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41). Groups like the ALA fund research on various forms of COPD every year, so it seems certain that some kind of additional treatments and preventions may be discovered in the future. Since emphysema is such a prevalent disease, continued research must be completed to help ease the suffering of millions of Americans, and save lives, too.
In conclusion, emphysema is a serious and deadly disease that can be prevented in most people by simply avoiding cigarettes. The disease can be treated, but once diagnosed, it cannot be cured. It affects millions of Americans, and studies show it will continue to affect Americans who smoke, even if they have quit smoking years before. While there have been many studies done on the disease, researchers still do not know how to recondition the lungs once they are affected. Emphysema is serious, and more studies need to be done to help determine…
Author not Available. (Nov. 2004). Emphysema. Retrieved from the American Lung Association Web site: http://www.lungusa.org/site/pp.asp?c=dvLUK9O0E&b=35043#whatis20 April 2005.
Berardelli, P. (1997, October 27). Of mice and men. Insight on the News, 13, 41.
Honish, R.L. (1982). Chest and lung diseases. In Over 55: A handbook on health, Duncan, T.G. (Ed.) (pp. 81-100). Philadelphia: Franklin Institute Press.
Lewis, C. (1999, March). Every breath you take. FDA Consumer, 33, 9.
BPD or bronchopulmonary dysplasia represents a chronic ailment of the lungs, largely occurring among premature babies requiring oxygen therapy and mechanical ventilation for treating severe respiratory distress. It may also develop among immature babies displaying symptoms of early lung-related illness or babies born at their term but requiring rigorous ventilator therapy to treat serious lung ailments. In the last four decades, prenatal steroid administration, surfactant therapy, better nutrition, novel ventilator strategies and other modern treatments have led to significant progress in the medical course and results of premature babies suffering from respiratory distress syndrome (RDS). But in spite of the above advancements, BPD prevalence, on the whole, has remained the same over the last ten years (Gien & Kinsella, 2011).
Bronchopulmonary dysplasia pathophysiology
Babies displaying the greatest likelihood of BPD diagnosis are born at a time when their lungs haven’t yet transitioned to the saccular stage from the canalicular…
Abman, S. H., Collaco, J. M., Shepherd, E. G., Keszler, M., Cuevas-Guaman, M., Welty, S. E., ... & Kirpalani, H. (2017). Interdisciplinary care of children with severe bronchopulmonary dysplasia. The Journal of pediatrics, 181, 12-28.
Collins, J. J., Tibboel, D., de Kleer, I. M., Reiss, I. K., & Rottier, R. J. (2017). The future of bronchopulmonary dysplasia: emerging pathophysiological concepts and potential new avenues of treatment. Frontiers in medicine, 4, 61.
Gien, J., & Kinsella, J. P. (2011). Pathogenesis and Treatment of Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia. Current Opinion in Pediatrics, 23(3), 305–313. http://doi.org/10.1097/MOP.0b013e328346577f
Patel, V. & Cherian S. (2016). Management of Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia / Chronic lung disease. Retrieved 17 May 2018 from http://www.cardiffnicu.com/Portal/Respiratory/Chronic%20lung%20disease%20guideline.pdf
Tropea, K., & Christou, H. (2012). Current pharmacologic approaches for prevention and treatment of bronchopulmonary dysplasia. International journal of pediatrics, 2012.
Some of the major objectives of the strategy include lessening regional alveolar distension, atelectasis, oxygen mediated injury, diaphragm injury, and inflammation. The other approaches that can be used to lessen the injury include using high frequency oscillatory ventilation, positioning, neuromascular blocking agents, fluid therapy, and immunomodulation.
Ventilator Induced Lung Injury is one of the common illnesses that occur among patients with acute lung injury. This disease is mainly attributed to the use of mechanical ventilator to save these patients though there are other risk factors that contribute to the injury.
Dreyfuss, D. & Saumon, G. (1998, January 1). Ventilator-induced Lung Injury -- Lessons from Experimental Studies. American Journal of espiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 157(1), 294-323. etrieved from http://ajrccm.atsjournals.org/content/157/1/294.long
Feng et. al. (2011, July 19). Pediatric Acute espiratory Distress Syndrome Treatment and Management. etrieved September 26, 2012, from http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/803573-treatment
Galvin, S. & Granton, J. (2011, March 3). educing…
Dreyfuss, D. & Saumon, G. (1998, January 1). Ventilator-induced Lung Injury -- Lessons from Experimental Studies. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 157(1), 294-323. Retrieved from http://ajrccm.atsjournals.org/content/157/1/294.long
Feng et. al. (2011, July 19). Pediatric Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Treatment and Management. Retrieved September 26, 2012, from http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/803573-treatment
Galvin, S. & Granton, J. (2011, March 3). Reducing Ventilator Lung Injury. Retrieved September
26, 2012, from http://respiratory-care-sleep-medicine.advanceweb.com/Features/Articles/Reducing-Ventilator-Induced-Lung-Injury.aspx
he most common progressive chronic lung situations that would require the rehabilitation include interstitial lung disease, chest wall disease, bronchiectasis, and pre and post thoracic surgery. he fourth category of patients to offered pulmonary rehabilitation is those with recent exacerbation of COPD requiring hospitalization, without the anticipated recovery path, and whose functional baseline has changed significantly ("Service Specification," 2012).
Chronic lung diseases have developed to become one of the most common respiratory illnesses across the country. As the diseases have become one of the major reasons for hospitalizations of patients, they usually affect individuals at the age of 35 years and above despite of the fact that these individuals are usually not diagnosed until they are 50 years and above. he growth and rapid increase of chronic diseases is attributed to the tendency of many people with the disease not to get medical assistance. While the conditions continue…
The most common progressive respiratory disease is the Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), which is a name that is also used to refer to a collection of lung diseases ("Introduction," 2012). The other common chronic lung diseases include emphysema, chronic bronchitis, chest wall disease, interstitial lung disease, chronic asthma, and obstructive airways disease. These chronic lung diseases usually involve a combination of three major factors i.e. airway diseases, lung circulation diseases, and lung tissue diseases. As the name suggests, the airway diseases affect the airways or tubes that transport oxygen and other gases to and from the lungs. In contrast, the lung tissues diseases affect the lung tissue structure through inflammation or scarring of the tissue. Lung circulation diseases affect the blood vessels in the lungs through scarring, clotting, or inflammation of these vessels. As a result, these diseases contribute to difficulties of the lungs to receive oxygen and release carbon dioxide. The severity of chronic lung diseases is basically dependent on the combination of these three conditions. However, most of the chronic lung diseases are attributed to the narrowing or blockage of the airways. For instance, emphysema, COPD, and chronic bronchitis are conditions that inhibit the ability of the tubes or airways to carry oxygen and other gases to and from the lungs. Generally, patients with chronic lung diseases such as COPD always have difficulties breathing because of airflow obstruction or narrowing of the airways.
As previously mentioned, these diseases account for a huge number of hospital emergency room visits and hospitalizations, although they are largely preventable. Despite being preventable, these diseases have become some of the major causes of death and key factors in the ever-increasing huge human and economic burden because of the tendency of patients to ignore their symptoms ('Emergency Department Support Fund Application," n.d). The major symptoms of these diseases include rising breathlessness, frequent chest infections, and constant cough with phlegm ("Introduction," 2012). The tendency to ignore these symptoms contributes to the many incidents of recidivism to acute care facilities.
The main cause of chronic lung diseases, especially chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is smoking. An individual enhances the risk of developing these diseases when he/she smokes more and for long periods of time. Smoking results in scarring that increases the risk of chronic lung diseases, through irritating or inflaming the lungs. The inflammation in turn results in permanent lung changes over many years. During this period, the walls of the tubes or airways thicken as more mucus is generated. In addition to making the lungs lose their normal elasticity, the damage or harm to the delicate walls of the air sacs in the lungs results in the development of emphysema. Moreover, the smaller airways or tubes become narrowed or scarred. The combination of these permanent changes to the lungs contributes to symptoms of cough, breathlessness, and phlegm linked to chronic obstructive pulmonary
Sarcoidosis is a sometimes-lethal disease affecting primarily the lungs and thoracic lymphatic system, and its hallmark feature is noncaseating granulomas in multiple tissues and organs (Hoang and Nguyen, 2010, p. 36; American Thoracic Society, 1999, p. 736). Over 90% of all sufferers have pulmonary involvement, but granulomas are frequently found in other organs and tissues, including the skin, eyes, liver, spleen, parotid glands, central nervous system, muscles, bones, and genitourinary tract (Hoang and Nguyen, 2010, p. 36). When death does result, it is typically due to pulmonary fibrosis. What follows is a review of pulmonary sarcoidosis from a clinical perspective.
Causes and isk Factors
The cause of sarcoidosis is unknown, but research into the nature of the resulting granulomas suggests immune dysregulation in genetically susceptible individuals is the primary causative factor (American Thoracic Society, 1999, p. 738-740). The genetic contribution appears to be significant, as evidenced by an…
American Thoracic Society. (1999). Statement on Sarcoidosis. American Journal of Respiratory Critical Care Medicine, 160, 736-755.
American Lung Association. (2010). State of lung disease in diverse communities 2010. Lung.org. Retrieved 5 Mar. 2012 from http://www.lung.org/assets/documents/publications/lung-disease-data/solddc_2010.pdf .
Baughman, Robert P., Lower, Elyse E., and du Bois, Roland M. (2003). Sarcoidosis. Lancet, 361, 1111-1118.
Drent, Marjolein, De Vries, Jolanda, Lenters, Merinke, Lamers, Rob J. s., Rothkranz-Kos, Snjezana, Wouters, Emiel F.M. et al. (2003). Sarcoidosis: Assessment of disease severity using HRCT. European Radiology, 13, 2462-2471.
Population of the City of Atlantis on March 30, 2003 = 183,000
of new active cases of TB occurring between January 1 and June 30, 2003 = 52
of active TB cases according to the city register on June 30, 2003 = 238
The incidence rate of active cases of TB for the 6-month period was: [ONE POINT]
per 100,000 population per 100,000 population per 100,000 population per 100,000 population
130 per 100,000 population
183,000 is 183% of 100,000, so the rate per 100,000 would be 52 divided by 1.84...or 28.
The prevalence of active TB as of June 30, 2003, was: [ONE POINT]
14 per 100,000 population
130 per 100,000 population
144 per 100,000 population
264 per 100,000 population
e. none of the above
B -- using the same math as above...except it's 238 / 1.84 -- 129.3
3. Which of the following is an advantage of active surveillance?…
Inside the alveoli, oxygen moves across the paper-thin walls to the capillaries, the tiny blood vessels, and then into the blood, where it is picked up by chemicals, haemoglobin, in the red blood cells ready to be carried throughout the body (ay pp). At the same time, waste products from the body, in the form of carbon dioxide, come out of the capillaries back into the alveoli, ready to be breathed out (ay pp). Freshly oxygenated blood is carried from the lungs to the left side of the heart which pumps blood around the body through the arteries, and once the oxygen is used up, the blood returns, through the veins, to the right side of the heart (ay pp). From there, it is pumped to the lungs so that the carbon dioxide can be removed and more oxygen taken in (ay pp).
Every day, some 10,000 liters of air…
The Way Our Lungs Work. British Lung Foundation. http://www.lunguk.org/the-way-our-lungs-work.asp
Empyema Clinical Manifestation
Empyema: Lung Sounds and other Clinical Manifestations
Over the past decade, empyema has consistently been recognized as an acute, potentially life-threatening respiratory disease. A large number of studies have been conducted over the last years that address the unique symptomatology of empyema and the clinical implications of these symptoms.
The biggest diagnostic challenge of empyema is that patient often present with symptoms very similar and difficult to distinguish from an uncomplicated pneumonia. A patient typically shows symptoms such as fever and chills, excessive sweating, malaise, cough, dyspnea, pleuritic chest pain and unintentional weight loss (Sahn, 2007). These symptoms individually do not warrant a diagnosis of empyema. They do, however, require precautionary follow-up testing that should include a pleural fluid aspiration. The presence of pus -- an opaque, whitish-yellow viscous fluid consisting of serum coagulation proteins, cellular debris and fibrin deposition -- aspirated from the pleural space is…
1. Walker W, Wheeler R, Legg J. (2011). Update on the causes, investigation and management of empyema in childhood. Archives of Disease in Childhood, 96, 5, 482-488.
2. Sahn SA. (2007). Diagnosis and management of parapneumonic effusions and empyema. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 45, 11, 1480-1486.
3. Heffner JE, Klein JS, Hampson C. (2010). Diagnostic utility and clinical application of imaging for pleural space infections. Chest, 137, 2, 467-479.
4. Froudarakis ME. (2008). Diagnostic Work-Up of Pleural Effusions. Respiration, 75, 4-13.
Physiological Effects of Hodgkin's Disease
In this paper I shall give an overview of Hodgkin's disease while focusing on its physiological effects. Specifically, the paper consists of an overview of the disease, describes how the disease affects the body cells and tissues, and how the treatment attacks the disease and affects the body, besides reviewing the treatments available.
Hodgkin's disease is one of the two (and less severe) types of cancer of the lymphatic system; the other type being non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. The disease is named after the British physician, Thomas Hodgkin, who first discovered the condition in 1832. Hodgkin's disease commonly occurs in young adults (between the ages of 15 to 35) and in older people (over 50-year-olds. However, about 10%-15% of cases have been diagnosed in children below 16 years of age. Statistics also show that more men than women are afflicted by it. ("What are the Key Statistics…
'Autologous Bone Marrow Stem Cell Transplantation" (2004). American Cancer Society. Retrieved on September 28, 2004 from http://www.cancer.org/docroot/CRI/content/CRI_2_4_4X_Autologous_Bone_Marrow_Stem_Cell_Transplantation_and_Peripheral_Blood_Stem_Cell_Transplantation_20.asp?rnav=cri 'Chemotherapy." (2004). American Cancer Society. Retrieved on September 28, 2004 from http://www.cancer.org/docroot/CRI/content/CRI_2_4_4X_Chemotherapy_20.asp?rnav=cri 'Do We Know What Causes Hodgkin's Disease?" (2004). American Cancer Society. Retrieved on September 28, 2004 from http://www.cancer.org/docroot/CRI/content/CRI_2_4_2X_Do_we_know_what_causes_Hodgkins_disease_20.asp?rnav=cri
"Hodgkin's Disease." (2000) The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. Columbia University Press: New York.
'Hodgkin's disease: Overview" (2004) Oncology Channel Retrieved on September 28, 2004 from http://www.oncologychannel.com/hodgkins / 'How is Hodgkin's Lymphoma and the Non-Hodgkin's Lymphomas Different?" (2004) Lymphoma Information Network. Retrieved on September 28, 2004 from http://www.lymphomainfo.net/lymphoma/comparison.html
'How Is Hodgkin's Disease Treated?" (2004). American Cancer Society. Retrieved on September 28, 2004 from http://www.cancer.org/docroot/CRI/content/CRI_2_4_4X_How_Is_Hodgkins_Disease_Treated_20.asp?rnav=cri 'The Lymphatic System." (2004) CancerBACUP. Retrieved on September 28, 2004 from http://www.cancerbacup.org.uk/Cancertype/LymphomaHodgkins/General/Thelymphaticsystem
Creatine treatment started at 6, 8, and 10 weeks of age, analogous to early, middle, and late stages of human HD, significantly extended survival at both the 6- and 8-week starting points. Significantly improved motor performance was present in both the 6- and 8-week treatment paradigms, while reduced body weight loss was only observed in creatine-supplemented R6/2 mice started at 6 weeks." (Dedeoglu, et al., 2003) Specifically it is stated that the "...Neuropathological sequelae of gross brain and neuronal atrophy and huntington aggregates were delayed in creatine-treated R6/2 mice started at 6 weeks. We show significantly reduced brain levels of both creatine and ATP in R6/2 mice, consistent with a bioenergetic defect. Oral creatine supplementation significantly increased brain concentrations of creatine and ATP to wild-type control levels, exerting a neuroprotective effect. These findings have important therapeutic implications, suggesting that creatine therapy initiated after diagnosis may provide significant clinical benefits to…
NINDS Huntington's Disease Information Page (2009) National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke. Online available at http://www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/huntington/huntington.htm
Hamilton, J.M., et al. (2004) Rate and Correlates of Weight Change in Huntington's Disease. Journal of Neurology Neuroscience and Psychiatry 2004; 75:209-212. BMJ Publishing Group Ltd. Online available at http://jnnp.bmj.com/cgi/content/abstract/75/2/209
Gaba, Ann M. et al. (2005) Energy Balance in Early-Stage Huntington Disease. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 81, No. 6. June 2005.
Djousse, L. (2002) Weight Loss in Early Stage of Huntington's Disease. Journal of Neurology 2002. Nov. 12:59(9): 1325-30.
" This drug has already won approval for use in Europe and the United tates. tudies conducted show that the drug "targets the tumor to control in four areas: in the site where hypersecretion starts, in GH secretion, IGF-1 and in the symptoms associated with the disease (Unknown, 2004)." While the drug has been approved, there are still contraindications to taking it such as a patient who has an irregular or slow heart rate, or blood sugar levels which are either too high or too low.
Although gigantism begins prior to puberty, the "majority of giants eventually demonstrate features of acromegaly, of which the mean age for the onset is within the 3rd decade of life. Even a congenital onset of GH excess has been suggested by linear growth acceleration occurring within the first few months of life in young children with documented gigantism (http://jcem.endojournals.org/cgi/content/full/84/12/4379)." Although there is no…
Simmons, Kirt E. (01 October, 1999). "Growth Hormone and Craniofacial Changes: Preliminary Data From Studies in Turner's Syndrome." Pediatrics.
Skatssoon, Judy. (21 May, 2002). "NSW: New discovery could lead to cure for dwaftism, gigantism." AAP General News (Australia).
Unknown. (01 June, 2004). "Novartis Sandostatin LAR approved in Japan for Acromegaly. Worldwide Biotech.
In conclusion, although the anthrax bacterium is relatively low on the list of possible contaminants, future research on this potentially fatal disease should continue, particularly when considering the ever-growing threat from terrorist actions and the possibility that as the world population increases, the presence of the anthrax bacterium will also increase, due to the growth of farming, land clearing and many agricultural activities aimed at increasing the world's food supply through planting in soils already containing Bacillus cereus, not to mention the possibility of this and other types of the anthrax bacterium mutating into unknown strains which could create pandemic outbreaks.
"Anthrax." CDC. Internet. 2008. etrieved November 9, 2009 from http://www.cdc.gov/nczved/dfbmd/disease_listing/anthrax_gi.html.
"Anthrax." World Health Organization. Internet. 2009. etrieved November 9, 2009
"Einstein Scientists Move Closer to a Safer Anthrax Vaccine." Science News. Internet. September 4, 2009. etrieved November 9, 2009 from http://esciencenews.com/articles/
Glanze, Walter D., Ed.…
"Anthrax." CDC. Internet. 2008. Retrieved November 9, 2009 from http://www.cdc.gov/nczved/dfbmd/disease_listing/anthrax_gi.html .
"Anthrax." World Health Organization. Internet. 2009. Retrieved November 9, 2009
from http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs264/en .
"Einstein Scientists Move Closer to a Safer Anthrax Vaccine." Science News. Internet. September 4, 2009. Retrieved November 9, 2009 from http://esciencenews.com/articles/
Colon cancer is defined as a cancer that begins in the rectum or colon. The cancers are referred to as colon or rectal cancer with reference to their orientating point. Colon and rectal cancers share different features and ultimate diagnosis procedures. The disorders are discussed collectively in this paper including their treatment approach.
In case cancer forms within polyps, they eventually start growing into the colon or rectal walls. While cancer cells attach to the wall, they continue growing within blood and lymph vessels. The lymph vessels are relatively thin, and tiny channels are carrying away fluid and waste (Acton, 2013). They occasionally drain into subsequent lymph nodes that are bean-shaped structures and contain immune cells to helping fighting the infections. Immediately the cancer cells start spreading to lymph or blood vessels, they travel to the lymph nodes and other distant body parts like the liver. The…
Acton, Q.A., (2013). Colon Cancer: New Insights for the Healthcare Professional: 2013. New York: ScholarlyEditions.
Peterson, E., (2014). The Colon Cancer. New York: Sea Salt.
Young, A., Hobbs, R., & Kerr, D., (2011). ABC of Colorectal Cancer. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
Pressure on the superior vena cava may produce SVC syndrome, a swelling of the head and arms. SVC syndrome involving the brain can be fatal and must be treated immediately. But enlarged lymphatic tissue in the chest cavity generally tends to displace -- rather than press upon or encase -- adjacent structures. Therefore, compromised breathing and SVC syndrome are relatively uncommon signs of lymphoma. (Hodgkin's Disease, 1998-2008)
Effects on Bone Marrow
Night sweats, fevers or anemia (a low red-blood-cell count), fevers may indicate Hodgkin's disease has spread to an individual's bone marrow. In these scenarios, a physician may order bone marrow aspiration and biopsy. In biopsy, medical staff uses a large needle to remove a narrow, cylindrical piece of the patient's bone. In another option, medical staff performs an aspiration, a process utilizing a needle to remove small bits of bone marrow. Generally, in both instances, to help determine cancer…
Atlas of the Body: The Lymphatic System." (1999). American Medical Association. 2 June 2008 http://www.medem.com/medlb/article_detaillb.cfm?article_ID=ZZZG0S6CGJC&sub_at=518 .
Carson-DeWitt, Rosalyn S; Alic, Margaret. "Hodgkin's Disease," Gale Encyclopedia of Cancer, January 1, 2002. 2 June 2008 http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G2-3405200219.html .
Detailed Guide: Hodgkin Disease What Is Hodgkin Disease? American Cancer Society. Revised: 08/30/2007. 2 June 2008 http://www.cancer.org/docroot/CRI/content/CRI_2_4_1x_What_Is_Hodgkin_Disease.sp?rnav=cri .
Hodgkin's Disease Signs and Symptoms. (1998-2008). 3 June 2008 http://www.oncologychannel.com/hodgkins/symptoms.shtml.
, 1998). It is hard to know where the boundary stops between psychological and physical illness, since the two are, often intimately combined with one affecting the other.
QOL, as De Vries and Drent (2008) point out is often confounded with state of physical health but actually it reflects one's emotional and psychological welfare. Nonetheless, the two are intimately related in that each affects the other.
Conducting a through review on the subject with key words involving 'Sarcoidosis and health status', Sarcoidosis and quality of life" or Sarcoidosis and fatigue" De Vries and Drent (2008) ended up with 15 studies that they considered relevant to their subject.
Counter-intuitively, they discovered that the greatest challenge on QOL as effected by was the patient's fatigue caused by the disease. Breathlessness, reduced exercise, and impaired working and physical activities were the most frequent reported hindrances. The instrument used was the World Health Organization…
American Thoracic Society (1999) Statement on Sarcoidosis, 736-749
The report provides a thorough overview of Sarcoidosis discussing new developments and demonstrating how much in the field remains enigmatic.
Bona, J. et al. (1998) Neurosarcoidosis as a Cause of Refractory Psychosis: A Complicated Case ReportAm J. Psychiatry 155:8, 1100-1107
The report describes Sarcoidosis and gives a case history as example.
patient most likely manifest hypervolemia?
A patient would most likely develop hypervolemia through eating sodium-based foods, from blood transfusions, medications and diagnostic contrast dyes. (Silverstein, 2006)
What blood pressure, central venous pressure, and arterial pressure would be indicative of hypervolemia?
Any individual who is suffering from hypervolemia would have higher levels of blood (160 / 100), central venous (179 / 109) and arterial pressure (180 / 110). (Silverstein, 2006)
How would a nurse recognize that a hypovolemic patient had received adequate volume replacement?
The way a nurse would recognize a hypovolemic condition is to look for swelling in the legs and arms. At the same time, there will be an increase in the patient's weight. When there is adequate replacement, these levels will come down dramatically. (Silverstein, 2006)
How do neurohormonal mechanisms contribute to the development of heart failure?
Neurohumoral adaptations are impacting the systemic pressure through vasoconstriction. This leads…
Silverstein, A. (2006). Heart Disease. Minneapolis, MN: 21st Century Books.
For example, in these procedures it is often difficult to open the patient's mouth wide enough for laryngoscopy and intubation, thus creating the possibility that cardiopulmonary changes may be present and the "probability o lesions in oesophagus, bowel, kindneys, skin and joints." This information would not be known if not for this study and its reported findings.
The study's conclusion is that the use of thoracic epidural anesthesia to sevoflurane based inhalation "may be a suitable technique for thoracic surgery in achalasia due to sclerodermic patients." The reason for this conclusion is that the study found that this procedure "can provide a smooth anesthesia course and a rapid recovery, with hemodynamic stability, and also having pain-free postoperatively." More so, the study found that providing anesthesia without neuromuscular blockade and non-intravenous opioids has "provided a shorter recovery time."
Clearly this specific case study has important and practical implications to the practice…
Erol, Demet Dogan, M.D. (2006): "Thoracic Epidural Blockade in an Elderly with Achalasia Due to Scleroderma for Thoractomy, Esophageal Myotomy and Cystotomy-Capitonnage. The Internet Journal of Anesthesiology. Vol. 11, Number 1.
A way to better distribute the information that is being taught in the classrooms is also through the community so that the changes are also effecting the parents to the students, as a change on their part as well would be helpful in the battle against obesity. It would be useful to initially target pamphlets, an informational booth or table at grocery stores, where the foundation of the problem lies. It would be effective if information is given before families go grocery shopping so they are more conscious of the items that they are purchasing. Furthermore, information should also be initially presented on TVs, in newspapers and magazines and other mediums that would likely be used in the more low-key and sedentary setting in order to galvanize individuals to get outside. Once outside, in order to sustain the physical activity, it would be nice to have water and juice at…
Ahuja, Gitika, & Salahi, Lara. (11, February 2010). School nutrition program takes up obesity fight. Retrieved from http://abcnews.go.com/GMA/OnCall/school-nutrition-program-takes-obesity-fight/story?id=9802468
CausesofChildhoodObesity.org, Initials. (2010). Causes of childhood obesity. Retrieved from http://causesofchildhoodobesity.org/
Facts about obesity in the United States. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/pdf/facts_about_obesity_in_the_united_states.pdf
Mayo Clinic Staff, Initials. (2011, May 06). Risk factors. Retrieved from http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/obesity/DS00314/DSECTION=risk-factors
Hemolytic Disease of the Newborn (HDN) is also called erythroblastosis fetalis. This condition occurs when there is an incompatibility between the blood types of the mother and baby. "Hemolytic" means breaking down of red blood cells; "erythroblastosis" refers to making of immature red blood cells; "fetalis" refers to fetus (alker et al. 1957).
HDN most frequently occurs when an Rh negative mother has a baby with an Rh positive father. hen the baby's Rh factor is positive, like the father's, problems can develop if the baby's red blood cells cross to the Rh negative mother (Issit & Anstee 1998). This usually happens at delivery when the placenta detaches. However, it may also happen anytime blood cells of the two circulations mix, such as during a miscarriage or abortion, with a fall, or during an invasive prenatal testing procedure (i.e., an amniocentesis or chorionic villus sampling).
The mother's immune system sees…
Frigoletto, F., et al. "Ultrasonographic fetal surveillance in the management of the isoimmunized pregnancy." New England Journal of Medicine 315-1986: 430-32.
Issit, P. & Anstee, D. Applied Blood Group Serology, 4th Edition. Durham, NC: Montgomery
Scientific Publications, 1998.
Judd, W., et al. "Prenatal and perinatal immunohematology: recommendations for serologic management of the fetus, newborn infant, and obstetric patient." Transfusion 30, 1990: 175-83.
Pulmonary Disease and Exercise
Exercise may benefit pulmonary patients in a variety of ways. Pulmonary patients however face many unique challenges to exercising that other disease patients do not.
Pulmonary disease may affect the lungs and in a variety of manners. The condition includes respiratory disorders such as emphysema, chronic bronchitis and pulmonary hypertension. In the article "Comparison of Specific Expiratory, Inspiratory, and Combined Muscle Training Programs in COPD" from Chest Journal, Dr. Weiner and his colleagues explore the idea that weakness within the respiratory muscles may actually contribute to shortness of breathe, which in turn may limit the ability of patients with this disorder to exercise regularly at a significant pace (Weiner, 2003). In a second article, "Comparison of Effects of Strength Endurance Training in Patients with COPD, from the American Journal of Respiratory and Critical care, Francisco Ortega and colleagues examined the effects of different exercise modalities as…
Weiner, Paltiel, MD; Magadle, Rasmi, MD; Beckerman, Marinalla MD., Weiner,
Margalit PhD and Berar-Yanay, Noa, MD. "Comparison of Specific Expiratory, Inspiratory, and Combined Muscle Training Programs in COPD" Chest. 2003;124:1357-1364 Retrieved from, http://www.chestjournal.org/cgi/content/abstract/124/4/1357
Ortega, Francisco. Toral, Javier. Cejudo, Pilar, Villagomez, Rafael. Sanchez, Hildegard.
Castillo, Jose and Montemayor, Teodoro. Comparison of Effects of Strength and Endurance Training in Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care MedicineVol 166. pp. 669-674, 2002. Retrieved from, http://ajrccm.atsjournals.org/cgi/content/abstract/166/5/669
Alterations of Hematology and Cardiovascular Systems
Sickle Cell Anemia
Ms. A is suffering from Sickle cell anemia. In this disease, the red blood cells appear in the shape of sickles or letter C. The normal red blood cells are disk-shaped. The disk-shape allows them to move smoothly in the blood vessels. Normal red blood cells have hemoglobin. The hemoglobin is responsible the red color. It helps in the transportation of oxygen. Sickle cells, on the other hand, have abnormally low hemoglobin, which results in the C-shape. This form is sticky and stiff and so cannot move easily through the blood vessels. Ms. A's condition was a case of Menorrhagia as well as dysmenorrhea. The sickle cells lump together and block the flow of blood through the blood vessels leading to the organs and the limbs. Such blocked blood vessels may lead to pain, infections and even organ damage (Health 24,…
Health24. (2014, APRIL 30). The seven types of anaemia. Retrieved from Health24.com: http://www.health24.com/Lifestyle/Your-Blood/Anaemia-20130216-2
UoM. (n.d.). Sickle cell disease. Retrieved from University of maryland: https://umm.edu/health/medical/reports/articles/sickle-cell-disease
Lyme Disease and Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA)
This text will concern itself with Lyme disease and methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). In so doing, it will not only give the description and epidemiology of the concerns, but also the etiology and prevention strategies. Further, diagnosis as well as treatment options and prognosis will be highlighted.
1. Lyme Disease
Description and Etiology
Described as an illness that is often debilitating, Lyme disease, as the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention- CDC (2018) points out, “is caused by the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi and is transmitted to humans through the bite of infected blacklegged ticks.” It is important to note that in addition to the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi, blacklegged ticks are capable of transmitting what are commonly referred to as coinfections, i.e. a variety of other disease-causing parasites as well as viruses and bacteria. Those living in wooded areas have a high likelihood…
moking and Lung Disease
moking is a hazardous habit that has the ability to greatly affect the health of the smoker and those that are close to them. The purpose of this discussion is to investigate smoking and lung disease. The discussion will focus on possible community health nursing interventions/teaching strategies. We will also use Orem's nursing model to describe the community, its health issue/problem, and proposed interventions.
Community and Health issue
The community in question is Grady County which is located in Chickasha, Oklahoma. moking is a prevalent problem in this community and people are seemingly unaware of the health consequences related to smoking. The reason why this issue was chosen was due to my mother having evere Emphysema and the effects this disease has on her, also because of the impact that second hand smoking can have on non-smokers For example, I am Deathly Allergic to moking. My…
Sources, and Consumption Values of Teenagers: Implications for Public Policy and Other Intervention Failures. Journal of Consumer Affairs, 36(1), 50+.
American Lung Asociation. 2005. http://www.lungusa.org/site/apps/s/content.asp?c=dvLUK9O0E& ; b=34706& ct=910873
Cigarette Smoking and Cancer, 2004. National Cancer Institute. http://cis.nci.nih.gov/fact/10_14.htm
Nicotene Addiction. (National Institute on Drug Abuse. Research Reporthttp://www.drugabuse.gov/PDF/NicotineRR.pdf
Causes of Chronic Bronchitis in Workers
This review shows the literature and research available in the issue of respiratory diseases and the various occupations. The review shows that there is a pressing need to evaluate and conduct research in the known areas like coal, cement, and pesticides, but alarmingly agriculture and other industries have also to be included.
It is not only the factories that are hazardous. There are arguments to show that even farming can cause allergies. osenman (2012) in viewing "respiratory hazards that farmers and family members" argues that the grains that can be "contaminated with fungi, bacteria or microbial toxins; pesticides; solvents; gasoline and diesel fuels; and irritant gases such as oxides of nitrogen and ammonia." This may lead to occupational asthma and the allergens in such cases could be grain dust, cow dander, cow urine, egg yolk proteins, alternaria, aspergillus, cladosporium, meal worm, poultry mites, fungi,…
Attfield, Michael D; Hodous, Thomas K. (1992) "Pulmonary Function of U.S. Coal Miners
Related to Dust Exposure Estimates" Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med, vol. 145, no. 3, pp: 605-609.
Baumgartner, Kathy B; Samet, Jonathan M; Coultas, David B; Stidley, Christine A; et al.
(1999) "Occupational and Environmental Risk Factors for Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis: A Multicenter Case-Control Study" American Journal of Epidemiology, vol. 152, no. 4, pp: 307-315.
The intense pulmonary microvasculature branching runs parallel with lung development; however, detailed understanding of their interactions and interactions with various growth factors is elusive (www.emedicine.com).
hat causes BPD is unique to each neonatal situation. However, high levels of extra oxygen can harm the lungs, cause inflammation, and slow or stop the lung growth in babies born very early. Babies who need a high level of extra oxygen for a period of time may develop BPD. Babies who cannot breathe on their own have breathing failure. Many of these babies are put on a breathing machine to help them breathe. The pressure that the machine uses to push the air can irritate the airways and the lungs and cause them to become more inflamed. Also babies can be exposed to infections both in the womb and after birth. Infections in babies born early can harm their less formed lungs and cause…
Driscoll, W. (2003). Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia. Emedicine. Retrieved February
3, 2005 from the World Wide Web: http;//www.emedicine.com.PED/topic289.htm.
What is Bronchopulmonary Dyplasia? National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute Diseases and Conditions Index. Retrieved February 3, 2005 from the World Wide Web: http://www.
It has also been suggested that low-level viral replication associated with SV may be a driver in chronic inflammation in some sufferers of chronic lung disease, although this is so far uncertain (Openshaw, 2005). It is estimated that infants who develop a wheeze as a result of SV contraction develop a recurring wheeze in around two thirds of all cases. It is also estimated that around half of these children will develop some form of asthma (Lehtinen et al., 2007). It is unclear why there are some who experience delayed onset of SV, although both immune 'imprinting' and viral persistence have been implicated (Openshaw and Tregoning, 2005).
The condition is diagnosed through rapid antigen-detection tests. It is difficult to diagnose SV in adults as the tests are insensitive in persons other than children, and practitioners rarely request tests for SV in adults. This means that it is difficult to…
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2005) Respiratory Syncytial Virus. National Center for Infectious Diseases: Respiratory and Enteric Viruses Branch. Retrieved on November 11, 2007, at http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dvrd/revb/respiratory/rsvfeat.htm .
Feltes, T.F. And Sondheimer, H.M. (2006) Palivizumab and the prevention of respiratory syncytial virus illness in pediatric patients with congenital heart disease. Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy, 7(9): 1471-1480.
Flynn, J.D., Akers, W.S., Jones, M., Stevkovic, N., Waid, T., Mullett, T. And Jahania, S. (2004) Treatment of Respiratory Syncytial Virus pneumonia in a lung transplant recipient: Case report and review of literature. Pharmacotherapy. Retrieved on November 11, 2007, at http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/482817?src=mp .
Health-Cares.net (2005) "How is RSV infection diagnosed?" Retrieved on November 11, 2007, at http://respiratory-lung.health-cares.net/rsv-infection-diagnosis.php .
McClure Case Study
Patient Overview -- Patient, Mr. M., is 49 years old and has smoked for 25 years, quit three years ago when diagnosed with emphysema. He indicates he as shortness of breath for the past 48 hours, with sputum so thick he has difficulty coughing it out. Skin is warm and dry with slight clubbing of fingers noted. Lung sounds diminished with crackles and expiratory wheezes and barrel chest. Vitals are 101.8 Temp, pule 110, respiratory 32, BP 150/82. Blood gases show decreased O2 and increased C02 with an increase in red blood cells and twice the normal white cells.
M's risk factors for emphysema are high. Smoking for so long contributed to decrease of long function and is an abnormal dilation and destruction of the alveolar ducts and air spaces in the lungs. It usually occurs in people over 50, so Mr. M is at the lower…
Cash, J. And Glass, C. (2011). Family Practice Guidelines. New York: Springer.
Dains, J., et al. (2012). Advanced Health Assessment & Clinical Diagnosis in Primary Care.
St. Louis, MO: Mosby/Elsevier.
Mortelli, M., et al. (2002). Acute respirator distress syndrome. American Family Physician. 65 (9): 1823-30.
Dermatology- The dermatology department deals mostly with skin related illnesses. The most common issues within this department pertain to skin, scalp, hair and nails. Many of our clients are female with more cosmetic needs. Many would like to retain their youthful appearance and believe minor surgery is the best solution. As such, our departments offer many cosmetic treatments including hair removal, hair transplants, laser therapy and tattoo removal. This past fiscal year has been quite difficult as many of our affluent clients have postponed treatment due to economic concerns with the U.S. We believe this trend to be transitory in nature, with a steady increase in treatments to occur in early 2012.
Oncology- The oncology department pertains mostly to cancer, its detection and diagnosis. The most common diseases in this department are various forms of cancer with the most common being breast cancer. We have recently overhauled our…
She should take drugs for rapid onset of symptoms only when called for but drugs that keep her level as time goes on should be taken consistently (Brasher, 2012).
The girl needs to not mow the lawn anymore or otherwise expose herself to situations that can lead to attacks (Brasher, 2012).
2. Chapter 6: COPD
The patient should be asked if she is currently smoking, is around someone that is smoking or has a closely-related person (a parent in particular) that does. The patient should be asked if she or anyone in her family has a history of heart issues (due to the ankle swelling combined with the shortness of breath). Should be asked if there have been any notable changes in weight in either direction and whether there is any sputum or other symptoms (Brasher, 2012).
The patient should be asked how long…
Asthma - PubMed Health. (n.d.). National Center for Biotechnology Information.
Retrieved August 25, 2012, from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed health/PMH0001196/
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease - PubMed Health. (n.d.). National Center for Biotechnology Information. Retrieved August 25, 2012, from
Transcription aspects (NFkB and activator pro- tein-1) might then be launched causing the manufacturing and launch of inflammatory cytokines (TNF-, IL-1, and IL-6), proteases, and arachidonic acid metabolites (leukotriene-B4, prostaglandin E2). When alveolar macrophages including silica die launch silica bits that are then re-engulfed by various other alveolar macrophages, they end up causing a cycle of injury. This cycle is accompanied by the motion of neutrophils and lymphocytes to the locations of injury leading to additional inflammatory modifications. Inflammatory cytokines consisting of interleukin 1 (IL-1), growth necrosis aspect-, arachidonic acid metabolites (eg, leukotrienes), and chemokines such as IL-8, macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-2, MIP-1, MIP-1, and monocyte chemoattractant proteins all seem associated with this inflammatory process. In addition, macrophage- obtained fibrogenic aspects such as platelet-derived development elements, transforming development elements (TGF) - and - epidermal development aspect, and insulin-like development factor-1 are launched as the body starts reparative measures. A continuous…
Muetterties M, O'Halloran Schwarz L, Wang R. Sandblasters. In: Greenberg M, editor. Occupational, Industrial, and Environmental Toxicology, 2nd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Mosby, 2003.
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). Work-Related Lung Disease Surveillance Report 2002. Publication No. 2003-111; Cincinnati, OH: National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 2003.
Cassel SL, Eisenbarth SC, Iyer SS, et al. (June 2008). "The Nalp3 inflammasome is essential for the development of silicosis." Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105 (26): 9035.
Rees D, and Murray J. Silica, silicosis and tuberculosis. International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, 2007; 11: 474 -- 84.
Its use on those with acute PAH should be performed with caution. The complication rate was observed at 2%
in patients with acute PAH. The use of the procedure was deemed relatively safe for chronic pulmonary arterial hypertension. Severely ill patients should be subjected to non-invasive imaging method exhaustively before resorting to pulmonary angiography (Hofman et al.).#
Albert, Nancy M. Caring for Patients with Pulmonary Hypertension. Nursing:
Springhouse Corporation, May 1999. Retrieved on April 25, 2009 from http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3689/is_199905/ai_n8846566/?tag=content;col1
adesch, David, et al. Medical Therapy for Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension.
131 (6). Chest: American College of Chest Physicians, July 20, 2007. Retrieved on April 25, 2009 from http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/560041
Flattery, Maureen P. And Kathy M. aker. Evidence for Racial Disparity in Cardiac
Transplantation Survival Rates. Journal of Cultural Diversity: Tucker Publications,
March 22, 2004. Retrieved on April 26, 2009 from http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m)MJU/is_1_11/ai_n6183827/?tag=content;col1
Hofman, Lawrence V., et al. Safety and Hemodynamic Effects of Pulmonary…
Albert, Nancy M. Caring for Patients with Pulmonary Hypertension. Nursing:
Springhouse Corporation, May 1999. Retrieved on April 25, 2009 from http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3689/is_199905/ai_n8846566/?tag=content;col1
Badesch, David, et al. Medical Therapy for Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension.
131 (6). Chest: American College of Chest Physicians, July 20, 2007. Retrieved on April 25, 2009 from http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/560041
.'s secretions, administration of I.V. fluids to keep B.. hydrated, and, prior to hospitalization, the administration of albuterol.
B..'s breathing was labored and was not significantly improved by the interventions, although suctioning to clear the airways and the introduction of oxygen ensured adequate oxygen intake. Postiaux et al. found that the addition of prolonged slow expirations and provoked coughs could contribute "actively to a direct and immediate drainage of secretions" (2011). This might have helped alleviate "some bronchial obstruction symptoms that are usually associated with an increased load of breathing, due to a positive intrathoracic pressure and an increased respiratory rate" (Postiaux et al., 2011).
Potential Long-Term Effects / Complications
An early and severe infection with SV bronchiolitis is associated with breathing difficulties such as asthma, wheezing, and atopy later in life (Todd et al., 2010). Whether the SV causes these problems or whether a common factor makes infants more…
Essouri, S., Durand, P., Chevret, L., Balu, L., Devictor, D., Fauroux, B., & Tissieres, P. (2011).
Optimal level of nasal continuous positive airway pressure in severe viral bronchiolitis. Intensive Care Medicine, 37, 2002-2007.
Fitzgerald, D. (2011). Viral bronchiolitis for the clinician. Journal of Paediatrics and Child
Health, 47, 160-166.
Nursing Diagnosis Plan
Assessment Analysis- Patient, CM., is a 60-year-old female African-American, married and a factory worker. CM is complaining about difficulty breathing, dyspnea. She indicates she is completely compliant with her medication regimen, naps and sleeps 7 hours a day. She is active, has a positive attitude, and regularly exercises. She does admit that sometimes she waits to seek medical attention, believing she should trust in God for minor issue. She does not take OTC or herbal medications and her immunizations are up-to-date. She denies use of alcohol, tobacco, or illicit drugs. Her pharmaceutical regimen consists of control of heart issues (aneurysm, artery disease, COPD, vein thrombosis, hypertension, aortic aneurysm; arthritis, seizures, and diabetes). She is emotionally stable, plans to continue working for at least 7 more years, and has a positive attitude.
Areas for Focused Assessment- CM has visited the hospital four times in the last two weeks.…
Treatment with Daliresp. (2012). Forest Pharmaceuticals. Retrieved from: http://www.daliresp.com/TreatmentWithDALIRESP.aspx?WT.srch=1&guid=363952239
Sarkar, S. And Amelung, P. (2006). Evaluation of the Dyspneic Patient in the Office. Primary Care. 33 (3): 643-57.
The sores may last 3-10 days and are infectious. ecurrent infections are usually mild and caused by stress, sun, menstrual periods, trauma or physical stress. Oral and maxillofacial are not significantly involved in their cure. However they do treat herpes when they become more problematic and dangerous such as with HIV or cancer-related immune suppression
6. Burning mouth syndrome (BMS)
This is when there is a burning sensation on lips, teeth, mouth, or gums. It has been linked to various conditions such as menopause, dry mouth and allergies and often occurs in middle-aged women. Derivatives may be anxiety, depression and social isolation. The field of oral and maxillofacial pathology still has found no cure for this and treatment includes hydrating agents, pain medications, vitamin supplements or the usage of antidepressants. (Elad et al. 2010).
This condition is indicated by the tongue being fissured and is often common in smokers and…
ADA.org: Dentistry Definitions.
The Academy of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology (AAOMP)
In 1896, the pediatrician Dr. Antoine Bernard-Jean Marfan described the exceptionally long, slender limbs and physique of a 5-year-old girl, Gabrielle P., in front of the Medical Society of the Hospital of Paris (Enersen). It is unknown whether Gabrielle P. actually suffered from what is now known to be Marfan syndrome, but Dr. Henricus Jacubus Marie eve was recognized as the first person to use the term 'Marfan syndrome' to describe this common genetic disorder.
In the decades leading up to Dr. eve's use of Marfan syndrome to describe a patient's symptoms in 1931, other physicians had begun to document their encounters with this disease with the benefit of radiological images (Enersen). Drs. Henri Mery and Leon Baonneix studied Gabrielle P. anew using this new technology in 1902 and noted a misaligned spine, thoracic asymmetry, long digits, cardiovascular abnormalities, and dislocation of the ocular lens. During the same…
Beighton, Peter. Inherited Disorders of the Skeleton. New York, NY: Churchill Livingstone, 1978. Print.
Dean, John C.S. "Marfan Syndrome: Clinical Diagnosis and Management." European Journal of Human Genetics, 15.7 (2007): 724-733. Web. 5 Aug. 2012.
Enersen, Ole Daniel. Antoine Bernard-Jean Marfan. WhoNamedIt.com. n.p., 1994-2012. Web. 5 Aug. 2012.
England, Ellen. "What is Dural Ectasia?" MarfanLife.org. n.p., n.d. Web. 5 Aug. 2012.
Gingivitis is a mild form of periodontal disease. It causes irritation, redness, and inflammation of the gums and can be so mild that individuals may not even be aware they have it (Mayo Clinic staff, 2011). Many people have it to a varying degree because it often develops during puberty or early adulthood due to hormonal changes (osenberg, 2010). It is important to take gingivitis seriously, however, because, left untreated, it can lead to periodontitis, a more severe form of gum disease. Eventually, tooth loss can result.
Gingivitis is commonly caused by poor oral hygiene, but can result from a number of other conditions, including diabetes, depressed immune system (for example, as a result of HIV / AIDS or leukemia), certain viral and fungal infections, and hormonal changes such as those related to puberty, as already mentioned, or with pregnancy or the use of oral contraceptives. Gingivitis can also result…
Mayo Clinic staff. (2011, Nov 18). Mayoclinic. Retrieved from http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/gingivitis/DS00363
Rosenberg, D. (2010, 22 2). Gingivitis. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed health/PMH0002051/
Advance Nursing Practice
In order to sustain life, the human body has to have oxygen. When a person cannot breathe, or there is not enough oxygen coming into the body through the act of breathing, it is not possible for life to continue. The respiratory system is what provides the person with the opportunity to breathe and take in oxygen. Carbon dioxide is also expelled that same way. If oxygen is not received, the brain cells will start dying, followed by other cells, organs, and tissues. Addressed here is a case study dealing with the respiratory system, conditions it may face, and how those issues can be treated.
Patient Initials: Unknown Age: 65 yo Sex: Female
Client Complaints: The patient complains of a dry cough that is rarely productive. She has had the cough for two weeks, and for the last two days has also been running a…
American Lung Association (2014). COPD: Symptoms, diagnosis and treatment. Retrieved from http://www.lung.org/lung-disease/copd/about-copd/symptoms-diagnosis-treatment.html
Buttaro, T.M., Trybulski, J., Baily, P.P., & Sandburg-Cook, J. (2013). Primary care: A collaborative practice (4th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Elsevier/Mosby.
Cenzon, M. (2014). Emphysema and chronic bronchitis. Retrieved from http://www.symptomfind.com/health/emphysema-chronic-bronchitis/
Mayo Clinic Staff. (2014). Oral thrush. Retrieved from http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/oral-thrush/basics/basics/definition/con-20022381?_ga=1.193450093.1798610931.1412555487
enefits After Quitting Smoking
Among the many health risks that toll life, smoking is considered as the most preventable cause of mortality. Globally, smoking has been one of the principal factors that lead to diverse type of diseases, such as cancer, coronary heart disease, lung disease, and many others. The number of smokers worldwide grows everyday, both in developed and developing countries. According to Karl Fagerstrom's Epidemiology of Smoking, from a 1995 estimate, the rate of smoking-related mortality will grow from 3 million to 10 million annually by 2030.
In response to the risks that smoking causes to the increasing number of smokers', many health organizations worldwide conduct different programs that are hoped to minimize and prevent people from smoking. This includes the provision of enough information on the effects of smoking to one's health, as well as information on how to quit from the smoking habit.
Many research and…
Fagerstrom, Karl. "The Epidemiology of Smoking."
Fagerstrom Consulting (2002): 1-9.
Benefits of Quitting Smoking."
Texas Medical Association. 02 April 2004. http://www.texmed.org/cme/phn/ndt/benefits_quitting.asp
However, pulmonary air leaks are, naturally, leaks of air from the lungs, and these can be quite severe. In general, they can lead to chronic lung disease and other problems. hen babies have a significant amount of respiratory distress, pulmonary air leaks are often associated with it. One of the reasons that this takes place is that there is not enough surfactant in the lungs and when this coating is missing air is able to escape more easily. In babies that are full-term this is generally not a problem but preterm babies often have not made enough surfactant and their lungs are not yet prepared to handle the intake and exhalation of air correctly. Utilizing different types of surfactant is one of the ways that PAL can be treated because the coating on the inside of the lungs will help stop air from escaping. There are different types of surfactants…
Works Cited pediatics.aapublications.org. (1997). A Multicenter Randomized Masked Comparison Trial of Synthetic Surfactant vs. Calf Lung Surfactant Extract in the Prevention of Neonatal Respiratory Distress Syndrome. Retrieved 9 February 2005 at http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/cgi/content/full/100/1/39 www.nichd.nih.gov.(2004). Rescue high frequency oscillatory ventilation vs. conventional ventilation for pulmonary dysfunction in preterm infants. Retrieved 9 February 2005 at http://www.nichd.nih.gov/cochraneneonatel/DHS8/DHS.HTM .
The two most common ways are sedated infants and those that are born by cesarean section. Some of the other things that might cause transient tachypnea in the newborn are asthma in the mother, macrosomia of the fetus, and labor intervals that are abnormally long (www.emedicine.com,2004).
The main symptoms of transient tachypnea of the newborn include a fast breathing rate, retractions, flaring of the nostrils, and making grunting sounds during breathing, although each baby may experience these symptoms differently, and have some symptoms but not all of them. Generally, this depends of the severity of the condition. Sometimes, however, the symptoms that come with the condition mimic those of other problems that may be more serious, and a proper diagnosis is essential. This is usually done with a chest x-ray, although there is still no real guarantee. The symptoms of transient tachypnea of the newborn, however, are generally always resolved…
Works Cited www.readinghospital.org.(2005). Transient tachypnea of the newborn. Retrieved 7 February 2005 at http://www.readinghospital.org/content/greystone_3959.asp .
A www.emedicine.com (2004). Transient tachypnea of the newborn. Retrieved 7 February 2005 at http://www.emedicine.com/radio/topic710.htm .
espiratory distress syndrome (DS) in preterm infants/Neonates
Prophylactic and early surfactant administration
Later surfactant administration
O: educed mortality and pulmonary complications (Bronchopulmonary dysplasia-BPD and other)
Surfactant therapy involves intervention via various methods like oxygen, CPAP, mechanical ventilation, and surfactant. Many ask if surfactant therapy works. They also ask what is the ideal dose and when to administer the dose. Too much and too late could cause problems versus early with a low dose. When surfactant was introduced in neonatology, it reduced VLBW infant deaths by 30%. Surfactant use two decades ago also led to an 80% decline in neonatal mortality in the United States.
However, surfactant can fail and normally does so because of certain factors like when infants are extremely preterm and developed poorly structured longs and when there an infant develops perinatal asphyxia. When those factors are not present, surfactant reduces incidence of PDA, sepsis pneumonia, and most…
Stevens, T., Blennow, M., Myers, E., & Soll, R. (2010). Cochrane review: Early surfactant administration with brief ventilation vs. selective surfactant and continued mechanical ventilation for preterm infants with or at risk for respiratory distress syndrome. Evid.-Based Child Health, 5(1), 82-115. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ebch.519
Interstitial lung disease is a blanket term for a big group of disorders categorized by progressive scarring of both the lung tissue supporting and between the air sacs. This tissue is called the interstitium. The interstitium consists of the region between the alveolar space and the capillaries. The scarring causes inflammation and damage in the lung tissue followed by lung stiffness, meaning the air sacs cannot expand as much as before. Lung stiffness makes it harder to breathe. People affected by the condition are not able to get enough oxygen from the lungs into their bloodstream.
Although some potential causes have been researched, there may be no underlying cause for development of interstitial lung disease. If there is no known cause, it is called idiopathic interstitial lung disease. IPF or idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis remains the most common type of this illness. Of the causes most widely recognized, cigarette smoking is…
Fischer, A. & du Bois, R. (2012). Interstitial lung disease in connective tissue disorders. The Lancet,380(9842), 689-698. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0140-6736 (12)61079-4
Maher, T. (2014). Current and Emerging Treatment Options in Interstitial Lung Disease. Pulmonary Manifestations Of Rheumatic Disease, 193-216. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4939-0770-0_14
Moazedi-Fuerst, F., Kielhauser, S., Brickmann, K., Tripolt, N., Meilinger, M., Lufti, A., & Graninger, W. (2015). Sonographic assessment of interstitial lung disease in patients with rheumatoid arthritis, systemic sclerosis and systemic lupus erythematosus. Clinical And Experimental Rheumatology,33(4 Suppl 91), S87-91. Retrieved from http://europepmc.org/abstract/med/25665185
Cigarette smoking is the major cause of cancers of the lung, mouth, larynx, esophagus, and pharynx. In addition, cigarette smoking is a contributing cause of cancers of the stomach, colon, rectum, bladder, pancreas, uterine cervix, and kidney. Finally, cigarette smoking is a contributing factor in some leukemias. Currently, cigarette smoking is responsible for approximately 180,000 cancer deaths every year. However, quitting smoking immediately can reduce the risk of cancer. Ten years after quitting smoking, an ex-smoker's risk of lung cancer is about half that of a current smokers. Furthermore, quitting smoking reduces the risk of developing cancers of the mouth, esophagus, throat, bladder, cervix, and pancreas within a ten-year period.
Finally, cigarette smoking increases the risk of heart disease. Heart disease is the number one cause of death in America, and smoking cigarettes is the number one risk factor for heart disease. Smoking is the main cause of sudden heart…
Financial and Economic Impact of Worker's Compensation egulations And Compliance
The program and concept of Workers' Compensation might appear to be a product of a civilized society and the modern era, but nothing could be further from the truth. In fact, Workers' Compensation has essentially been around for as long as people have been completing task for payment of some form of another, because people have always been getting hurt in some way, on the job. "The history of compensation for bodily injury begins shortly after the advent of written history itself1. The Nippur Tablet No. 3191 from ancient Sumeria in the Fertile Crescent outlines the law of Ur-Nammu, king of the city-state of Ur. It dates to approximately 2050 B.C.2. The law of Ur provided monetary compensation for specific injury to workers' body parts, including fractures. The code of Hammurabi from 1750 B.C. provided a similar set of rewards…
Benyamin, R., Buenaventura,, . R., Datta, S., & Adlaka, R. (2008). Opioid Complications and Side Effects. Pain Physician, S106-S111.
Boggs, C. (2008, July 29). Workers' Compensation History: The Great Tradeoff! Retrieved from mynewmarkets.com: http://www.mynewmarkets.com/articles/91833/workers-compensation-history-the-great-tradeoff
Ceniceros, R. (2012, December 12). State reduces workers comp opioid prescriptions. Retrieved from Businessinsurance.com: http://www.businessinsurance.com/article/99999999/NEWS080102/399999826
Eley, L. (n.d.). FEDERAL AGENCY HELPS COAL MINERS DETECT BLACK LUNG DISEASE. Retrieved from Denversworkerscompensationattorney.com: http://www.denverworkerscompensationattorney.com/2011/03/federal-agency-helps-coal-miners-detect-black-lung-disease.shtml
Structure and Function of the Respiratory System
Forty-five-year-old Brad has, ever since the age of 20, been working in the mines in the post of coal cutter. He is happy with his job as he earns a good wage and his father also worked in the very same mine. Akin to several co-workers of his, he suffers from chronic cough. However, Brad has neglected going for yearly health checks as is required for mine workers owing to his fear of being diagnosed with “black lung” (i.e., coal worker pneumoconiosis). This ailment results in fibrosis, lasting dilation of the small airways, and reduced diffusing capability. At more advanced stages of the disease, alveoli, airways and pulmonary capillaries get destroyed.
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
COPD has been described as a persistent inflammatory lung ailment which obstructs flow of air from the patient’s lungs. Disease symptoms include difficulties in breathing, wheezing,…
The author of this report has been asked to assess the medical condition and prognosis for John Smith. John is a sixty-eight years old and has a pretty good array of medical problems. He has had psoriasis for more than a generation and the ointments he has been using to treat it have become ineffective. Beyond that, the psoriasis is spreading to parts of his body that have not been trouble areas before. His son Patrick asserts that he believes that the psoriasis is to the point that it is contagious. While John is facing some challenges, there are things that can be done and this includes properly education both John and Patrick.
Straight off the top, the assertion by Patrick that the psoriasis is "contagious" is patently and absolutely false. Psoriasis is never contagious and there is not a chance that anyone around John will "catch" it.…
WebMD. (2015). Adult Vaccines TOC. WebMD. Retrieved 8 October 2015, from http://www.webmd.com/vaccines/default.htm
WebMD. (2015). Causes of High Blood Pressure. WebMD. Retrieved 8 October 2015, from http://www.webmd.com/hypertension-high-blood-pressure/guide/blood-pressure-causes
WebMD. (2015). Heart Disease Health Center. WebMD. Retrieved 8 October 2015, from http://www.webmd.com/heart-disease/default.htm
WebMD. (2015). Lung Disease & Respiratory Health Health Center - Symptoms, Causes, Treatments. WebMD. Retrieved 8 October 2015, from http://www.webmd.com/lung/default.htm
Direct to Consumer Advertising
HISTRY F DRUG ADVERTISING
THE DTC ADVERTISING PHENMENN
DECEPTIVE ADVERTISING - A WLF IN SHEEP'S CLTHING
CAUSE F DEATH
UTILIZATIN, PRICING, AND DEMGRAPHICS
LEGISLATIN, PLITICS AND PATENTS
LEGISLATIVE INITIATIVES REGARDING DTC
RECALLED and/or DEADLY DRUGS
In order to provide the most efficient method of evaluation, the study will utilize existing stores of qualitative and quantitative data from reliable sources, such as U.S. Government statistical references, University studies, and the studies and publications of non-profit and consumer oriented organizations. Every attempt will be made to avoid sources of information sponsored by or directly influenced by the pharmaceutical industry.
Existing data regarding the history, levels, content and growth of direct-to-consumer advertising will be examined. In addition, the industry's composition prior to and after the proliferation of direct-to-consumer advertising will be examined, with regard to market share, type of substances sold, benefits of substances sold, and…
On January 9, 2002, Dr. Darlene Jody, Vice President of Medical Marketing for Bristol-Myers Squibb, issued a manufacturer's "Important Drug Warning Including Black Box Information." The Important Drug Warning advises healthcare practitioners that "cases of life-threatening hepatic failure have been reported in patients treated with SERZONE." The manufacturer's Warning indicates that numerous persons have or will suffer liver failure, death or transplantation. The manufacturer's Warning also indicates that the current estimate of the rate of liver failure associated with Serzone use is "about 3-4 times the estimated background rate of liver failure." A new Warning is being added to the Serzone prescribing information, advising that "patients should be advised to be alert for signs and symptoms of liver dysfunction (jaundice, anorexia, gastrointestinal complaints, malaise, etc.) and to report them to their doctor immediately if they occur." According to Warnings, Serzone should be promptly discontinued if signs or symptoms suggest liver failure.
Vioxx belongs to a class of drugs known as COX-2 inhibitors. When the drugs were introduced a few years ago, COX-2 inhibitors were thought to be safer and more effective than other drugs such as Aspirin and Ibuprofen. However, several studies have questioned the cardiovascular safety of Vioxx. Studies indicate that people taking Vioxx have four times the risk of a heart attack.
In May 2002, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) published a Talk Paper about new label warnings for the popular arthritis and pain drug know as Vioxx (rofecoxib). The new label warnings are based on the results of the Vioxx Gastrointestinal Outcomes Research (VIGOR). According to the FDA, recent studies demonstrate that Vioxx is associated with a higher rate of serious cardiovascular thromboembolic adverse events (such as heart attacks, angina pectoris, and peripheral vascular events). Based on the recent study, the FDA agreed with the Arthritis Advisory Committee recommendations February 8, 2001 that the label for Vioxx include gastrointestinal and cardiovascular warning information. Serious side effects attributed to Vioxx are heart attacks, seizures, strokes, or liver/kidney problems. http://www.recalleddrugs.com
independent and dependant variables in any given population. One type of research design is that of the quantitative design. In quantitative research, the goal is to determine specific relationships, and as such, all research is either considered descriptive, where subjects are measured once, or experimental, where subjects are measured before and after a specific treatment or event (Hoover, Donovan, 2004). In descriptive studies, only observation is used, whereas in experimental designs, actual manipulation of variables occurs.
This paper will focus on two types of quantitative design, those of the cross-sectional design and the longitudinal design. Both types of design are considered to be descriptive in nature, in that no manipulation of variables is done (Woolf, 1998). However, each type has its own advantages and disadvantages, each of which will be discussed.
A cross sectional design study is, as noted, a type of quantitative research design known as a descriptive design.…
Community Foundation, Silicon Valley. (2003). Giving Back: A Practitioner's Toolkit. Palo Alto, CA: Community Foundation of Silicon Valley.
Gliner, J. (2000). Research Methods in Applied Settings: An Integrated Approach to Design and Analysis. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Hoover, K. And Donovan, T. (2004). The Elements of Social Scientific Thinking, 8/e. Florence, KY: Wadsworth.
Hopkins, W.G. (2000). Quantitative research design. Sportscience, 4(1): 90-92.
Four of the former workers have been accepted on lung transplant lists, and doctors say that some are functioning on less than a third of a working lung (Armour pp).
The eight workers with severe lung disease had worked in the microwave-popcorn packaging or mixing areas, which are connected by doors, where salt, soybean oil and flavorings are blended into a heated tank (Armour pp). According to NIOSH employees who worked in the microwave popcorn production inhaled higher concentrations of butter flavoring, and seem to have more breathing problems than employees who worked in offices or packaging (Armour pp).
During 1992 through 2000, NIOSH investigated another microwave popcorn factory in Missouri and found similar findings (Fixed pp). This report indicated that an estimated 133% of the 425 former workers had been mixers, 276 or 65% had worked in microwave packaging, and 32% or 136 had worked in other areas of…
Armour, Stephanie. "Is butter flavoring ruining popcorn workers' lungs?"
USA Today. June 19, 2002. Retrieved September 20, 2005 at http://www.usatoday.com/money/general/2002/06/20/popcorn-factory.htm
Fixed Obstructive Lung Disease in Workers at a Microwave Popcorn Factory:
Missouri, 2000 -- 2002. Retrieved September 20, 2005 at http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm5116a2.htm
Healthy People 2020 and Tobacco Use
The Healthy People 2020 initiative provides a set of goals to improve the health of American citizens. The science-based goals set out ten-year targets to be achieved by 2020 across a wide range of health issues. One health issue included in the initiative is tobacco use with a target to reduced tobacco use to a "point that it is no longer a public health problem" (DHHS, 2012).
Over the last forty years there ahs been a wealth of research examining the health impacts associated with the use of tobacco, with tobacco use being cited as being the single most preventable cause of death in the United States (DHHS, 2012). Tobacco has a negative impact on those who smoke as well as those who do not smoke but are exposed to the second hand smoke. The health problems associated with tobacco use in cancer, heart…
Center for Disease Control and Prevention, (CDC), (2005), Annual smoking-attributable mortality, years of potential life lost, and economic costs -- United States, 1995 -- 1999, MMWR, 51(14), 300-3
Center for Disease Control and Prevention, (CDC), (2012), United States Cancer Statistics (USCS), retrieved 17th March 2012 from http://apps.nccd.cdc.gov/uscs/
Frieden, Joyce, (2004, June 15), Peer pressure likely to prompt tobacco use: behavior predictors studied, Family Practice News, p66
Guilfoyle, Jessica, (2011), Toll of Tobacco in the United States of America, Campaign for Tobacco-Free Kids, retrieved 17th March 2012 from http://www.tobaccofreekids.org/research/factsheets/pdf/0072.pdf
If it is ingested it will pass through the human system without any ill effects. However silica is often associated with silicosis, a lung disease especially found in miners. The inhalation of fine silica dust in large enough quantities can lead to this disease. This is often the case in people who work in close proximity to large quantities of silica dist, such as in sandblasting. This process is explained succinctly as follows;
Silicosis is lung damage caused by breathing dust containing fine particles of crystalline silica. If silica particles are inhaled they become embedded in the lungs, the lung tissues react by developing fibrotic nodules and scarring around the trapped particles. The scare tissue makes the lungs hard and stiff. The scaring can greatly reduce the function of the lungs making it difficult and sometimes painful to breathe.
Silica Dust Exposure)
As mentioned above, silica is prevalent and even…
Lavender M. (1999) the Importance of Silica to the Modern World
Material Safety Data Sheet. Retrieved Sept. 26, 2007, at http://www.soest.hawaii.edu/krubin/MSDS/Silicontetrachloride.html
Silica. Retrieved Sept. 26, 2007, at http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1E1-silica.html
Mining on the Denniston Plateau
Towards the northwestern side of South Island of New Zealand is situated a small settlement that is known by the name of Denniston. The area formed by this settlement is the West Coast region of the country. This small town is situated on the small Mount ochfort Plateau in the mountain ranges of Papahaua, which measure around 600 meters above sea level, meanwhile the distance from Westport is 18 kilometers towards northeast.
At the start of the 20th century, the population of this small settlement was recorded to be about 2000, because of the huge coal mine that is situated quite close to where the people had settled. Speaking of now, the area has become more of a ghost town and hardly 50 people live here. It will not be wrong to say that the fate, location and history of Denniston are not very different…
Barnden, A., & Harding, J. (2005). Shredders and leaf breakdown in streams polluted by coal mining in the South Island, New Zealand. University Of Canterbury. School Of Biological Sciences..
Cashdollar, K., & Sapko, M. (2006). . -- EXPLOSION HAZARDS OF COAL DUST IN THE PRESENCE OF METHANE. Handbook For Methane Control In Mining, 147.
Greenpeace International. (2010).
Mfe.govt.nz,. (2014). Laws and treaties | Ministry for the Environment. Retrieved 21 August 2014, from http://www.mfe.govt.nz/laws/
Toward an Effective olution
In principle, the most effective solution to the tremendous problem of cigarette smoking in the U.. would simply be to impose legislation banning the manufacture, sale, or consumption of cigarettes altogether. In fact, it is impossible to justify any logical distinction between the current illegal status of marijuana (at the federal level and in almost all of the individual states) and the fact that a slightly different cultivated vegetation that is empirically linked to almost half a million preventable premature deaths annually is still perfectly legal to market at great financial profits. However, from a practical perspective, the U.. already had experience during the Prohibition era of the 1920s with the difficulties of trying to ban alcohol. In addition to widespread violation by otherwise law-abiding citizens, that ban created such a tremendous opportunity for profit associated with the black market production and distribution of alcohol that…
Anderson, S., Ling, P., and Pollay, R. "Taking Ad-vantage of Consumers: Advertising
Light Cigarettes: Reassuring and Distracting Concerned Smokers"
Social Science & Medicine, Vol. 63, No. 8 (2006): 1973-1985.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2011). Smoking and Tobacco Use: Health
emoving Smoking in the Workplace Increases Productivity
The purpose of this proposed study is to determine if removing smoking from the workplace has increased workplace productivity. The writer will explore the question by using a survey study method. The participants will include workers across the nation in varying levels of work and careers. The proposed study is designed to measure whether or not there is an increase in productivity since employers began refusing to allow smoking in the workplace environment. There are several factors involved in the study including a look at five previously published studies regarding smokers and their habits. In addition the writer explores some of the different concerns for productivity that have been studied throughout the years with regards to smokers including secondhand smoke damage, absenteeism and dollars lost. This proposal suggests the direct question of affect on productivity from the time workplaces began to ban smoking…
Robert A. Logan; Daniel R. Longo, Rethinking Anti-Smoking Media Campaigns: Two Generations of Research and Issues for the Next. Vol. 25, Journal of Health Care Finance, 06-01-1999, pp 77-90.
Gonz-z; M.L. Ballester Calabuig., Tuberculosis Related to Labor Activity in an Area of Valencia, Spain. Vol. 62 no, Journal of Environmental Health, 07-01-1999.
Greene, Robert E.; Williams, Phillip L., Indoor air quality investigation protocols.. Vol. 59, Journal of Environmental Health, 10-01-1996, pp 6(9).
Dardis, Rachel; Keane, Thomas, Risk-benefit analysis of cigarette smoking: public policy implications.. Vol. 29, Journal of Consumer Affairs, 12-01-1995, pp 351(17).
Seniors have specific oral health needs. Meeting those needs requires an increase in personal hygiene, an improvement in lifestyle habits, and an increase in oral health service use. When these core needs are met, the specific oral health issues that affect seniors can be minimized, leading to improved health outcomes. Increasing personal hygiene requires shifts in attitudes toward oral health care, access to information, and access to affordable oral health care tools that are designed specifically for seniors. Lifestyle habits have a tremendous impact on oral health. Diet, smoking status, and drug and alcohol use are all factors that impact oral health. Accessing oral health services is difficult for many seniors. Some may live in rural areas where accessing oral health is physically difficult. Others may not be covered. In fact, most seniors do not have insurance coverage for oral health care. Not being able to afford oral…
"7 Oral Health Concerns Most Common in Seniors," (2014). Retrieved online: http://www.123dentist.com/7-oral-health-concerns-most-common-in-seniors/
Lamster, I.B. (2004). Oral health care services for older adults: A looming crisis. American Journal of Public Health 94(5), 699-702. Retrieved online: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1448319/
"Oral Care," (n.d.). WebMD. Retrieved online: http://www.webmd.com/oral-health/guide/dental-care-seniors
"Toothbrush Adaptations," (2011). U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Retrieved online: http://www.mass.gov/eohhs/docs/dph/com-health/tooth-brush-adaptations.pdf
Even a person who goes up to his or her asbestos-insulated attic in an old home on a frequent basis could be at risk, especially if he or she is a smoker. Smoking, because of the damage it does to the lungs, can exacerbate the damage of breathing in asbestos (Asbestos exposure and cancer risk, 2009, The National Cancer Institute).
Step 4: Make decisions about which options to implement
Given the risk, and the increasingly vocal calls for litigation regarding asbestos-related illnesses, an even more aggressive elimination might 'pay off' in the long run for industries that continue to deal with asbestos and for building owners whose buildings contain asbestos materials and insulation. More stringent exposure-minimization procedures and safety guidelines also seem required.
Step 5: Take actions to implement the decisions: Multi-source, multi-media, multi-chemical, and multi-risk context
Even though the risk was minimal, the federal government eliminated the use of…
Asbestos. (2009). EPA. Retrieved May 10, 2009 http://www.epa.gov/asbestos/
Asbestos ban and phase out asbestos ban. (2009). EPA. Retrieved May 10, 2009
Asbestos exposure and cancer risk. (2009). The National Cancer Institute. Retrieved May 10,
Therefore, a basis is formed on which to reduce the inappropriate admissions after the correct rates are determined (estuccia, Shwartz, Ash, and Payne, 1996).
The connection between hospitalization rates and the inappropriateness of the admissions cannot be confirmed. A study of adults revealed that there was no link between the rates of hospitalization and the inappropriateness of the admission while a similar study conducted with no age limits produced contrary results. Three procedures of coronary angiography, upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, and carotid endarterectomy were used in another study to find out the relationship between the varying admission rates and their appropriateness (estuccia, Shwartz, Ash, and Payne, 1996).
It was revealed that there was more inappropriateness in high-use areas. When this study was repeated for a small area, the outcomes were quite different. This showed that inappropriateness cannot be used as a basis to find out the cause for the differing hospitalization…
Apolone G., Fellin G., Tampieri a., et al. (1997). Appropriateness of hospital use: Report from an Italian study. European Journal of Public Health Vol. 7, 1997 No. 1
Campbell J. (2001). Inappropriate admissions: thoughts of patients and referring doctors. JR Soc Med 2001;94:628-631.
Chopard P., Perneger T.V., Gaspoz J.M., Lovis C., et al. (1998). Predictors of inappropriate hospital days in a department of internal medicine. International Journal of Epidemiology 1998:27.513-519
Chopard P., Gaspoz J.M., Lovis C., et al. (1998). Predictors of inappropriate hospital days in a department of internal medicine. International Journal of Epidemiology, Volume 27, Number 3, June 1998, pp. 513-519(7).
respiratory assessment is usually carried out if a patient experiences abnormal breath sound, shortness of breath, cyanosis, nasal flaring, rapid or slow breathing, and restlessness and anxiety among other symptoms. This type of assessment comprises different steps inspection, palpation, auscultation, and percussion. Once these assessment techniques for examining respiratory problems have been carried out, comparison of all findings to baseline is carried out and any changes recorded. The next step in the process is to record the rate and character of the pulse and respirations, evaluation of the patient's mental status, and assessment of other objective changes (Ciocco & Ciocco, 2014, p.74). These evaluations are carried out in consideration of the patient's past respiratory health history. Some of the abnormal findings in a focused respiratory assessment include dyspnea, adventitious breath sounds, and sputum.
Using Incentive Spirometer
An incentive spirometer is a device used for maintaining the health of a patient's…
Ciocco, M.C. & Ciocco, M. (2015). Fast facts for the medical-surgical nurse: clinical orientation in a nutshell. New York, NY: Springer Publishing Company.
Perry, A.G., Potter, P.A. & Ostendorf, W. (2014). Nursing interventions & clinical skills (6th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Elsevier Health Sciences.
ouldn't the government need the same amount of money, or perhaps even more, to regulate the new drug system. I can' only imagine the bureaucracy necessary to manage the legal trade of things like heroin, crack cocaine and meth.
The other prong of Vidal's argument is that "forbidding people the things the like or think they might enjoy only makes them want those things all the more." He claims that this psychological insight is obvious and yet denied by our government. As evidentiary support, he points to prohibition, but his arguments about prohibition don't directly support his thesis. He argues, correctly, that crime increased because of the prohibition of alcohol, and that the law caused a general contempt for the government, but he does not prove that people wanted to drink more because alcohol was prohibited to them.
The analogy between alcohol and drugs also does not hold up to…
Caruso, David B. "Higher Cigarette Taxes Lure Buyers to Black Market." The Huffington Post. http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2008/04/10/higher-cigarette-taxes-lu_n_96094.html April 10, 2008
"Number of Adult Smokers." Smoking from All Sides. http://smokingsides.com/docs/us_adults_bystate95 . November 8, 1996
"Richard M. Nixon." United States History. http://www.u-s-history.com/pages/h1948.html .
In addition, smoking is addictive, and the earlier a person starts, the more likely they are to continue, making it more difficult to quit as one ages. Young people do not understand smoking, because they tend to have an "it will not happen to me" mentality, and it should not be available to teens, you should have to be an adult to make the choice to smoke, because it is a health choice, as well as a lifestyle choice.
In conclusion, smoking is hazardous to your health and well-being, and that has been proven. People start to smoke too early in life, and then they find it difficult to quit. The earlier you start smoking, the longer smoke can do damage to your lungs, making it more likely you will develop lung disease such as emphysema or lung cancer. Smoking is no less dangerous than drinking, it can harm others…