42 results for “Lupus”.
CellCept drug for the treatment of kidney complications could be a boon to lupus patients (Chang, 2005). A small study showed that the drug delivered better results than standard chemotherapy, which could cause infertility and other medical problems. A recent experiment compared the effects of CellCept and the older treatment, cyclophosphamide, in patients for 6 months. Those taking CellCept reported fewer side effects. The researchers were led by Dr. Ellen Ginzler of the SUNY Downstate Medical Center. The disease develops mostly in women of childbearing age. The immune system attacks its own organs and tissue. The cause is still unknown. ut in a third of patients, the most common symptom is inflammation of the kidney. This can, in turn, lead to kidney failure (Chang).
Chemotherapy has been the standard treatment for lupus for the past 30 or more years (Chang, 2005). ut it produces unpleasant side effects, which include hair…
Chang, a. (2005). New hope for lupus patients. Deseret News: Deseret News Publishing
Company. Retrieved on February 13, 2009 at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qn4188/is_20051124/ai_n15878948?tag=content;col1
Henderson, S. (2007). Living with lupus. Ebony: Johnson Publishing Company. Retrieved on February 13, 2009 at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1077/is_9_62/ai_n27284175?tag=content;col1
Jancin, B. (2006) improved midterm survival seen in lupus patients. Skin & Allergy
The most common cause of death is infection due to immunosuppression, a result in turn of medications intended to manage the disease. Chances are worse for men and children than for women. After the age of 60, the disease tends to turn benign. The only marker of prognosis in lupus is the anti-ds DNA antibody test and the most sensitive is the Anti-Smith test (Wikipedia)
The standard treatment for lupus has been limited to drugs, such as corticosteroids, anti-malarials and chemotherapy drugs (Wikipedia 2006). The only FDA-approved treatment has been the anti-malarial, Plaquenil. Researches into modern treatment have been enhanced by genetic discoveries, the mapping of the human genome in particular. There has been increased awareness and education about the disease since the 60s, which have also extended help to many sufferers. Records said there were approximately 270,000 to 1.5 million people stricken with lupus. There is no single test…
1. Arthritis Society, The. (2002). Lupus: Quick Fact Sheet. http://www.arthritis.ca/types%20%of%20arthritis/lupus/default.asp?s=1
2. National Institute of Health. (2005). What is Lupus? Fast Facts. National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases. http://www.niamo.nih.gov/hi/topis/lupus/ff_lupus.htm
3. Petri, M. (1998). Treatment of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus: an Update. American Family Physician: The American Academy of Family Physicians. http://www.aafp.org/afp/980600ap/petri.html
4. Spencer, L. (2006). Lupus in African Women. Blackwomen's Health. http://www.blackwomenshealth.com/lupus.htm
Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Case Study
Systemic Lupus Erythematosus
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic, life-long autoimmune disease that affects multiple tissues and organs in the body (Madhok and Wu, 2009). The primary tissues and organs affected by immune system dysfunction are the joints, kidneys, vessel walls, and skin. SLE is believed to be due to an interaction between genetic factors and environmental triggers. The disease is also more prevalent among women, which is consistent with the possibility that hormones play some role in disease etiology.
Of primary concern is lupus glomerulonephritis (Madhok and Wu, 2009). Other serious complications include cardiovascular and neuropsychiatric involvement. Most patients will experience arthritis or joint pain (84%), fever (52%), malar rash (58%), and photosensitivity (45%). Accordingly, a diagnosis of SLE will depend in part on a blood test for anti-nuclear antibodies (ANA) and presentation with rash, joint pain, fatigue, and/or low-grade fevers.
A.D.A.M. (2013, Mar. 14). Lupus in-depth report. Reviewed by H. Simon and D. Zieve. New York Times. Retrieved 7 Nov. 2013 from http://health.nytimes.com/health/guides/disease/systemic-lupus-erythematosus/print/html .
Gill, James M., Quisell, Anna M., Rocca, Peter V., and Walters, Dene T. (2003). Diagnosis of systemic lupus erythematosus. American Family Physician, 68, 2179-2186.
Hedberg, A., Kanapathippillai, P., Rekviq, O.P., and Fenton, K.A. (2013). SMW heparin prevents increased kidney expression of proinflammatory mediators in (NZBxNZW) F1 mice. Clinical & Developmental Immunology, published 17 Sep. 2013 online ahead of print. Available 9 Nov. 2013 from http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cdi/2013/791262/ .
Madhok, Rajan and Wu, Olivia. (2009). Systemic lupus erythematosus. Clinical Evidence, 7(1123), 1-29.
Oral Manifestations of Lupus Erythematosus
Oral Manifestations of Lupus
Oral Manifestations of Lupus Erythematosis
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), or lupus for short, is a chronic and generally progressive autoimmune disease affecting many tissues in the body (Lupus Foundation of America, 2015). The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC, 2015) discriminates between SLE and lupus affecting the skin only (discoid/cutaneous lupus erythematosis) or that caused by medications (temporary). SLE and cutaneous lupus erythematosus (CLE) are the only two types of lupus relevant to this article, since temporary lupus can be treated effectively by changing medication. Prevalence estimates vary considerably, but in the United States an estimated 161,000 individuals have a definitive diagnosis of SLE. Information about incidence rates is equally poor, but the most recent study found that 5.6 out of 100,000 Whites in ochester, Minnesota developed SLE between 1980 and 1992. What follows is a detailed examination of…
Brennan, M.T., Valerin, M.A., Napenas, J.J., & Lockhart, P.B. (2005). Oral manifestations of patients with lupus erythematosus. Dental Clinics of North America, 49(1), 127-41.
Chi, A.C., Neville, B.W., Krayer, J.W., & Gonsalves, W.C. (2010). Oral manifestations of systemic disease. American Family Physician, 82(11), 1381-8.
Lourenco, S.V., de Carvalho, F.R., Boggio, P., Sotto, M.N., Vilela, M.A., Rivitti, E.A. et al. (2007). Lupus erythematosus: Clinical and histopathological study of oral manifestations and immunohistochemical profile of the inflammatory infiltrate. Journal of Cutaneous Pathology, 34(7), 558-64.
Lupus Foundation of America. (2015). Get Answers: Understanding Lupus: What is Lupus?. Retrieved from http://www.lupus.org/answers/entry/what-is-lupus .
Anti-Smith antigen is observed in 25% of patients with SLE overall, with 10-20% whites and 30-40% blacks and Asians and Lupus erythematosus (LE) preparation is found in most patients with active SLE.
Treating the active phase of the disease without allowing the treatment itself to cause long-term damage to the patient is the major challenge for doctors. As a result of this physicians are now less hesitant to use immunosuppressive drugs such azathioprine (Imuran) or cyclophosphamide (Cytoxan). Treatment for active systemic lupus erythematosus, on the other hand, depends on the organ systems involved and disease severity; this includes a combination of drugs.
Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs are used to reduce inflammation and pain in muscles, joints, and other tissues. These may include aspirin, ibuprofen (Motrin), naproxen (Naprosyn), and sulindac (Clinoril). The most common side effects are stomach upset, abdominal pain, ulcers, and even ulcer bleeding. Corticosteroids are more potent than NSAIDs…
Systemic Lupus Erythematosus,
Bertram Greenspun, DO, February 9, 2007
Familial Systemic Lupus Erythematosus: The Role of Genetic and Environmental Factors, G.E. Eroglu and P.F. Kohler, Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases 2002;61:29-31
Treatment of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus: An Update, Michelle Petri, M.D., M.P.H., American Family Physicians, June 1998
Another caution that exists for people suffering from lupus is to exercise caution before and after receiving dental treatment. Lupus patients could develop serious heart infections from the streptococci that might be released into their bloodstream during routine dental procedures, even bi-annual teeth cleanings (Blau and Schultz, 174). The infection can travel to the heart when the patient has certain other manifestations of lupus, and, if the patient has developed a condition called verrucous endocarditis, then it can be deadly if the streptococci infect the heart (Blau and Schultz, 174). Therefore it is strongly recommended that prior to and following dental procedures and cleanings that lupus patients receive antiobiotics that can help them to be prepared to defend their body against the streptococci (Blau and Schultz, 174-175).
The antibiotic -- usually amoxicillin, or another member of the penicillin family, or erythromycin in cases of penicillin allergy -- is taken an…
Blau, Sheldon Paul, and Dodi Schultz. Living with Lupus: All the Knowledge You Need to Help Yourself. Cambridge, MA: Perseus Books, 1993. Questia. 21 Nov. 2008 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=91348486 .
De Rossi, Scott S. DMD, and Glick, Michael, DMD. Lupus Erythematosus: Considerations for Dentistry. Journal American Dental Association, vol 129, March, 1998, 330-339.
"Inflammatory Bowel Diseases (IBD) is a broad term that describes conditions with chronic or recurring immune response and inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract. The two most common inflammatory bowel diseases are ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease" (IBD, 2013, CDC). Ulcerative colitis affects the large colon; Crohn's usually affects the small colon and the beginning portion of the large colon. egardless in both manifestations of IBD, the body attacks the cells of the intestine, mistaking 'good' things like food and bacteria for dangerous invaders and thus causing chronic inflammation.
The effects of IBD can be extremely severe because of the nausea, vomiting, diarrhea and subsequent weight loss and malnutrition that they cause. Crohn's is particularly dangerous because it can cause intestinal blockage from severe swelling and scaring. Ulcers can cause fistulas which become infected. Unlike lupus, both forms of IBD can be treated with surgery as well as various anti-inflammatory drugs.…
As a result, children and adolescents are at risk of delays and impairments in cognitive development" (Levy 2009). Such delays are far from inevitable, but they do underline the need to assure that Sarah 'keeps up' with her studies and that reasonable peer-appropriate learning goals may need to be met with the assistance of additional support in some instances.
Although not directly applicable to Sarah, immunizations with live viruses, including chickenpox, MMR (measles, mumps, rubella), and oral polio vaccines are not advised for children with lupus (Lupus, 2009, Children's Hospital of Boston). Sarah's parents may need to watch for is the possibility of symptoms in her sibling: "a form of lupus may occur at some point in about one out of twenty people whose siblings have lupus" and they may need to take this into consideration when contemplating a vaccination program if they ever have another child (Lehman 2002). Sarah's…
Lehman, Thomas J.A. (2002, Fall). Early diagnosis of SLE in childhood. Lupus News.
22.3. Retrieved June 29, 2009 at http://www.lupus.org/education/topics/early.html
Levy, Deborah, Stacy P. Ardoin, Laura E. Schanberg (2009). Neurocognitive
impairment in children and adolescents with SLE: Cognitive development in healthy children and adolescents. Nat Clin Pract Rheumatol CME. 5(2)
animal species studied for this report include the Gray Wolf (Canis lupus) and the American lack ear (Ursus americanus). The plant species studied are the Venus Flytrap (Dionaea muscipula) and the Prickly Pear cactus (Opuntia humifusa). Each of these species has been observed at the local zoo, and further research has been conducted to learn about the environment in which each species would live in a natural setting. The behavior which have been observed within the zoo have also been combined with the noted behaviors of these species from a natural setting to give a more complete range of information. From this study, I have learned that there are many similarities between the behavior that can be observed in both plants and animals in a captive setting and their natural behavior. However, there are also many notable differences, based largely on to what degree the zoological habitat varies from that…
ContiE et al. "Wolf." Wikipedia. March 2004. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wolf
Hilty, John. "Eastern Prickly Pear." Insect Visitors of Prairie Wildflowers in Illinois. 2003. http://www.shout.net/~jhilty/plantx/prickly_pearx.htm
Marshman, et al. "Opuntia." Wikipedia. March, 2004. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prickly_pear
Naddy, et al. "American Black Bear." Wikipedia. March, 2004. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Black_bear
Good Man is Hard to Find
Flannery O'Conner's short story, a Good Man is Hard to Find is a modern parable. The story is laced with symbolism and religious subtext. In many ways the piece is similar to classical Greek plays about pride and retribution.
efore launching into a discussion of O'Conner's story it is important to understand the woman and her motivations to write. O'Conner was born in Savannah, Georgia in 1925 to her devout Catholic parents, Edward and Regina O'Conner. Flannery spent her youth attending Catholic parochial schools. In 1938, the family moved to a town just outside Atlanta called Milledgeville where Flannery continued her education. Unfortunately, her father would ultimately die in this town as the result of complications from the disease lupus. Flannery went on to Georgia State College for Women and then proceeded to the State University of Iowa where she received her MFA in…
O'Conner, Flannery. A Good Man is Hard to Find. 1953. http://xroads.virginia.edu/~DRBR/goodman.html
Galloway, Patrick. The Dark Side of Flannery O'Conner. 1996. http://www.cyberpat.com/essays/flan.html
Mitchel, J. Tin Jesus: The Intellectual in Selected Short Fiction of Flannery O'Conner. 2000. http://sunset.backbone.olemiss.edu/~jmitchel/flannery.htm
Coles, Robert. Flannery O'Conner's South. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State UP, 1980.
Therefore, it would tend to hold more credibility. Social theories based on bone breakage were based on theory alone. hen one considers the merits of these two conflicting theories, one has to examine the behaviors and condition of modern animals, especially when making such general statements.
If one considers what happens to modern animals when they are hurt, the non-social theory would have more support. Dehydration would be the most critical factor in death after an injury. However, one flaw in this theory is that they gave no comparison of evidence to support their supposition that the animals could live on their body mass while healing. There is simply not enough known about the metabolism of the smilodon to make such as suggestion. Overall, the theories of McCall, Naples, and Martin hold more credibility than the social theories, save for the one exception.
Genetics and DNA
Several researchers were able…
Anyonge, W. Microwear on Canines and Killing Behavior in Large Carnivores: Saber
Function in Smilodon fatalis. Journal of Mammalogy, (Nov., 1996), Vol. 77, No. 4 pp. 1059-1067.
Basel, K. On the Ecological Connection Between Sabre-tooths and Hominids:Faunal
Dispersal Events in the Lower Pleistocene and a Review of the Evidence for the First Human Arrival in Europe.2006.
It is often easier to impose this sort of control in a laboratory setting. Thus, true experiments have often been erroneously identified as laboratory studies" (Woolf, 2012). True experiments rigidly control for validity by attempting to isolate variables so that only a single independent variable is studies. The independent variable "is the variable that the experimenter manipulates in a study. It can be any aspect of the environment that is empirically investigated for the purpose of examining its influence on the dependent variable" (Woolf, 2012). Furthermore in true experiments, the subjects are randomly assigned to the experimental and control groups. Finally, true experiments are double blind, which means that neither the experimenter nor the subjects know whether the subjects are in the experimental or control groups (Woolf, 2012).
True experiments differ from experimental designs in the level of control that exists in each different type of research. An experimental design,…
Brogan, R. (Unk.). Single case design and small n research. Retrieved April 9, 2012 from Psychometrics website: http://www.psychmet.com/id15.html
Lund Research Ltd. (2012). Descriptive and inferential statistics. Retrieved April 9, 2012 from Laerd Statistics website: https://statistics.laerd.com/statistical-guides/descriptive-inferential-statistics.php
Woolf, L. (2012). Research methods. Retrieved April 9, 2012 from Webster University
red wolf and different aspects related to this species. I have included information about its taxonomy, morphology & anatomy, distribution, habitat, feeding, predators, behavior, reproduction, development and economic value. Over all, I have given thorough information regarding the life and habits of the red wolf that is now an endangered animal.
The red wolf is a species of wolf that is smaller in size and its color varies from reddish gray to almost black. It is commonly known as red wolf. The red wolf is considered as the most beautiful of all the wolves on the planet (Sutton, 1998). However, it has been given the scientific name of Canis rufus. It belongs to the Family Canidae and Order Carnivora (Kelly & Phillips, 2000, p. 247). As far as the status of red wolf is concerned, it has been categorized as an endangered living creature as this species of wolf…
Dahl, M. (1997). The Wolf. Minnesota: Capstone Press. Retrieved March 22, 2013, from http://books.google.com.pk/books?id=HomHpmeIyWkC&printsec=frontcover&dq=the+ wolf&hl=en&sa=X&ei=f_FNUZ2tHeqR7AbG5YHwBA&ved=0CC0Q6AEwAA
Kelly, B.T., & Phillips, M.K. (2000). Red Wolf. Endangered Animals: A Reference Guide to Conflicting Issues (p. 247+). Westport, CT: Greenwood Press. Print.
Mech, L.D., & Boitani, L. (2003). Wolves: Behavior, Ecology, and Conservation. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press. Print.
Paradiso, J.L., & Nowak, R.M. (1972, November 29). Canis rufus. Mammalian Species, 22, 1-4. Retrieved March 22, 2013, from http://www.science.smith.edu/msi/pdf/i0076-3519-022-01-0001.pdf
Mind and Body re: Chapter 11 of Phantoms in the Brain
Many a patient with a tumor pronounced malignant has outlived his physician," notes V.S Ramachandran in his book Phantoms in the Brain, through the sheer mental force of the patient's will. To what extent can the mental powers of the human mind affect the body's ability to heal? The extraordinary cases chronicled by the physician hold hope in limiting the spread of cancer and also to treat affectations of the autoimmune system, such as lupus, for example.
But how to design an experiment from the extraordinary experiences of a few individuals? How to create a standard medical prescription from the extraordinary? One possible suggestion would be to take a group of individuals afflicted by such an immune disorder, and to attempt to condition temporary improvements or remissions in their ailment to a physical response that could be replicated, even…
hat is a rheumatologist? It is a person who is board-certified (either as an internist or a pediatrician) and has the training and experience " ... in the diagnosis and treatment of arthritis and other diseases of the joints, muscles, and bones" (www.hss.edu). The training to become a rheumatologist is rigorous and lengthy.
The diseases of the joints -- and various kinds of arthritis-related health issues that rheumatologist's treat, include: osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, and certain autoimmune diseases, such as lupus, antiphospholipid syndrome, scleroderma, musculoskeletal pain disorders, osteoporosis, gout, back pain, myositis, fibromyalgia, tendonitis, and vasculitis (www.hss.edu).
hat kind of training is required to become a rheumatologist? It includes four years of medical school, three years of additional training in pediatrics or medicine; and in addition, to become a rheumatologist, another two-to-three years (on top of the original seven years) of specialized rheumatology training is required (www.hss.edu). Once all that…
Anatomy and Physiology of the Immune System and espiratory System and Their Associated DisordersThe human body is comprised of multiple important systems that keep people alive, including the immune and respiratory systems. These two systems in particular have received a great deal of attention in recent years due to their vulnerability to infections by the Covid-19 virus (Iwasaki & Wong, 2021), but there are a host of other disorders that adversely affect these systems as well. The purpose of this paper is to provide a description of the immune and respiratory systems and the respective physiologies of these two systems. In addition, the paper presents a description of the physiology of these two systems and some of the most common disorders that are associated with them, is followed by an integrative discussion concerning how these systems interact with each other and how they are dependent on each other for proper…
ReferencesFusina, F., Albani, F., Crisci, S., Morandi, A., Tansini, F., Beschi, R., Rosano, A., & Natalini, G. (2022). Respiratory system compliance at the same PEEP level is similar in COVID and non-COVID ARDS. Respiratory Research, 23(1), 1–8.Hawkins, C. (2018). Asthma, Cystic Fibrosis, and Other Respiratory Disorders. National Highlights Inc.Immune system. (2022). U.S. National Institute of Health. Retrieved from https://clinicalinfo. hiv.gov/.Iwasaki, A., & Wong, P. (2021). The Immune Havoc of COVID-19. Scientific American, 324(1), 34–41.López Plaza, B., & Bermejo López, L. M. (2017). Nutrition and immune system disorders. Nutricion Hospitalaria, 34(Suppl 4), 68–71.McRobbie, H., & Kwan, B. (2021). Tobacco use disorder and the lungs. Addiction, 116(9), 2559–2571.Organs of the immune system. (2022). U.S. National Library of Medicine. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK279395/ .Pettiford, R. (2020). The Respiratory System. Bellwether Media.The Respiratory System. (1997). Monkeyshines on Health & Science, 24–26Robles, T. F. (2021). Annual Research Review: Social relationships and the immune system during development. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines, 62(5), 539–559. https://doi-Sherman, R. (2018). Allergies and Other Immune System Disorders. National Highlights Inc.Valliant, A. A., Sabir, S. & Jan, A. (2021, September 28). Physiology, immune response. In: StatPearls. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2022.
This is the strategy used in Canada, where drug costs have been substantially reduced.
The challenges presented by this law have spilled over into the current health-care reform debate. Many people and many legislators who might have been more open to engage in productive dialogue during the current debate were no doubt made more leery of the process and of the possibility that there could be significant reform that would bring benefits to more people while bringing down the federal deficit.
The fears of opponents of the bill were correct in their fears that the bill would been even more expensive than originally budgeted. The initial estimate for the net cost was $400 billion for the period from 2004-2013. However, only a month after the bill's passage, that estimate was raised to $534 billion. It has since been raised to over $550. The cost over-runs in this bill will no…
And there is Nelson, arry's son, a drug addict whose dependence is pushing him toward a mental breakdown.
Updike touches on the spiritual awareness of American's during a conversation between arry and his friend Charlie Stavos. "What do you think you are champ?" asks Charlie when arry questions his choice to have pig valve replacement surgery. "A god made one of a kind with an immortal soul breathed in. A vehicle of grace. A battle field of good and evil. An apprentice angel. All those things they tried to teach you in Sunday school, or really didn't try very hard to teach you, just let them drift in and out of the pamphlets back there in that church basement buried deeper in his mind than an air-raid shelter."
In the course of the novel, Updike comments on the overabundance of information available through the media. "There is just no end…
Harry sleeps with Nelson's wife Pru, his own daughter-in-law. "This is the worst thing you've ever done," says Janice. Harry runs south to Florida when the news of this infidelity becomes known and suffers another heart attack.
After Harry's coronary surgery his sister Mim phones from Las Vegas. Referring to their dead parents, Mim declares: "I suppose their hearts failed in the end but so does everybody's, because that's what life is, a strain on the heart." Harry dies a victim of his own moralistic delusions, his sexism, and his endless lechery.
In this book Updike has amassed a portrait of American culture and its disintegration. His examination of issues includes drug addiction, business corruption, the AIDS epidemic, the selling of America to foreign investors, and the fate of women in a declining job market. The flaws of Harry "Rabbit" Angstrom are the flaws of America. The novel is a condemnation of the greed and instant gratification prevalent in the American psyche during the 1980's.
Common risk factors for chronic liver problems include: intravenous drug use, overdosing on acetaminophen, engaging in risky sexual behaviors like having multiple sexual partners and unprotected intercourse, eating contaminated foods, traveling to an area where certain diseases are common, living in a nursing home or rehabilitation center, having a family member who recently had hepatitis a, using or abusing alcohol, being an organ transplant recipient, having HIV or AIDS, having received a blood transfusion before 1990, being a newborn of a mother with hepatitis B or C, being a health care worker, including dentist and dental hygienist, because of blood contact and receiving a tattoo (Hepatitis Health Article, 2010).
Eighty percent of those people who have Hepatitis C go on to develop chronic liver disease, liver failure or liver cancer. Hepatitis C is the number one reason that people received liver transplants in the United States. Permanent liver damage, liver…
"Hepatitis Health Article." 2010. Healthline. Web. 24 May 2010.
If everything is an it you end up being an it. Does this imply a cold awareness of the self as a perishable being with limited powers or does it lead you to believe you can be a perfect robot able to manipulate nature and the world according to your specific needs and desires? Being an it means having no soul. Having no soul implies being immortal. Being immortal implies that God does not exist. At that point man-it becomes the most powerful existing agent.
But reality contradicts this assumption and the failures of the man-it can do nothing more but hurt him. Furthermore, the lack of faith and the failure of reason to provide answers regarding the questions " What is the truth? What is essential? Why do I exist?, etc." leads to strong alienation. Having such an attitude as a life philosophy is unhealthy and very dangerous.
(iii) in the United States, Brazil, Germany and France, humans have been receiving their own stem cells to re-grow heart muscle in the unforeseen incident of heart attack or injury. This was found to be successful in majority of the cases. (iv) in one more incident, the vision of 23 patients was restored after limbal adult stem cell transplants. This line of therapeutic care has assisted a lot of people who have been suffering from blindness for years together that includes the sufferers of mustard gas attacks in Iraqi. (Life Issues Institute, 2006) v) Crohn's disease patients have in fact been treated with stem cells evolved from their own blood. (vi) Among the 90% of the 19 patients having several autoimmune disorders like systemic lupus has been on the path to recovery following treatment with their own blood stem cells. (vii) a research of Parkinson's disease displayed an average improvement…
AAAS Center for Science, Technology and Congress. (2007) "AAAS Policy Brief: Human
Cloning" Retrieved 28 March, 2008 at http://www.aaas.org/spp/cstc/briefs/cloning/
Barnes, Deborah. (n. d.) "Research in the News: Creating a cloned sheep named Dolly"
Retrieved 28 March, 2008 at http://science-education.nih.gov/home2.nsf/Educational+ResourcesTopicsGenetics/BC5086E34E4DBA0085256CCD006F01CB
This last disadvantage does seem to decrease with longer use but can be as long as 20 full days of spotting mid cycle with the first cycle. (Paulo Alto Medical Foundation Website "Seasonale" 2003)
Cost of Seasonale, brand medication runs between 160 and 180 dollars per 91 day packet, which works out to be about twice as expensive as typical COCs that are formulated on a 28 day cycle, though one must remember that you are also getting 14 additional therapeutic doses per 91 day cycle. Generic Seasonale has also recently been released on the market the most commonly used brand being Quasense, which costs between 120-130 per cycle, more comparable to 28 day cycle pills but still slightly higher in price. (Online Price Comparison)
Patient teaching about Seasonale must include all the general warnings about any COCs, including common side effects, missed pill complication, rare serious side effects, increased…
DuraMed (2003) "Seasonale Patient Insert"
Paulo Alto Medical Foundation Website (2003):Birth Control: Seasonale" at http://www.pamf.org/teen/sex/birthcontrol/seasonale.html#What%20are%20the%20advantages%20to%20women%20using%20Seasonale%C2%AE ?
Online Price Comparison at http://www.pharmacywebsearch.com/search.php?aid=3457&sid=2&keyword=Seasonale
Music in the 21st century was accused of being increasingly derivative and irrelevant. Interest in individual performers, in the era of iTunes, was being relegated to the sidelines as teens assembled their own 'mixes' rather than sought to embrace the output of an individual artist. It was said that the era of the great soloist and the great musical concept album was dead. ith her first album The Fame in 2008, Lady Gaga changed all of that and silenced the industry's critics. Yes, she is frequently outrageous and provokes controversy for her attire as well as her voice. But underneath all of the glam and glitter, Lady Gaga has proved that she a unique mix of vocal talent, showmanship, and social activism. She has also generated a huge following on Facebook and Twitter. Lady Gaga's fans do not simply download "Poker Face," "Telephone" and "Born this ay" online. They love…
"Lady Gaga tells all." Rolling Stone. June 21, 2010. [November 11, 2011].
"Poker Face." Lyrics. [November 11, 2011].
Given these condition, wolf population will recover rapidly4.
Part 2: The management of the wolves from the information given it the congressional hearing. Congress decided that the U.. Fish and Wildlife ervice (ervice) will reintroduce the gray wolf (Canis lupus), that is currently considered an endangered species, into Yellowstone National Park, which is located in Wyoming, Idaho, and Montana.
Congress also decided to follow Alternative One namely that the wolves would be classified as experimental wolves according to section 10(j) of the Endangered pecies Act of 1973 (Act).
Congress chose to do this since they adjudged the gray wolf populations to be expunged from most of the Western United tates and that only a small population of the gray wolves remain in the extreme northwestern Montana, and in part of Idaho, Wyoming, and Washington where migrating wolves from Montana and Canada accidentally settled.
The objective of the reintroduction idea is…
Department of the Interior, part VII
Fish and Wildlife Service: 50 CFR Part 17; RIN 1018-AC86 http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-1994-11-22/html/94-28746.htm
Final. Env. Impact statement. The reintroduction of greywolves to Yellowstone National Park and central Idaho
Major depressive disorder, or MDD, may affect up to twenty percent of the adult population. The recognition of depression as a serious and common mental disorder has been vital in the identification and treatment of depression in adults. Leaps and bounds have been made in the field of depression research. The widespread recognition of the many possible causes of depression, including chemical imbalances with genetic or medical origins as well as traumatic life events, has made it possible for those suffering from depression to openly seek treatment options and discuss their depression without necessarily feeling the same overwhelming shame and isolation that were inevitable in generations past. Depression is more likely to be identified in an affected individual by family members, physicians, or others because of the public information that is available for professionals and the common people. Research is constantly revealing new treatment options, identifying causal factors,…
Fremont, W.P. (2004, April) Childhood reactions to terrorism-induced trauma: a review of the past 10 years. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. v43, i4, 381(12).
Gaughan, D.M., et al. (2004, June) Psychiatric hospitalizations among children and youths with human immunodeficiency virus infection. Pediatrics. v113, i6, 1793(1).
Gazelle, H. & Ladd, G.W. (2003, January-February) Anxious solitude and peer exclusion: a diathesis-stress model of internalizing trajectories in childhood. Child Development. v74, i1, 257(22).
Louters, L.L. (2004, September) Don't overlook childhood depression: an effective approach to childhood depression requires that you maintain a high index of suspicion and understand the disorder's full spectrum of manifestations. JAAPA - Journal of the American Academy of Physicians Assistants. v17, i9, 18(7).
Because ranchers have long distrusted wolves, most ranchers in the surrounding area saw the wolves as a threat to their livestock and their very way of life. They also cite history that shows wolves are quite difficult to dissuade from attacking vulnerable livestock, and that many ranchers and farmers saw eliminating the wolf as the only real way to protect their stock and their families. Writers Smith and Phillips continue,
Although several methods have been developed to minimize or prevent depredations, few have proven successful. Guard dogs have been used widely, but with marginal results. Generally one guard dog is not sufficient, as several dogs seem necessary to deter a wolf attack. Another approach requires farmers and ranchers to intensify husbandry of livestock (e.g., confine sheep to structures overnight, develop calving areas near ranch headquarters, or monitor open range stock daily). Ultimately, killing the wolf or wolves responsible for the…
Donnelly, K.J. (1999, January). Canine in the wild. World and I, 14, 180.
Editors. (2005). Gray wolf. Retrieved from the National Wildlife Federation Web site: http://www.nwf.org/wildlife/graywolf / 26 Aug. 2005.
Jones, K. (2002, March). Fighting outlaws, returning wolves: Karen Jones examines the significance of the reintroduction of wolves into Yellowstone National Park. History Today, 52, 38+.
Li, J. (2000). The wolves may have won the battle, but not the war: How the west was won under the Northern Rocky Mountain wolf recovery plan. Environmental Law, 30(3), 677.
The dexamethasone group showed meaningful improvements in several variables. After 48 hours, the women who received dexamethasone has a significantly reduced mean arterial pressure at 115 mm Hg v 94 m Hg, P < 0.05 and mean asparatate aminotransferase level at 100 IU/1 v 50 IU/1; P < 0.05. Their urine output also improved at 60 ml/h v 40 ml/h; P < 0.05 and a mean platelet count at 115-000 v 70 000; P < 0.05. The researchers concluded that their findings supported a high dose corticosteroid treatment of women with the HELLP syndrome. Although three control patients showed infectious complications, there were no statistically significant differences in morbidity.
As part of nursing and medical management, dexamethasone is often given to women with this condition and are between 24 and 34 weeks' gestation at risk of pre-term delivery to accelerate the maturation of fetal lungs (Matchaba and Moodley 2005). While…
Campbell, S. (2005). Preeclampsia Sufferers at Great Risk of HELLP Syndrome During Pregnancy. The North Scott Press. http://www.zwire.com/site/news.cfm?BRD=1839&deptAdviwarePtyLtd200/July_id_1104088newsid=13913304&PAG=461&rfi=9
Chen, P., reviewer (2004). HELLP Syndrome. University of Maryland Medical Center. http://www.umm.edu/pregnancy/specialcare/articles/hellp.html
2004). HELLP Syndrome. Medline Plus. U.S. National Library of Medicine, the U.S. National Institutes of Health and the Department of Health and Human Sciences. http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/00089.htm
Clenney, TL. And Vierra AJ. (2004). Costicosteroids for HELLP Syndrome, a clinical review, 329:270-272 (31 July), doi: 10.1136/bmj.329.7460.270. BMJ Publishing Group Ltd. http://bmjjournals.com/cgi/content/full/329/7468/270
Still another option is immunotherapy. In 2000, the Immunotherapy Committee of the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology compared the costs of medication and the single-injection allergen immunotherapy for allergic rhinitis. It found that the cost of medications is much greater. Allergen immunotherapy is generally safe and adverse reactions to are rare (Huggins 2004).
Opinion. - Human civilizations have tried to master nature and even modify it to a point where the body system reacts to certain substances it finds harmful to health. The reaction is an allergy. Human knowledge now has tried to look for ways to counteract the body's natural reaction to offenders or violators of its immune response. While the motivation to combat allergy in humans is always in favor of general well-being and health, a change in lifestyle and behavior may prove the easier way to health by agreeing with the body's way of sustaining…
1. Brostoff, Jonathan and Gamblin, Linda. Hay Fever. Healing Arts Press, 2002. revised edition, quality paperback
2. Huggins, Jennifer and Looney, R. John. Allergen Immunotherapy. American Family Physician, 2004. http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m3225/is_4_70/ai_n6171357
3. Kim, Dae and Drake-Lee, Adrian. Brief History of Allergy. ENT News, volume 11 # 5, 2002. http://www.pinpointmedical.com/ent_news/article_archive/rhinology/ND04%208net%20%Brief%20History
4. Leung, Donald Y.M. On the Forefront of Discovery. Discover: The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 2000. http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1511/is_3_21/ai_59535418
Doctors should be consulted on their effectiveness and safety (NIAMSD).
In the meantime, a person with fibromyalgia can help himself or herself feel better besides taking medicines (National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Disorders 2004). He can try to get enough sleep of the right kind to ease or lessen the pain and fatigue. Although pain and fatigue may make exercise and daily activities difficult, the person should be as physically active as possible. Studies show that regular exercise is, in fact, among the most effective treatments of the condition. A patient can try walking or doing mild exercise slowly and according to the severity of his condition. He can or should also make adjustments at work, such as reducing his working hours or change to a less strenuous type of work, change some things in his work space. His diet also deserves a second look. Some persons…
National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Disorders. (2004). Questions and Answers About Fibromyalgia. NIH Publication # 04-5326. http://www.niams.nih.gov/hi/topics/fibromyalgia/fibrofs.htm
Combining these two methods is one effective strategy in mitigating pain in children (Cohen).
Additional strategies that involve both the patient and family are evident, particularly when dealing with chronic pain. Children sometimes internalize pain, believing that they must restrict their activity, particularly when parents worry and hesitate to allow them to be active. Parents see play as worsening of the situation or a relapse, contributing to an overprotectivness. This, in turn, reflects on the self-image of the child. In any case, experts recommend that parents not react in a negative way -- either by thinking the child is faking pain or becoming so overprotective that the child is a virtual prisoner. Instead, the psychological strategy should be to set realistic and evolving strategies so that there is not a continue pessimism regarding future health outcomes. This, for adolescents, is critical since there is also a self-esteem issue that goes…
The Handbook of Chronic Pain. (2007). New York: Nova Science Publishers.
Handbook of Pediatric Chronic Pain. (2011). New York: Springer.
Carter, B., & Threlkeld, M. (2012). Psychosocial perspectives in the treatment of pediatric chronic pain. Pediatric Rheumatology, 10(15), 1-11. Retrieved January 2013, from Pediatric Rheumatology: http://www.ped-rheum.com/content/pdf/1546-0096-10-15.pdf
Christie, D., & Wilson, C. (2005). CBT in Pediatric and Adolescent Health. Developmental Neurorehabilitation, 8(4), 241-47.
Reintroduction of wolves in Idaho started in 1995. Classified as endangered species, the government had the leeway in the process of reintroducing the grey wolf pack in Idaho. The process sparked off battles between stakeholders in the state. In 1966 when the idea was introduced to congress, the main concern was the critically high elk population in the region and this was because of the eradication of the wolves by the residents. For decades, the elk population grew tremendously because there were no predators in Yellow Park causing ecosystem instability. Soon after, other species disappeared such as the aspen because of the huge population of elks. The coyotes could not manage the large ungulate population; moreover, the large coyote population diminished the red fox. The government struggled with the wolf issue from the 1974 when a wolf recovery team was established. The general public has been engulfed in the wolf…
ABC News. "Court Rules Yellowstone Wolves Can Stay." ABC News, January 14, 2000.
Cockerham, Sean. "Idaho Gov. Otter to feds: Pony up more cash for wolves." www.idahostatesman.com. March 8, 2012. http://www.idahostatesman.com/2012/03/08/2026038/otter-to-feds-pony-up-more-cash.html (accessed April 7, 2012).
Duffield, J. "An economic analysis of wolf recovery in Yellowstone: Park visitor attitudes and values." Report for Yellowstone National Park, 1992.
Duffield, John, Chris Neher, and David Patterson. "Wolf Recovery in Yellowstone: Park Visitor
Thomas (1997) presents and interesting, but somewhat flawed, qualitative study of disablism as it applies to attitudes towards mothers or soon to be mothers with disabilities. Thomas draws on data from in-depth interviews with 17 disabled mothers or disabled to be mothers. She makes her presentation and describes the manifestation of disablism applied to these women in terms of three themes that she admittedly subjectively chose: (1) the struggles, both personal and those placed on them from others regarding the risk of giving birth to children that may suffer disabilities themselves due to the medications the mothers take or due to genetic deformities; (2) doubts from others about their being able to adequately parent their children given their disability (the good mother theme); and (3) the experience of receiving unwanted help and from others due to their disabilities (fueled by the perception of their being inadequate mothers). The problem here…
Bassey, M. (1981). Pedagogic research: on the relative merits of search for generalisation and study of single events. Oxford Review of Education, 7, 73-93.
Thomas, C. (1997). The baby and the bath water: Disabled women and motherhood in social context. Sociology of Health & Illness, 19 (5), 622-643.
Yin, R.K. (1994) Case study research: design and methods (2nd Edition). Thousand Oaks: Sage.
Freud Civilization and Its Discontents
Sigmund Freud's volume, Civilization and its Discontents, he tackles no less than the broad and ambitious concept of man's place in the world. In this volume, he looks at culture from his unique psychoanalytical perspective, and touches upon a number of important concepts, including aggression, civilization and the individual, organized religion, the death drive and Eros, and the super-ego and conscience. Civilization and its Discontents was written a mere decade before the great psychoanalysts death, and is in many ways an important compilation of many of his most renowned theories on the mind, human nature, and the structure of human society.
First published in German in 1929, Civilization and its Discontents delves deeply into Freud's theories of aggression, the death drive, and its adversary, Eros. In the book, Freud seeks to look into the relationship between man's inner desires, and the establishment of modern civilization.…
Freud, Sigmund. 1989. Civilization and its Discontents. W.W. Norton & Company.
devout Catholic peering critically at Southern evangelical Protestant culture, Flannery O'Connor never separates faith and place from her writings. Her upbringing and her life story become inextricably intertwined with her fiction, especially in her short stories. O'Connor was born Mary Flannery O'Connor on March 25, 1925, the only daughter of Regina Cline and Edwin Francis. Having grown up in Savannah and living most of her life in Georgia, Flannery possessed a uniquely disturbing yet reverential perspective on Southern life and culture. Moreover, her Catholic belief and upbringing lent the overtly Biblical symbolism to her stories, many of which twist the sacred into the profane and vice-versa. Flannery, who dropped her first name when she attended the University of Iowa, wrote throughout her entire life, in spite having a debilitating disease called disseminated lupus, which caused her early death in 1964. However, even in her weakest physical conditions, O'Connor discovered the…
Bloom, Harold. "Biography of Flannery O'Connor." Flannery O'Connor. Broomall, PA: Chelsea House, 1999.
Brinkmeyer, Robert H. "Asceticism and the Imaginative Vision of O'Connor." Flannery O'Connor: New Perspectives. Eds. Sura P. Rath and Mary Neth Shaw. Athens: The University of Georgia Press, 1996.
Gardiner, Harold C. "Flannery O'Connor's Clarity of Vision." The Added Dimension: The Art and Mind of Flannery O'Connor. Eds. Melvin Friedman and Lewis A. Lawson. New York: Fordham University Press, 1966.
Grimshaw, James A. Jr. The Flannery O'Connor Companion. Westport: Greenwood, 1981.
Omega-3 Fatty Acids for Fitness and Wellness
Fat is back. The American public is no longer fat-phobic. Fat is essential for the body to function in a healthy manner. The low-fat craze is dead and fortunately the supermarket shelves are no longer lined with cookies and crackers proudly proclaiming themselves to be healthy because they are low in fat. But it is critical that people get the right kind of fats, in the right balance. And that is where omega-3 fatty acids come into play.
Omega-3 fatty acids are called essential fatty acids. This means that your body cannot make them and you have to either get them through food or supplements (Ehrlich 2011). The best and most easily-absorbed omega-3s are found in fish. Salmon, tuna, and sardines are some of the most popular sources of omega-3s. All of these can be easily purchased at your local supermarket in canned…
Ehrlich, S. (2011). Omega-3 fatty acids. University of Maryland Medical Center. Retrieved http://umm.edu/health/medical/altmed/supplement/omega3-fatty-acids
LeWine, F. (2013). Fish oil: Friend of foe? Harvard Medical School. Retrieved from:
Fibromyalgia is a rather mysterious condition, with no known cause and no known cure. The symptoms of fibromyalgia consist primarily of muscle and joint pain and heightened sensitivity to pain, experienced globally. Secondary symptoms, which are also common in sufferers, include chronic fatigue, cognitive and memory dysfunction, sleep disorders, and mood disorders. Women are far more likely to suffer from fibromyalgia than men, and age of onset is generally between 30 to 50 years. A combination of pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions are recommended, with the latter taking precedence over the former in evidence-based practice. Prognosis is relatively good when the right combination of lifestyle and treatment options is employed.
The cause of fibromyalgia remains a mystery. ecent research reveals the possibility of a genetic marker for pain sensitivity in fibromyalgia patients, in that haplotypes of the COMT gene and genotypes of the Val158Met polymorphism play a key role on…
Fitzcharles, M. et al. (2013). 2012 Canadian Guidelines for the diagnosis and management of fibromyalgia syndrome: Executive summary. Pain Res Manag. 2013 May-Jun; 18(3): 119 -- 126.
Martinez-Jauand, M. et al. (2013). Pain sensitivity in fibromyalgia is associated with catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene. European Journal of Pain 17(1): 16-27.
Mayo Clinic (2015). Fibromyalgia. Retrieved online: http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/fibromyalgia/basics/tests-diagnosis/con-20019243
Neusch, E. et al. (2011). Comparative efficacy of pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions in fibromyalgia syndrome: network meta-analysis. Ann Rheum Dis 2013;72:955-962
Interstitial lung disease is a blanket term for a big group of disorders categorized by progressive scarring of both the lung tissue supporting and between the air sacs. This tissue is called the interstitium. The interstitium consists of the region between the alveolar space and the capillaries. The scarring causes inflammation and damage in the lung tissue followed by lung stiffness, meaning the air sacs cannot expand as much as before. Lung stiffness makes it harder to breathe. People affected by the condition are not able to get enough oxygen from the lungs into their bloodstream.
Although some potential causes have been researched, there may be no underlying cause for development of interstitial lung disease. If there is no known cause, it is called idiopathic interstitial lung disease. IPF or idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis remains the most common type of this illness. Of the causes most widely recognized, cigarette smoking is…
Fischer, A. & du Bois, R. (2012). Interstitial lung disease in connective tissue disorders. The Lancet,380(9842), 689-698. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0140-6736 (12)61079-4
Maher, T. (2014). Current and Emerging Treatment Options in Interstitial Lung Disease. Pulmonary Manifestations Of Rheumatic Disease, 193-216. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4939-0770-0_14
Moazedi-Fuerst, F., Kielhauser, S., Brickmann, K., Tripolt, N., Meilinger, M., Lufti, A., & Graninger, W. (2015). Sonographic assessment of interstitial lung disease in patients with rheumatoid arthritis, systemic sclerosis and systemic lupus erythematosus. Clinical And Experimental Rheumatology,33(4 Suppl 91), S87-91. Retrieved from http://europepmc.org/abstract/med/25665185
The delivery health care system takes into account the assimilation of physicians, healthcare facilities, together with other medical services with plan to facilitate the provision of the total continuum of medical care for its consumers. In a whole incorporated system, the three fundamental components including physicians, medical facilities and the membership to health plans are counterpoised in terms of equating medical resources with the necessities of patients and purchasers (Coddington, Moore, and Fischer., 1994). One of the key concerns in the present delivery of healthcare is cost. Increasing costs of healthcare has been a major worry in the past number of years, making the United States to have one of the most expensive systems of healthcare. The main objective of this paper is to analyze the different costs linked to healthcare delivery system, and delineate the manner in which these costs impact different populations and how it also affects…
It is also a population that often has limited resources and one that seeks to find others to help comfort and educate them. Modern technology has certainly improved both the diagnosis and treatment of the illness, but there are so many options that the patient is often left bewildered and frightened (Guadalupe).
A proactive and professional nursing approach to this illness takes Mishel's theory and uses it in four ways:
To combat ambiguity -- Patients are unaware of the progress and severity of their illness and often fill in with worst-case scenarios. Open and honest communication about that status of the illness will alleviate many concerns, or at least allow for uncoerced decision making.
To combat complexity -- Illness is complex and often based on statistical tables, not individual expressions. Using Michel, the nurse can simplify to the necessary degree both the illness and options.
To provide information -- More…
Alligood, M. (2010). Nursing Theory: Utilization and Application. Denver, CO: Mosby.
Guadalupe, K. (2010, Feb.) Understanding a meningioma diagnosis using Mishel's theory of uncertainty in illness. British Journal of Neuroscience Nursing. 6 (2): 77-82.
Mishel, M. And Clayton, M. (2003). Theories of Uncertainty in Illness. In Smith, M. ed. Middle
Range Theory for Nursing. New York: Springer. Chapter 2.
Medical Administration Service for File
ationale in Support of Selection of Heart Transplant ecipient
Because time was of the essence in formulating this decision, this memorandum for the record sets forth the decision-making process and that was used to select the most appropriate candidate for a heart transplantation procedure. It was my responsibility as lead surgeon to select the most appropriate heart transplant recipient from a pool of three candidates, each of whom had suffered from several health-related issues that adversely affected their suitability for the transplant procedure. Therefore, in order to formulate as subjective an analysis as possible in a timely fashion, a utilitarian ethical analytical approach was used to identify the candidate that held the most promise of using the gift of additional life from the heart donor to its maximum advantage. The utilitarian ethical analysis showed that of the three potential heart transplant candidates, the 12-year-old…
Andre, C. & Velasquez, M. (1989, Winter). Calculating consequences: The utilitarian approach to ethics. Issues in Ethics, 2(1), 37.
Hollingsworth, J.A., Hall, E.H. & Trinkaus, R.J. (1991). Utilitarianism: An ethical framework for compensation decision making. Review of Business, 13(3), 17-19.
Rosen, F. (2003). Classical utilitarianism from Hume to Mill. London: Routledge.
Frightening Event in My Life
THE MOST FRIGHTENING EVENT IN MY LIFE
Three years ago, I was driving home from the first social affair with co- workers from my new job. It was late, but I always enjoyed driving late at night when the roads are almost empty. As the trees zipped past my windows, I was still contemplating the evening's events and trying not to obsess about the cordial way my boss had greeted me when I might have expected him to be a little friendlier, under the circumstances. Now, I understand his personality much better, but at the time I was worried that he didn't like me too much.
During the day, two-way roads such as the one I was on at the time always made me very nervous, because the two opposite directions of traffic are separated by nothing more than yellow lines painted on the asphalt.…
Gould's and Mayr's biological species concept, as presented by Stamos (2008). According to these scientists and to this species concept, two populations are termed as belonging to the same species if they are capable of interbreeding.
So, as Stamos further exemplifies, the chimpanzees form a single species, because they are capable of interbreeding, they are producing offspring. Human beings and chimpanzees are not capable of producing offspring together, so they belong to two different species. Furthermore, two races of dogs belong to the same species: they are capable of interbreeding and the resulting dog is also fertile. However, a horse and a donkey belong to different species: while they are able to interbreed, their resulting offspring is not itself fertile.
To sum up, my understand is that humans belong to the same species because of reproductive compatibility. At the same time, the human species is formed of different races, whereby…
1. Stamos, David, (2011). Evolution and the Big Questions: Sex, Race, Religion, and Other Matters. John Wiley & Sons
2. Barnosky, A. et al. (2011). Has the Earth's sixth mass extinction already arrived? 3 MARCH 2011 | VOL 471 | NATURE | 51-55
3. Hill, Kevin, (1993). The Endangered Species Act: What Do We Mean
by Species? Boston College Environmental Affairs Law Review. Volume 20, Issue 2, Article 3
CellCept drug for the treatment of kidney complications could be a boon to lupus patients (Chang, 2005). A small study showed that the drug delivered better results than standard…Read Full Paper ❯
The most common cause of death is infection due to immunosuppression, a result in turn of medications intended to manage the disease. Chances are worse for men and children…Read Full Paper ❯
Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Case Study Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic, life-long autoimmune disease that affects multiple tissues and organs in the body (Madhok and…Read Full Paper ❯
Oral Manifestations of Lupus Erythematosus Oral Manifestations of Lupus Oral Manifestations of Lupus Erythematosis Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), or lupus for short, is a chronic and generally progressive autoimmune…Read Full Paper ❯
Anti-Smith antigen is observed in 25% of patients with SLE overall, with 10-20% whites and 30-40% blacks and Asians and Lupus erythematosus (LE) preparation is found in most patients…Read Full Paper ❯
Health - Nursing
Another caution that exists for people suffering from lupus is to exercise caution before and after receiving dental treatment. Lupus patients could develop serious heart infections from the streptococci…Read Full Paper ❯
"Inflammatory Bowel Diseases (IBD) is a broad term that describes conditions with chronic or recurring immune response and inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract. The two most common inflammatory bowel…Read Full Paper ❯
As a result, children and adolescents are at risk of delays and impairments in cognitive development" (Levy 2009). Such delays are far from inevitable, but they do underline the…Read Full Paper ❯
animal species studied for this report include the Gray Wolf (Canis lupus) and the American lack ear (Ursus americanus). The plant species studied are the Venus Flytrap (Dionaea muscipula)…Read Full Paper ❯
Good Man is Hard to Find Flannery O'Conner's short story, a Good Man is Hard to Find is a modern parable. The story is laced with symbolism and religious…Read Full Paper ❯
Therefore, it would tend to hold more credibility. Social theories based on bone breakage were based on theory alone. hen one considers the merits of these two conflicting theories,…Read Full Paper ❯
Education - Mathematics
It is often easier to impose this sort of control in a laboratory setting. Thus, true experiments have often been erroneously identified as laboratory studies" (Woolf, 2012). True experiments…Read Full Paper ❯
red wolf and different aspects related to this species. I have included information about its taxonomy, morphology & anatomy, distribution, habitat, feeding, predators, behavior, reproduction, development and economic value.…Read Full Paper ❯
Health - Nursing
Mind and Body re: Chapter 11 of Phantoms in the Brain Many a patient with a tumor pronounced malignant has outlived his physician," notes V.S Ramachandran in his book…Read Full Paper ❯
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Rheumatologist hat is a rheumatologist? It is a person who is board-certified (either as an internist or a pediatrician) and has the training and experience " ... in the…Read Full Paper ❯
Anatomy and Physiology of the Immune System and espiratory System and Their Associated DisordersThe human body is comprised of multiple important systems that keep people alive, including the immune…Read Full Paper ❯
This is the strategy used in Canada, where drug costs have been substantially reduced. The challenges presented by this law have spilled over into the current health-care reform debate.…Read Full Paper ❯
And there is Nelson, arry's son, a drug addict whose dependence is pushing him toward a mental breakdown. Updike touches on the spiritual awareness of American's during a conversation…Read Full Paper ❯
Common risk factors for chronic liver problems include: intravenous drug use, overdosing on acetaminophen, engaging in risky sexual behaviors like having multiple sexual partners and unprotected intercourse, eating contaminated…Read Full Paper ❯
If everything is an it you end up being an it. Does this imply a cold awareness of the self as a perishable being with limited powers or does…Read Full Paper ❯
(iii) in the United States, Brazil, Germany and France, humans have been receiving their own stem cells to re-grow heart muscle in the unforeseen incident of heart attack or…Read Full Paper ❯
This last disadvantage does seem to decrease with longer use but can be as long as 20 full days of spotting mid cycle with the first cycle. (Paulo Alto…Read Full Paper ❯
Music in the 21st century was accused of being increasingly derivative and irrelevant. Interest in individual performers, in the era of iTunes, was being relegated to the sidelines as…Read Full Paper ❯
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Childhood Depression Major depressive disorder, or MDD, may affect up to twenty percent of the adult population. The recognition of depression as a serious and common mental disorder has…Read Full Paper ❯
Because ranchers have long distrusted wolves, most ranchers in the surrounding area saw the wolves as a threat to their livestock and their very way of life. They also…Read Full Paper ❯
The dexamethasone group showed meaningful improvements in several variables. After 48 hours, the women who received dexamethasone has a significantly reduced mean arterial pressure at 115 mm Hg v…Read Full Paper ❯
Still another option is immunotherapy. In 2000, the Immunotherapy Committee of the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology compared the costs of medication and the single-injection allergen immunotherapy…Read Full Paper ❯
Health - Nutrition
Doctors should be consulted on their effectiveness and safety (NIAMSD). In the meantime, a person with fibromyalgia can help himself or herself feel better besides taking medicines (National Institute…Read Full Paper ❯
Combining these two methods is one effective strategy in mitigating pain in children (Cohen). Additional strategies that involve both the patient and family are evident, particularly when dealing with…Read Full Paper ❯
Reintroduction of wolves in Idaho started in 1995. Classified as endangered species, the government had the leeway in the process of reintroducing the grey wolf pack in Idaho. The…Read Full Paper ❯
Sports - Women
Thomas (1997) presents and interesting, but somewhat flawed, qualitative study of disablism as it applies to attitudes towards mothers or soon to be mothers with disabilities. Thomas draws on…Read Full Paper ❯
Freud Civilization and Its Discontents Sigmund Freud's volume, Civilization and its Discontents, he tackles no less than the broad and ambitious concept of man's place in the world. In…Read Full Paper ❯
Mythology - Religion
devout Catholic peering critically at Southern evangelical Protestant culture, Flannery O'Connor never separates faith and place from her writings. Her upbringing and her life story become inextricably intertwined with…Read Full Paper ❯
Health - Nutrition
Omega-3 Fatty Acids for Fitness and Wellness Fat is back. The American public is no longer fat-phobic. Fat is essential for the body to function in a healthy manner.…Read Full Paper ❯
Fibromyalgia is a rather mysterious condition, with no known cause and no known cure. The symptoms of fibromyalgia consist primarily of muscle and joint pain and heightened sensitivity to…Read Full Paper ❯
Health - Nursing
Interstitial lung disease is a blanket term for a big group of disorders categorized by progressive scarring of both the lung tissue supporting and between the air sacs. This…Read Full Paper ❯
Introduction The delivery health care system takes into account the assimilation of physicians, healthcare facilities, together with other medical services with plan to facilitate the provision of the total…Read Full Paper ❯
Health - Nursing
It is also a population that often has limited resources and one that seeks to find others to help comfort and educate them. Modern technology has certainly improved both…Read Full Paper ❯
Business - Ethics
ecord Medical Administration Service for File ationale in Support of Selection of Heart Transplant ecipient Because time was of the essence in formulating this decision, this memorandum for the…Read Full Paper ❯
Frightening Event in My Life THE MOST FRIGHTENING EVENT IN MY LIFE Three years ago, I was driving home from the first social affair with co- workers from my…Read Full Paper ❯
Gould's and Mayr's biological species concept, as presented by Stamos (2008). According to these scientists and to this species concept, two populations are termed as belonging to the same…Read Full Paper ❯