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Lying is, what some see, as a means to an end. It enables relationships and maintains bonds (at least that is how a lot of people act and behave every day). However, this may not be a good means of socializing when it comes to long-term relationships. People sometimes believe the saying: "You can't handle the truth" and treat those they fear cannot deal with honesty, by chronically lying to them. There are some who lie to themselves and prefer to live in denial of important things like looming health issues, infidelity, or an unsatisfied life to keep from going insane. Lies then become an avenue for expression of bad behavior and avenue for constant repression (a way to prolong or delay something) to survive. Why then is lying so harmful? Are there instances where lies are beneficial?
Little white lies are almost always seen as harmless. People see these…
Lying in International Relations
hat are your thoughts on lying in international relations?
International relations can be a very complicated issue and the relationships can be tenuous and easily broken if not handled correctly. The importance of a solid relationship cannot be underestimated. Countries with which a nation has a good relationship will be a source of economic support in terms of trade and lending of funds, a sharer of technological progression, as well as a potential ally in times of strife. It is the hope that when countries are building a relationship, there will be a level of honesty between the governments. However there will always be certain secrets which a nation's government should never share to a country and indeed with nations where there is a history of mistrust or dubious actions, it is even less prudent to share top-secret information. Some people naively state that "honesty is…
Klitgaard, R. (1998). International cooperation against corruption. Finance and Development.
(35:1). Pro-Quest. 3-6.
Lektzian, D. & Sova, M. (2001). Institutions and international cooperation: an event history analysis of the effects of economic sanctions. The Journal of Conflict Resolution. (45:1). ProQuest Central. 61-79.
UChicago. (2012, March 1). Why leaders lie: the truth about lying in international politics.
Rhetorical Strategies used in Lying
Honest self-disclosure is an important factor that strengthens interpersonal relationships, since this is a manifestation of one's trust and sincerity to the individual. However, there are sometimes situations or information about one's self that cannot be easily disclosed, for reasons that every individual can have: perhaps disclosure of personal information may threaten or weaken the relationship, or simply, the individual is not yet ready to let his/her partner know about particular information about his/her life.
One alternative to self-disclosure is lying. Defined as the "deliberate attempt to hide or misrepresent the truth," lying is considered unethical since it is an act of disinformation, a breach of one's trust and belief to the individual (Adler, 1998:332). There are many reasons for lying. People may lie in order to avoid tension or conflict, to save face from embarrassment or shame, to guide social interaction among other…
Adler, R. (1998). Interplay: The process of interpersonal communication. NY: Harcourt Brace.
Is there any way(s) to know when someone is lying or telling the truth? Consider body language, voice patterns, handwriting, or other traits. Consider situations. hat could you do to reach a conclusion? Detective work? polygraph/lie detector?
Yes it is possible to detect a liar, but it can be difficult to do in some situations. There are several verbal and nonverbal clues that reveal deceit. Among these clues are physiological reactions such as pupil dilation, blushing, blinking, hyperventilating, blanching skin, and increased sweating. (Ford)
Most often individuals that are lying display one or more of these reactions and if you pay close attention these clues are obvious. According to an article entitled "Lies!, Lies!!, Lies!!!: The Psychology of Deceit," physiological reactions "are governed by the autonomic nervous system and thus are out of the liar's control. Dilation of the pupils can be a physiological sign of fear or anxiety."…
Ford, Charles V. "Lies!, Lies!!, Lies!!!: The Psychology of Deceit." American Psychiatric Press, 1996
The situation is different in Henry IV, where the main character, prince Hal as he is called by his friends, will ascend to the throne in the second part of the play in spite of his past as a villain. As the play begins, we see the king Henry IV, prince Hal's father, caught up in the midst of a civil conflict with Hotspur and the entire Percy branch of noblemen, because of a debt he had failed to pay to them.
During this conflict, Henry shows his bitterness at not having his eldest son, prince Hal to help him in the military matters. Hal is, at this time, with a group of rogues and villains who accompany him in his unlawful actions. Falstaff is the most famous of these, and seems to be Shakespeare's best known personification of falseness (a word from which his name is undoubtedly derived) lying…
Shakespeare, William. Henry IV. London: Oxford University Press, 1972
Richard III. London: Oxford University Press, 1969
Lying on your resume is never acceptable to any organization. In the case of Tracy, we understand that she lied on her resume and instead of explaining that she dropped out of MBA program just when she was about to complete, she instead mentioned MBA anyway in order to get the job even though it was not needed for the position she had applied for. Secondly, we understand that organization found out the truth through someone else and not through their own suspicions which means that Tracy had been doing a good job and no one needed to recheck her credentials and educational qualifications. We also know that Tray dropped out due to family reasons and had been very close to getting the degree.
Now that Human Resource knows that Tracy did not complete her MBA and had lied on her resume, it is in a state of conflict and…
On the other hand there are arguments for why people should lie, in other words when lying would be justified. Lying could be justified if it was done in self-defense. This is the same concept as shooting someone in self-defense; if you have to tell a lie in order to exit a situation that is harmful to yourself it is justified. Additionally, lying to protect trade secrets, like discussed above in lying by omission, is justifiable. If businesses shared their trade secrets openly with competitors it would create many issues for the businesses that are trying to stay ahead of others. Lastly, an argument for when lying is justified is when it is done to protect national security. The cases of when lies are justified are much rarer than when they are not justified. In all cases, even when it seems justifiable the consequences should be thoroughly considered. 4 Overall…
Thiroux, Jacques and Krasemann, Keith. Ethics: Theory and Practice 10th Edition. New York: Pearson, 2009.
1 Jacques Thiroux. Ethics: Theory and Practice 10th Edition. (New York: Pearson), 2009. 276.
2 Thiroux, 280.
3 Thiroux, 283
lying and deceit and questions its acceptability in society. Lying is something which stands at a different perspective for everyone. Every form of lying is because an individual is trying to gain or achieve something, most of people's actions are meant to deceive in some way for personal gain, and this goes on underlying, since people are so used to doing it. There is, however a possibility to change someone's patterns of duplicity. The detection of this duplicity is what may be difficult.
These patterns of duplicity are difficult to detect since they are already embedded within the person. This does not mean, though, that the person is of ill will. There are needs for this deception, justifiable or not, which arise through certain stressors in one's life. These types of stressors present themselves as challenges or types of competition in an individual's life. The drive for success or material…
Carson, T.L. (1988). On the definition of lying: A reply to Jones and revisions. Journal of Business Ethics. 7; 509-514.
Decosimo, D. (2010). JUST LIES: Finding Augustine's Ethics of Public Lying in His Treatments of Lying and Killing Journal of Religious Ethics Just Lies. Journal of Religious Ethics. 38(4); 661-697.
Malpas, J. (2008). Truth, Lies and Deceit: On Ethics in Contemporary Public Life. International Journal of Applied Philosophy. 22(1); 1-12.
Sims, R.L. (2000). The Relationship Between Employee Attitudes and Conflicting Expectations for Lying Behavior. Journal of Psychology. 134(6); 619-634.
"(Hemingway, 303) Not only did the experience of the war change and affect him in a total way, but, when he returns home, the war becomes an obstacle impossible to surmount in the way of his new life because he is forced to lie about it and about his actual experiences and feelings. e intimate from his indirectly given thoughts, that after the war, everyone taking part in it was in the habit of forging unreal stories, most of them regarding heroism and what the author terms "atrocities." The only thing that he can coherently say about his experience is that he was horribly frightened all the time, "badly, sickeningly frightened all the time," as he tells himself (Hemingway, 303).
Hemingway's short story announces its theme already in the title: the phrase "soldier's home" is a very suggestive linguistic construction. However, the phrase in the title implies more than that-…
Hemingway, Ernest. Collected Stories.
lying always wrong?
While the concept of lying appears simple at first, upon consideration one is able to imagine any number of situations in which lying would not appear to always be wrong, thus creating something of a quandary for anyone attempting to argue in favor of ethical and honest behavior, especially in the corporate world. The problem to be investigated in this essay, then, is the problem of determining if lying is always wrong, and the implications of the answer to that question. In order to address this problem, one may examine certain relevant, well-known instances of lying in which an argument can be made for either side, such as the padding of resumes with misleading or false information, or James Frey's repackaging of a novel he wrote into an ostensible memoir.
James Frey wrote a book-based roughly on his own experiences but embellished enough that when he first…
Jennings, M. (2009). Business ethics: case studies and selected readings. (6th ed.). Mason:
South-Western Cengage Learning.
He sentenced Grimes to 30 days in jail and ordered him to pay a $500 fine. Given the fact that a lie by a police officer can deprive a person of their liberty, this seems like a reasonable sentence. Only the use of monitoring in patrol cars revealed that the tests were not performed.
Members of the public must trust officers, not technology alone, to ensure that officers do not lie in court and that citizen's rights are protected. That is why Grimes' sentence is reasonable. According to court records, Grimes has more than 160 pending cases within the courts system which are now in doubt. If Grimes testified inaccurately and innocent defendants were convicted in the past, he has breached the public's trust. His proven lie also calls into question many successful prosecutions, which could result in guilty people going free. And much bureaucracy and legal wrangling lie ahead…
Barone, Patrick. (2011, May). Police lies lead to dismissal of possibly 100 DUI cases.
Retrieved July 13, 2011 at http://www.drunkdrivinginmichigan.com/police-lies-lead-to-dismissal-of-possibly-100-dui-cases/
Lying is perhaps one of the most common wrongs we (virtually all of us) commit in the course of our life. It could even be true to say that it is human nature to tell lies. Consciously or unconsciously, we often lie to evade embarrassing or awkward situations, get out of trouble, and/or make other people feel better or intimidate them. Unfortunately, even though lying may be good or bad depending on the situation at hand, or depending on who you ask, we usually disregard the impact our lies can have on not only those lied to, but also us. Even the most trivial of lies can have severe unexpected consequences.
As an individual, I regard myself as a straightforward and honest person. This is a value that I have emulated from my father since childhood. My father has always taught me the importance of candidness and truthfulness. I have…
coach, lying with my head on pillow; back down with a book up in the air when I heard the clock ding six times alerting me to the hour. I had been reading for several hours straight and my eyes grew heavy. The sun was setting quickly and with each passing moment the light found a new path through the window blinds. The article I was reading was written by Zhu Ziqing, who became popular in the twentieth century. The article was apparently written as Ziqing was approaching the mid-point in his life and he was reflecting on his earlier years. He was contemplating the style of parenting that he used with his children when they were younger. Ziqing was raised by parents in an authoritarian manner which was typical of his culture and he automatically, without forethought, chose the same style to use with his children.
Finally the light…
Aristotle believed there should be guidelines governing the act of giving testimony (Kennedy, 2004, p. 227-228). For example, a jury member should place greater weight on the reputation and social standing of the witness, than on the content of the testimony given. If a person of good character is called to testify before a formal investigative body, a reasonable listener is therefore required to open their mind to anything the witness may claim. This process of 'reciprocation' requires reasonable jury members and judges to accept as trustworthy the testimony of a reputable person, even if the events described seem incredible and go beyond their own personal experiences.
Unfortunately, the days of small village tribunals where jury members knew most of the participants in a trial, and therefore the reputations and trustworthiness of witnesses, are generally a thing of the past in the United States and much of the world.…
Cornell University. (2012). Title 18 -- Crimes and Criminal Procedure, Part I -- Crimes,
Chapter 79 -- Perjury. Law.Cornell.edu. Retrieved 7 Aug. 2012 from http://www.law.cornell.edu/uscode/pdf/uscode18/lii_usc_TI_18_PA_I_CH_79_SE_1621.pdf .
Kennedy, Rick. (2004). A History of Reasonableness: Testimony and Authority in the Art of Thinking. Rochester, NY: University of Rochester Press.
Lichtman, Robert M. And Cohen, Ronald D. (2004). Deadly Farce: Harvey Matusow and the Informer System in the McCarthy Era. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press.
Lying: Deceit in Language
Tools, such as hammers, have no inherent intent to deceive or malign. Only in the hands of its users do morals come into play. Lying is relative and in some instances the best of choices. Introspection accompanied with reasoning skills will help those receiving language signals to properly classify, and then act upon or ignore, these relations. The purpose of this paper is to examine the relative use of language, and specifically the relationship to its use and intentional miscommunication or deception.
I will develop this argument using the suggested written materials in order to point out how every argument can be interpreted with doubt and the intended consequence of deceit. I will also explore the idea of manipulation through deceptive language and the characteristics of such actions. It is my opinion that manipulation is a self-inflicted process that relies on an individual's decision to rely…
Lying to Ourselves
Military integrity has been a major issue in the recent past because of the increase in moral and ethical problems that are evident across the whole United States military and not just the Army alone. Wong and Gerras' article focuses on highlighting these moral and ethical problems that are increasingly affecting integrity in the U.S. military. As evident in the article, leaders in the American military lie when performing their duties and constantly use rationalizations and justifications to deal with any emerging ethical or moral doubt. This tendency has in turn contributed to the unspoken embrace of dishonesty by these leaders, which is a clear reflection of hypocrisy. Therefore, one the major conclusions from this article include the fact that lying is has become increasingly acceptable in the U.S. military and facilitated by its leaders. Dishonesty and hypocrisy in the military is widely accepted by its leaders…
Wong, Leonard & Gerras, Stephen J. "Lying to Ourselves: Dishonesty in the Army Profession."
United States Army War College Press. accessed October 29, 2015. http://www.strategicstudiesinstitute.army.mil/pdffiles/PUB1250.pdf
oss thought that all people should be benevolent and so if lying affects one's benevolence, one needs to decide if lying is better for the sake of benevolence.
oss' non-absolutist take to ethics is preferred because is considers what is morally right in certain situations. In the instance of a Poker game, it is a game that relies upon lying or "bluffing" so it actually does pass Kant's universal law test. Kant would probably not take issue with the game of Poker because it is a game that needs the aspect of bluffing in order to work. But, if we want to use the example and examine it purely from a Kantian perspective on lying, then we must consider that people are acting from a means approach and not an end approach and all of the players have the same intention in mind -- to wind the game -- and…
Bennett, Jonathan. (2010). Groundwork for the metaphysic model. Immanuel Kant.
Ross, W.D. (1930). What makes right acts right? The right and the good. Oxford: Oxford
Spot a Liar, a presentation given by Pamela Meyer (2011) as part of the TedTalks series, Meyer provides a lecture on the different types of lies individuals are exposed to everyday and the signals that present when an individual is not telling the truth. Meyer presents her lecture in an easy to follow format and provides examples and visuals that allow the viewer to better understand lying and how to spot it.
In "How to Spot a Liar," Meyer (2011) argues that there are two truths about lying: lying is a cooperative act and although people are against lying, they are "covertly" for it. The first truth about lying, that it is a cooperative act, argues that a lie is effective because the person that is being lied to is willing to accept what the liar is telling them. Furthermore, Meyer (2011) argues that not all lies are harmful and…
Hall, A. (2009, Dec 20). Adolf Hitler's hatred of Jews 'stemmed from First World War.' The
Telegraph. Retrieved 9 April 2013, from http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/europe/germany/6852245/Adolf-Hitlers-hatred-of-Jews-stemmed-from-First-World-War.html
Meyers, P. (2011). How to spot a liar. TEDtalks. YouTube. Uploaded 13 October 2011.
Retrieved 9 April 2013, from http://youtu.be/P_6vDLq64gE
Tracy Folsom is a 28-year-old female who was brought to the Emergency Department by her neighbor. The neighbor stated that Miss Folsom was found lying semi-conscious in the shower. The patient was received in the ED by the on call nurse. The nurse's performance with Miss Folsom's management is reviewed in this article.
Emergency evaluation of a patient is supposed be in a systematic manner. A systemic approach prevents the examiner from missing out important clues that may point to a patient's diagnosis. This approach is divided into primary and secondary.
As part of the Primary Assessment, the patient's Airway, Breathing, Circulation and degree of Disability was evaluated, as per protocol. Miss. Folsom's airway was patent, breathing was shallow, and her skin color was pink, indicating good perfusion. She was obeying commands and pupils were equal in size and reactive to light. It is also helpful to state…
Canadian Medical Association. (2007, July). Putting patients first ®: patient-centred collaborative care a discussion paper. Retrieved from http://fhs.mcmaster.ca/surgery/documents/CollaborativeCareBackgrounderRevised.pdf
Dean, R & Mulligan, J, 2009, 'Initial management of patients in an emergency situation', Nursing Standard, vol. 24, no. 5, pp. 35-41, (Academic Search Complete).
Gilbert, G., Souza, P., & Pletz, B. (2009). Patient assessment routine medical care primary and secondary survey. San Mateo County EMS Agency, 1-5. Retrieved from http://smchealth.org/sites/default/files/docs/243322118Patient_Assessment.pdf
Institute of Medicine. (2001) Crossing the quality chasm. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
In the case of Enron, upper-level executives went too far. By blatantly lying on numerous occasions about the value of their stock, participants like CEO Kenneth Lay overstepped the boundaries of utilitarian lying.
Many studies have been conducted on the relationship between ethics and profitability in the business world. Studies indicate a "positive but not definitive" relationship between ethical behavior and financial success (ebley and More). Especially in the wake of the Enron disaster, investors and employees are looking toward companies with stronger ethical codes. Research has also indicated that companies that overtly refer to their codes of ethics in their annual reports and other public communications fare better than those that don't, in terms of economic added value (EVA), market added value (MVA), and reduced volatility (ebley and More).
Such research does not indicate a causal relationship between ethical behavior and profitability. hat such research indicates is not necessarily…
Enron's bankruptcy causes aftershocks on Main Street, Wall Street and in Washington." 2001. CNN.com. Retrieved July 19, 2005 online at http://www.cnn.com/SPECIALS/2002/enron/
Webley, Simon and More, Elise. "Does Business Ethics Pay?" Apr 2003. Institute of Business Ethics. Retrieved July 19, 2005 online at http://www.ibe.org.uk/DBEPsumm.htm
From that, he says, "This cynical attitude is strong these days on campus, where postmodern theory erodes basic truthfulness by holding that facts and truth don't really exist." He then tries to support that argument by quoting Two University of Pennsylvania professors who claim, "We are all engaged in writing a kind of propaganda. Rather than believe in the absolute truth of what we are writing, we must believe in the moral or political positions we are taking with it." According to Leo, this means that "Feelings and political stances count. Facts and truth don't." The non-sequitur is his conclusion that there is a cynical attitude on campus, with postmodern theory eroding basic truthfulness. That conclusion does not necessarily follow from his example of the dishonest Nobel Prize winner or the two university professors. This is a sweeping condemnation of universities that is not warranted by the examples he cites.…
law enforcement agencies have often struggled with officer dishonesty and the impact such an action leaves not just in the criminal justice system, but more specifically in court proceedings. When an officer lies, their credibility may be threatened due to their previous dishonest comportment. Agencies must, on a continued basis, disclose information to prosecutors concerning the issue of officer dishonesty if the officer in question must testify against a defendant. That defendant must also be made aware of the instance of officer dishonesty and if this is not done, the agencies and officers may be held accountable as well as potentially lead to dismissal of charges against the defendant. An example of this was seen in Brady v. Maryland.
The landmark case of Brady v. Maryland demonstrated the effects of withholding information or evidence in case proceedings by the decision of the prosecutors to not submit Boblit's confession as evidence.…
Lewis, R. & Veltman, N. (2015). The Hard Truth About Cops Who Lie. WNYC. Retrieved 16 October 2016, from http://www.wnyc.org/story/hard-truth-about-cops-who-lie/
My own weaknesses as a negotiator hinge upon those aspects of negotiation that involve lying. Of course, most instructors who teach the art of negotiation do not refer to it as "lying" but from a civilian perspective that is precisely what it is. In order to sell the art of negotiation to use, instructors refer to it as "framing" and "strategy." But of course "framing" could easily be translated into "omitting part of the truth for the purpose of strategic advantage" -- you say "we've had other offers" but neglect to mention that they were all less than half of the asking price, or neglect to mention that all the other offers that were had were subsequently withdrawn, or so forth. The simple fact is that the "framing" aspect of negotiation is basically about using an informational asymmetry in order to gain advantage over the other party, and frequently…
Carnegie, D. (1998). How to win friends and influence people. New York: Pocket Books.
Kritek, PB. (2002). Negotiating at an uneven table. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Service, R. (2004). Stalin: A biography. New York: Macmillan.
Ethics in Law Enforcement
"Sometimes [police officers] may, and sometimes may not, lie when conducting custodial interrogations. Investigative and interrogatory lying are each justified on utilitarian crime control grounds. Police are never supposed to lie as witnesses in the courtroom, although they may lie for utilitarian reasons similar to those permitting deception & #8230;" (Skolnick, et al., 1992)
Is it ethical for law enforcement officers to use deception during the interrogation process? It appears that when officers are attempting to extract a confession from a suspect, deception is, in many cases, commonly applied strategy. Does a code of ethics conflict with the way in which law enforcement conducts its interviews and interrogations? hat do the courts say about deceptive interrogation tactics? These issues will be reviewed in this paper.
Deception in the Interrogation Room
Is it ethical to lie to obtain the truth? No. Do the ends justify the means?…
Braswell, Michael C. (2011). Justice, Crime, and Ethics. Maryland Heights, MO: Elsevier.
Leo, Richard A. (2009). Police Interrogation and American Justice. Cambridge, MA: Harvard
McMullen, Patrick M. (2005). Questioning the Questions: The Impermissibility of Police
Deception in Interrogations of Juveniles. Northwestern University Law Review, 99(2),
Corrections / Police / Criminal Justice
ould I lie to a suspect to get a confession even it was legal to do so?
Legal or not, lying to get a confession creates a moral black hole for an officer. To wit, how would an officer who was otherwise a good Christian later feel about getting a conviction albeit he obtained that conviction through deception? That is the question here. Chances are he would feel guilty; and it's possible that his wife, if she knew he used lies to tease a confession out of a suspect, would confront him. He would have had no place to hide from his sin in his earthly world and certainly spiritually he would live with a sense of guilt. Looked at a different way, when a good officer who was not a Christian but has always practiced ethical values is told by his superiors in…
Jones, J.R. (2006). Reputable Conduct: Ethical Issues in Policing and Corrections. Don Mills,
Ontario: Pearson Canada.
Perez-Pena. R. (2012). Studies Find More Students Cheating, With High Achievers No
Exception. The New York Times. Retrieved June 30, 2014, from http://www.nytimes.com .
But bullshit is still negative, a sloppy disregard for the truth, and self-indulgent -- the bullshitter is trying to get away with something, to put something over on his audience about his character. The bullshitter is trying to conceal his or her real intentions and enterprise -- one reason why politicians are often said to be bullshitters, given that even when they might be speaking intelligently about healthcare, their real intention is likely to get reelected, not to change the world. Truth is of little interest to the bullshitter. This is the danger of bullshit -- unlike a lie which can be proven factually false, it is almost impossible to prove that someone's intentions are entirely self-serving and corrupt. That is why bullshit seems to be so rife today: "where people are frequently impelled -- whether by their own propensities or by the demands of others -- to speak extensively…
Frankfurt, Harry G. On Bullshit. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2005.
Last, but not least, transitions between ideas are marked by clear road signs, represented by link words that clarify the relationship between parts (Bowman). This leads to a clear understanding of the logic that stands at the basis of the memo, giving suggestions about the position and attitude of the author and shedding light on the sequence of arguments.
3. The memo is ethical because it encourages open communication, characterized by the lack of ulterior motifs or personal agendas, thus eliminating possible sources of lies or half-truths, rendering the process moral (Mazur). The memo addresses the problem of communication within the organizational frame, but, at a deeper level, it has implications on the values shared by employees, on the organizational culture.
Attempts of influence are omnipresent today. Each person is surrounded by messages that suggest a certain behavior or try to induce change at a certain level, through different tactics.…
Bowman, J.P. Writing Persuasive Messages, Retrieved Online at http://homepages.wmich.edu/~bowman/c4eframe.html
Mazur, T.C., 'Lying', Issues in Ethics, Retrieved Online at http://scu.edu/ethics/publications/iie/v6n1/lying.html
Business Administration 3033: Business Communication, Retrieved Online from: http://writing.umn.edu/tww/WID/business/resources/BA3033memo.htm
detecting deception and analyzing truthfulness. In a world where most average people find it quite difficult to distinguish truths from lies, law enforcement officials must train themselves to better detect the psychological and physical clues associated with lying. This ultimately means using combined strategies to find red flags and then drill suspects on issues that may signify deception. elying solely on tests may not be as reliable as taking a more holistic approach to detecting deception.
The complex nature of understanding truthfulness and deception has to be broken down into smaller concepts, so that law enforcement officials can effectively use their skills to detect deception. There is no single, fool proof way to catch some one in a lie. In fact, every person has their own different cues and idiosyncrasies they do when they lie. It is the job of law enforcement officials to understand the most common cues and…
Adelson, Rachel. (2004). Detecting deception. American Psychological Association. Web. http://www.apa.org/monitor/julaug04/detecting.aspx
Cooper, Barry S., Herve, Hughes, & Yuille, John C. (2009). Evaluating truthfulness: Detecting truths and lies in forensic contexts. Chapter Seventeen.
Matsumoto, David, Hwang, Hyi Sung, Skinner, Lisa, & Frank, Mark. (2011). Evaluating truthfulness and detecting deception. FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin. Web. http://www.fbi.gov /stats-services/publications/law-enforcement-bulletin/june_2011/school_violence
Preston, Elizabeth. (2002). Detecting deception. Observer. Association for Psychological Science. Web. http://www.psychologicalscience.org/index.php/uncategorized/detecting-deception.html
In many ways this is how Nietzsche assimilates the idea that people are "artistically creative subjects." To Nietzsche the idea of truth is relative to the reality of how "truth" becomes a conscript of human communication and perception. "Insofar as the individual wishes to preserve himself in relation to other individuals, in the state of nature he mostly used his intellect for concealment and dissimulation." (143) to Nietzsche the only real reason why people really began to accept the idea of varied truths was to conform to living in groups, as apposed to fighting amongst each other for the same space and resources.
Truth is therefore not a concrete accumulation of facts, as they occur but a culmination of facts, as they are remembered and illusions associated with individual perceptions of how to best portray him or herself to those he or she must live with. There is no shame…
Nietzsche, Friedrich, the Birth of Tragedy and other Writings: On Truth and Lying in a Moral Sense. London, UK Cambridge University Press 1999.
The Returning of Soldiers from Combat in America
Although Earnest Hemmingway's, "Soldiers Home" (187) was written in 1925, and the war at that time was different, there are several things in the story that still ring true today for servicemen. In "Soldiers Home" (187) Krebs, the main character in the story goes through some changes while he is away fighting in the Marine Corps. Krebs was a young man from Kansas who is in college at the time that he is drafted into the Marine Corps. So he leaves his friends and family to go overseas to fight for his country, as do the young men and women of todays armed forces. As told by the author Krebs fights in some of the toughest battles that were ever fought, "Belau ood, Soissons, Champagne St. Mihiel, and The Argonne Forrest" (187), he feels out of place when…
With Krebs not really trusting his parents, and his loss of love as well the author shows the reader several issues that can affect a soldier returning home from combat. Along with the loss of interest in relationships, and not having a reason to interact with the towns people or even listen to his parents, they all show some of the struggles facing returning servicemen and women then and today, and that they have faced upon their return from foreign places where they have been busily waging war for the entire twentieth century (Associated Content)
The problems with the American soldier returning home from combat are worse than people may think. They go a lot deeper than people may think. They can range from Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, Traumatic Brain Injury, hearing loss, anxiety, depression, and even isolation. These are the problems that are unseen by society and have been written about since at least 1925. Hemingway's story is not prescient or "ahead of its tie" because it recognized and described the issues of coming home from war in ways that can be identified with modern diagnoses and that reflect modern experiences. Instead, it is the simple commonality of the experiences of warfare that existed in the First World War and that still exist in today's military conflicts that makes this work still relevant. The fact that Hemingway so accurately describes a case of post Traumatic Stress Disorder doesn't matter nearly as much as the fact that this disorder still exists, and for the same reasons it existed nearly a hundred years ago. Until mankind learns to end warfare, traumas like those experienced by Krebs and by real soldiers in ongoing wars will continue to lead to the development f psychological disorders like PTSD as described in "Soldier's Home" and by countless servicemen and servicewomen that have served honorably in places of combat today.
As Krebs returns home from war in 1919, he is faced with issues of being back in the civilian society. Whether a soldier fought in World War I, World War II, Vietnam, Desert Storm, Somalia, or Iraq and Afghanistan, the problems of the returning veteran are handled the same then as they are now personally, within the soldier and with the general public.
Tom Shulich ("ColtishHum")
A comparative study on the theme of fascination with and repulsion from Otherness in Song of Kali by Dan Simmons and in the City of Joy by Dominique Lapierre
In this chapter, I examine similarities and differences between The City of Joy by Dominique Lapierre (1985) and Song of Kali by Dan Simmons (1985) with regard to the themes of the Western journalistic observer of the Oriental Other, and the fascination-repulsion that inspires the Occidental spatial imaginary of Calcutta. By comparing and contrasting these two popular novels, both describing white men's journey into the space of the Other, the chapter seeks to achieve a two-fold objective: (a) to provide insight into the authors with respect to alterity (otherness), and (b) to examine the discursive practices of these novels in terms of contrasting spatial metaphors of Calcutta as "The City of Dreadful Night" or "The City of…
Barbiani, E. (2005). Kalighat, the home of goddess Kali: The place where Calcutta is imagined twice: A visual investigation into the dark metropolis. Sociological Research Online, 10 (1). Retrieved from http://www.socresonline.org.uk/10/1/barbiani.html
Barbiani, E. (2002). Kali e Calcutta: immagini della dea, immagini della metropoli. Urbino: University of Urbino.
Cameron, J. (1987). An Indian summer. New York, NY: Penguin Travel Library.
Douglas, M. (1966). Purity and danger: An analysis of concepts of pollution and taboo. New York, NY: Routledge & K. Paul.
Medical ethics and rules like the Hippocratic oath are fairly clear-cut when applying them to real-world solutions and situations. However, there are some situations where the "right answer" can be elusive and people will sometimes go against their own self-interest. Such seems to be the case with Mr. Simpson. He has weak lungs and his doctors and family morbidly fear that if/when he gets the flu again, it will literally kill him. However, even with this being the case, Mr. Simpson refuses to get the flu show under the auspices that he could end up getting the flu as a direct result of the shot despite assurances that this will not happen. Of course, this can absolutely happen in real life but that argument is not a factor in this case study as it is assumed he cannot possibly contract the virus. While Mr. Simpson is obviously not making the…
This is important, because in the story Lilia, does not understand the conflict in Pakistan, much less cares about the issues, until Mr. Pirzada becomes a family friend. An example of this can be seen with the passage that says, "No one at school talked about the war followed so faithfully in my living room." This is significant, because it shows how the lack of studying world history could cause, a disconnect, as the class would cause the students, to instinctively focus on those issue that are relevant from an American perspective. In many ways one could argue, that this is microcosm of the cultural assimilation that the entire family is going through. Evidence of this can be seen by looking no further than the passage that says, "It occurred to me that the television wasn't on at Dora's house at all. Her father was lying on the couch, reading…
"When Mr. Pizada Came to Dine." Musings of a Bookish Kitty, 2010 . Web. 19 Jul. 2010.
This episode describes Zurov's murder during a battle when he had to deliver a very important message to ussian general. As a result of his murder the battle was lost and Turks were able to win time in Plevna.
7. "So it was simply lying in his inside pocket? Well, well"(p.137)
This episode describe that colonel Kazanzaki was blackmailed by Anvar-effendi, who knew about Kazanzaki's homosexuality, otherwise commander would not permit Kazanzaki's participation in serious and responsible counter intelligence secret actions of ussian army in war against Turks.
8. "By the way, Ivan Stepanovich,~ visitors from Osman Pasha" (p. 145)
This episode describes how Turks wanted to trick ussian general and counter attack his flanges. Osman Pasha decided to send visitors in order to "sign peace," in fact he wanted to use those "visitors" only to lull vigilance of ussian army.
9. "Salaam aleichem, Anwar-effendi"(p.183)
These words were said…
Akunin, Boris The Turkish Gambit, 2004
Boris Akunin: The Turkish Gambit
S. By offering an astonishing and heretical thesis. Hence, many believe in the notion of extra sensory perception (ESP). Evaluation: Time takes an objective view of society's perception of psychic phenomena. A thorough explanation as to why this unique ability is suppressed because of society's skepticism.
6. Shea, C. (2011). Fraud scandal fuels debate over practices of social psychology. Chronicle of Higher Education, 58(13), A1.
Summary: Article discusses the academic field of social psychology and examines how research practices within the discipline are being influenced by the news media and the use of fraudulent data in his reports, plus the manipulation of statistics. Evaluation: Convincingly, the author demonstrates the strong desire of some to capitalize on the psychic phenomena that compels them to falsify data.
7. Anders, R. (2009). Psychic phenomena. Retrieved from http://www.world-mysteries.com/sci_4.htm
Summary: The energy of matter and the energy behind matter, which religion calls the…
Dow is not the most ethical company to begin with, given their production and distribution of toxic chemicals. The products Dow produces can destroy the environment and potentially threatens the health of their employees as well as their consumers. However, as Greg Miller points out in his article, "Fired by Big Brother: Fearing Sexual Harassment Lawsuits, Dow Chemical Co. In Michigan Fired Workers who Forwarded Lewd E-Mail. Could Your Company Do the Same?" Dow might be guilty of violating further ethical codes, those that pertain to employee relations and basic human rights. A number of Dow employees, a disproportionate number of which were union members, were fired without warning due to their forwarding lewd e-mails. The terminated employees suffered considerable hardships as a result of being fired. Some of them had worked at the company for decades and lost their pensions along with their dignity; many could barely…
Death is food for her cubs.
But I am safe. I am here, behind the mesh. She gets up, and stretches. Except for her enormous size, she might be a house cat stretching after a nice nap on the windowsill. She walks serenely by. I know that muscles ripple under her striped fur, but they do not show the power they must have as she strolls sedately to another spot. She is safe, too. She does not have to hunt for her meals. She does not risk having a jaw or tooth broken from the hoof of fleeing prey. For myself, the wire mesh is a trade-off. It interferes slightly with my view but keeps me safe. What does the tiger think of her trade-off? She is safe, but she will never hunt. Does she know? Does she care?
The keeper comes to feed the tigers in this enclosure. I…
Sometimes a Mall
To paraphrase Sigmund Freud, sometimes a mall is just a mall. Except that this is almost never true. For Americans who grew up in any city large enough to have its own shopping mall (or who grew up next to a city that was large enough to have its own shopping mall), the mall was a place where many of them learned to be grown-ups. Or at least how grown-ups would be if they had a more-than-usual amount of disposable income and no job to get to. And a lot of hormones to work off.
This paper examines the Glendale as a site in which the commerce that is enacted is far less important that the growing-up that occurs there. The fact that teenagers use malls as a sounding board for their adult lives is never an explicit aspect of the identity of the Glendale…
American FactFinder, United States Census Bureau. "U.S. Census Bureau -- Ancestry:2000 -- Glendale city, California." Factfinder.census.gov. http://factfinder.census.gov/servlet/QTTable?_bm=y&-context=qt&-qr_name=DEC_2000_SF3_U_QTP13&-ds_name=DEC_2000_SF3_U&-CONTEXT=qt&-tree_id=403&-all_geo_types=N&-redoLog=false&-geo_id=16000US0630000&-search_results=16000US0630000&-format=&-_lang=en . Retrieved January 29, 2011.
Bean, T. & Moni, K. (2003). Developing students' critical literacy: Exploring identity construction in young adult fiction Journal of adolescent and adult
Gold, E. (1998). Deconstructive approaches in the teaching of texts. In W. Sawyer, K. Watson, & D.R. Gallo (Eds.) Re-viewing English (pp. 198 -- 203). Sydney: St. Clair Press.
Langhorne, R. (2001). The coming of globalization: Its evolution and contemporary consequences. Basingstoke, England: Palgrave.
Shaping of the Colonies in 1763
There have been few eras in human history possessed with more of the expectant optimism, and the grim pragmatism, than the century following first contact with the new world of North America. With an expansive landmass, the size of which more than doubled that known to citizens of any European country at the time, brimming with natural resources and lying open for exploration and settlement, many thinkers of the age shared Benjamin Franklin's fateful estimation, made in his tract America as a Land of Opportunity, which claimed "so vast is the Territory of North-America, that it will require many Ages to settle it fully." Penned and published in 1751, Franklin's treatise on the seemingly infinite riches to be reaped by the American colonies failed to fully anticipate man's overwhelming compulsion to compete for the control of land. While America's preeminent philosopher was prescient in…
An Assessment of Paley's Natural theology: The Watch Argument
In this section of Archdeacon of Carlisle William Paley's Natural Theology, the author constructs a detailed yet essentially simple and straightforward argument for the existence of God in the form of some primary designer. More specifically, Paley makes an argument against atheism or the belief that there is no such designer for the universe through a lengthy analogy about a watch, or perhaps a series of watches, he imagines might be discovered on the ground. Unlike a stone that can be assumed to have lain on the ground "forever," a watch found on the ground that has specific movements that appear to serve a specific purpose must have come from a creative and purposeful mind that designed the watch; the parts and their purpose could not have coalesced by simple chance the way a stone might tumble to the…
Lisa was a sophomore and while in the Alternative school, as was the case in the regular high school, she had been a student who had been in trouble frequently for talking back to and swearing at teachers, skipping class, not doing homework, hanging out after school and violating many of the community rules that were established by the group including smoking on school grounds, lying, being late for classes, and doing drugs. She hung out with what teachers called "the wrong crowd" after school: kids from a nearby community that were not as well off, and were part of a street gang. Lisa was white, but many of her friends were black, and the kids in this gang were vocally resistant to the inequalities that they saw in wealthy Scarsdale that were not in their poor community. Some of her afterschool friends were dropping out, and others were fighting…
Lapsley, D. Moral Stage Theory. In Killen, M. & Smetana, J. (Ed). Handbook of Moral Development.
Moral Development and Moral Education: An Overview http://tigger.uic.edu/~lnucci/MoralEd/overview.html
Week 9: (October 22): Self development and Social Contexts
representation of Death and the impermanence in the short story "A Father's Story" by Andre Dubus, and the poem "Because I could not stop for Death" by Emily Dickinson. These two works were chosen because both speak of Death and impermanence, yet these authors employ different literary forms, characters, settings and plots. "A Father's Story" follows the format of a short story, being prose written in concise paragraphs with a main point or moral and portraying its characters by the way they speak. "Because I could not stop for Death" follows the form of poetry, being structured in shifted lines and using language to evoke imagination or emotion in the reader. In addition, the two writers substantively approach Death very differently. Comparison of these distinct forms shows how writers can make very different styles and statements about Death and impermanence through different devices, including but not limited to the short…
Academy of American Poets. (2013). Emily Dickinson. Retrieved from www.poets.org Web site: http://www.poets.org/poet.php/prmPID/155
Bodwell, J. (2008, July/August). The art of reading Andre Dubus: We don't have to live great lives. Retrieved from www.pw.org Web site: http://www.pw.org/content/art_reading_andre_dubus_we_don%E2%80%99t_have_live_great_lives-cmnt_all=1
Clugston, R.W. (2010). Journey into Literature. Retrieved from www.content.ashford.edu Web site: https://content.ashford.edu/books/AUENG125.10.2/sections/sec1.2
Clugston, R.W. (2010). Poems for comparison, Chapter 12, Journey into Literature. Retrieved from content.ashford.edu Web site:
Arterial Ulcerations:Management of Arterial ulcerations in the diabetic patient
Arterial Ulcerations: Management of Arterial ulcerations in the diabetic Patient
There Approximately 10 per cent of all leg ulcers are arterial ulcers. The legs and feet are often start to feel very cold and then they may have a color that looks either white or blue, shiny appearance. Arterial leg ulcers normally can be certainly painful. Pain normally starts to escalate when the person's legs are elevated and resting. ith this condition, most have learned tha they can reduce that pain just by lying down on the bed. The gravity will then cause more blood to start flowing directly into the legs. Ulcers normally happen when the breaks in the legs do not heal properly. They may be escorted by irritation. A lot of the times they do not heal correctly thus causing them to become chronic. People that have arterial…
Anand SC, D.C. (2003). Health-related quality of life tools for venous-ulcerated patients. Br J. Nurs, 17(2), 34-56.
C:, W. (1995). Living with a venous leg ulcer: a descriptive study of patients' experiences. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 23(7), 23-30.
Franks PJM, M.C. (1998). Who suffers most from leg ulceration? Journal of Wound Care, 18(3), 383-385.
A police officer's proven dishonesty is not a minor matter. Ignoring or covering up that dishonesty, if discovered, could be devastating to the police department's credibility. Furthermore, due to Due Process laws in the United States, his/her dishonesty could affect the outcome of past cases in which he/she testified and future cases in which he/she may testify. Finally, the prosecution is required to hand that information to defendants' attorneys. Simultaneously, the officer has served the department for 15 years with only 2 "bad" incidents. Handling this officer's proven dishonesty will require swift action that is fair to the department, the Prosecutor's office and this officer.
Decision: Remove The Officer From Active Duty And Offer Him An Alternate Departmental Job That ould Never Entail His Testimony In Court
You are the Chief of Police of a municipality. Your Deputy Chief of Police advises you that one of your…
Bernstein, C., & Woodward, B. (2012, June 8). Woodward ad Bernstein: 40 years after Watergate, Nixon was far worse than we thought. Retrieved on June 29, 2012 from www.washingtonpost.com Web site: http://www.washingtonpost.com/opinions/woodward-and-bernstein-40-years-after-watergate-nixon-was-far-worse-than-we-thought/2012/06/08/gJQAlsi0NV_story.html
Justia. (n.d.). Brady v. Maryland - 373 U.S. 83 (1963). Retrieved on June 29, 2012 from Supreme.justia.com Web site: http://supreme.justia.com/cases/federal/us/373/83/case.html
Justia. (n.d.). Giglio v. United States - 405 U.S. 150 (1972). Retrieved on June 29, 2012 from supreme.justia.com Web site: http://supreme.justia.com/cases/federal/us/405/150/case.html
Justia. (n.d.). United States v. Bagley - 473 U.S. 667 (1985). Retrieved on June 29, 2012 from supreme.justia.com Web site: http://supreme.justia.com/cases/federal/us/473/667/case.html
American companies refuse to do business in countries
• a. That do not practice democracy?
• b. That routinely practice discrimination?
• c. That tolerate or even encourage the abuse of children? Explain.
Ultimately, a company can do whatever it wishes and to many companies, profit exceeds all else.
However, the United Nations' Global Compact does ask companies to incorporate
Principles concerning human rights,
labor rights, environment protection, and anti-corruption and this includes even indirectly seeming to support countries that violate basic human rights.
Conducting business with a country that does any of the above is not only indirectly helping that country economically grow but also seems to be sending a message of support that country.
The Universal Declaration of Human ights (UDH) calls on 'every individual and every organ of society' to strive to promote and respect the rights and freedoms it contains and to secure their effective recognition…
Harvard University. The Queen v. Dudley and Stephens, 14 Queen's Bench Division 273 (1884).
Organizations Establish ules for the Creation or Use of Accounting Information:
- Securities and Exchange Commission
- New York Stock Exchange
Internal evenue Service
Describe what kind of rules each makes, why they make them, and how they enforce them. Which organizations make laws, and which publish guidelines? What is the difference? What are the different consequences for those who bend various sets of rules? (Causey Enron case) How might Causey's defense be stronger or weaker under IFS guidelines rather than GAAP?
The rules that govern the three organizations may not be specifically made by that organization, but they are enforced by it. The Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) is not a law or even rule making body, but the members do suggest legislation and, as one of its main functions, enforces the laws that have been passed by congress (SEC, 2012). The New York Stock Exchange (NYSE) is a…
Atwood, T.J., Drake, M.S., Myers, J.N., & Myers, L.A. (2011). Do earnings reported under IFRS tell us more about future earnings and cash flows? Journal of Accounting & Public Policy, 30(4).
Crovitz, L.G. (2008). Closing the information GAAP. Wall Street Journal. Retrieved from http://online.wsj.com/article/SB122083366235408621.html?mod=hpp_us_inside_ today
Ernst & Young. (2010). U.S. GAAP vs. IFRS. Retrieved from http://www.ey.com/Publication/vwLUAssets/IFRS_vs_US_GAAP_Basics_March_ 2010/$FILE/IFRS_vs_US_GAAP_Basics_March_2010.pdf
Fowler, T., & Roper, J.C. (2005, Dec 28). Causey pleads guilty leaving just Skilling, Lay. Houston Chronicle. Retrieved from http://www.chron.com/business/enron/article/Causey-pleads-guilty-leaving-just - Skilling-Lay-1943273.php#page-2
It is difficult to write a children's book because there are so many different things to think about before it can be accomplished. The style has to be interesting enough to keep the interest of the audience, no matter whether that is adults or children, but if a book does not flow correctly a child will sense it and be bored. Also, there is the matter of what age level the book is for. The selected subject matter has to be appropriate for the age of the targeted audience and it has to be presented in such a way that it does not lose the young reader. A young child will also want interesting illustrations that can hold interest.
The best advice may be to research others who have been successful with a certain age group nor genre and see what they did. Pat Mora, a…
Barancik, Steve. "Harness the power of storytelling to improve behavior." Best Children's Books. (2011). Web.
Mora, Pat. "20 Tips for Writing children's Books." Bookjoy. (2011). Web.
Removing the Culture of Noble Cause Corruption
To the Officers in our State Police Department,
As a Colonel of this force with years of experience in the field, I understand the complexity and nuance of conducting police work. And I also understand the imperative to 'get the collar' as it were, at all costs. However, we cannot pursue law enforcement at the expense of upholding the law.
Frequently, police officers act according to a set of laws and parameters internal to a department's culture. In some instances, this behavior will strain or undermine true legal and ethical expectations of law enforcement agencies. However, there is a moral gray area for many departments, who view this specialized set of parameters as necessary for pursuing the complex challenges of police work. This underscores the concept of noble cause corruption, which allow officers to act according to their own set of…
Fitzpatrick, D.P. (2006). Moving Beyond the Noble Cause Paradigm: Providing a Unified Theory of Ethics for 21st Century American Policing. The Forum on Public Policy.
Holmes, M.H. (2012). Raising the Ranks of Public Sector Leaders. Public Personnel Management, 41(3)
Hoppe, R. (1999). Argumentative Turn. Science and Public Policy, 26(3), 201-201.
Micheli, P.; Schoeman, M.; Baxter, D. & Goffin, K. (2012). New Business Models for Public-Sector Innovation. Research-Technology Management.
Philosophy and Morality
INSTRUCTIONS The exam consists essays. Please essays document. Please plagiarize. Be paraphrase verbatim language authors putting quotation marks. You document sources, -text citation ( footnotes) a reference page.
John Arthur's "Morality, Religion, and Conscience,"
A concern on the relationship between morality and religion is an ancient argument that continues in philosophy in the present times. The argument is mainly on whether morality emanates from an institution or religious background. Theologians in their numbers provide unwavering support the argument that a unifying absolute force or God provides universal moral guidance. The importance of observing morality and religion as independent on one another but related in some way has been argued by other philosophers (Lyons 479). John Arthur argues that morality and religion are not interlocking in relevant manners. Arthur argues that morality in independent from religion and religion does not influence moral action. It is his contention…
Arthur, J. "Morality, Religion, and Conscience." In Morality and Moral Controversies: Readings in Moral, Social, and Political Philosophy. Ed. edition, by John Arthur. Seventh. Upper Saddle River, N.J.:: Pearson Prentice Hall:, 2005. Print.
Hare, R.M. Moral Thinking: Its Levels, Method and Point. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1981. Print.
Lyons, William. "Conscience - an Essay in Moral Psychology." Philosophy 84.330 (2009): 477-94. Print.
Merle, Jean-Christophe. "A Kantian Critique of Kant's Theory of Punishment." Law and Philosophy 19.3 (2000): 311-38. Print.
" (4) it is unclear how to understand "things are because we see them." Traditionally perception is conceived as a passive process: we open our eyes and receive input from the world. Kant suggests that perhaps it is not so passive: we "organize" the world into temporal and spatial dimensions, attribute cause and effect, etc. But what Wilde suggests here is even more radical. The "things are because" suggests a causal relationship, such that what we see exists as an effect of seeing. It would be as if looking "paints" the world. But this is completely absurd. Onto what would seeing "paint" the world? and, even weirder, notice that it wouldn't be that seeing paints the world so that we could then look at what was painted. Rather, it would be that seeing is painting, so that we always see and paint simultaneously, always just "creating" whatever we see, under…
1. Wilde, Oscar. Intentions. New York: Prometheus Books, 2004. 1-55. Print.
2. Wilde, Oscar. The Picture of Dorian Gray and Other Writings. New York: Pocket Books, 2005. 241-365. Print.
The Decay of Lying was first published in 1889; the Golden Stair is from 1880.
Allestree indicates that flattery is a form of mental slavery and says that love and friendship are far too valuable to prostitute them. In addition, he believes that flattery is harmful because, by failing to point out a man's flaws, or by transmuting those flaws into assets, one condemns the man to continue in those faults. Furthermore, he points out that flatterers are often treacherous, because their affection ends when the one that they have flattered falls out of favor. In fact, when the formerly adored friend falls out of favor, the flatterers are often the first to point out their faults to those who are coming into favor.
In section nine, Allestree speaks about boasting. Boasting is not limited to people speaking bombastically about themselves, but also includes people who cannot hear talk on any subject without trying to turn that subject towards them. Therefore, it becomes clear that…
opposite of a superpower, invisibility refers to the condition of not mattering, not qualifying, or not counting in the eyes of the dominant culture. Invisibility is the quality imposed upon by the oppressor and experienced by the oppressed. Those who do not conform to a white patriarchal standard are rendered invisible, and they may float through life never fitting into a social circle and never gaining access to the means whereby they can change their status. Invisible is what Miss Lily Bart experiences as she subverts gender norms in Edith harton's The House of Mirth. Invisibility is certainly what the narrator of Ralph Ellison's Invisible Man experiences as he navigates his way through early 20th century America. The disenfranchised are rendered invisible when they are positioned at intersections of race, class, gender, and power.
For the invisible man in Ellison's book, invisibility is ironic because a black man is very…
Callahan, John F. "Before Publication." In Ralph Ellison's Invisible Man: A Casebook. New York: Oxford University Press, 2004.
Franklin, Anderson J. "Invisibility Syndrome and Racial Identity Development in Psychotherapy and Counseling African-American Men." The Counseling Psychologist, Vol. 27, No. 6 (Nov 1999), p. 761-793.
Goldner, Ellen J. "The Lying Woman and the Cause of Social Anxiety: Interdependence and the Woman's Body in The House of Mirth." Women's Studies, Vol. 21, Issue 3, 1992.
Hardin, Michael. "Invisibility, Race, and Homoeroticism from Frederick Douglass to E. Lynn Harris." The Southern Literary Journal. Vol. 37, No. 1 (2004), pp. 96-120.
Nietzsche (1873) argued that truth and falsity were not actually states of reality in nature but only exist as a function of the interpretation that human beings assign to them in communication and that for animals without human intellectual communication, there is no such thing as truth. For that reason, Nietzsche questioned whether it is appropriate to give people moral credit for telling the truth and to consider them immoral for lying.
In some respects, I do agree with Nietzsche, but not in any that would justify the way I used to use language to lie. Specifically, I do believe that it is immoral to lie in most situations and that people who lie easily and often are unlikely to be moral in their lives in general. That is because, in principle, the purpose of lying is, in one way or another, to trick other people into doing things they…
Nietzsche, F. (1873). On Truth and Lies in a Nonmoral Sense.
Deontological theory might criticize Guido's choice if the initial assumptions included the rule prohibiting lying. However, deontological analysis is only as useful as the underlying rules with respect to which it is applied. Therefore, the solution to the deontological issues raised by the issue presented by the movie is simply to reformulate a less restrictive rule that is incapable of being applied to every situation. Instead of proposing the rule that prohibits lying, the better rule might be to prohibit only lying for immoral purposes.
In fact, the blind adherence to rules under deontological principles often produces distinctly immoral results: it is difficult to imagine the moral purpose of informing a dying patient that a loved one was also killed in the same accident; nor is there a moral purpose for informing a child who is to young to understand the concept that he was adopted. In Guido's case, the…
There are three types of stimuli used, which are:
2) Irrelevant; and 3) Probes.
These are used "in the form of words, pictures, or sounds..." which a computer presents for a second or even a partial second. Incoming stimulus, if it is worth noting, results in a P-300, which is an electrical brain response. The P-300 is part of a MERMER or a memory and encoding related multifaceted electroencephalographic response, which is a larger brain response.
Originally event related potentials (ERP) was the method used for studying brain activity information processing. The limitation of the ERP is that it causes elimination of all patterns that are complex and results in the meaningful signals also being lost. The multifaceted electroencephalographic response analysis or MERA was developed due to the limitation of the ERP. Farwell found that incorporation of this technique resulted in the elicitation of MERMER when the individual…
Taylor, Erich (2007) a New Wave of Police Interrogation? Brain Fingerprinting, the Constitutional Privilege against Self-Incrimination and Hearsay Jurisprudence
Pope, Harrison (nd) the Emperor's Tailoring. FMS Foundation Newsletter. Online available at http://www.fmsfonline.org/fmsf96.d31.html
Stetler, Russell and Wayland, Kathleen (2004) Capital Cases - Dimension of Mitigation. June 2004. Online available at http://188.8.131.52/search?q=cache:8FdkQI0WFDsJ:www.fd.org/pdf_lib/Capital%2520CasesDimensions%2520of%2520Mitigation%2520Stetler.pdf+MRI:+forensics,+determination+of+guilt+or+innocence&hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=50&gl=us.
The individual believes the lies imposed by society, and sees them for truth. It provides a convenient vehicle for relinquishing the responsibility of freedom. Categories and definitions limit freedom, choice, and the capacity to transcend categorization.
According to rown, it should also be kept in mind that the bad faith concept is somewhat beyond simple self-deception. It is the perpetuation of a "truth" that the individual knows to be in fact false. However, this perpetuation feeds upon itself by the individual's needs for whatever is the result of the deception. For the unhappy worker, for example, bad faith persists as a result of the paycheck, while the unhappy mother would continue in bad faith for the sake of being called a "good" mother, and so on. In Sartre's view then, it appears that there is little that the individual within such a society can do to escape bad faith. Even…
Brown, Ernest. "Sartre on 'Bad Faith'." 2009. http://ourworld.compuserve.com/homepages/billramey/sartre.htm
Sartre, Jean-Paul. Being and Nothingness. Translated by Hazel E. Barnes. Routledge, 1969.
Sherman, David. Sartre and Adorno: The dialects of subjectivity. SUNY Press, 2007.
In the event you cannot honestly recommend him as an employee without lying to the new employer, you might consider explaining the truth of the situation to the new employer by telephone while providing your sister with a "file copy" of a the supposed letter addressed to the new employer on your letterhead, being sure to scribble something like "Here you go Sis...I don't feel right about this, but here's you copy of the letter" on it so that she cannot reuse the letter in her efforts to find her husband a job by lying to other prospective employers in your name.
Granted, it would be unfortunate to have to lie to your sister and to engage in subterfuge to keep peace in the family, but she is the cause of that situation, not you.
Given the choice between a lie that could very conceivably harm other people and a…
Ethical Analysis #2
Nurses face dilemmas of an ethical nature on a regular basis. This effectively means that from time to time, nurses are called upon make ethical decisions -- decisions that could have a huge impact on the well-being of patients. One of the current ethical issues being faced by nurses is whether or not to lie to patients. ecently, it was revealed that psychiatrists and nurses caring for dementia patients were actively practicing what Williams (2013) refers to as "therapeutic lying" in an attempt to keep the said patients happy. As a matter of fact 98% of nurses, as William further points out, admitted to lying to dementia patients. The question that ought to be answered in this case is; should nurses withhold some potentially upsetting information about diseases that happen to be life-threatening?
B. Ethical Principles and Theories at Issue
The ethical principles at work…
American Medical Association -- ANA (2014). Short Definitions of Ethical Principles and Theories: Familiar Words, What do they Mean? http://www.nursingworld.org/mainmenucategories/ethicsstandards/resources/ethics-definitions.pdf
Corner, J. & Bailey, C.D. (eds.) (2009). Cancer Nursing: Care in Context (2nd Ed.). Malden, MA: John Wiley & Sons.
Williams, A. (2013). Dementia sufferers told white lies to keep them happy: Nurses and psychiatrists admit 'therapeutic lying' to confused patients. Retrieved from http://www.dailymail.co.uk/health/article-2410811/Dementia-sufferers-told-white-lies-happy-Nurses-psychiatrists-admit-therapeutic-lying-confused-patients.html
Regional Differences in American Literature
In American literature, the region of the country that the author was from had an impact on their writing and the kind of story they were telling to the audience. This is because each area had its own unique culture and tastes. The combination of these factors, were integrated together to create works that are a reflection of these attitudes.
Evidence of this can be seen by looking no further than observations from atts (2007). She found that regional factors had an impact on the author and their writings. This is because these ideas would have an effect on their beliefs. Over the course of time, these views were integrated into various forms of literature with different styles (depending upon the area of the country). (atts 382 -- 285) This is illustrating how these ideas have been used throughout American literature to influence the audience.…
Frost, Robert. The Road Not Taken. Claremont: Claremont Canyon Press, 2010. Print.
Miller, Randall. Daily Life Through American History. Santa Barbra: Greenwood, 2011. Print.
Moss, Elizabeth. Domestic Novelists in the Old South. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State Press, 1992. Print
Tischler, Nancy. Student Companion to Tennessee Williams. Westport: Greenwood, 2000. Print.
Through all these events, Torvald demonstrates that he does not see Nora clearly. He is blind to her strengths and exaggerates her weaknesses, and sees her only as someone to entertain and enhance his image in the eyes of others.
HOW NORA RELATES to TORVAL
While clearly Torvald sees Nora as an entertaining child who must be guided, Nora's conversations with her friend Mrs. Linde show that to some extent, Torvald is right. Mrs. Linde visits Nora while she is in some distress. Her husband has died and she desperately needs a job. As Nora talks to her, she says whatever pops into her head first without considering how it will affect Mrs. Linde. She comments that Mrs. Linde is not as attractive as she once was. Even though she knows Mrs. Linde has no income, she boasts that with Torvald's promotion they will have "pots and pots of…
Downs, p. 113)
Drake, David B. "Ibsen's a Doll House." The Explicator, Vol. 53, 1994
Hartman, Dorothy. "Women's Roles in the Late 19th Century," in Life in the 1880's. Accessed via the Internet 6/19/05. http://www.connerprairie.org/historyonline/1880wom.html