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Depression in the Young or Old Adult Women

Words: 2252 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 96416849

Depression in Young and Older Women

Recent research reveals that about one percent of the general population suffers from manic-depression and five percent suffers from major depression during their lives (Simonds, 2001, p. 86). However, the incidence for depression in women is twice as high or more; as many as one in five American women has a history of depression during her lifetime.

Due to the various social and medical problems presented by increasing numbers of women who suffer from depression, this topic is of utmost importance in today's society.

This paper will examine the causes and effects of depression in both young and older women; examine existing medical research for both groups; identify major differences in depression for young and older women; and present a conclusive analysis of observations.

To determine what the causes of depression are in young and older women, and to differentiate between the two groups,…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Blumenthal, Susan. (Fall, 1996). Gender Differences in Depression. The Decade of the Brain, NAMI, Volume VII, Issue 3.

Boyles, Salynn. (February 14, 2002). Older Women Have Tough Time With Depression. WebMD Medical News.

Merschino, Diane. (July 2002). Depression in Young Women. Women's College Hospital Foundation.

National Institute of Mental Health. (October, 1999). Depression: What Every Woman Should Know. NIMH Publication No. 95-3871.
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Depression in Adolescents

Words: 2145 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 23764681

Depression in Adolescents

Roughly nine percent of the population - an estimated 18.8 million Americans -- suffers from depressive disorders, illnesses that affect the body as well as the mind.

The effects of depression are magnified in children, who are experiencing depression in greater numbers. An estimated 8.3% of teenagers in the United States are suffering from depression, a significant leap from two decades ago. To compound the problem, researchers like Farmer (2002) found that about 70% of adolescents suffering from depression are unfortunately not receiving adequate treatment.

This paper examines the growing problem of depression among adolescents. The first part of this paper is an overview of teen depression, looking at its causes and contrasting teen depression with depression in adults. The next part then looks at the depressive symptoms among teenagers, contrasting these with the symptoms of depression in adults. In the last part, the paper examines the…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Beardslee, William R., Tracy Gladstone, Ellen Wright and Andrew Cooper. 2003. "A family-based approach to the prevention of depressive symptoms in children at risk: evidence of parental and child change." Pediatrics. 112(2): 401-412.

Egger, Helen. 2003. "Recognizing and treating depression in young children." The Brown University Child and Adolescent Behavior Letter. 19(3): 1-3.

Farmer, Terri J. 2002. "The experience of major depression: Adolescents' perspectives." Issues in Mental Health Nursing. 23(6): 567-586.

Koplewitz, Harold. 2002. More Than Moody: Recognizing and Treating Adolescent Depression. New York: Putnam.
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Depression Currently Depression Is a

Words: 3040 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 91861547

So, although the reverse of these characteristic is not indicative of depression, their expression within the context of grief suggests the lack of clinical depression.

ith the fundamentals of depression outlined, it is reasonable to wonder why such symptoms and behaviors manifest themselves in certain people and why they do not in others. Many different researchers coming from many different scientific backgrounds -- from psychology to biochemistry -- have investigated the fundamentals of depression, and each have constructed models as to what its underlying causes are. Each of these investigations has attempted to explain the causes and symptoms of depression and has offered treatment possibilities.

The psychological models of depression have focused their attention on failed early attachment, inability to obtain desired rewards, impaired social relations, and distorted thinking." This approach to depression has yielded some valuable information regarding the disorder; yet, much of the results make it unclear as…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Ainsworth, Patricia M.D. Understanding Depression. Jackson: University of Mississippi Press, 2000.

American Medical Association. Essential Guide to Depression. New York: Pocket Books, 1998.

Cherlin, Andrew J. "Going to Extremes: Family Structure, Children's Well-Being, and Social Science." Demography, Vol. 36, Nov. 1999. Pages 421-28.

Copeland, Mary Ellen M.S., M.A. The Depression Workbook: Second Edition. Oakland: New Harbinger Publications, 2001.
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Depression and Metabolic Syndrome Is

Words: 2340 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Capstone Project Paper #: 85883804

A key strength of the study was that it was the first to show that major depression predicts increased risk for developing metabolic syndrome in middle-aged women. One of the key limitations of the study was that it only evaluated the role of depression in middle-aged women and not in men. This limits the external validity of the study. In addition, the use of cross-sectional data, self-reports, or the measurement of depressive symptoms as opposed to clinical depression only provided indirect support for the link between depression and the risk of developing metabolic syndrome.

Although a majority of the research agrees that a clear connection exists between depression and metabolic syndrome, several sources disagree. Hildrum, Mykletun, Midthjell and associates (2008) are a key example of research that does not support the connection between depression and anxiety with metabolic syndrome. This study used a cross sectional study of participants aged 20-89.…… [Read More]

References

Akbaraly, T.N., Kivimaki, M., Brunner, E.J., Chandola, T., Marmot, M.G. Ferrie,

(2009). Association between metabolic syndrome and depressive symptoms in middle-aged adults. Diabetes Care, 32, 499-504.

American Heart Association. (2010). Metabolic syndrome. Retrieved June3, 2010. From http://www.american heart.org/presenter,

Identifier+4756.
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depression and age related issues

Words: 918 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 78887396

Depression in the Lifespan

Depression is a multifaceted and complex phenomenon affecting multiple age cohorts. It is therefore important to understand what differential age-related risk factors account for the manifestation of depressive symptoms, whether precipitating factors are genetic or environmental, also how specific treatment interventions might change depending on age-related needs or age-appropriate interventions. A developmental approach to depression can provide some insight into how clinicians can improve treatment interventions and promote a more nuanced and realistic understanding of the disorder. The symptoms of depression are also likely to be different for different age cohorts, in part due to developmental differences, but also to biological differences in brain structure and chemistry, life experiences and socialization. This topic is important to both clinical and counseling psychology because reframing depression from a developmental perspective can shed light on etiology and best practices.

eview of Literature

Literature has generally not focused on a…… [Read More]

References

Cicchetti, D., Nurcombe, B. & Garber, J. (1992). Developmental approaches to depression. Development and Psychopathology 4(1992): 1-3.

deMello, M.F., Mari, Jdj., Bacaltchuk, J. & Neugebauer, R. (2005). A systematic review of research findings on the efficacy of interpersonal therapy for depressive disorders. European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience 255(2): 75-82.

Hyde, M., Hanson, L. M., Chungkham, H. S., Leineweber, C. & Westerlund, H. (2015). The impact of involuntary exit from employment in later life on the risk of major depression and being prescribed anti-depressant medication. Aging & Mental Health 1(5): p381-389.

Simmons, M., Wilkinson, P. & Dubicka, B. (2015). Measurement Issues: Depression measures in children and adolescents. Child & Adolescent Mental Health 20(4): 230-241.
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Depression the Nature of Depression Depression Exists

Words: 1607 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 7455366

Depression

The nature of depression

Depression exists as a regular mental disorder presented in the form of loss of interest, depressed moods, and feelings of low self-worth, guilt, poor concentration and disturbed sleep. The most common symptoms of depression are manifested in the form of anxiety. The problems could become recurrent or chronic, leading to notable impairments in a person to become responsible. When it reaches its worst stage, depression might lead to suicide. Over one million succumb to depression annually. This translates to at least three hundred suicidal deaths per day (Stark, 2010). A single individual who commits suicide motivates twenty more to attempt suicide.

People can suffer from multiple variations of depression. The most significant difference is depression among individuals who do not have or who have a history of maniac episodes. Depressive episodes draw symptoms like loss of interest, increased fatigability and depressed mood. Depending on the…… [Read More]

References

Joiner, T.E. (2010). Interpersonal, cognitive, and social nature of depression. Mahwah [u.a.: Erlbaum.

Knittel, L. (2013). User's guide to natural remedies for depression: Learn about safe and natural treatments to uplift your mood and conquer depression. North Bergen, NJ: Basic Health Publ.

Stark, K.D. (2010). Childhood depression: School-based intervention. New York: Guilford Press.

Wasserman, D. (2011). Depression. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
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Depression Has Been Known as a Result

Words: 870 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 52116989

depression has been known as a "result when individuals forfeit their personal power." (Depression: Multimedia Sourcebook, p.1) It also has been described in ancient times as "... [an] affliction [that] laid its cause to supernatural intervention, primarily religious in nature. (insworth, p. 48) In the Hindu depression was noted as a struggle between good and evil in which evil would win and "victimize individual humans." (insworth, p.48) In texts from Babylonia and Egypt, gods punished transgressions in the hearts of people and placed on them the depressive curse. The early Hebrew texts allude to the belief that depression in humans reflects the displeasure of Yahweh.

But according to up-to-the-date research, we know that depression is an "innocuous-sounding word... that refers to a potentially disabling illness that affects many but is understood by few." (insworth p.1) Professor Patricia insworth, a leading psychologist on depression, further explains that sufferers often do not…… [Read More]

A variety of medical conditions can cause depression. These include dietary

1. http://www.nami.org / deficiencies in vitamin B6, vitamin B12, and folic acid. Degenerative neurological disorders may also be to blame such as Alzheimer's disease and strokes or through certain viral infections, such as hepatitis and mononucleosis.1

Depression typically cannot be shaken or willed away. (Becker, p. 187) An episode must therefore run its course until
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Depression Not Just a Bad Mood Mdd

Words: 3261 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 90318784

Depression: Not just a Bad Mood

MDD: Not Just Another Bad Mood

The term "Prozac Nation" says a lot. This catch-phrase had begun to describe the current state in the U.S. when cases of clinical depression began blooming and treatment turned to medication as a first response. According to the National Institute of Mental Health, over fourteen million of the adult U.S. population suffers from Major Depressive Disorder. Major Depressive Disorder, or MDD, is the leading cause of disability in people ages 15-44. The average age of onset is 32 (U.S. Department of, 2011.) It is often also found co-occurring with other mental disorders, such as anxiety and substance abuse. Perhaps it is worth taking a closer look at a case example in order to better understand this often debilitating disorder in our times.

Taylor is a 24-year-old single, Jewish female presenting with symptoms of depression. She reports that for…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Burns, D.D. (1989). The feeling good handbook. New York, NY: Plume.

Cornes, C.L., & Frank, E. (1994). Interpersonal psychotherapy for depression. The Clinical

Psychologist, 47(3), 9-10.

Cuijpers, P, van Straten, A, Hollon, S.D., & Andersson, G. (2010). The contribution of active medication to combined treatments of psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy for adult depression: a meta-analysis. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 121(6), Retrieved from  http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/detail?hid=13&sid=568ccfe5-0fe6-4429-92a3 - cb159b2e4044%40sessionmgr115&vid=5&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ%3d%3
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Depression

Words: 2302 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39910594

Depression is a state of sadness and gloom where one feels dull and overwhelmed by the challenges of life. People tend to say that they are "depressed' any time they feel very unhappy. More likely than not, it could just be a mere response to fatigue, sad thoughts or events. This improper use of this term causes confusion between an ordinary mood swing and a medical condition. While it is normal for all human beings to experience dejection every now and then, a few people may experience unipolar depression. Ordinary dejection is rarely serious enough to significantly affect a person's day to day activities and does not persist for long. Mood downcasts can even have some benefits. Time spent contemplating can help an individual explore their inner self, values and way of life. They often come out of it feeling stronger, resolved and with a greater sense of clarity.

Unlike…… [Read More]

References

Comer, R. (2013). Abnormal Psychology (8th ed.). New York: Worth Publishers.

Bolton, P., Bass, J., Neugebauer, R., Verdeli, H., Clougherty, K. F., Wickramaratne, P.,. ..& Weissman, M. (2003). Group interpersonal psychotherapy for depression in rural Uganda: a randomized controlled trial. Jama, 289(23), 3117-3124. Retrieved from  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12813117 

Dombrovski, A. Y., Lenze, E. J., Dew, M. A., Mulsant, B. H., Pollock, B. G., Houck, P. R., & Reynolds, C. F. (2007). Maintenance Treatment for Old-Age Depression Preserves Health-Related Quality of Life: A Randomized, Controlled Trial of Paroxetine and Interpersonal Psychotherapy. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 55(9), 1325-1332. Retrieved from  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17767673 

Elder, B. L., &Mosack, V. (2011). Genetics of depression: an overview of the current science. Issues in mental health nursing, 32(4), 192-202. Retrieved from  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21355753
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Treating and Preventing Clinical Depression

Words: 1428 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 97988991

Depression

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC, 2013a) reported that in 2005/2006 an estimated 5.4% of all Americans over the age of 12 sought medical help for depression. Americans, however, are far from alone. Globally, 37% of lost life years due to disease have been attributed to mental illness (Insel, 2011). Of this 37%, depression is responsible for a full third. The economic burden of mental illness on a global scale is massive, representing $2.5 trillion dollars in 2010. By comparison, all health care spending worldwide in 2009 reached $5.1 trillion. These statistics suggest mental illness accounts for half of all health care spending globally and depression is responsible for approximately one-third. In addition, mental illness is expected to account for 35% of lost economic output within two decades. Given the substantial impact that depression has on society and the lives of individuals, this essay will review what is…… [Read More]

References

APA. (2013). Highlights of changes from DSM-IV-TR to DSM-5. Retrieved 15 May 2014 from  http://www.dsm5.org/Documents/changes%20from%20dsm-iv-tr%20to%20dsm-5.pdf .

CDC. (2013a). Depression: Surveillance data sources. Retrieved 15 May 2014 from  http://www.cdc.gov/mentalhealth/data_stats/depression.htm .

CDC. (2013b). Mental health: Depression. Retrieved 15 May 2014 from  http://www.cdc.gov/mentalhealth/basics/mental-illness/depression.htm .

Insel, T. (2011). Director's Blog: The global cost of mental illness. Retrieved 15 May 2014 from  http://www.nimh.nih.gov /about/director/2011/the-global-cost-of-mental-illness.shtml" target="_blank" REL="NOFOLLOW">
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Socially Reactive Depression in African American Adolescents

Words: 2973 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 95785604

Depression in African-American Adolescents

Etiology of Depression

Mental illnesses like depression can be very difficult to diagnose or to recognize: There is no serum to test for when looking for depression. In some real if rather vague way, mental health is simply the absence of mental disorders. And in the reverse we define mental illness as the absence of mental health. The circularity of this definition is certainly confusing, but it reflects the real confusion over the range of what may be considered to be mentally "normal." This vagueness as to definition does not mean that the problem of mental illness and especially depression is not real: Indeed, the difficulty of identifying those with mental illness and so of providing prompt and appropriate treatment to them makes the need to do so more effectively all the more important (Grob, 1991, p. 13). The need to identify mental illness in -…… [Read More]

References

Achenbach, T. etal. (22 December 2002). "Ten-year comparisons of problems and competencies for national samples of youth: self, parent, and teacher reports. J of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders

Boyer, C. (2003). Interview.

Crawford, I. etal. "The influence of dual-identity development on the psychosocial functioning of African-American gay and bisexual men." J. Of Sex Research 39 (3): 179-189.

Donnel, A. etal. (2001, Oct. 1). "Psychological reactance: Factor structure and internal consistency of the questionnaire for the measurement of psychological reactance." Journal of Social Psychology 141 (5): 679-687.
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Psychological Sociological Cultural and Biological Theories on Depression and Treatments That Take These Into Account

Words: 2590 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 91688277

Depression Theories

Various Theories on Depression, and Respective Treatments

Depression is a complex mood disorder that is characterized by various emotions, including sadness, self-blame, absence of pleasure and an overall sense of worthlessness, and by physical responses relating to sleep, appetite and motor symptoms. According to statistics, one in four adults will suffer from a depressive episode at some point in life. With a quarter of the population affected by depression, it is no wonder that one sees so many advertisements both on television and on billboards relating to the disorder. It is also understandable that many intellectual fields of study would give an opinion on what depression truly means and how it can be treated. This paper will thus examine psychological, sociological, cultural and biological theories on depression and will describe various treatments that take into account expertise from these various areas of study to better understand this complex…… [Read More]

Lastly, with respect to biological theory-based treatments, scientific research is vital. A study conducted in 2010 states that the finding of "various structural and chemical abnormalities in the brain through neuroimaging" has been the foundation in depression research in the last year. This study further states that the research combines various brain areas to arise specific symptoms, and that the new data could contribute to further understanding and treating depression. Specific treatments are not given as part of this study, but "biological" treatments will usually include medication, such as anti-depressants. [20: Papageorgiou, G. (2010). Biological theory of depression in the light of new evidence. Retrieved April 11, 2011, from  http://www.annals-general-psychiatry.com/content/9/S1/S47 . ]

Conclusion

This paper has discussed various theories of depression and has expanded upon treatments that take into account these theories. Some treatments have been proven effective, and others have been illustrated simply as examples or as evidence of much needed field research. Depression has been shown to be a complex illness explained by various intelligent minds in different ways, yet in order to treat this disorder, one must take into account all this knowledge, and hope that advances in scientific research, such as that illustrated above, will provide for better treatments and, finally, more effective relief from depressive symptoms.
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Analyzing Depression in Adolescent

Words: 3055 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 45960897

Depression in Adolescence

Depression in Adolescents

The link between symptoms, etiology, core biochemical processes, treatment outcome, and treatment response of affective (mood) disorders is yet to be adequately understood for allowing their categorization, such that it meets universal approval. Still, one has to make an attempt in this regard, and researchers propose a potentially-acceptable one, derived from extensive consultation.

In case of affective disorders, the basic disturbance is an affect (mood) change, typically extreme elation or depression (without or with related anxiety). An overall activity level change generally accompanies this change of mood, and a majority of other related symptoms either will be conveniently recognized in the context of these changes, or will be secondary to them. Most disorders have a tendency of repetition, and the commencement of individual bouts is usually linked to stressful circumstances or occurrences.

The key criteria of classification of affective disorders have been selected for…… [Read More]

References

Algon, S., Yi, J., Calkins, M.E., Kohler, C. And Borgmann-Winter, K.E. (2013). Evaluation and Treatment of Children and Adolescents with Psychotic Symptoms. Current psychiatry reports.  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3500659/ 

Christie, A. (2007). Childhood anxiety: Occupational disruption. New Zealand Journal of Occupational Therapy, 54(2),31-39. Available at  http://www.cin.ufpe.br/~fbcpf/PAMPIE/childhood%20anxiety%20Occupational%20disruption.pdf 

Halverson, J. L. (1994-2016). Depression Differential Diagnoses. Medscape.  http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/286759-differential 

Lewis, A. J., Bertino, M. D., Skewes, J., Shand, L., Borojevic, N., Knight, T., Lubman, D.I., Toumbourou, J.W. (2013, Nov 13). Adolescent depressive disorders and family based interventions in the family options multicenter evaluation: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial. Available at:  http://trialsjournal.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1745-6215-14-384
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Depression Caused by Steroid Use

Words: 2383 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 9044167

The affects of precursory steroidal compounds is difficult to determine due to differences in how adolescent bodies process them, but they may have an impact on social behavior similar to steroidal compounds, therefore, use of these substances will be included in this study as well.

A key area of research focused on treatment of the symptoms of depression and aggression caused by steroid use. Effective treatment was achieved through the use of common antidepressants (Schule, et. al, 2003). This is an important body of research, as it provides the guidance counselor with choices in treating students found to be affected by steroid use. Knowing that there are treatment options available through mental health channels will help in the development of treatment strategies for students whose social lives are being negatively influenced by steroid use.

The literature revealed many facets of academic research that will have an impact on the conduct…… [Read More]

References

Fish, L., Goldberg, L., and Spratt, D. (2005). Supplements, Steroid Precursors and Adolescent Heatlh. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism. 90 (9).

Gober, S, Klein, M., Berger, T., Vindigni, C., and Paul McCabe (2006). Steroids in Adolescence: the Cost of Achieving the Physical Ideal. NASP Communique, 34 (7). Retrieved April 18, 2008 at  http://www.nasponline.org/publications/cq/cq347steroids.aspx .

Goodyer, I. (2002). Social adversity and mental functions in adolescents at high risk of psychopathology, the British Journal of Psychiatry 18, 383-386.

Melloni, R. (2006). Animal Models Show That Anabolic Steroids Flip the Adolescent Brain's Switch for Aggressive Behavior. American Psychological Association. Retrieved April 18, 2008 at http://www.apa.org/releases/steroids0226.html.
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Depression Scores Among College Students the First

Words: 1053 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97963945

Depression Scores Among College Students

The first symptoms of depression tend to occur during college years as college students suffering from this condition do not receive the needed help. While there are various reasons for the failure by these students to receive needed help, one of the most common reasons is the assumption that the condition is part of normal stress of college. According to the National Institute of Mental Health (n.d.), depression is a common but severe condition that is usually characterized by feelings of anxiety or sadness. College students are increasingly vulnerable to suffering from depression since typical college life is characterized by stress. Actually, many college students sometimes feel anxious or sad, but the emotions disappear quickly i.e. within a short period of time. If these symptoms prolong and become untreated, the individual develops depression which interferes with his/her ability to perform daily activities.

Literature eview

According…… [Read More]

References

Amr et. al. (2013). Depression and Anxiety Among Saudi University Students: Prevalence and Correlates. The Arab Journal of Psychiatry, 24(1), 1-7.

Brandy, J.M. (2011). Depression in Freshmen College Students. Retrieved from Loyola

University Chicago website:  http://ecommons.luc.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1176&context=luc_diss 

Geisner, I.M., Mallett, K. & Kilmer, J.R. (2012, May). An Examination of Depressive Symptoms
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Depression Continues to Be One of Most

Words: 1911 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 34445568

Depression continues to be one of most common medical conditions for the elderly.

Percentages of elderly with the illness

Degree of increase in suicidal tendencies of depressed

Wrong assumption that aging necessitates depression.

Difficulty of healthcare providers in recognizing depression.

Increased tendency toward suicidal tendencies in many depressed.

Other individuals immune to depression and suicide despite life problems.

Individuals may not even recognize their own depression

Myths associated with aging including depression

Symptoms may take months to worsen and show up

Aging individuals should be treated similar to younger patients when seen by doctor.

Depression can mask itself in many ways

Up to family and healthcare providers to be vigilant and notice changes.

With care, individuals can be helped.

Depression ranks as one of the most common medical problems in the elderly. The occurrence of this illness among community-dwelling older individuals ranges from 8 to 15% and among institutionalized individuals,…… [Read More]

References

De Leo, D. (ed) (2004). Suicidal Behavior. Cambridge, MA: Hogrefe & Huber.

Evans, G. (2000) Suicide and the elderly: warning signs and helping points.

The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (IFAS) of the University of Florida.

Fact sheet FCS2183. Gainesville, FLA.
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Depression of Argentina the Great

Words: 1530 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 51772252

Mercosur is the fourth largest integrated market and is the second largest in the Americas (Paolera & Taylor, 1999). NAFTA is first. In May of 2008 Argentina was also elected to the Human Rights Council.

There have also been UN peacekeeping operations in places like Cyprus, Haiti, Kosovo, and the Middle East that have used Argentine troops (Paolera & Taylor, 1999). In 1990, diplomatic relations with Argentina were restored and many countries invest in Argentina (Paolera & Taylor, 1999). The U.S. is one of them, and is the sixth largest investor (Paolera & Taylor, 1999). In the pharmaceuticals sector, the UK is one of the biggest investors (Paolera & Taylor, 1999). It is easy to see that Argentina has been through a lot but it has emerged stronger and is capable of doing a great deal for other countries as well.

ibliography

Caldwell, J. & O'Driscoll, T.G. (2007). What caused…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Caldwell, J. & O'Driscoll, T.G. (2007). What caused the great depression? Social Education, 71(2), 70-74.

Hopenhayn, H.A. & Neumeyer, P.A. (2003). The Argentine great depression 1975-1990. Universidad T. di Tella. Retrieved from: www.utdt.edu/download.php?fname=_ 116465913307356800.pdf

Ohanian, L.H. & Cole, H. (2002). The great UK depression: A puzzle and possible resolution. Review of Economic Dynamics, 19-44.

Ohanian, L.H. & Cole, H. (1999). The great depression in the United States from a neoclassical perspective. Quarterly Review, Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis, 2-24.
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Women and Depression

Words: 2214 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 88717040

Women Depression

Women and Depression

Depression is among the most studied psychiatric disorders in the world. While it is known that every person will go through periods of mild, short-term depression (following a death, divorce, etc.), there is a growing number of individuals who are experiencing depression on a much more serious scale. Among the research findings is a curious finding that women suffer the condition at a much greater rate than men. Again, this means that women suffer clinical depression at a much greater rate than men. The research has tried to determine the causes, symptoms and treatments for the condition, and there has been some success in this endeavor. In this paper, depression's causes, symptoms and treatments modalities will be examined as they apply to women as a body.

Causes

It may seem necessary to discuss symptoms before causes since it is easier to delineate what the symptoms…… [Read More]

References

American Psychiatric Association (APA). (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th Edition). Washington, DC: Author

Cirakoglu, O.C., Kokdemir, D., & Demirutku, K. (2003). Lay theories of causes and cures for depression in a Turkish university sample. Social Behavior & Personality, 31(8), 795-799.

Craig, C.D. (2009). Depression, sociocultural factors, and African-American women. Journal of Multicultural Counseling & Development, 37(2), 83-91.

Grote, N.K., Bledsoe, S.E., Larkin, J., Lemay, E.P., Jr., & Brown, C. (2007). Stress exposure and depression in disadvantaged women: The protective effects of optimism and perceived control. Social Work Research, 31(1), 19-35.
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Beck Depression Inventory-Ii Bdi-Ii Is a 21-Item

Words: 4152 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83941983

Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) is a 21-item clinician administered and scored scale that is designed to measure a person's mood and symptoms related to depression. The BDI-II was designed to conform to the DSM-IV depression diagnostic criteria and represents a substantial improvement over its predecessor, the original Beck Depression Inventory. The BDI-II has been used both as a research measure (its primary intended use) and to assist with the clinical diagnosis of depression. The BDI-II has been subject to numerous empirical studies designed to measure its internal consistency, convergent and discriminant validity, criterion validity, and construct validity and the test demonstrates acceptable psychometric qualities, but there have been some concerns with its use. This paper reviews the development of the BDI-II, its psychometric properties, uses, strengths, and weaknesses. Advantages and disadvantages of using the BDI-II and recommendations for future research regarding its use are also discussed.

Title of paper

The…… [Read More]

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Childhood Depression

Words: 4442 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 78449735

Childhood Depression

Major depressive disorder, or MDD, may affect up to twenty percent of the adult population. The recognition of depression as a serious and common mental disorder has been vital in the identification and treatment of depression in adults. Leaps and bounds have been made in the field of depression research. The widespread recognition of the many possible causes of depression, including chemical imbalances with genetic or medical origins as well as traumatic life events, has made it possible for those suffering from depression to openly seek treatment options and discuss their depression without necessarily feeling the same overwhelming shame and isolation that were inevitable in generations past. Depression is more likely to be identified in an affected individual by family members, physicians, or others because of the public information that is available for professionals and the common people. Research is constantly revealing new treatment options, identifying causal factors,…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Fremont, W.P. (2004, April) Childhood reactions to terrorism-induced trauma: a review of the past 10 years. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. v43, i4, 381(12).

Gaughan, D.M., et al. (2004, June) Psychiatric hospitalizations among children and youths with human immunodeficiency virus infection. Pediatrics. v113, i6, 1793(1).

Gazelle, H. & Ladd, G.W. (2003, January-February) Anxious solitude and peer exclusion: a diathesis-stress model of internalizing trajectories in childhood. Child Development. v74, i1, 257(22).

Louters, L.L. (2004, September) Don't overlook childhood depression: an effective approach to childhood depression requires that you maintain a high index of suspicion and understand the disorder's full spectrum of manifestations. JAAPA - Journal of the American Academy of Physicians Assistants. v17, i9, 18(7).
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St John's Wort Depression in

Words: 1383 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 96325619

("St. John's ort," 2006, NCAM: National Council of Alternative Medicine)

Research, at present, is inconclusive. The National Institutes of Health (NIH) conducted a 3-year study of 336 patients with major depression of moderate severity. The study randomly assigned patients to an 8-week trial. One-third of patients received a uniform dose of St. John's ort, another third a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) commonly prescribed for depression, and the final group received a placebo. The study participants who responded positively were followed for an additional 18 weeks. At the end of the first phase of the study, participants were measured on two scales, one for depression and one for overall functioning. There was no significant difference in rate of response for depression, but the scale for overall functioning was better for the antidepressant than for either St. John's ort or placebo. ("Depression," 2000, National Institute of Health)

Another study, described in…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Depression." (2006) Healthy Place. Retrieved 23 Oct 2006 at  http://www.healthyplace.com/Communities/depression/causes.asp 

Depression." (2000) National Institute of Health. Retrieved 23 Oct 2006 at  http://www.nimh.nih.gov /publicat/depression.cfm

Hypericum Depression Trial Study Group."(2002). Journal of the American Medical

Association. 287(14): 1807-1814. Retrieved 23 Oct 2006 at  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=11939866&query_hl=2
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Coping With Depression Could Be Well a

Words: 1639 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 18902043

Coping ith Depression

Depression could be, well, a depressing subject matter to deal with, over the course of an entire 158-page text. However, by emphasizing positive coping strategies that can be adopted by sufferers of depression and the friends and loved ones of those going through a depressed period in their lives, Coping with Depression by Sharon Carter and Lawrence Clayton. (Hazeldon, 1995), manages to avoid this potential stylistic pitfall. In fact, if anything, it errs on the side of excessive cheerfulness.

Part of the reason the book has such an upbeat tone is because this work is clearly intended for younger, rather than older adults. It attempts to explain the many causes of depression, the different potential courses of treatment for depression (from therapy to chemical remedies), how to personally manage the disease on a daily basis and how to cope if a family member or friend is clinically…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Carter, Sharon and Lawrence Clayton. Coping with Depression. New York; Hazeldon, 1995.

Depression may range in severity from mild symptoms to more severe forms that include delusional thinking, excessive somatic concern, and suicidal ideation, over longer periods of time. The DSM-IIIR requires the presence of at least five of the symptoms listed above for a diagnosis of major depressive episode.
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Stress and Depression Among Adolescents

Words: 2014 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 98170852



Adolescents with poor problem-solving skills are at greater risk of suicide, according to an article in the Journal of Clinical Psychology (Grover, et al., 2009). The authors concentrate on the problem of "chronic stress" in adolescents, saying it involves "deprivation or disadvantage" that is ongoing and those dynamics create a "continuous stream of threats and challenges" for the adolescent. The therapy in this research? Counselors, therapists, parents and teachers all need to help adolescents learn "well-developed problem-solving abilities" in order to "buffer the negative impact of both episodic and chronic stress…" (Grover, p. 1286).

Conclusion

Earlier in this paper it was asserted that up to 20% of adolescents in the U.S. will encounter some form of depression due to stress. The National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) suggests that the best treatment for severely depressed youths is a combination of psychotherapy and antidepressant medication; that formula works better than either…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bradley, Kristen. (2002). Survey Shows High Levels of Teen Stress. International Child and Youth Care Network. Retrieved April 10, 2011, from  http://www.cyc-net.org/today2002/today021016.html .

Byrne, D.G., and Mazanov, J. (1999). Sources of Adolescent Stress, Smoking and the Use of other Drugs. Stress and Health, 15(4), 215-227.

Cherry, Kendra. (2009). What Is Emotional Intelligence? About.com. Psychology. Retrieved April 10, 2011, from  http://psychology.about.com .

Ciarrochi, Joseph, Deane, Frank P., and Anderson, Stephen. (2001). Emotional Intelligence
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Childhood Depression According to the National Alliance

Words: 493 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50734484

Childhood Depression

According to the National Alliance on Mental Illness (NAMI) "Studies have shown that on any single day (called "point prevalence" by epidemiologists) about 2% of school-aged children and about 8% of adolescents meet the criteria for major depression." It is true then that this condition affects millions of children a year along with their families. Depression itself is mysterious and most likely a necessary function of our psyche, but for many this state of mind can lead to much disastrous and dangerous conditions.

The purpose of this essay is to present a 10-point program that helps parents understand several factors associated with depressive disorders. This essay will list these 10 ideas and provide a baseline of information that can help provide a firmer grasp on some of the more hidden qualities that are present within a depressive disorder.

Program

elax. Depression is common and can be treated. If…… [Read More]

References

Hoecker, J. (2010). Depression Treatment for Children: What Works? Mayo Clinic, May 2010. Retrieved from  http://www.mayoclinic.org/depression-treatment/expert-answers/faq-20057888 

National Alliance on Mental Illness (nd). Depression in Children and Adolescents Fact Sheet. Viewed 15 Feb 2014. Retrieved from  http://www.nami.org/ Template.cfm?Section=By_Illness&template=/ContentManagement/ContentDisplay.cfm&ContentID=88551
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Role of Spirituality in the Treatment of Depression

Words: 6318 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 11568926

ole of Spirituality in the Treatment of Depression

Over the last thirty years, one of the most interesting paradoxes in the study and treatment of depression has been that increased knowledge about the biomedical and genetic causes of the disease has been coupled with a renewed interest in the effect of religion and spirituality on human mental health and well-being. No matter how religion and spirituality are defined -- and many scholars and laypersons see no great distinctions between the two -- there are now hundreds of studies that demonstrate the beneficial effects of religion on both mental and physical health. Indeed, the more firmly held and intrinsic a person's religious convictions are, the more salutary the effect. eligious people are more optimistic, hopeful and trusting, and have more purpose and meaning in life than those with weak or no religious views. All of these qualities are of course lacking…… [Read More]

REFERENCE LIST

Ai, A..L. et al. (2005). "Prayer Coping, Positive Attitudes, and Cardiac Surgery" in Lee, A.V. Coping with Disease. Nova Science Publishers, Inc., pp. 23-64.

Auer, B. And J.A. Ang (2007). Torment of the Soul: Suicidal Depression and Spirituality. AuthorHouse.

Beck, A.T. And B.A. Alford (2009). Depression: Causes and Treatment. University of Pennsylvania Press.

Biebel, D.B. And H.G. Koenig (2010). New Light on Depression: Help, Hope and Answers for the Depressed and Those Who Love Them. Zondervan Publishing House.
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Pediatric Depression and Evidence Based Practices

Words: 1290 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 82660307

Pediatric depression affects millions of children worldwide (Giardino & Benton, 2016) and presents prevalently as a child ages. "The risk for depression increases during childhood" (Bonin, 2016). A comparatively common mental health problem that usually continues intermittently into maturity, pediatric depression may be brought on by various factors. It may be triggered by biologic processes, damaging experiences, or a combination of both. A main determiner for pediatric depression remains up for debate. What is certain, is that chemical changes in the brain bring in the closing common pathways to depression.

To help a child struggling with depression, it is important to understand and learn to identify the signs and symptoms. Major depressive episodes seen in pediatric depression frequently last anywhere from two weeks and include a minimum of five symptoms. A list of symptoms is provided below.

Depressed (or irritable) mood

Diminished interest or loss of pleasure in almost all…… [Read More]

References

Bonin, L. (2016, July 16). Pediatric unipolar depression: Epidemiology, clinical features, assessment, and diagnosis. Retrieved from  http://www.uptodate.com/contents/pediatric-unipolar-depression-epidemiology-clinical-features-assessment-and-diagnosis?source=search_result&search=unipolar+depression+in+children&selectedTitle=1~150 

Courtney, D. B., Duda, S. J., Henderson, J., Szatmari, P., & Bennett, K. J. (2016). 4.29 QUALITY APPRAISAL OF CLINICAL PRACTICE GUIDELINES FOR DEPRESSION IN CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 55(10), S172. doi:10.1016/j.jaac.2016.09.224

Giardino, A. P., & Benton, T. D. (2016, March 15). Pediatric Depression: Practice Essentials, Background, Pathophysiology. Retrieved from  http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/914192-overview 

Moreland, C. S., & Bonin, L. (2016, August 21). Pediatric unipolar depression and pharmacotherapy: Choosing a medication. Retrieved from  http://www.uptodate.com/contents/pediatric-unipolar-depression-and-pharmacotherapy-choosing-a-medication?source=search_result&search=pediatric+depression+medication+selection&selectedTitle=3~150
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association between depression and eating disorders

Words: 1064 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Annotated Bibliography Paper #: 89512848

Eating Disorder and Depression

Annotated Bibliography: What is the Association between Depression and Eating Disorders?

Costa, J., Maroco, J., Gouveia, J., & Ferreira, C. (2016). Shame, self-criticism, perfectionistic self-presentation and depression in eating disorders. International Journal of Psychology and Psychological herapy, 16(3), 315-328.

his article focuses on the connection between external shame and depression in individuals with eating disorders and the moderating role of self-criticism and perfectionistic self-presentation. Following a cross-sectional survey of 121 women with eating disorder, it was found that shame and perfectionistic self-presentation interact to cause self-criticism, which in turn results in depression. he implication thereto is that, when an individual internalises an ideal self, they gain a standard that as per their comparison with the actual self, results in negative feelings and self-evaluations; the individual perceives their real self as flawed or inferior. Consequently, the individual resorts to perfectionist self-representation so as to create to a…… [Read More]

This article focuses on the relationship between dietary intake, eating disorder signs, and depressive symptoms in adolescents. The relationship was tested using a population-based cohort of 429 female adolescents. It was found that adolescents diagnosed with an eating disorder had a substantially lower consumption of fat, starch, fatty acid, as well as vitamins A and E. compared to their counterparts without an eating disorder. Further, for participants with an eating disorder, fatty acid intake was found to be significantly and negatively correlated with eating disorder and depressive signs. A major strength of the study is the large sample used, which reinforces the representativeness of the findings. In addition, the study compared specific dietary ingredients' intake and depressive symptoms in subjects with and without an eating disorder. Major weaknesses of the study include use of self-report data and exclusion of male subjects. Even so, the study further demonstrates the impact of eating disorder on psychological wellbeing. In the event an eating disorder is discovered, proper monitoring and management should be undertaken, specifically focusing on nutritional deficiencies and depressive symptoms.

Bachle, C., Lange, K., Stahl-Pehe, A., Castillo, K., Scheuing, N., Holl, R., Giani, G., & Rosenbauer, J. (2015). Symptoms of eating disorders and depression in emerging adults with early-onset, long duration type 1 diabetes and their association with metabolic control. PLoS ONE, 10(6), e0131027.

This study sought to analyse the incidence of and relationship between eating disorder symptoms and depression in patients with early-onset type 1 diabetes. 211 subjects aged 18 to 21 years (male and female) participated in the study. Results of the study indicate that the presence of an eating disorder was positively associated with severe symptoms of depression; the outcome revealed that women are the most affected segment. Reliance on population-based data is a major strength of the study. The inclusion of male and female subjects also adds to the strengths of the study as this enabled comparison across genders. Nonetheless, the study is limited by its cross-sectional design, which hinders causality inferences. From a practice perspective, it is imperative for patients with type 1 diabetes to be assessed for depression. In most cases, attention is paid to glucose levels, dietary intake, physical activity, and diabetes-related morbidities. Adding mental health screening can improve health outcomes in type 1 diabetes patients.
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the association between depression and eating disorders

Words: 2056 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Chapter Paper #: 80932587

ascertaining the link between depression and eating disorders, with particular focus on young adults and teens. Not much information is available on the subject of eating disorder (ED)-diagnosed persons' nutritional status and food consumption. The objectives of this study were:

To explain eating disorder-diagnosed teens' nutritional intake and To study the relationship of depression with ED among teens without as well as with ED.

A number of data sources were employed for individual papers examined for this research. This examination facilitates the drawing of a few key inferences. ED's high stability and its major link to obesity and declining psychological health among adults highlight the necessity of timely problem identification and treatment in childhood and teenage. Depressed youngsters must be especially observed to detect restrictive ED development. Further, adult females depicting a lifetime ED diagnosis showed double the likelihood to report migraines as compared to unrelated members of this very…… [Read More]

References

Allen, K., Mori, T., Beilin, L., Byrne, S., Hickling, S., & Oddy, W. (2012). Dietary intake in population-based adolescents: support for a relationship between eating disorder symptoms, low fatty acid intake and depressive symptoms. Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics, 459 - 469.

Christina, B., Lange, K., Stahl-Pehe, A., Castillo, K., Scheuing, N., Holl, R., . . . Rosenbaeur, J. (2015). Symptoms of Eating Disorders and Depression in Emerging Adults with Early - Onset, Long-Duration Type 1 Diabetes and Their Association with Metabolic Control. PLoS ONE.

Costa, J., Maroco, J., Pinto Gouveia, J., & Ferreira, C. (2016). Shame, Self-Criticism, Perfectionistic Self-Presentation and Depression in Eating Disorders. International Journal of Psychology and Psychological Therapy, 315 - 328.

Herpertz-Dahlmann, B., Dempfle, A., Konrad, K., Klasen, F., & Ravens-Sieberer, U. (2015). Eating disorder symptoms do not just disappear: the implications of adolescent eating-disordered behaviour for body weight and mental health in young adulthood. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry, 675 - 684.
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Psychiatric Disorder of Childhood Depression The Information

Words: 1390 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 22681223

psychiatric disorder of childhood depression. The information will discuss how the disorder is diagnosed, the prevalence rates, theories concerning the etiology of depression and various treatments that are available for childhood depression.

hile many people may overlook this serious mental condition that occurs within some children, others are facing the reality of the disorder on a daily basis. More information is becoming readily available that offers research about depression in children and is very helpful to those seeking prognosis and treatment of their loved ones. Many times, depression in children and adolescents is overlooked or misdiagnosed. This paper will discuss symptoms and treatment of depression in children.

Depression

Depression is a mental problem that affects people of all ages, race, and economic levels. The diagnosis is becoming more acceptable and is commonly treated with antidepressant drug therapy. The patient is not only affected by treatment, but the drug and insurance…… [Read More]

Works Cited

AllPsych. "Major Depressive Disorder." 13 April 2003.  http://allpsych.com/disorders/mood/majordepression.html 

Mendlowitz, S., Manassis, K., Bradley, S., Scapillato, D., Miezitis, S., Shaw, B. "Cognitive Behavioral GroupTreatments in Childhood Anxiety Disorders: The Role of Parental Involvement." Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, v38, p1223. 1999.

National Institute of Mental Health. (Sept 2000). "Depression in Children and Adolescents." NIH Publication No. 00-4744. Available at  http://www.nimh.nih.gov /publicat/depchildresfact.cfm.

O'Conner, Richard. Undoing Depression: What Therapy Doesn't Teach You and Medication
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DSM-5 Depression

Words: 1623 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 18485765

First, the assignment of an arbitrary time period where bereavement is "normal" and after that particular time frame it becomes dysfunctional has no empirical basis. Secondly, the exclusion criteria in the DSM -- IV -- T most likely resulted in individuals who would have benefited from treatment not receiving treatment for their depressive symptoms until this particular time period expired. That is inexcusable. Finally, the research indicates that there may be some minor differences between bereavement and major depression; however, the two are not often clinically distinguishable aside from noting that in one case there was a loss of a loved one and yet individuals who are experiencing severe symptoms in bereavement are at risk for more serious issues. By eliminating the exclusion criteria clinicians are given much-needed room to treat their patients in individualized basis as opposed to a standardized cookie-cutter protocol.

eferences

American Psychiatric Association. (1980). Diagnostic and…… [Read More]

References

American Psychiatric Association. (1980). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders

(3rd Ed.). Washington DC: Author.

American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders

(4th Ed. -- Text Revision). Washington DC: Author.
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Major Legal Issues Concerning Female Inmates

Words: 7415 Length: 23 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 92508545

Women in Prison

Major Legal Issues Concerning Female Inmates

Problems in corrections:

Dealing with the unique needs of women in the prison system

The number of female prison inmates in America and internationally is growing. Although men still outnumber women in the prison population, the rates of female incarceration, once considered relatively nominal, have skyrocketed. "In the U.S., where the prison and jail population reached two million in the year 2000, women's incarceration is also spiralling upwards at a greater pace than that of men. While the number of men in U.S. prisons and jails doubled between 1985 and 1995, women's imprisonment during the same period tripled" (Sudbury 2002). These escalating rates are surprising, given that women are far more likely to be the victims rather than the perpetrators of violent crimes. "While their relative proportions are small, the growing numbers of women being sent to prison is disproportionate to…… [Read More]

References

Blitz, C.L., Wolff, N., Ko-Yu, P., & Pogorzelski, W. (2005). Gender-specific behavioral health and community release patterns among New Jersey prison inmates: Implications for treatment and community reentry. American Journal of Public Health, 95(10), 1741-6.

Brewer-Smyth, K., Bucurescu, G., Shults, J., Metzger, D., Sacktor, N., Gorp, W. v., & Kolson,

D. (2007). Neurological function and HIV risk behaviors of female prison inmates. Journal of Neuroscience Nursing, 39(6), 361-72.

Case, P., Fasenfest, D., Sarri, R., & Phillips, A. (2005). Providing educational support for female ex-inmates: Project PROVE as a model for social reintegration. Journal of Correctional Education, 56(2), 146-157
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Major Historical Developments of Hospitals in the United States and India

Words: 984 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44829578

Evolution of Health Care Marketing

Understanding the historical development of the hospitals of different states provides opportunities for postulating the future and factors that might influence their performance. Historical analysis takes into consideration the significant milestones that shaped the current state of the hospitals of the state alongside the projected future of these health care organizations (Berkowitz, 2011). As such, this essay analyzes the historical development of the hospitals of the United and India. The historical analysis provides opportunities for the comparison of the countries that have experienced significant transformation to provide effective health care to patients.

Historical development of hospitals in the United States

The U.S. hospitals emerged from institutions such as nursing homes that gave health care services to the poor patients, retirees, and leprosy patients. Charities ran these institutions and provided them with the necessary resources required for ensuring the provision of the desired heath care. The…… [Read More]

References

Berkowitz, E.N. (2011). Essentials of health care marketing. Sudbury, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning.

Shi, L., & Singh, D.A. (2010). Essentials of the U.S. health care system. Sudbury, Mass: Jones and Bartlett Publishers.

Speziale, F. (2012). Hospitals in Iran and India, 1500-1950s. Leiden [etc.: Brill.
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Causes of Depression O in Preschoolers

Words: 1736 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 87816276

Depression Among Preschoolers

Depression is an illness where one gets bad feelings that hang on for weeks or even longer. The feelings don't go away that easily just like the way bad feelings do after a day or few hours, it hangs on a bit longer and could as well lead to a disease which ought to be treated. When you one is depressed one feel sad, angry, hopeless and discouraged. Physically one may feel tired all the time and have constant headaches. Different individuals have a number of reasons that makes them depressed such as; work related, family reasons, unfulfilled desires, sickness, financial strains just to name a few. All this are reasons that cause worry but if they change to become uncontrollable it leads to depression (ey & Birmaher, 2009). Those found to exhibit such tendencies are known to be depressed. Such people are unable to think clearly…… [Read More]

Reference

Rey, J., & Birmaher, B. (2009). Treating child and adolescent depression. Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer Health/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Rutledge, R., & Bannister, T. (2007). The everything parent's guide to children with depression: An authoritative handbook on identifying symptoms, choosing treatments, and raising a happy and healthy child. Avon, Mass: Adams Media.

Huberty, T.J.R. (2012). Anxiety and depression in children and adolescents: Assessment, intervention, and prevention. New York: Springer.
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Older Adults the Connection of Depression With Diseases

Words: 2590 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 42903853

Depression, Disease, And Aging

Aging brings many changes in health, social relationships, work situation, and other dimensions of life, and old age has been examined as one aspect of life development, showing how earlier stages contribute to the coping mechanisms older people have and how they apply these to new situations. A number of the changes accompanying old age can create stress and depression, and in turn these psychological states can contribute to the onset of disease or to the course disease takes. Studies have also shown that untreated depression can contribute to a higher suicide rate for the elderly.

How the elderly person is affected may depend on his or her closest relationship. The aging process for many includes physical or mental deterioration which can place considerable strain on the life partner, who now has to contend not only with his or her own diminished function because of aging…… [Read More]

References

Causes of depression 2004, GlaxoSmithKline, retrieved August 23, 2005 from  http://www.depression.com/causes_of_depression.html .

Cox, H.G. (1988). Later life: the realities of aging. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall.

Depner, C.E. & Ingersoll-Dayton, B. (1985). "Conjugal social support and patterns in later life." Journal of Gerontology, 40, No. 6, 761-766.

Ebersole, P. & Hess, P. (1998). Toward healthy aging: Human needs and nursing response. St. Louis, Missouri: Mosby.
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Analyzing Depression in Children and Adolescents

Words: 1946 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 62687673

Depression in Children and Adolescents

Depression is a severe sickness, which is capable of affecting almost all parts of a young individual's life and considerably affects his or her family as well. It can interfere with relationships amidst friends and family members, damage performance at school and limit other academic opportunities. It can result to other health issues because of the impacts it has on eating, physical activity, as well as sleeping. Given that it has several repercussions, it is very vital that the illness is realized and successfully treated. When this is done, the majority of kids can resume with their normal daily lives. Depression is not easily noticeable in kids. The symptoms of depression are frequently hidden in kids by other physical and behavioral complaints. The majority of young individuals that are depressed shall at the same time also have a second psychiatric condition, which complicates diagnosis (APA…… [Read More]

Bibliography

APA, & AACAP. (n.d.). The Use of Medication in Treating Childhood and Adolescent Depression: Information for Patients and Families. Parents Medical Guide Workgroup, 1-6.

Egger HL, Angold A. (2006).Common emotional and behavioral disorders in preschool children: Presentation, nosology, and epidemiology. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry;47:313-337.

Gibb, B. (2014). Depression in Children. 383.

Gray, P. (2011). The Decline of Play and the Rise of Psychopathology in Children and Adolescents. American Journal of Play, 459.
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Understanding depression

Words: 1570 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 25909750

Depression is a term that has multiple meanings. In an economic context, it can mean a continued, long-term decline in economic activity in one or several economies. Depression can also mean a landform that is depressed or sunken below the adjacent area. This definition is for geology and can be used to describe sinkholes. However, the focus of the meaning of the term depression will be examined through the psychological perspective. As defined in psychology, depression is a mood disorder causing an ongoing feeling of loss of interest and sadness. Depression can affect how one feels emotionally and physically, often requiring long-term treatment. This report aims to understand the word depression, its roots, and why it is being used today to categorize a mood disorder.

The word depression has been used for quite some time. When examined as a noun, is was first seen in the late 14th century from…… [Read More]

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Helplessness and Depression the Concept of Learned

Words: 2210 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58707196

Helplessness and Depression

The concept of learned helplessness is most strongly identified with psychologist Martin Seligman. Early animal experimentation by Seligman and colleagues defined the phenomenon of learned helplessness (Overmier & Seligman, 1967). The concept of learned helplessness describes the phenomenon that occurs when an animal or person observes or experiences traumatic events that they can exert little influence or control over. When the animal or person discovers that it can do nothing to escape or affect such an event it may acquire learned helplessness and not attempt to even try to remove itself from potentially harmful situations. In behavioral terms the organism learns that reinforcement and behavior are not contingent on one another (Seligman, 1976). The organism essentially becomes conditioned to form a belief that nothing it can do can affect the situation and it simply "gives up."

The original learned helplessness experiments had dogs learning through classical conditioning…… [Read More]

References

Abramson, L.Y., Seligman, M.E.P., & Teasdale, J.D. (1978). Learned helplessness in humans:

Critique and reformulation. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 87(1): 49 -- 74.

Bandura A. (1986). Social foundations of thought and action: A social cognitive theory.

Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
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Theory What Are the Major Concepts of

Words: 1456 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 846924

Theory

What are the major concepts of Ainsworth's theory?

Ainsworth's attachment theory is rooted in Bowlby's research on the bonds that develop between parent and child. Building on Bowlby's research, Ainsworth conducted a groundbreaking experiment known as the Strange Situation. esults of the Strange Situation experiment revealed three different categories of attachment styles. Ainsworth found secure attachment, ambivalent-insecure attachment, and avoidant-insecure attachment (Cherry, n.d.). Moreover, four categories of attachment style behaviors were observed. These four categories include separation anxiety, which refers to the emotional reaction to the caregiver leaving. The infant's willingness to explore in the caregiver's absence is another feature of attachment. Stranger anxiety refers to how the infant responds to strangers when the primary caregiver is absent. Finally, Ainsworth studied reunion behavior, which was how the child reacted to the return of the caregiver. Using these four parameters of attachment-related behaviors, Ainsworth developed the three primary attachment styles:…… [Read More]

References

Benoit, D. (2004). Infant-parent attachment. Pediatric Child Health 9(8): 541-545.

Cherry, K. (n.d.). Attachment theory. Retrieved online:  http://psychology.about.com /od/loveandattraction/a/attachment01.htm

Fraley, R.C. (n.d.). A Brief Overview of Adult Attachment Theory and Research. Retrieved online: http://internal.psychology.illinois.edu/~rcfraley/attachment.htm

Main, M. & Solomon, J. (1986). Discovery of an insecure-disorganized/disoriented attachment pattern. Affective Development in Infancy. 95(124).
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Economics the Great Depression Origins

Words: 3519 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 42829294

The downward spiral of deflation, the collapse of countless banks and other financial institutions, and the unprecedented levels of unemployment all demanded that something be done.

The programs that constituted President Franklin Delano Roosevelt's New Deal were not entirely unknown in the pre-Depression world. Various European countries already possessed social welfare schemes to some extent, but in the United States this was largely new thinking. The changes wrought by the New Deal reflected as much the uniqueness of conditions during the Great Depression as they did the undercurrent of new attitudes and ideas that had gradually been taking hold among America's intellectuals.

FDR's planners acted in the context of changing values, an evolving set of institutions, shifting political and economic circumstances, and the ebb and flow of planning opportunities to create a distinctly national, American form of planning.... They were part of a wide-ranging national debate over how to create…… [Read More]

Works Cited

DUMMY CITATION #1 G.M., Blaauw, G.A., and Brooks, Jr., F.P. "Architecture of the IBM System/360," IBM Journal of Research and Development, Vol. 44, No. 1/2, IBM, January/March 2000 [Reprint of IBM Journal of Research and Development, Vol. 8, No. 2, 1964.]

DUMMY CITATION #2 Anderson, Philip, and Michael L. Tushman. "Technological Discontinuities and Dominant Designs: A Cyclical Model of Technological Change." Administrative Science Quarterly 35.4 (1990): 604fl.

Gibbons, Jim. "Gibbons Tells Congressional Committee to Abolish Arbitrary FAA Retirement Age: Nevadan Calls Current Federal Rule, 'Blatant Age Discrimination.'" Press Release, (United States Congress, Washington D.C., 12 March, 2003).

Wilkening, Robin. "The Age 60 Rule: Age Discrimination in Civil Aviation." (No Date). URL: http://aeromedical.org/Articles/age60.html.
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Cause and Effects of the Great Depression

Words: 1043 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84123661

Economics

The Great Depression

The Great Depression started in 1929 and lasted until the end of the Second World War, it was the most severe depression seen in the western world. The depression had far reaching economic, social, and political consequences. To understand the depression it is necessary to look at the event itself, underlying causes, the impacts and the way in which recovery took place.

The Great Depression may be argued as starting in August of 1929, when the countries GDP started to decline; but it is the cash of October 1929 that marks the official beginning of the crisis (obbins & Weidenbaum, 2009). The stock market crash of 1929 was a surprise for many; the previous decade had been one of growth and prosperity. On Black Tuesday 29th of October the bottom dropped out of the stock market, which resulted in panic selling loosing 40% of the paper…… [Read More]

References

Bernanke, BS, (1983), Nonmonetary Effects of the Financial Crisis in the Propagation of the Great Depression, The American Economic Review, 73(3), 257-276

Cecchetti, G, (1992). Sources of Output Fluctuations During the Interwar Period: Further Evidence on the Causes of the Great Depression, Working Paper No. 4049, National Bureau of Economic Research

Robbins, Lionel; Weidenbaum, Murray, (2009), The Great Depression, Transaction Publishers
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Perplexing Sex Difference in Depression With Far

Words: 1085 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48667000

perplexing sex difference in depression with far more females than males showing vulnerability to depression. The study (Dreer et al., 2007) investigated whether the hopelessness theory of depression could explain sex difference in depression. Specifically, it was examined whether it was sex that caused the different cognitive patterns in thinking, or whether the reverse was the case. (The hopelessness theory suggests that a person attributes negative aspects of self to negative events that happen to him or her regardless of actual correspondence. He also draws negative subjective global consequence from the phenomena).

A longitudinal study was conducted on 458 students recruited from a state university. 62% of the participants were female, and the mean age was 18.14 years. The majority of the students were Caucasian. The Cognitive Style Questionnaire was used to assess cognitive susceptibly to depression in terms of the hopelessness theory. The Beck Depression Inventory -- II was…… [Read More]

References

Dreer, L. et al. (2007) Family caregivers of person with spinal cord injury.. Rehab. Psyc. 52, 351-357

Stone, L et al. (2010) Does the hopelessness theory account for sex differences in depressive symptoms amongst young adults? Co. Therp. Res., 34, 177-187
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Vovkun Depression This Midterm Is Top Ranking

Words: 1259 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17006397

Vovkun

Depression

This midterm is top ranking in comparison to the others. The outline is very detailed and on the first page, making it easier for me to see what the paper is aout and where the writer wants to go through each section. The different sections are also very convincing in their claims such as writer oriented depression. I liked how he used two well-known writers and their outs of depression and linked them together to where you can see directly and indirectly how depression fueled their career and vice versa. I also liked the use of religion as means of helping people who suffer from depression.

The quotes work very well with each suject. The progression from nature of depression to how depression affects different areas such as religion and literature is well thought out. The iliography is long and varied with sources from texts, journals. Most of…… [Read More]

bibliography was weak in that most of the sources were from online. He needs to find better sources. The outline was okay but there was one section: "Opposition. None that I can find. You can not get high in any way from hemp products. I have yet to discover a negative impact to the environment or society" that is not true. There is plenty opposition and some research has shown growing marijuana has led to a negative impact on the environment through supplies pollution. People growing marijuana throw away their used up supplies in ways that pollute the environment.
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Counseling a Midlife Woman Depression a Person

Words: 1278 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 65795892

Counseling a Midlife Woman

Depression

A person only is in need of a counselor or a therapist when he or she cannot resolve their issues on their own. People who are undergoing psychosocial problems tend to depend and rely on the counselor too much. They have created this set idea in their mind that their counselor knows how to fix their problems and in doing so they develop a very dangerous dependency on the counselor. (Bond, 2010) It has been noted that sexual and romantic relationships between the client and the counselor have been going on since a long time. However, it was in the 1970s that the American Psychological Associated prohibited sexual intimacies with clients. (APA, 1977)

Transference basically means the past issues and feelings of the client project onto the counselor in the current relationship. Kahn (1991) stated that the client can merely not differentiate the difference and…… [Read More]

References

American Psychological Association. (1977). Ethical principles of psychologists (rev. ed.). Washington, DC: Author

Bond, T. (2010). Standards & Ethics for Counseling in Action. 3rd ed. London: Sage publications.

Kahn, M. (1991). Between therapist and client. New York: W.H. Freeman.

Kennedy, E. And Charles, S. (1990). On becoming a counsellor. Dublin: Gill and Macmillan.
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Lessons From the Great Depression William Watson

Words: 615 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Article Review Paper #: 78040678

Lessons from the Great Depression, William Watson is comparing the current recession with the time frame between 1939 and 1940. This is when ritain and France had declared war on Germany after its invasion of Poland. However, no real hostilities took place between the two until Germany invaded France in May 1940. The time when there was little conflict that was occurring, fooled many people into thinking that the war and the subsequent events would not be as bad as feared. Once this occurred, it caused the public to have a sense of complacency about these events and the impact that they would have on the lives of ordinary people. (Watson, 2009, pp. 41 -- 44)

According to Watson, a similar situation is occurring with the recent financial crisis that has taken place. This was sparked initially by doomsday predictions that many in news media were making about: the bailouts…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Watson, W. (2008). Lessons from the Great Depression. Policy Options, 41 -- 44.
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Assessing Anxiety and Depression in General Populations

Words: 5453 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 55847602

Test Development

This research is a mixed methods study designed to explore the perceptions of self-identifying individuals with anxiety and depression regarding any relation between their conditions and their ability to access appropriate healthcare under the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. Five respondents completed the questionnaire constructed explicitly for this research study. A review of the literature serves as a canvas of instruments also developed for assessing Axis 1 disorders as defined by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM-5). The research on instrumentation included the following: 1) The SCID, 2) the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI), 3) the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), 4) the Center for Epidemiologic Studies of Depression Scale (CES-D), and 5) Severity Measure for Generalized Anxiety Disorder -- Adult (an emerging online measure provided in association with the DSM-5).

Their responses negate the theoretical construct, however, an insufficient number of respondents in this pilot study meant…… [Read More]

Reference:

Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition. Washington, DC, American Psychiatric Association, 1994.

Appendix C - Screening for Depression

If you suspect that you might suffer from depression, answer the questions below, print out the results, and share them with your health care professional.

Over the last two weeks, how often have you been bothered by any of the following problems?
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Effects of Massage on Depression in Newly Widowed Elderly Females

Words: 1789 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 77031574

Therapeutic Massage on Elderly, Grieving Widows

The prosperity of a country is in accordance with its treatment of the aged," states an ancient Jewish Proverb ("Massage for the Mature Adult," 2001). This is an honorable and true statement. Too often many of our elderly people's needs are not noticed or attended to by family, friends, or medical practitioners. This is especially true for older women whose husbands have died.

Widowhood can have a tremendous impact on the health of older women (Ferraro, 1989; owling, 1987; Gass & Chang, 1989). The death of a spouse or partner has been described as the most disruptive and difficult role transition that an individual confronts throughout the life course (Lopata, 1987). In the United States, over 49% or 8.4 million women over the age of 65 are widows (radsher, 2000). Houdin (1993) states that "although the literature abounds with subjective pieces concerning bereavement, little…… [Read More]

Bibliography for Chapters One and Two

Barry, Kasl, and Prigerson

Tran, 2003

Turvey, 1999 (Parkes, 1998).

Janice Strubbe
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Psychology How Does Depression Affects Adolescents and What Are These Causes and Factors

Words: 1635 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 63406209

Erickson's and Piaget's Theory of Child Development & adolescent depression

This is a paper concerning the development stages of an adolescent and depression. Erickson's and Piaget's Theory of Child Development will be used to explain what may lead to a child feeling depressed or suicidal.

DEPRESSION IN TEENS

Approximately five percent of children and adolescents experience depression at some point in their lives (AACAP 1998). Jean Piaget and Erik Erikson studied the development of the adolescents. Their theories will give clearer understanding to why teenagers become depressed and what can be done about the problem. Depression comes from a variety of problems in the adolescent's life. Recognizing depression is important. "Out of 100,000 adolescents, two to three thousand will have mood disorders out of which 8-10 will commit suicide" (Brown 1996). The causes of depression in a teenager can stem from family problems, peer pressure and bullying, and changes in…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bond, Lyndal; Carlin, John B.; Thomas, Lyndal; Rubin, Kerryn; & Patton, director, George. "Does Bullying Cause Emotional Problems? A Prospective Study of Young Teenagers." BMJ: British Medical Journal. 9/1/2001, Vol. 323. Issue7311. p. 480

Chandler, Jim M.D. FRCPC. "Depression In Children and Adolescents -- what it is and what to do about it" http://www.klis.com/chandler/pamphlet/dep/depressionpamphlet.htm

Depression in Children and Adolescents" A Fact Sheet for Physicians. National Institute of Mental Health.  http://www.nimh.nih.gov /publicat/depchildresfact.cfm

The Depressed Child" AACAP Facts for Families American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Fact sheets No. 4. 1997.
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Effects and Challenges Facing Children and Adolescents With Depression

Words: 1686 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 83676654

Children and Adolescents with Depression

Statistics show that up to 2.5% of children and 8.3% of adolescents suffer from depression in the United States. Depression is thought to affect school performance, social interactions and family relationships. However, diagnosis and treatment of depression in children and adolescents have been hampered by the confusion of the symptoms of depression with normal adolescent behaviors. In order to reduce the incidence of depression and its effects on young people, the researcher aims to provide information that will help to clear up some of the controversy. Most of the research on depression has been done with adults but depressed children and adolescents show some different symptoms. There is not enough research on the topic of depression in children and adolescents in general, and on how depression affects their lives.

The study will address the following research questions:

How does depression affect the academic performance, social…… [Read More]

References.

1.Hecht, Debra B., Inderbitzen, Heidi N., Bukowski, Anita L. (1998). The relationship between peer status and depressive symptoms in children and adolescents. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology. April 1998 www.findarticles.com/cf_0/m0902/n2_v26/20824365/print.jhtml

2. Mesman, J. (2000). Child-reported depression and anxiety in preadolescence:1. Associations with parent- and teacher- reported problems. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 39(11), 1371-1378.

3. Mol Lous, A et al. (2000). Depression and play in early childhood. Play behaviors of depressed and non-depressed 3- to 6-year-olds in various play situations. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders 8(4), 249-260.

4. Pavlidis, K. & McCauley, E. (2001). Autonomy and relatedness in family interactions with depressed adolescents. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology 29(1), 11-21.
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Reconstructing the Occurrence of the WW1 and the Great Depression

Words: 1506 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61541414

World War I and the Great Depression

World War I

The assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand on 28 June 1914 sparked the occurrence of the First World War. A Serbian nationalist called Gavrilo Princip murdered him as the heir apparent to the throne of Austria. However, other underlying factors that contributed to the rivalry between the Great Powers include the system of alliances, nationalism, domestic political factors, militarism, the Eastern question (The Balkans), and the crises before 1914. The main powers of Europe before 1914 were: (i) the Triple Alliance of Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy (1882) and (ii) the Triple Entente of Britain, ussia and France (1907). In nature, the alliances were defensive, and this implied that major political disputes inevitably would lead to large and not small conflicts. Nationalism looked at eager people across the world who wanted to let the rest of the world know how strong and…… [Read More]

References

Giangreco, D. M. & Griffin, R. E. (1988). Airbridge to Berlin -- The Berlin Crisis of 1948, Its Origins and Aftermath. Background on Conflict with USSR.

Hiebert, Ray, and Roselyn Hiebert. (1970). The Stock Market Crash, 1929. New York, NY: Franklin Watts.

McElvaine, R. S. (1993). The Great Depression: America, 1929-1941. New York, NY: Times Books.

Parrish, M. E. (1992). Anxious Decades: America in Prosperity and Depression, 1920-1941. New York, NY: W.W. Norton.
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Adult Depression

Words: 951 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 11330607

Adult Depression

It is common for everyone to feel sad for a period of time and such phases tend to phase away after some time. But when such a feeling of sadness and profoundly impacts the daily routine of an individual it is often defined clinically as depression. This form of mental illness tends to happen more in adults compared to children and needs treatment. The consequences of this illness can be serious and sometimes can even lead to suicides if left untreated.

There can be social, psychological, and biological factors behind the development of depression among adults. Stress and strain of daily life or some sad life events can drive an individual to depression. Depression also tends to set in among older adults due to loss of ability to live independently due to a number of factors like limited mobility, frailty, chronic pain or other physical or mental problems.…… [Read More]

References

Anderson, N., Heywood-Everett, S., Siddiqi, N., Wright, J., Meredith, J., & McMillan, D. (2015). Faith-adapted psychological therapies for depression and anxiety: Systematic review and meta-analysis.Journal Of Affective Disorders, 176, 183-196.  http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2015.01.019 

Carter, M. & Reymann, M. (2014). ED use by older adults attempting suicide. The American Journal Of Emergency Medicine, 32(6), 535-540.  http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajem.2014.02.003 

Griffin, A. (2012). Adult Depression and Anger. Philologia, 4(1).  http://dx.doi.org/10.21061/ph.v4i1.94 

Zivin, K., Wharton, T., & Rostant, O. (2013). The Economic, Public Health, and Caregiver Burden of Late-life Depression. Psychiatric Clinics Of North America, 36(4), 631-649.  http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psc.2013.08.008
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Treating Depression with ACT

Words: 957 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65207672

Acceptance and Commitment Theory

It largely appears as though Jacob is experiencing signs of depression. There are a number of telltale signs which point to this assessment. One of these signs is he has recently experienced a life-altering event with the loss of his business. Such a loss is especially devastating for this individual because it was his sole source of income, which lends a degree of pragmatism to the sort of anxiety which can rapidly lead to depression (Cadigan and Skinner, 2015, p.293). This notion is compounded by the reality that he seems somewhat unilateral in his interests, claiming his former business was his sole hobby. As such, it appears he feels he has nothing else to turn to in such a time, which might heighten any feelings of depression. It is important to realize such perceptions on his part are likely aggravated by the frustration of being in…… [Read More]

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Roosevelt S New Deal and Its Impact on the Great Depression

Words: 1901 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 11810387

Great Depression and the New Deal

The Great Depression

The Great Depression was caused by the stock market crash of 1929. The 1920s had been a roaring good time for Americans: credit was easy and investments were going up. In the 1920s, it was known as the Installment Plan -- and "enjoy while you pay" was a popular expression used to lure buyers into the market who could not otherwise afford to be consumers. Credit was used for everything -- including stock. However, when credit expands in the form of shoddy loans, a credit bubble is created. The bubble, in this case, popped in 1929 when the market realized no more credit was going to be pumped in as a result of too many loans to undeserving customers were being made (i.e., customers who could not pay them back). With the market correction came the margin calls and accounts had…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Brinkley, Alan. Voices of Protest: Huey Long, Father Coughlin, and The Great

Depression. NY: Vintage, 1983.

Butler, Smedley. War is a Racket. LA: Feral House, 2003.

Jeansonne, Glen. Transformation and Reaction America 1921-1945. IL: Waveland
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Mental Health Case Study Depression

Words: 2894 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 50384493

Demographics

Patient is a Hispanic male, aged 31. He is the father of one son, aged 10. The patient is Puerto ican, and was born and spent his childhood in Puerto ico. He came to live in the U.S. at age 11. He now lives in Brooklyn, New York. The patient is separated from the mother of his son. His son lives with his mother. The patient currently lives alone and is unemployed.

Chief Complaint

The chief complaint of the patient is that he is "feeling down and alone recently," and that he also feels separated from his family: "I also haven't seen my son for a while." Clearly he is depressed about his living situation, his prospects, and his health.

History of Present Illness

The patient's present illness is related to drug abuse, of which the patient has a considerable history. Essentially, the patient reports that over the past…… [Read More]

References

Beck, J. (2011). Cognitive Behavior Therapy: Basics and Beyond. NY: Guilford Press.

Hewitt, J. P. (2009). Oxford Handbook of Positive Psychology. Oxford University

Press.

McKay, D. et al. (2015). Efficacy of cognitive-behavioral therapy for obsessive-
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Approaching Depression Through the Solution Focused Brief Therapy Approach

Words: 2047 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 45783980

Solution-Focused Brief Therapy on Mothers with a Disabled Child

This research paper will focus on the ability of the author to effectively provide therapy services to individuals and adopt an enabling role, coaching the client in exploring his/her own way of solving the problems experienced, thereby using his own competence to the greatest extent possible. By using the Solution Focused Therapy approach and the author's own views on letting the client become the expert, promoting self-esteem, and most importantly creating change through various techniques and interventions, it will allow client to see through a new 'lens' of self.

This researcher selects Janet as a case study. She is 25 years old and lives in with her boyfriend with whom she has two son. The older son, James, has a disability in his clef foot. This incurable disability, her husband's abusive attitude and the natural inner struggles of a growing woman…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Bryman, A. (n.d.) Triangulation. Reference World. Retrieved on November 29, 2015 from http://www.referenceworld.com/sage/socialscience/triangulation.pdf

Cepeda, L. M. and Davenport, D. S. (2006). Person-centered therapy and solution-focused brief therapy: an integration of present and future awareness. Vol. 43 # 1,Psychotherapy: Pubmed.

Retrieved on November 26, 2015 from  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22121955/ 

Darlaston-Jones, D. (2007). Making connections: the relationship between epistemology and research methods. Vol 19 # 1, The Australian Community Psychology: University of Notre
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Education in the Community a Major Issue

Words: 3152 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41559252

Education in the Community

A major issue currently effecting culture, population, and demographics is that of wealth inequality. As the global economic downturn continues throughout the world, wealth disparity is increasing rapidly. This affects culture, population, and overall demographics in a litany of ways. First, due primarily to lower wages, families are postponing child birth. The uncertainty surrounding the future creates an atmosphere of fear. Families are now waiting until the economic climate becomes more certain before they have their children. Furthermore, the median income for middle class families has plummeted within the last 3 years. The median income for the average American household was roughly $51,000 in 2008. Now the median income is roughly $48,000. This creates problems as families are less apt to spend money are discretionary activities that form the basis of their culture. Holiday spending, for example has yet to reach its 2007 heights. Families are…… [Read More]

References

1) "Employment Situation Summary." U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. Web. 14 July 2011. .

2) Rice Culture of China." China.org.cn - China News, Weather, Business, Travel & Language Courses. Web. 14 July 2011. .

3) "History of American Agriculture - Farm Machinery and Technology." Inventors. Web. 14 July 2011. .

4) Breaden, M.C. (2008, Feb 6), "Teacher-Quality Gap Examined Worldwide," Education Week, Feb. 6, 2008. Education Trust,
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Analyzing Odyssey Dante Frankenstein

Words: 3056 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 95647040

Depression in Adolescence

Depression in Adolescents

The link between symptoms, etiology, core biochemical processes, treatment outcome, and treatment response of affective (mood) disorders is yet to be adequately understood for allowing their categorization, such that it meets universal approval. Still, one has to make an attempt in this regard, and researchers propose a potentially-acceptable one, derived from extensive consultation.

In case of affective disorders, the basic disturbance is an affect (mood) change, typically extreme elation or depression (without or with related anxiety). An overall activity level change generally accompanies this change of mood, and a majority of other related symptoms either will be conveniently recognized in the context of these changes, or will be secondary to them. Most disorders have a tendency of repetition, and the commencement of individual bouts is usually linked to stressful circumstances or occurrences.

The key criteria of classification of affective disorders have been selected for…… [Read More]

References

Algon, S., Yi, J., Calkins, M.E., Kohler, C. And Borgmann-Winter, K.E. (2013). Evaluation and Treatment of Children and Adolescents with Psychotic Symptoms. Current psychiatry reports.  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3500659/ 

Christie, A. (2007). Childhood anxiety: Occupational disruption. New Zealand Journal of Occupational Therapy, 54(2),31-39. Available at  http://www.cin.ufpe.br/~fbcpf/PAMPIE/childhood%20anxiety%20Occupational%20disruption.pdf 

Halverson, J. L. (1994-2016). Depression Differential Diagnoses. Medscape.  http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/286759-differential 

Lewis, A. J., Bertino, M. D., Skewes, J., Shand, L., Borojevic, N., Knight, T., Lubman, D.I., Toumbourou, J.W. (2013, Nov 13). Adolescent depressive disorders and family based interventions in the family options multicenter evaluation: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial. Available at:  http://trialsjournal.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1745-6215-14-384
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Psychology in Women Depression in

Words: 2562 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 3417824

¶ … Psychology in women [...] depression in women as a result of emotional, physical, and mental abuse. Psychologically, women are more likely to suffer from depression than men (Editors). Women suffer from depression for a variety of reasons, from post-partum depression after giving birth to any number of emotional and physical reasons, such as abuse and fear of abuse. Women suffer more from depression, and women suffer more from emotional and physical abuse, and so, the two are intertwined when it comes to women's physical and mental health.

Everyone feels sad or "down" from time to time, for any number of reasons, from losing a job to losing a loved one or simply because life can be too much at times. However, depression is defined as "down" time that lasts too long or interferes with your ability to exist and operate normally in your everyday life. If you find…… [Read More]