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Plato 427 -- 347 BC

Words: 940 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52062829

Philosophers are those most endowed to comprehend reality, therefore they ought to be granted state leadership. At the same time, people ought to realize their potential, an action which implied not only virtuosity, but also the achievement of happiness.

Lucretius on the other hand argued that dedicating oneself to the pleasures of the body is nothing but a road to perdition and that it is likely to bring more pain and misery than happiness. Just like Plato he argued for a rational view of the world and a rational approach to politics. According to him, inner balance was a strategic factor for the individual's happiness and for the society's well being. However, people had to accept pain and deal with (in a rational manner) and not simply choose to ignore it. He underlines that hardship is a natural element of life and that people should demonstrate their dignity and strength…… [Read More]

The contemporary people are avid for immediate gratification. They wish for a political system that would make everything perfect. Yet the dominating spirit is not one in which there is strong interest for the community. Just like in ancient times the prevailing interest is selfish. Taking into consideration the time which has passed, the historical developments, etc. It could be asserted that since change has not occurred, it will not occur. While both the Platonist and the Epicurean systems are valid through the values they suggest, the spirit that guides men generally prevents them from being applied. The main challenge is that people wish for immediate solutions which do not demand high efforts or suffering. Since this is impossible, the world is likely to remain the same (as it is today, as it was during ancient times).

Plato (Gill, C), The symposium, Penguin classics, 2003

Lucretius (Stallings, AE), The nature of things, Penguin classics, 2007
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Polytheism and Monotheism Christianity and

Words: 1160 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 79023427

They believed the gods could manifest themselves, as seen in Aristides and Asclepius. Another important aspect of polytheistic worship was honoring dead ancestors through household shrines and rituals. However, the concern in paganism was not focused on death and immortality. Rather it focused on the present life. In addition to this, there were voluntary associations such as mystery cults where people shared religious rituals more personally and gained a sense of group identity through rites, deity worship, communal dinners, and sacrifices. In all this there is a clear polytheism still prevalent. The Romans, like the Greeks before them, did not experience any discomfort with the idea of multiple gods. Mattingly sees this as an inclusive type of belief: "Paganism was inclined to be tolerant because it was essentially inclusive" (Mattingly 22). This form was destined to decline under the influence of monotheism.

Science may have played some part in critiquing…… [Read More]

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Theatrical Lighting History and Discourse

Words: 3518 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 95704024

As stated previously, there are two types of lighting in theaters, General Composition and Selective. During theses early phases, while there were some forays into selective illumination, they were very limited. Some parabolic reflectors were used to guide lighting in specific arches across the scene, but there was little in the way of pinpoint accuracy. There was also one major problem with illumination to date, it was always in the form of a flame and had to be held vertically over its fuel source, protected from anything that could burn and had to be fed by oxygen. This limited the type of housing that could be used as well as the positioning possibilities of this type of light source.

The first attempt at a focused shaft of light was created by the introduction of limelight. The limelight, or calcium light, was produced by directing an oxygen/hydrogen flame at a cylinder…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Scene Design and Stage Lighting." The Columbia Encyclopedia. 6th ed. 2004.

Babbage, Frances. "The Play of Surface: Theater and the Turn of the Screw." Comparative

Drama 39.2 (2005): 131+.

Graves, R.B. Lighting the Shakespearean Stage, 1567-1642. Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois
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Philosophy Nagel Says That the

Words: 1063 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65022761

First is the assumption of freewill and non-determinism in Nagel's argument. While I do not stand to make the argument for determinism here, it should suffice to say that if there is only the illusion of free-will, then death has deprived us of nothing in Nagel's view (because there is not even the possibility of continued life) and, thus, would not be evil. If we do not have an infinite amount of life that death steals from us (but rather a finite amount already determined), then it would be necessary to regard the time after one's death the same way as the time before one's birth.

The second problem is that of time and duration of life (and death). It would seem that humans have a finite capacity to care of about time (and life). For example, while it imaginable to live (or what to live) for an addition 50…… [Read More]

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The Fear of Death

Words: 1861 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58927492

Fear of death is typically referred to by researchers as death anxiety. The phenomenon has been split into several categories. There is the fear of pain, the fear of the unknown, the fear of losing a loved one, and the fear of the consequences that may arise because of the loss of a loved one. The fear of not being able to survive is the prominent one among these fears. Many people are terrified at the fact that death is the end of one's life. Science does not help matters either. It, instead, aggravates the fear. No aspect of science has ever unveiled any element of the human body that can exist long after death. Thus, most scientists view death as biological process. This is the reason that makes many people still fear the consequences of death; even when they are devout religious believers of life after death (Hanson).

Stoicism,…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Hanson, Robin. "Fear of Death and Muddled Thinking -- It Is So Much Worse Than You Think," 2005, . Accessed 29 Apr. 2017.

Konstan, David. "Epicurus." Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, September 2016, . Accessed 29 Apr. 2017.

Lacewing, Michael. "Descartes, the cogito and clear and distinct ideas. " Philosophy for AS: Epistemology and Philosophy of Religion. London and New York: Routledge, 2014. 106-117.

Robertson, Donald. "Stoicism and the Art of Happiness." London: Hodder & Stoughton General Division, 2014.
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Epicurus's views on death

Words: 1435 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72320184

Epicurus Maintained That Our Deaths Will Do Us No Harm

Explanation and Critical Assessment

Death represents a subject that is commonly contemplated, often with anxiety. At least, people were anxious when this subject was raised during the era when Epicurus was establishing his personal lifestyle and conveying it to fellow human beings. However, Epicurus held that one ought not to be afraid of dying as, "Death, the most frightening of bad things, is nothing to us; since when we exist death is not yet present, and when death is present, then we do not exist" (Epicurus, 1966). There are a number of reasons that make death a terrifying subject for people: they are afraid of God's wrath; they are unaware of what will come with it, they are worried about not achieving particular life goals, and so forth. According to Epicurus, a person ceases to exist subsequent to death and…… [Read More]

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Islam and Christianity

Words: 2022 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 83060640

belief systems of Christians and Muslim, particularly in how they view angels. Both religions believe angels exist, and that they are an important part of their religious beliefs. They both believe angels can guide and support people here on Earth, and they are messengers of God or Allah. They also believe they can be vengeful and destructive, and angels play an important role in the stories of the Qur'an and the Bible. Angels are only one of the commonalities between these two religions, but they are an important link to two very diverse religions, and they show that many religions have core beliefs that link them together, whether they want to admit it or not.

Comparing Angels in Islam and Christianity

The purpose of this paper is to introduce, discuss, and analyze the topic of Islam and Christianity issues. Specifically it will compare and contrast the faith doctrine of angels…… [Read More]


Akbar, M.J. (2002). The shade of swords: Jihad and the conflict between Islam and Christianity. London: Routledge.

Ali, A.Y. The holy Qur'an. London, UK: Wordsworth Editions.

Gauss, J.A. (2009). Islam and Christianity: A revealing contrast. From Christian Broadcasting Network. Retrieved June 11, 2009 from .

Holy Bible (New King James Version). (2009). From Bible Gateway. Retrieved June 11, 2009 from .
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Philosophy Traditional Naturalist Claims The

Words: 1140 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 4227971


The naturalist position is further "bolstered" by a fundamental faith in the veracity of sensory inputs and human cognitive processes, a faith that is woefully misplaced. In fact, the naturalist belief in random evolution undermines any belief in the ability of human senses to derive truth about the workings of the universe (Plantinga 2). Those who believe in a supernatural deity often believe that said deity imbued human beings with the ability to acquire and understand knowledge. If this is the case, it is possible for human beings to use their minds to discern the nature of reality. But if instead humans are simply the product of randomly accrued changes through natural selection, then there can be no such guarantee. Our physical senses and cognitive processes wouldn't have developed with reliability in mind, but rather with survivability. The mind or the senses are only important, in the naturalist context,…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Dubray, C.A. "Naturalism." Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. X. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1991. 3 Mar. 2007 .

Johnson, Phillip E. "Evolution as Dogma: The Establishment of Naturalism." Access Research Network. 1990. 3 Mar. 2007

Plantinga, Alvin. "Naturalism Defeated." Calvin College. 1994. 3 Mar. 2007

Popper, Karl. The Logic of Scientific Discovery. New York: Routledge, 2002.