (2006), who says the Chicago law would be ineffective in the suburbs because retailers could easily move across boundaries to a smaller suburb without such a law it if so chose. If the…
Comerford, M. (2006, June 29). Living Wage Challenged Why Chicago's Pay Plan Won't Work in the Suburbs. Daily Herald, 1.
Critics assail living wage study (2002). United Press International, retrieved August 19, 2007 at http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-84649824.html .,
Daniel, C. (2004, March 22). The myths of the living wage. Business Perspectives. Retrieved August 19, 2007 at http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-118376814.html .
Fine, H. (2006, November 20). Businesses planning referendum to block living wage. Los Angeles Business Journal, retrieved August 19, 2007 at http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-155737409.html .
Working Poor and the Efficacy of the Earned Income Credit and T.A.N.F.
When many Americans think of poverty, they think of people who are not working. Moreover, when they think of social welfare programs, they think of those programs aimed at assisting families without wage earners. However, many of America's poor are the working poor; families with one or two wage earners that are still mired in the depths of poverty. The government has implemented two different programs aimed at providing financial assistance to these Americans: the Earned Income Credit (EIC) is a special income tax rebate for low-income workers which can actually help low-wage workers avoid paying any income taxes and entitle them to a cash rebate beyond any taxes that they have paid; while the Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) program provides for the direct distribution of cash payments to families struggling with poverty.
These two programs…
Anderson, S.G., Halter, A.P., & Gryzlak, B.M. (2004). Difficulties after leaving TANF: Inner-
city women talk about reasons for returning to welfare. Social Work, 49(2),
Cancian, M. & Meyer, D. (2004). Alternative measures of economic success among TANF
Change in Organizational Culture: Sustainability Initiatives and "Speed Brakes" in the Massage Envy Chain
In his writings and theories on organizational culture and specifically on cultural changes meant to improve organizational performance and/or stability, obert H. Miles defines and discusses six "speed brakes" that can prevent an organization form effectively implementing desired changes. He defines them -- and proposes solutions for them -- in a specific sequence as he insists that it is in this sequence that they ought to be addressed. Miles' (2010) speed brakes are cautious management culture, business-as-usual management process, initiative gridlock, recalcitrant executives, disengaged employees, and a loss of focus during execution. Though he recommends specific steps to counter each of these six speed brakes in order, Miles' (2010) plan for organizational plan can be boiled down to a very simple overarching strategy: have a well-focused initiative for change that is rolled out quickly…
Lyons, a. (2010). Massage Envy's $600 million in annual revenue and 20,000 employees. Accessed 16 March 2013. http://www.cpchampion.com/blog/adam-at-champion/massage-envys-600-million-in-annual-revenue-and-20000-employees/421244
Massage Envy. (2013). Accessed 16 March 2013. http://www.massageenvy.com/
Miles, R. (2010). Accelerating corporate transformations. Harvard Business Review.
Miller, K. (2011). Organizational Communication. Mason, OH: Cengage.
The general idea in economic circles is that Japan needs to reform these re-numerations to fall somewhere in the middle, between U.S. And Current Japanese percentages. (Okuda) Some economists also feel that a standardized and reasonable system of re numeration should be employed across the global economy. (Gabaix & Landier) Furthermore, it is also important to note that in a recent study on CEO payment vs. market profit Japan was almost equal to the comparable nations, in the nation's larger corporations. (Gabaix & Landier 22) it is worth asking if all these other nations are also lagging behind in their economic growth because of this profit-based compensation, or because of CEO re-numerations, as some claim Japan is. It would also be interesting to ask if the CEOs and their lobbyists are using a lagging economy as an excuse to further widen the CEO compensation gap, rather than as a tactic…
Okuda. Hiroshi. Japan's Prospects: Unlocking Growth and Expanding Choice (November, 2001) http://www.ilo.org/public/english/bureau/inst/download/okuda.pdf .
Motley Crew Staff. Wage and Compensation Protection. April, 1 2007 http://www.fool.com/features/ceo-bill-of-rights/2007/04/01/wage-and-compensation-protection.aspx .
Gabaix, Xavier & Landier, Augustin Why Has CEO Pay Increased So Much? January 8, 2007. http://www.nyu.edu/econ/user/galed/fewpapers/FEW%20S07/Gabaix-Landier.pdf.
ace to the Bottom
Social clause refers to standards which contractors observe in order to cater for public contracts. They usually must be respected to avoid downward pressure on income and working standards. This is usually viewed to bring division between the rich (also referred to as the global north) and the poor (referred to as the global south). The difference between the north and the south has led to a competition that seems to be bringing the north down to the same level with the global south also called the 'race to the bottom'. I believe that the 'race to the bottom' is happening and modern trends such as globalization and liberalization continue to catalyze the process. This paper will look at the 'race to the bottom' theory and how it is gradually unfolding in present times.
Actually, in the real world the competition does exist. This can be…
Grandy, S. (1998). "New Jersey Corporate Chartermongering, 1875-1929." The Journal of Economic History 49 (3): 677-692.
Rudra, N. (2008). Globalization and the Race to the Bottom in Developing Countries: Who Really Gets Hurt. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Tonelson, A. (2002). The Race to the Bottom: Why A Worldwide Worker Surplus and Uncontrolled Free Trade Are Sinking America Living Standards. New York: Basic Books.
Sociology Take Home Final
Unequal Power Relationships and Laborers
The unequal power relationship that characterizes many employment relationships is characteristic of industrialized capitalism. Capitalism itself is defined by the manufacturing division of labor, which systematically divides the work of economic production into limited operations. The result is that no one man in the Capitalist system would know how to produce a good from start to finish, destroying the traditional notion of occupations, e.g. artisans or craftsmen.
ecause each worker is only qualified to perform a particular, often narrow, task which creates no value in itself but must be combined with the fruits of other tasks by the Capitalist, the worker is at the mercy of the Capitalist who owns the means of production. The dominant mode of employment arising from the manufacturing division of labor is wage labor. In wage labor, a worker does not work to improve his own…
Adler, William M. Mollie's Job: A Story of Life and Work on the Global Assembly Line. New York: Scribner, 2000. Print.
Appiah, Anthony. Cosmopolitanism: Ethics in a World of Strangers. New York: W.W. Norton & Co, 2006. Print.
Bowe, John. Nobodies: Modern American Slave Labor and the Dark Side of the New Global Economy. New York: Random House, 2007. Print.
Ehrenreich, Barbara. Nickel and Dimed: On (not) Getting by in America. New York: Metropolitan Books, 2001. Print.
In regards to the on-going projects hosted by the UFE (United for a Fair Economy), two current campaigns include preserving the U.S. Federal Estate Tax and global economic justice. With the Federal Estate Tax, the UFE sees this as crucial to defending a progressive taxation system and wishes to "continue the fight to keep a reformed estate tax" ("UFE Programs and Projects," 2007, Internet) in order to assist Americans who live mostly in the middle classes as compared to the wealthy who would greatly benefit from the elimination of the estate tax. As to global economic justice, the UFE sees this as mandatory in order to help low-wage workers in all parts of the world and considers this as part of the acial Wealth Divide program which addresses the racial disparities of wealth. Clearly, these projects, if successfully implemented, will greatly assist low-wage and dispossessed workers and laborers by providing…
UFE Programs and Projects." (2007). UFE: United for a Fair Economy. Internet. Retrieved January 25, 2009 at http://www.faireconomy.org/about_ufe/programs_and_projects.
UNI Global Union." (2005). Internet. Retrieved January 25, 2009 at http://www.uniglobalunion.org/uniflashes.nsf/by%2BDate/832E3AA27FC18A17C1256FDC00392D 26?OpenDocument.
Heritage scholars obert ector and ea Hederman found that only a little more than one quarter worked for 2,000 hours or more. They suggested that poverty in America was less of a material deprivation and more of emotional and spiritual loss, the awareness or knowledge of one's dependence on state and federal bureaucrats and a loss of self-esteem resulting from the knowledge of self-insufficiency. The working poor, on the other hand, are capable of facing their future with optimism and confidence, no matter how little they earned. It was the control they had over their lives, which translated into their contribution to the economy (Kersey).
An opposing view was suggested, wherein an increase in the minimum wage would benefit low-income workers, in general, and those below the official poverty line, in particular (Economy Policy Institute 2006). If and when the proposed minimum wage increase was approved, the wages of approximately…
1. Economy Policy Institute.2006. Minimum Wage Facts at a Glance. http://www.epinet.org/content.cfm/issueguides_minwage_minwagefacts
2. Kersey, Paul. 2004. The Economic Effects of the Minimum Wage. The Heritage Foundation. http://www.heritage.org/research/labor/tst042904a,cfm?tenderforprint=1
3. Morris, David. 2004. The American Voice 2004. The American Voice. http://www.americanoice2004.org/minimumwage/index.html
4. Office for Social Justice St. Paul and Minneapolis. 2006. Facts about Poverty. 101 Economic Facts that Every American Should Know. http://www.osjspm.org/101_poverty.htm
Income Distribution Gap
The global fiscal crisis will be borne by the millions of people who do not have a share in the benefits that were derived from the global economic expansions that occurred previously. Not only has the gap widened between low wage earners and high wage earners in nations across the globe, the world's income gap distribution has widened. Economists have long concluded that a limited degree of income inequality contributes to worker motivation, promotes innovation, and rewards talent and effort. Nevertheless, when income differences become too great, the dynamics become counter-productive. unaway income inequality is considered to be a destructive force, such that "rising income inequality represents a danger to the social fabric" ("Board of Canada," 2012). The repercussions from excessive income inequalities include children not attending school so they can contribute to household earnings by going to work, increased crime rates, lower life-expectancies, and malnutrition.
Acemoglu D (2009) Introduction to modern economic growth. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Card D. And DiNardo JE (2002). Skill biased technological change and rising wage inequality: Some problems and puzzles. Journal of Labor Economics, 20(4), 735.
Jones CI (2002) Introduction to economic growth (2nd ed.). New York, NY W.W. Norton.
Milanovic, B (2005) Worlds apart: Measuring international and global inequality, 180 -- 81. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
U.S. Government and ethical issues of outsourcing
Description of Ideas-5
Analysis of Concepts-6
Evaluation with easons-7
U.S Government and Ethical Issues of Outsourcing
USA is at present one of the fastest growing countries as a target for outsourcing. Of late outsourcing which was once the buzzword of corporate America has been looked down upon in recent years because of growing concerns of ethics involved in outsourcing the same. Majority lament the outsourcing of jobs to low-wage economies like Asia, Philippines and elsewhere. In a slowing economy with unemployment figures hovering around 10%, outsourcing jobs is viewed as extremely undesirable. However some experts are of the opinion that outsourcing per se is not bad as it helps business to lower costs to remain in business, particularly during periods of recession. When outsourcing permits a company to cut down on costs and make production at less cost, it augurs well…
Breslin, David A. (1999) "On the Ethics of Outsourcing" Program Manager; vol. 28, no. 6,
Ching, Jacqueline. (2009) "Outsourcing U.S. Jobs"
The Rosen Publishing Group.
Employment Discrimination at Wal-Mart
Foundation of the Study
This study examines the legislative and judicial climate that enables corporations like Wal-Mart to engage in practices that violate workers' rights. The popular consensus is that Wal-Mart, the largest retail store in the United States, displays an inordinate disregard for the human dignity and morale of its employees and, despite continual litigation, continues to blatantly violate the legal rights of its employees. Wal-Mart faces charges of violating The Federal Fair Labor Standards Act (2011) by asking management to adjust time sheets so that overtime will not need to be paid, and so that all employees will work under the hourly limit required by the union in order to obtain membership. Employees were insured, without their knowledge, against their death by Wal-Mart. The company was named beneficiary; following death of an employee, the entire benefit amount was retained by the corporation. Not a…
Business Day, Companies. (2011) The New York Times. Retrieved http://www.nytimes.com/
Byrne, T.P. (2009). False profits: Reviving the corporation's public purpose. Discourse, 57 UCLA L. Rev. Disc. 25, UCLA School of Law, UC Berkeley, (Associate, Chadbourne & Parke, LLP). Retrieved http://uclalawreview.org/?p=1056
Clifford, S. (2011, March 29). Where Wal-Mart failed, Aldi succeeds. The New York Times. Retrieved
he sharpness of the division that Ehrenreich perceives might be at least partially a symptom of her ultimate lack of subjectivity. In her introduction, Ehrenreich admits that she has many advantages over actual minimum-wage workers, not the least of which is the knowledge that even should she fail in this endeavor, she has a nice home and a "real" job to return to, and that she is not in any danger of going hungry or cold (Ehrenreich, 2001).. his presents the major limitation to her mode of study; no matter what, she is bringing an incredibly subjective and judgmental eye to her research. his shows up as a strength in hr writing, making the stories far more human and interesting, not to mention intentionally provocative, but is an immense detriment to her scholarship.
he main issue Ehrenreich touches on is, the immense unfairness of the minimum-wage situation. Clearly, life is…
The sharpness of the division that Ehrenreich perceives might be at least partially a symptom of her ultimate lack of subjectivity. In her introduction, Ehrenreich admits that she has many advantages over actual minimum-wage workers, not the least of which is the knowledge that even should she fail in this endeavor, she has a nice home and a "real" job to return to, and that she is not in any danger of going hungry or cold (Ehrenreich, 2001).. This presents the major limitation to her mode of study; no matter what, she is bringing an incredibly subjective and judgmental eye to her research. This shows up as a strength in hr writing, making the stories far more human and interesting, not to mention intentionally provocative, but is an immense detriment to her scholarship.
The main issue Ehrenreich touches on is, the immense unfairness of the minimum-wage situation. Clearly, life is not truly sustainable for an individual on a minimum-wage income unless two jobs are held. Ehrenreich is unable to work a twelve hour day for more than a few days in a row, though one wonders if she could do so if her life truly depended on it (Ehrenreich, 2001). But the fact is, we believe in this country that no one should have to do such a thing. Many people do it, however, and manage to pull themselves out of poverty. Though there is definite unfairness to the situation, there is not the hopelessness that Ehrenreich insinuates. In general, however, the economic landscape always seems to remain bleak and monotonous to low-wage worker. The jobs they work are always available, so they are somewhat more insulated from economic crises, but rising prices hurt them more. Basically, when all you're doing is just scraping by, one day seems very much like the next, and major economic tides seem like far-off events. it's hard to care about bank failures when you can't even afford to put food on your plate.
Ehrenreich, B. (2001) Nickel and Dimed. New York: Henry Holt & Co.
Sociological Issue for Specific Neighborhood
Single Parent Sociological Issues in San Leandro
San Leandro is a small city located in Alameda County. It is one of the major cities in the state of California and has the largest number of white residents as compared to other cities in the state. Despite having a majority of white people, San Leandro has a multi-racial culture attached to it. According the 2010 census, the city has a population of around eighty four thousand nine hundred and fifty, which consists of over 25,000 Asians, 642 Pacific Islanders, 23,237 Latinos and about 16,050 people of other races. One of the sociological issues in the city is increasing number of single female householders who have children, otherwise known as single parents. My literature review will shed light on this issue by highlighting what issues are faced by single parents. We will also take a look at…
Ermisch, J. (1990). Demographic Aspects of The Growing Number of Lone-Parent Families. In Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Lone-Parent Challenges: The Economic Challenge.
Mather, M. (May 2010). U.S. Children in Single Mother Families. 1-3.
Roshan "Bob" D., & . K. (1993). Female-Headed Single Parent Families: an Exploratory Study of Children's Influence in Family Decision Making. Retrieved October 25, 2013, from Association for Consumer Research: http://www.acrwebsite.org/search/view-conference-proceedings.aspx?Id=7493
However, over the years, history book publishers have not followed suit and described the soladeras in a positive way. For instance, one of Casaola's most well-known photos is of a harried soldadera in a train station. The photograph's saturated colors make the scene deeply emotional and compelling, with a feeling of urgency and dynamic motion. The spontaneity of the picture and transparency of reality provide an historical accuracy and high degree of precision. Yet, the caption of one history book, for example, relates how many of the soldaderas were forced to ride on the rooftops of the trains, instead of inside the wagons. Many of the women died early deaths when the train sped through dangerous ravines and cliffs. This was anything but a supportive interpretation of the photograph and not why Casola took the photographs.
On the other hand, Casola's photographs, especially this one in the train station, did…
Coerver, Don M.. Suzanne B. Pasztor and Robert Buffington. Mexico: an encyclopedia of contemporary culture and history Santa Barber, CA: ABC-Clio.
Fuentes, Andres. "Battleground Women: Soldaderas and Female Soldiers in the Mexican Revolution." The Americas 51 no. 4 (1995): 525-553.
King, Benjamin. "Iconography and Stereotype: Visual Memory of the Soldaderas" http://www.umich.edu/~historyj/pages_folder/articles/Iconography_and_Stereotype.pdf (Accessed May 3, 2010)
Macias, Anna. Against All Odds: The Feminist Movement in Mexico to 1940 Westport CT: Greenwood Press, 1982
Lee Scott, the CEO of the company, reacts several times during the film in such corporate P double-speak that he is difficult to be taken seriously. His comments are in direct opposition to many facts of the Wal-Mart investigation - so much so that he seems like a totally clueless leader or a consummate liar. The facts do not lie in this case, and the director has left them for the world to see. Wal-Mart is a deceptive, deceitful, and exploitive employer, and they get away with it because Americans do not care. It is a very sad statement about business and the state of our country.
What Wal-Mart is:
Aggressive and low-cost retailer
Largest retailer on Earth
Known for moving into small towns and eliminating the completion.
Well known abuser of employees due to low wages and illegal immigrant issues.
Exploiter of human beings around the world to…
Editors. (2005). Facts in the film. Retrieved from the Walmartmovie.com Web site: http://www.walmartmovie.com/facts.php22 June 2007.
Editors. (2005). People in the film. Retrieved from the Walmartmovie.com Web site: http://www.walmartmovie.com/people.php22 June 2007.
Editors. (2005). Wal-Mart calls on videomaker to fix errors in trailer or take it down. Retrieved from the Wal-Mart Corporation Web site: http://www.walmartfacts.com/articles/1893.aspx22 June 2007.
Gates, a. (2005). A look inside the outsize company that is the biggest retailer on the planet. Retrieved from the New York Times Web site: http://movies2.nytimes.com/2005/11/04/movies/04walm.html?ex=1182657600&en=fad84472f748e32b&ei=507022 June 2007.
The final legislation should have incorporated provisions to boost the IVD industry. On its entirety, the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act must have benefited the IVD industry. This would have increased sales in a span of five years that it is otherwise seen in the absence of the law. Most significant IVD sales drivers will result from the legislation as an expansion of in the number of insured citizens and new coverage of prevention and wellness programs. If various key provisions are included in the PPACA, coupled with the population demographics, IVD product sales will be stimulated. This industry will die or live based on the number of the test procedures and hence increase in the number of persons with healthcare coverage will be appropriate for IVD. The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act is a sophisticated legislature, virtually affecting all aspects of healthcare and the majority…
Law, J. (2009). Big pharma: How the world's biggest drug companies control illness. London: Constable.
Parks, D. (2012). Health care reform simplified: What professionals in medicine, government, insurance, and business need to know. United States: Apress.
Ross, B.M.C., & Ross, B.M.C. (2013). Beating Obamacare: Your handbook for surviving the new health care law. Washington, D.C: Regnery Pub.
Schweitzer, S.O. (2007). Pharmaceutical economics and policy. New York [u.a.: Oxford Univ. Press.
Vulnerable Populations: Low Income Adults
Low income adults in Wyandot County, Kansas City, Kansas, are vulnerable to the socio-economic factors that commonly have a negative health impact. These factors include low wages, unstable family life, risky sexual behavior, drug and alcohol abuse, high crime, low education, obesity, diabetes, and poor access to health care (Boyer et al., 2017; Guariguata, 2014; Osborn, Squires, Doty, Sarnak & Schneider, 2016). Low income adults, therefore, are at risk of not receiving the proper health education they need to maintain healthy lifestyle; they are at risk of lacking a cogent support system to maintain a healthy lifestyle; they are at risk of not having adequate access to health care, whereby they maintain obtain necessary health education and preventive care.
Understanding the needs and risks of vulnerable populations is important to the clinical population I will serve as an advanced practice nurse because community health is…
For instance the World Trade Organization reports having "allowed First World countries to raise trade barriers protecting their companies, even as we have served as their forum for insisting that Third World countries lower their trade barriers more and more." (WTO,
The truth is that if richer nations were to open their markets to the LDC countries for increase opportunities of export, generated would be approximately $700 billion in additional trade for developing countries. (UNCTAD Trade and Development Report, 1999; in WTO,
The World Trade Organization relates that no known causal link exists between foreign investment and the reduction of poverty as approximately eighty percent of foreign direct investment in "in the form of mergers and acquisitions, little in the form of productive investment that creates jobs and exports."
WORLD ECONOMY in the LAST TWO DECADES
The work entitled: "The North American Integration Regime and Its Implications for the World…
Sporleder, Thomas L. And Martin, Larry J. (nd) Economic Perspectives on Competitiveness Under WTO, NAFTA, and FTAA.
Abbott, Frederick M. (1999) the North American Integration Regime and Its Implications for the World Trading System - the NAFTA in the WTO System NYU School of law Online available at http://www.jeanmonnetprogram.org/papers/99/990201.html
Answering the Critics: The Myths and Realities of Trade Liberalization. Business Roundtable. Online available at http://trade.businessroundtable.org/trade_basics/answering_critics.html
Trade Liberalization Statistics (2008) World Trade Organization. Online available at http://www.gatt.org/trastat_e.html
The government has rather low environmental expectations. In fact, the consultant found that they are about as lenient as the Mexican restrictions, though the Philippines presents no public relations nightmare as protestors are not rallying against health concerns, as they were in Mexico.
Although the conditions in the Philippines may seem even more ready for outsourcing then the conditions in Mexico, the ethical costs of operating the company in the country are once again too high. Like the situation in Mexico, workers in the Philippines may work for lower wages than workers in the United States, but owners are not being provided with the same level of skill that they would be if continuing to operate the factory in the United States. Because the factory workers would consist mainly of underfed adults and impoverished children, the company would be lucky if workers managed to produce sufficient amounts of products throughout…
Esselaar, Jeanne. (2002). The Debate over Outsourcing in South Africa: Evidence from a case study. Proceedings from Development Policy Research Unit Conference '02. Muldersdrift, Johannesburg.
Casale, Frank J. (2006). The Outsourcing Institute: Mexico Trends & Opportunities.
Retrieved June 1, 2008, from, http://www.outsourcing.com/mexico_trends/mexico.html
Roberts, Russell (2000). The Choice. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
Hipple (2010) finds the absolute level of unincorporated self-employment largely stable if shifting toward wage-counted incorporated self-employment, but also reports the scale of this sector as comprising just under 11% of total national earnings from work.
The exclusion of all these types of earnings supports inquiry into the validity of data built on potential composition problems, the weighting for part and full time earnings. hile the median is the proper measure of central tendency in cases of non-normal data; outliers etc., and it is meaningful to say that the distance between the top and the middle increased more than the distance between the bottom and the middle for different reasons, which is in a global sense the outcome of this research, the composition of earnings levels could change very drastically in ways policymakers may or may not want, while the median remains unchanged. As with mandatory performance of unpaid work…
Bureau of Economic Analysis: " Table 1.1.10. Percentage Shares of Gross Domestic Product." Last revised Feb. 25, 2011 (March 13, 2011): http://www.bea.gov/national/nipaweb/SelectTable.asp
Congressional Budget Office, "Recent Trends in the Variability of Individual Earnings and Household Income." Jan. 2008. United States Congress: Washington, D.C. (March 12, 1011) www.cbo.gov/doc.cfm?index=9507&type=1
Congressional Budget Office, "Changes in the Distribution of Workers' Hourly Wages Between 1979 and 2009." United States Congress: Washington, D.C. (Feb. 2011). March 10, 2011: www.cbo.gov/ftpdocs/120xx/doc12051/02-16-WageDispersion.pdf
Division of Labor Force Statistics. "Economic News Release Work at Home Summary" Table 7. Job-related work at home on primary job by reason for working at home, sex, class of worker, and pay status, May 2004 Washington, DC: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. Last Modified: September 22, 2005 (March 12, 2011) www.bls.gov/news.release/homey.nr0.htm
Teams should be created that embrace a diversity of skills and workers from different areas of expertise, so there is no knowledge overlap, and thus less jockeying for position of who has the better qualifications within a certain field. If necessary, a clear leader should be established who understands the importance and the time table of the goal of the team. One problem with self-managed teams is that personality rather than goals can become the focus of team discussion. Because the goal is set externally, employees must become internally motivated to reach that goal. Having a clear leader selected beforehand, if the leader does indeed deserve his or her authority, may be a wise managerial move to limit grabs for power. If all members of the team are relatively similar in skills, however, giving the team more jurisdictions in selecting leadership roles might be considered.
The team must have a…
Technical Terms Used in Project Portfolio Management." (2005). Glossary.
Lee Merkhofer Consulting. Retrieved 1 Feb 2008 at http://www.prioritysystem.com/glossary2b.html
Utility analysis: An overview." (2004, April). Vital Enterprises. Retrieved 1 Feb 2008 at http://www.vitalentusa.com/learn/utility_analysis_overview.php#basic_assump
Globalization and Labor
Globalization is a term used in a multiplicity of senses, such as the global interdependence of nations, the growth of a world system, accumulation on a world scale, and the global village (Petras Pp). All of these concepts, as well as many others, are rooted in the general notion that the "accumulation of capital, trade and investment is no longer confined to a nation-state" (Petras Pp). Globalization in the most general sense refers to the "cross-national flows of goods, investment, production and technology," and for advocates, the scope and depth of these flows have created a new world order, "with its own institutions and configurations of power that have replace the structures of nation-states" (Petras Pp). Globalization has deepened and extended the international division of labor, with everything from automobile parts to information collection and analysis now out-sourced to labor in distant nation-states (Petras Pp). Exporting labor…
Petras, James. "Globalization: A Critical Analysis."
Journal of Contemporary Asia; 3/1/1999; Pp.
Williamson Jr., Handy. "Globalization and Poverty: Lessons From the Theory and Practice of Food Security Discussion." American Journal of Agricultural Economics; 8/1/2001; Pp.
Bacon, David. "Globalization: Two Faces, Both Ugly." Dollars & Sense; 3/1/2000;
This study analyzes outsourcing trends in the next decade. The study assesses this by focusing on the past and current trends, problems and issues in outsourcing via semi-structured interviews. Major trends and processes will be revealed and assessed for their relevancy, depth and breadth.
Companies belonging to most industries are very much considered to be the units that are vertically integrated, or so-called usual industrial firms (Stigler, 1951), where activities in all links in value chain have been internally conducted. For example, gasoline of its own is delivered by 7-Eleven and it is also used to make ice and candy, also it had cows for producing milk which it previously used to sell (Gottfredson et al., 2005). At present, it is not delivering gasoline and ice or candy is not being made by it neither does it posses any cows. Contrarily, IBM used to make the computers containing their…
Adams, R.J., 2002. Retail pro-tability and sweatshops: a global dilemma. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services 9, 147-153.
Alexander, C., 1964. Notes on the Synthesis of Form. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA.
Alexander, M., Young, D., 1996b. Outsourcing: where is the value? Long-Range Planning 29 (5), 728-730.
Ashkenas, R., Ulrich, D., Jick, T., Kerr, S., 1995. The Boundaryless Organization. Breaking the Chains of Organizational Structure. Jossey-Bass Publishers, San Francisco.
features of the economies in the leading nations, those of the U.S.A., Japan, and Germany, have many essential features of their economies that are similar. Yet these countries also have many differences. By examining these similarities and differences as they relate to wages, benefits, productivity, and living standard, we can better understand each nation's economic practices.
One of the main features of any economy is the ability to obtain private ownership of the means of production, including land. This ability provides a competitive system of labor, which translates to higher wages, and more opportunity for a better standard of living ("Economics," Columbia University, 2002). In the United States, the means of production are generally privately owned, as they are in Great Britain. Conversely, though private production plays a major role in the economy of Japan, it has a centrally planned industrial policy in which bankers, industrialists, and labor unions meet…
American Federation of Labor (AFL). "How and Why People Join Unions." The Union
Difference. Washington, D.C.: The American Federation of Labor. 2002
Benson, J.E. "Garden City: Meatpacking and Immigration to the High Plains."
Immigration and the Changing Face of Rural America: Focus on the Midwestern States. Manhattan:
McDonald's Corporation Analysis
Existing Conditions in McDonald's Corporation
Issues identified and discussed
Time line for Change and Financial cost
The organization selected for analysis for this report is McDonald's Corporation. McDonald's can be considered a true international organization. It has operations in more than 119 countries and employs individuals from a wide range of cultures, age groups, opinions, race and religion. The laws and regulations of the local country have to be understood. And effective checks and balances have to be built into the system in order to ensure that the company restaurants and the franchises are all operating within the laws of the region. With approximately 400,000 employees worldwide, McDonald's has a difficult task of balancing the needs of the worker and the need to generate profits for the organization.
This report will identify the current labor issues facing the company and offer theoretical recommendations to improve the situation…
Barboza, David. (2001, October 14). When Golden Arches Are Too Red, White and Blue. NY Times. http://www.mindfully.org/WTO/McDonalds-Red-White-Blue.htm
Barrett, Larry, & Gallagher, Sean. (2003). McBusted. Baseline. Retrieved June 14, 2004, from the World Wide Web: http://www.baselinemag.com/print_article/0,3668,a=44191,00.asp
Curry, Andrew. (2003, February 24 - March 3). Why We Work Author. U.S. News and World Report
Fleck, Fiona. (2004, Apr 24, 2004). World Business Briefing Europe: Switzerland: McDonald's Reprimanded. New York Times. (East Coast), pp. C3
Cheap: High Cost of the Discount Culture
The Effects of the Discount Culture on American orkers
The discount culture has created many concerns that giant retail stores are conducting business unfairly and taking advantage of American workers. For example al-Mart, thanks to its size and power, can purchase goods at a deep discount and because of its business model and employment policies can sell more cheaply than most other outlets. The effect of this is to lower prices at other nearby stores. However, despite this advantage al-Mart does not lower prices on everything, and in fact actually has higher prices than average on about one-third of the stock it carries (Ruppel 153). Discounters lower the price of the average shopping outing by lowering the prices on the things consumers by most frequently. Low-priced high volume items are positioned in the store in high visibility areas not only to encourage the…
Halpern, Dan. "Citizen Walmart." Harper's. July 2012: 36-43. Print.
Shell, Ellen Ruppel. Cheap. New York: The Penguin Press, 2009. Print.
Steinhauer, Jennifer. "When the Joneses Wear Jeans." Class Matters. Ed. Bill Keller. New York: Henry Holt and Company, 2005. Print.
However, I did not feel in any way degraded by the position in the way that Ehrenreich did, and I believe that to be the case because many of Ehrenreich's positions were by their very nature problematic. For example, she worked as a waitress and a house cleaner. Both of those positions place the individual in a position of subservience. Working at Blockbuster is different because we are around movies and customers who come in just to look for some entertainment. As staff, we are not treated poorly. Management seemed quite happy and laid-back, which made the store ambiance easy for all the clerks. Although I did not mind the work itself, the paycheck was meager and I cannot imagine paying rent with what I earned. The paycheck was only part-time, as no clerks were able to work full-time because the company would have to pay them a salary plus…
Employees as Benefactors of Corporate Philanthropy
Corporate Social esponsibility
The Case for Employees as Benefactors of Corporate Philanthropy
The Case for Employees as Benefactors of Corporate Philanthropy
A United Auto Workers unionization vote recently made the news, in part because the vote was taking place in the Southeastern United States where conservative state legislators have historically treated organized labor with hostility, but what seemed to be most newsworthy about this event was that the corporation, Volkswagen, decided to take a neutral position (Paresh, 2014). The vote took place last week and workers at the Chattanooga, Tennessee plant decided to reject union membership by a narrow margin. The national news media also took note when several conservative Tennessee politicians remained true to their anti-union ideology by threatening to end subsidies for Volkswagen and to push production of a new vehicle to Mexico. Experts in labor law believed these threats were coercive…
"2012 Corporate Responsibility Report." (2013). Retrieved 22 Feb. 2014 from https://corporate.target.com/_media/TargetCorp/csr/pdf/2012-corporate-responsibility-report.pdf .
Barnett, M.L. (2007). Stakeholder influence capacity and the variability of financial returns to corporate social responsibility. Academy of Management Review, 32(3), 794-816.
Dennis, W.J. Jr. (2000). Wages, health insurance and pension plans: The relationship between employee compensation and small business owner income. Small Business Economics, 15(4), 247-63.
Fassin, Y., Van Rossem, A., & Buelens, M. (2010). Small-business owner-managers' perceptions of business ethics and CSR-related concepts. Journal of Business Ethics, 98, 425-53.