Major Depression Term Paper

Excerpt from Term Paper :

Clinical Depression

Major depressions or unipolar depressions are some of the names by which the term Clinical depression is known, which is a type of depressive disorder. To explain, it is a condition that is to be diametrically observed, in the sense that the expert does not count on a patient's self-report but checks for indications of depression that can be noticed and recognized. (Schatzberg, 2002) Clinical depression is a term that explains a situation serious enough to require medical, that is expert help and may even require pharmacological involvement. Clinical depression, as stated by various medical sources, survives for a period of two weeks and is usually not impetuous because of any external being or thing.

In a year, clinical depression affects at least 19 million American individuals. Not considering whether the individual is young or old, man or woman, regardless of race or income any body can be affected by clinical depression. This affects humans too to a large extent. Individuals who are facing depression tend to have higher rates of divorce and unemployment. Depression can bring about populace to misplace the bliss from their every day life. Though it would be natural to experience grief after the bereavement of a friend or family member, certainly the majority of us undergo sorrow from time to time in our lives, possibly because of a divorce, or having to depart from family and acquaintances, or we may even have to lose a job or even health due to sickness. Majority manages in the midst of these fatalities without actually getting clinically depressed. If the sorrow or miserable mood prolongs for a long epoch, the individual may be coming into contact with clinical depression. (Ramin, 2002)

Most of the Indications of Depression comprise of bad temper, grief, fatigue, poor self-image, self-criticism, disgrace, culpability, manic behavior, and suicidal feelings. (Yaffe; Edwards; Covinsky; Kenneth and Eng, 2003) The indications of depression differ amid persons. One individual might feel restless and will not get sleep, while others may become sluggish and slumber for the most part of the day. Every now and then it can be of assistance to study the alteration in thinking and deeds for obvious symptoms. Body- Insomnia and weariness manifest the most obvious form in which depression can be realized in the body. It influences the psyche, complexity in making judgment, reduces the power of attention or even indulges in "rumination," which refers to the constant ponderings on a particular topic.

Depression can cause individuals to act self-destructively, on impulse, cry hysterically; try to kill themselves, or probably make use of drugs or alcohol to manage the stress. Thoughts of grief, worthlessness, purposelessness and extreme culpability can activate depression. Also, Depression can make dealings with other individuals further complicated and may also cause the individual to venture into a disparaging affiliation or make them opt for public separation. Depression influences all phases of the individual's life, from sleep troubles to relationship troubles. (Rosenthal; Wilson, 2002) There are lots of writings that suggest that in order to handle these long-term disease in some one who is near to you can prove to be psychologically demanding.

When influenced by depression, the physical body, mind and feelings of individuals affected. When an individual is affected on these three areas, it deeply affects the individual, and the person will not have the energy to strike back, and would withdraw totally from the environment. While at job depressed persons are prone to be deliberate and not very productive, and they also seem to be very vacillating and unsure, and also tend to make more mistakes. (Goldberg & Steury, 2002) When at home, they may not show concern in family and may not be able to take pleasure in their companionship and communal proceedings and also may not be stable enough to take part in family affairs. They will also not be capable to display fondness or love for dear ones and may even lack interest in their lovemaking. Also noticed is the fact that they will be inclined to stay away from friends and social gatherings, and will feel very dissatisfied with their hobbies and their leisure activities.

The disability of the individual grows, as the illness gets more relentless. Persons, who are affected only mildly, may be upset by their condition but will be able to perform their various daily activities only with great difficulty. As the disease increases, so do the symptoms, and this would ultimately make it difficult to perform at all and also probably let the individual have problems in attending to even the short-term activities of keeping the body fine. This is when the individual shall incline towards feelings of suicide and self-neglect and hence he/she needs to be kept under supervision which would be best available in a hospital.

Research has constantly discovered a connection between depression and negative effects on the body. For instance, depression comprises of stronger chances of increasing high blood pressure or hypertension and may also cause the person to have a heart attack or may cause him to die of a heart disease. Numerous hypotheses have anticipated explaining the link between mind-body, which states that depression, has a considerable affect on the cardiovascular system. Investigation is still on to be able to get the entire picture. This also goes to prove that there is a connection between clinical depression and cardiovascular health. Surveys have proved that in comparison to say about 10% of individuals in the US who are affected with physically health problems there are nearly 20% of them who are heart patients but do not seem to have a heart attack history and another 65% who have heart attacks. These studies are still on and are still continuously examining the connection between clinical depression and cardiovascular health. (Ramin, 2002)

These studies have led to various discoveries like the fact that in originally fit persons the beginning of clinical depression can envisage the growth of heart disease. In general death rate is in a span of six months following a heart attack is higher in depressed patients than others who are not depressed. Lower levels of depression have shown to lead to high blood pressure. If a person is depressed for a month before his coronary artery bypass there is a chance that he will be affected to other cardiac affects like angina for nearly five years after the event too. Even in individuals who have a congestive heart failure, depression may lead them to be admitted in hospital again and also would result in death. (Gold & Charney, 2002)

Moreover, this risk is present in people of all ages alike, as stated by the New York Heart Association Class and Ejection Fraction. Another factor is that clinical depression can also increase the probability of increasing or dying from a heart problem, and also heart problems can invariably increase the chances of clinical depression. A lot of patients feel sorrow, a failure to be in charge of, lack of confidence about disfigurement gained form a heart surgery and also a loss of youth along with million other feelings that ultimately lead to clinical depression. All these feelings are real and are not just thoughts of weakness or disappointment. It is a true fact that when depression is left without proper treatment then it becomes more expensive.

A study conducted by RAND Corporation came to the conclusion that individuals with depressive symptoms tend to take more rest and holidays then others who had severe symptoms like diabetes, arthritis, back problems, lung problems or gastrointestinal disorders. It has been calculated that USA faced nearly 30 to 44 billion dollars of loss during the year 1990, out of which nearly 12 billion dollars were lost because of the number of working days that people took off. Another 11 billion dollars were lost because of reduced productivity, because of various factors that ultimately weaken the individual, which affect his working habits, and bring trouble with attentiveness, reminiscence, and decision-making. The amount of cost shall further increase if the depressed worker starts to indulge himself in alcohol and drugs. More costs shall be incurred if the workers family member or colleague is suffering with depression, because this will result in disruption of working hours, more number of days absent from work, affect the individuals concentration, morale and ultimately decrease productivity. (Werner, 2003)

Interference by professional therapy or counseling is mostly required to assuage the disorder. (Abeles & Victor, 2003) Clinical depression mostly is left without treatment, as most individuals do not recognize the symptoms. Symptoms like sadness and withdrawal may be well-known but others like anxiety, panic, irritability and sleeplessness may not be well-known. There are some individuals who are under the assumption that only those people who have had a long period of illness are faced with clinical depression, but this is not true. There are still other people who feel that depression is common for old people, young adults, new mothers, menopausal women and…

Sources Used in Document:


Abeles, Norman & Victor, Tara (2003) Unique Opportunities for Psychology in Mental Health Care for Older Adults, Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice V10 N1

Denton, Donald D. (2003) Beating Depression: The Journey to Hope. American Journal of Psychiatry; 160: 1533-a-1534-a

Fink, Max (2003) Dealing With Depression: A Commonsense Guide to Mood Disorders. American Journal of Psychiatry; 160: 1365-1366

Frank, Ellen & Kupfer. David J. (2003) Progress in the Therapy of Mood Disorders: Scientific Support. American Journal of Psychiatry; 160: 1207-1208

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