Major Depressive Disorder Essays (Examples)

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Depressive Disorder According to the DSM --

Words: 3173 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69443539

Depressive Disorder

According to the DSM -- IV -- T (2000), Major Depressive Disorder is classified by the number of Major Depressive Episodes -- although only one is needed in order to diagnose Major Depressive Disorder -- and according to the severity, ranging from mild, moderate, severe without psychotic features, or severe with psychotic features (347). This means that, in practice, the signs or symptoms of Major Depressive Disorder are those of a Major Depressive Episode: the clinician is required to diagnose the Episode before the larger diagnosis of the Disorder is indicated. In order to diagnose a Major Depressive Episode, there must be present a mood which is obviously depressed, which can also be observed as simply the loss of interest in nearly all activities, or the absence of accustomed pleasure -- sometimes known by the more clinical term "anhedonia" -- in familiar activities (349). However, the DSM-IV-T specifies…… [Read More]

References

American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed., text rev.). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Publishing.
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Depressive Disorder Is it Caused

Words: 1701 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52021775



orks Cited

Carney, Robert M.; Kenneth E .Freedland. (2009). Treatment-resistant depression and mortality after acute coronary syndrome. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 166(4), 410-7.

Retrieved April 27, 2009, from ProQuest Medical Library database. (Document ID: 1671559601).

Major depressive episode. (2009). DSM IV. Retrieved April 27, 2009 at http://www.mental-health-today.com/dep/dsm.htm

Franklin, Donald. (2003). Major depression. Psychology Info. Retrieved April 27, 2009 at http://www.psychologyinfo.com/depression/major.htm

Khaled, Salma M.; Andrew Bulloch, Derek V. Exner, Scott B. Patten. (2009). Cigarette

smoking, stages of change, and major depression in the Canadian population. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 54(3), 204-8. Retrieved April 27, 2009, from ProQuest Medical

Library database. (Document ID: 1673587981).

Levinson, Douglas. (2005). The genetics of depression: a review. Biol Psychiatry.

Retrieved April 27, 2009 at http://depressiongenetics.med.upenn.edu/DLResearch/Levinson_GeneticsDepression.pdf

Marrie, A.; R. Horwitz, G. Cutter, T .Tyry, D. Campagnolo, & T. Vollmer. (2009). The burden of mental comorbidity in multiple sclerosis: frequent, underdiagnosed, and undertreated. Multiple Sclerosis, 15(3), 385-92.…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Carney, Robert M.; Kenneth E .Freedland. (2009). Treatment-resistant depression and mortality after acute coronary syndrome. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 166(4), 410-7.

Retrieved April 27, 2009, from ProQuest Medical Library database. (Document ID: 1671559601).

Major depressive episode. (2009). DSM IV. Retrieved April 27, 2009 at  http://www.mental-health-today.com/dep/dsm.htm 

Franklin, Donald. (2003). Major depression. Psychology Info. Retrieved April 27, 2009 at  http://www.psychologyinfo.com/depression/major.htm
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Depressive Disorder Mdd Is a Condition Distinguished

Words: 1050 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79049209

depressive disorder (MDD) is a condition distinguished by the presence of at least one major depressive episode (American Psychiatric Association [APA], 2000). MDD occurs in adolescents with an estimated annual prevalence of four to eight percent and with a lifetime prevalence of 20% by age 18 (APA, 2000). In addition, the data indicates that the prevalence of depression rates among adolescents is increasing with the greatest surge in rates of depression occurring in adolescents between the ages of 15-18 years-old (Costello, Erkanli, & Angold, 2006).

Previous research has suggested that when MDD occurs in adolescents and children an untreated episode can last from seven to nine months (Sadock & Sadock, 2007). Adolescent depression shares many clinical features similar to depression in adults. Depressed adolescents are sad, they can lose interest in activities that used to be of importance to them, and they are very critical of themselves and believe that…… [Read More]

References

American Psychiatric Association (2000). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental

Disorders, IV- Text Revision. Washington, DC: Author.

Costello, E.J., Erkanli, A., & Angold, A. (2006). Is there an epidemic of child or adolescent depression? Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 47, 1263-1271.

Giedd, J.N., Clasen, L.S., Lenroot, R., Greenstein, D.,Wallace, G.L., Ordaz, S., Molloy, E.A.,
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Bipolar Also Known as Manic-Depressive Disorder Bipolar

Words: 2333 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58661457

Bipolar

Also known as manic-depressive disorder, bipolar disorder is a severe mental illness that can be treated with a combination of medication and regular therapy. Bipolar disorder is classified as a mood disorder, and is qualified by abnormal intensity of moods and mood swings, leading to dysfunctional, erratic, or self-destructive behaviors. When left untreated or unrecognized, bipolar disorder can disrupt daily functioning and human relationships. Therefore, chemical and non-chemical treatment interventions are critical for maintaining healthy functioning.

Bipolar disorder is referred to as having a cyclic pattern, because the symptoms are episodic. In other words, the person may be severely depressed, then normal, then fully manic, and then back to being depressed. Mania and depression are the two poles from which the person swings back and forth. Prevalence is equally common in men and women ("Bipolar Disorder," n.d.). First signs of onset are usually in the teens or early twenties;…… [Read More]

References

Barnett, et al. (2011). Personality and bipolar disorder: dissecting state and trait associations between mood and personality. Psychological Medicine 41(8), 1593-1604.

"Bipolar Disorder," (n.d.). Retrieved online:  http://www.brown.edu/Courses/BI_278/Other/Clerkship/Didactics/Readings/Bipolar%20Disorder.pdf 

Blechert, J. & Meyer, T.D. (2010). Are measures of hypomanic personality, impulsive nonconformity and rigidity predictors of bipolar symptoms? British Journal of Clinical Psychology 44(1), 15-27.

Ettinger, et al. (2005). Prevalence of bipolar symptoms in epilepsy vs. other chronic health disorders. Neurology 65(4), 535-540
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Bipolar I Disorder

Words: 4472 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 47788968

Bipolar I disorder is an axis 1 clinical disorder in the DSM-IV and is a serious mental illness that can lead to suicidal ideation or action. The history of bipolar disorder research is a long one, and understanding of the disease has deepened considerably over the last several generations. Diagnosis of bipolar disorder 1 is complicated by its resemblance to other mood disorders, mainly major depression but also psychotic disorders like schizophrenia. esearch is revealing new treatment interventions that are targeted to the biological needs of bipolar patients, as antidepressants are often or usually contraindicated. A Christian worldview suggests that individualized treatment plans take into account the family history and patient's lifestyle when recommending a treatment plan.

History

Bipolar I disorder is a serious mental illness that affects between 1 and 2.5% of the general population in the United States (Ghaznavi & Deckersbach, 2012). The more conservative estimate, 1%, is…… [Read More]

References

"A Brief History of Bipolar Disorder," (2012). Today's Caregiver. Retrieved online:  http://www.caregiver.com/channels/bipolar/articles/brief_history.htm 

Angst, J. & Marneros, A. (2001). Bipolarity from ancient to modern times: Conception, birth, and rebirth. Journal of Affective Disorders 67(1-3): 3-19.

Angst, J. & Sellaro, R. (2000). Historical perspectives and natural history of bipolar disorder. Biological Psychiatry 48(6): 445-457.

Baethge, C. Salvatore, P. & Baldessarini, R.J. (2003). Cyclothymia, a circular mood disorder. Historical Psychiatry 2003/14: 377-399
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Psychiatric Disorder of Childhood Depression The Information

Words: 1390 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 22681223

psychiatric disorder of childhood depression. The information will discuss how the disorder is diagnosed, the prevalence rates, theories concerning the etiology of depression and various treatments that are available for childhood depression.

hile many people may overlook this serious mental condition that occurs within some children, others are facing the reality of the disorder on a daily basis. More information is becoming readily available that offers research about depression in children and is very helpful to those seeking prognosis and treatment of their loved ones. Many times, depression in children and adolescents is overlooked or misdiagnosed. This paper will discuss symptoms and treatment of depression in children.

Depression

Depression is a mental problem that affects people of all ages, race, and economic levels. The diagnosis is becoming more acceptable and is commonly treated with antidepressant drug therapy. The patient is not only affected by treatment, but the drug and insurance…… [Read More]

Works Cited

AllPsych. "Major Depressive Disorder." 13 April 2003. http://allpsych.com/disorders/mood/majordepression.html

Mendlowitz, S., Manassis, K., Bradley, S., Scapillato, D., Miezitis, S., Shaw, B. "Cognitive Behavioral GroupTreatments in Childhood Anxiety Disorders: The Role of Parental Involvement." Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, v38, p1223. 1999.

National Institute of Mental Health. (Sept 2000). "Depression in Children and Adolescents." NIH Publication No. 00-4744. Available at http://www.nimh.nih.gov/publicat/depchildresfact.cfm.

O'Conner, Richard. Undoing Depression: What Therapy Doesn't Teach You and Medication
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the association between depression and eating disorders

Words: 2056 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80932587

ascertaining the link between depression and eating disorders, with particular focus on young adults and teens. Not much information is available on the subject of eating disorder (ED)-diagnosed persons' nutritional status and food consumption. The objectives of this study were:

To explain eating disorder-diagnosed teens' nutritional intake and To study the relationship of depression with ED among teens without as well as with ED.

A number of data sources were employed for individual papers examined for this research. This examination facilitates the drawing of a few key inferences. ED's high stability and its major link to obesity and declining psychological health among adults highlight the necessity of timely problem identification and treatment in childhood and teenage. Depressed youngsters must be especially observed to detect restrictive ED development. Further, adult females depicting a lifetime ED diagnosis showed double the likelihood to report migraines as compared to unrelated members of this very…… [Read More]

References

Allen, K., Mori, T., Beilin, L., Byrne, S., Hickling, S., & Oddy, W. (2012). Dietary intake in population-based adolescents: support for a relationship between eating disorder symptoms, low fatty acid intake and depressive symptoms. Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics, 459 - 469.

Christina, B., Lange, K., Stahl-Pehe, A., Castillo, K., Scheuing, N., Holl, R., . . . Rosenbaeur, J. (2015). Symptoms of Eating Disorders and Depression in Emerging Adults with Early - Onset, Long-Duration Type 1 Diabetes and Their Association with Metabolic Control. PLoS ONE.

Costa, J., Maroco, J., Pinto Gouveia, J., & Ferreira, C. (2016). Shame, Self-Criticism, Perfectionistic Self-Presentation and Depression in Eating Disorders. International Journal of Psychology and Psychological Therapy, 315 - 328.

Herpertz-Dahlmann, B., Dempfle, A., Konrad, K., Klasen, F., & Ravens-Sieberer, U. (2015). Eating disorder symptoms do not just disappear: the implications of adolescent eating-disordered behaviour for body weight and mental health in young adulthood. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry, 675 - 684.
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Clinical Disorder Clinical Psychology and

Words: 3626 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49707748

This leaves many veterans prone to the condition known as Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). This may be characterized as "an anxiety disorder that can develop after exposure to a terrifying event or ordeal in which grave physical harm occurred or was threatened. Traumatic events that may trigger PTSD include violent personal assaults, natural or human-caused disasters, accidents, or military combat." (NIMH, 1) in the particular case of this discussion, military combat is a cause of PTSD that can have devastating long-term outcomes. Indeed, "studies estimate that as many as 500,000 troops serving in Iraq and Afghanistan will suffer from some form of psychological injury, with PTSD being the most common." (Eliscu, 58) the outcomes of this condition will run a wide range of symptoms that impact the ability of individuals to cope with the pressures of everyday life, to relate to those who have not experienced the traumas of war,…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Blanco, C.; Laje, G.; Olfson, Marcus, S.C. & Pincus, H.A. (2002). Trends in the treatment of bipolar disorder by outpatient psychiatrists. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 159(6), 1005-1011.

Craddock, N.; O'Donovan, M.C. & Owen, M.J. (2005). The genetics of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder: dissecting psychosis. Journal of Medical Genetics, 42, 193-204.

Department of Health & Human Services (DHHS)1. (2006). Anorexia Nervosa. Women's Health.gov

Ellenberger, H. (1970). Discovery of the Unconscious. New York: Basic Books.
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association between depression and eating disorders

Words: 1064 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89512848

Eating Disorder and Depression

Annotated Bibliography: What is the Association between Depression and Eating Disorders?

Costa, J., Maroco, J., Gouveia, J., & Ferreira, C. (2016). Shame, self-criticism, perfectionistic self-presentation and depression in eating disorders. International Journal of Psychology and Psychological herapy, 16(3), 315-328.

his article focuses on the connection between external shame and depression in individuals with eating disorders and the moderating role of self-criticism and perfectionistic self-presentation. Following a cross-sectional survey of 121 women with eating disorder, it was found that shame and perfectionistic self-presentation interact to cause self-criticism, which in turn results in depression. he implication thereto is that, when an individual internalises an ideal self, they gain a standard that as per their comparison with the actual self, results in negative feelings and self-evaluations; the individual perceives their real self as flawed or inferior. Consequently, the individual resorts to perfectionist self-representation so as to create to a…… [Read More]

This article focuses on the relationship between dietary intake, eating disorder signs, and depressive symptoms in adolescents. The relationship was tested using a population-based cohort of 429 female adolescents. It was found that adolescents diagnosed with an eating disorder had a substantially lower consumption of fat, starch, fatty acid, as well as vitamins A and E. compared to their counterparts without an eating disorder. Further, for participants with an eating disorder, fatty acid intake was found to be significantly and negatively correlated with eating disorder and depressive signs. A major strength of the study is the large sample used, which reinforces the representativeness of the findings. In addition, the study compared specific dietary ingredients' intake and depressive symptoms in subjects with and without an eating disorder. Major weaknesses of the study include use of self-report data and exclusion of male subjects. Even so, the study further demonstrates the impact of eating disorder on psychological wellbeing. In the event an eating disorder is discovered, proper monitoring and management should be undertaken, specifically focusing on nutritional deficiencies and depressive symptoms.

Bachle, C., Lange, K., Stahl-Pehe, A., Castillo, K., Scheuing, N., Holl, R., Giani, G., & Rosenbauer, J. (2015). Symptoms of eating disorders and depression in emerging adults with early-onset, long duration type 1 diabetes and their association with metabolic control. PLoS ONE, 10(6), e0131027.

This study sought to analyse the incidence of and relationship between eating disorder symptoms and depression in patients with early-onset type 1 diabetes. 211 subjects aged 18 to 21 years (male and female) participated in the study. Results of the study indicate that the presence of an eating disorder was positively associated with severe symptoms of depression; the outcome revealed that women are the most affected segment. Reliance on population-based data is a major strength of the study. The inclusion of male and female subjects also adds to the strengths of the study as this enabled comparison across genders. Nonetheless, the study is limited by its cross-sectional design, which hinders causality inferences. From a practice perspective, it is imperative for patients with type 1 diabetes to be assessed for depression. In most cases, attention is paid to glucose levels, dietary intake, physical activity, and diabetes-related morbidities. Adding mental health screening can improve health outcomes in type 1 diabetes patients.
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Gwas OCD and Genes

Words: 3400 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35243323

Personal Details of Student

Family Name: ooney

Given Name (s) Bridget

Student Number (SID): 312165250

Email (University email only) broo2460@uni.sydney.edu.au

GWAS OCD

Assignment number (if applicable): #1

Becker

Genetics of Brian and Mind Disorders

Academic Honesty -- all forms of plagiarism and unauthorized collusion are regarded as academic dishonesty by the university, resulting in penalties including failure of the unit of study and possible disciplinary action. A module of academic honesty and plagiarism is at http://elearning.library.usyd.edu.au/learn/plagiarism/index.php .

Declaration:

I / We have read and understood the University of Sydney Student Plagiarism: Coursework Policy and Procedure (which can be found at sydney.edu.au/senate/policies/Plagiarism.pdf).

I / We understand that failure to comply with the Student plagiarism: coursework Policy and Procedure can lead to the University commencing proceedings against me / us for potential student misconduct under Chapter 8 of the University of Sydney By-Law 1999 (as amended).

3. This work is substantially my…… [Read More]

References

Ahmari, S. E., Spellman, T., Douglass, N. L., Kheirbek, M. A., Simpson, H. B., Deisseroth, K., ... & Hen, R. (2013). Repeated cortico-striatal stimulation generates persistent OCD-like behavior. Science, 340(6137), 1234-1239.

Arnold, P., Sicard, T., Burroughs, E. et al. (2006). Glutamate Transporter Gene SLC1A1 Associated With Obsessive-compulsive Disorder. Arch Gen Psychiatry, 63(7), p.769.

Baxter, A., Scott, K., Vos, T. and Whiteford, H. (2012). Global prevalence of anxiety disorders: a systematic review and meta-regression. Psychological Medicine, 43(05), pp.897-910.

Barrett, P., Healy-Farrell, L. & March, J. S. (2004). Cognitive behavioral family treatment of childhood obsessive-compulsive disorder: a controlled trial. J. Am. Acad. Child Adolesc. Psychiatry . 43, 46-62.
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Panic Disorder a Branch of

Words: 1396 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18297443

The results were found to be similar with regards to the scales of CMAS (a 37 item measure), STAIC (for the 20 item state scale measure only), CDI (a 27 item measure) and FSSC- (an 80 item measure). The trait scale of STAIC showed a few variations but was not strong enough when the Bonferroni correction was applied. The CASI scale presented a higher occurrence in the second group compared to the first, regardless of Bonferroni corrections. This amounted to at least 16 of the 18 items. The remaining two items, recorded higher in the second group can be considered to be of an external nature. The origins of these differences were obtained using t-test analysis methods (Kearney, Albano, Eisen, Allan & Barlow, 1997)

Conclusions of the research

The conclusions drawn from the study participants with panic disorder revealed nausea, shivering, difficulties in breathing and increased heart rate as the…… [Read More]

References

Kearney, C, A, Albano, A, M, Eisen, A, R, Allan, W, D & Barlow, D, H. (1997) The Phenomenology of Panic Disorders in youngsters: Empirical Study of a Clinical sample, Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 2(1), 49-62
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Psychotropic Medications Treat Clinical Disorders

Words: 343 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23995317

Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) can be an effective alternative intervention to psychotropic medications. The therapy is mainly used for persons experiencing acute episodes of melancholy but may also be recommended for other disorders that include symptoms like catatonia, mania, or schizophrenia. Antipsychotic drugs are more commonly used to treat psychotic episodes (NIMH). ECT may also be helpful for persons who cannot take psychotropic drugs such as pregnant women or seniors.

Research questions related to the use of psychotropic medications"

. What are the long-term effects of taking psychotropic medications? Since they are new to the pharmacopia, what are some of the potential long-term risks of taking psychotropic drugs and might they affect human beings on the level of DNA?

2. Do psychotropic drugs become addictive, or are clients able to wean themselves off them without experiencing recurring symptoms of the clinical disorder? Do they have to be taken long-term?

National Institute…… [Read More]

1. What are the long-term effects of taking psychotropic medications? Since they are new to the pharmacopia, what are some of the potential long-term risks of taking psychotropic drugs and might they affect human beings on the level of DNA?

2. Do psychotropic drugs become addictive, or are clients able to wean themselves off them without experiencing recurring symptoms of the clinical disorder? Do they have to be taken long-term?

National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH). "Medications." Retrieved Oct 18, 2008 at http://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/publications/medications/complete-publication.shtml
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GAD and Anxiety Disorders

Words: 3244 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84131793

Generalized Anxiety Disorder

Background/Definition/Epidemiology

Humans have a natural response to survival, stress and fear. Such responses enable an individual to pursue pertinent objectives and respond accordingly to the presence of danger. The 'flight or fight' response in a healthy individual is provoked via a real challenge or threat and is utilized as a means of acting appropriately to the situation. However, when an anxiety disorder manifests in someone, then an inappropriate/excessive state of arousal develops. People then feel symptoms of fear, apprehension, or uncertainty. These feelings or reactions may surface even when no real threat exists.

Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD), is a common anxiety disorder that affects roughly 5% of the United States general population. "GAD is commonly associated with psychiatric and medical comorbidities and is often chronic. GAD is associated with extensive psychiatric and medical utilization and, if left untreated, can cause impairment as severe as major depressive disorder…… [Read More]

References

Asmundson, G. J., Fetzner, M. G., DeBoer, L. B., Powers, M. B., Otto, M. W., & Smits, J. A. (2013). LET'S GET PHYSICAL: A CONTEMPORARY REVIEW OF THE ANXIOLYTIC EFFECTS OF EXERCISE FOR ANXIETY AND ITS DISORDERS. Depression and Anxiety, 30(4), 362-373. doi:10.1002/da.22043

Butnoriene, J., Bunevicius, A., Saudargiene, A., Nemeroff, C. B., Norkus, A., Ciceniene, V., & Bunevicius, R. (2015). Metabolic syndrome, major depression, generalized anxiety disorder, and ten-year all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in middle aged and elderly patients. International Journal of Cardiology, 190, 360-366. doi:10.1016/j.ijcard.2015.04.122

Chokroverty, S. (2013). Sleep Disorders Medicine: Basic Science, Technical Considerations, and Clinical Aspects. Elsevier Science.

Dodhia, S., Hosanagar, A., Fitzgerald, D. A., Labuschagne, I., Wood, A. G., Nathan, P. J., & Phan, K. L. (2014). Modulation of Resting-State Amygdala-Frontal Functional Connectivity by Oxytocin in Generalized Social Anxiety Disorder. Neuropsychopharmacology, 39(9), 2061-2069. doi:10.1038/npp.2014.53
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Major Depression

Words: 4777 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90936662

Clinical Depression

Major depressions or unipolar depressions are some of the names by which the term Clinical depression is known, which is a type of depressive disorder. To explain, it is a condition that is to be diametrically observed, in the sense that the expert does not count on a patient's self-report but checks for indications of depression that can be noticed and recognized. (Schatzberg, 2002) Clinical depression is a term that explains a situation serious enough to require medical, that is expert help and may even require pharmacological involvement. Clinical depression, as stated by various medical sources, survives for a period of two weeks and is usually not impetuous because of any external being or thing.

In a year, clinical depression affects at least 19 million American individuals. Not considering whether the individual is young or old, man or woman, regardless of race or income any body can be…… [Read More]

References

Abeles, Norman & Victor, Tara (2003) Unique Opportunities for Psychology in Mental Health Care for Older Adults, Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice V10 N1

Denton, Donald D. (2003) Beating Depression: The Journey to Hope. American Journal of Psychiatry; 160: 1533-a-1534-a

Fink, Max (2003) Dealing With Depression: A Commonsense Guide to Mood Disorders. American Journal of Psychiatry; 160: 1365-1366

Frank, Ellen & Kupfer. David J. (2003) Progress in the Therapy of Mood Disorders: Scientific Support. American Journal of Psychiatry; 160: 1207-1208
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Processing Effects of Cognitive and Emotional Psychotherapy on Bipolar Disorder

Words: 6099 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3470826

BP Disorder

Bipolar disorder, originally called manic depressive disorder, is a severe mood disorder that vacillates between extreme "ups" (mania, hypomania) and "downs" (depression). The effects of having bipolar disorder can be observed across the patients social and occupational functioning. Often the patient is left isolated from work, friends, and family. Medications have become the first-line treatments for bipolar disorder; however, psychotherapy can offer additional benefits in the ongoing treatment of patients with bipolar disorder. This paper discusses the symptoms and treatment of bipolar disorder focusing on cognitive behavioral therapy and emotion focused therapy.

Bipolar Disorder

Description and differentiation

According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders -- Fourth Edition -- Text evision (DSM-IV-T) one's mood is an all-encompassing and sustained feeling tone experienced internally by the person and influences the person's behavior and perception of the world. Affect is the external or outward expression of this inner…… [Read More]

References

Alloy, L.B., Abramson, L.Y., Walshaw, P.D., Keyser, J., & Gerstein, R.K. (2006). A cognitive vulnerability-stress perspective on bipolar spectrum disorders in a normative adolescence brain, cognitive, and emotional development context. Developmental Psychopathology, 18(4), 1057-1103.

American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV-Text Revision. Washington, DC: Author.

Beck, J.S. (1995). Cognitive therapy: Basics and beyond. New York: Guilford Press.

Butler, A.C., Chapman, J.E., Forman, E.M., & Beck, A.T. (2006). The empirical status of cognitive-behavioral therapy: A review of meta-analyses. Clinical Psychology Review, 26, 17-31
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Seasonal Affective Disorder SAD

Words: 1066 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36480570

Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD) is a mood disorder associated with specific periods of the calendar year. SAD is more commonly found in geographic locations with long winter seasons with shorter daylight hours, less sunlight, and longer nights. This lack of sunlight has been directly connected to mood changes in a variety of populations and is most common at latitudes that experience less light during the winter seasons. In addition, some mood changes have been associated with the summer months in specific geographic areas. This paper will explore the diagnosis and assessment of Seasonal Affective Disorder, including the differentiation of the physical and emotional causes for the mood changes that occur. The paper will also explore the common treatment methods, including behavioral, pharmacological, and biopsychological, attempting to identify the preferred methods of treatment and data regarding the efficacy of the methods (.

According to the American Psychiatric Association's (APA) DSM-IV, SAD…… [Read More]

References:

American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. 4th ed. Washington, D.C.: American Psychiatric Association, 1994:390. Copyright 1994.

Lurie SJ, Gawinski B, Pierce D, Rousseau SJ. (2006). "Seasonal Affective Disorder." Am Fam Physician. 1:74(9): 1521-4.

Saeed, S., Bruce, T. (1998). "Seasonal Affective Disorders." American Family Physician. Retrieved from http://www.aafp.org/afp/980315ap/saeed.html. 13, March. 2011.

Targum, S., Rosenthal, N. (2008). "Seasonal Affective Disorder." Psychiatry (Edgmont). 2008 May; 5(5): 31 -- 33.
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Bipolar Psychiatric Disorder Bd -- Which Is

Words: 3047 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67751574

Bipolar psychiatric disorder (BD) -- which is characterized by "…cycles of depression and mania" -- is a "euphoric, high-energy state" that can produce remarkable bursts of creativity or, on the other hand, can produce erratic behavioral events that are risky and provocative (Gardner, 2011). About 2.4% of the world's population has been diagnosed with bipolar disorder (at one time or another in their lifetime) but the rate in the United States (4.4% of the population) is the highest of any nation (Gardner, p. 1). The lowest rate on record is in India, 0.1%. This paper reviews various aspects and ramifications of the effects of bipolar disorder through nine peer-reviewed research articles.

Bipolar disorder and cigarette smoking

In the journal Bipolar Disorders the authors point out that adults suffering from bipolar disorder are "…two to three times more likely" have begun a serious smoking habit, which is a "devastating addiction" and…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Calkin, Cynthia, and Alda, Martin. (2012). Beyond the Guidelines for Bipolar Disorder: Practical

Issues in Long-Term Treatment with Lithium. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 57(7), 437-

Gardner, Amanda. (2011). U.S. has highest bipolar rate in 11-nation study. CNN Health.

Retrieved March 27, 2013, from  http://www.cnn.com .
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Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder ADHD

Words: 6369 Length: 17 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 74077030

Often is forgetful in daily activities

10. Often has difficulty maintaining alertness, orienting to requests, or executing directions

11. Often fidgets with hands or feet or squirms in seat

12. Often leaves seat in classroom or in other situations in which remaining seated is expected

13. Often runs about or climbs excessively in situations in which it is inappropriate

14. Often has difficulty playing or engaging in leisure activities quietly

15. Often is "on the go" or often acts as if "driven by a motor"

16. Often talks excessively

17. Often blurts out answers before questions have been completed

18. Often has difficulty awaiting turn

19. Often interrupts or intrudes on others (e.g., butts into conversations/games)

20. Often has difficulty sitting still, being quiet,... inhibiting impulses in...classroom or at home

21. Often loses temper

22. Often argues with adults

23. Often actively defies or refuses adult requests or rules

24.…… [Read More]

References

The Columbia World of Quotations. New York: Columbia University Press, 1996. Retrieved April 16, 2008, at http://www.bartleby.com/66/3/33503.html

Cloward, Janessa. "ADHD drugs pose heart risks, federal panel says," University Wire, February 15, 2006. Retrieved April 17, 2008, at http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1P1118518952.html

DeMarle, Daniel J.;Denk, Larry;Ernsthausen, Catherine S.. "Working with the family of a child with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.(Family Matters)," Pediatric Nursing, July 1, 2003. Retrieved April 16, 2008, at http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1107215868.html

Edwards, Jason H.. "Evidenced-based treatment for child ADHD: "real-world" practice implications." Journal of Mental Health Counseling, April 1, 2002. Retrieved April 17, 2008, at http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-87015306.html
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Bipolar II Disorder

Words: 2688 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79340844

Bipolar II

In the United States alone, a staggering number of people suffer from some sort of mental illness and many more are at high risk of developing a mental condition. Worldwide, the number is even greater, especially in countries without the resources to provide the care needed by such people. Some mental conditions are more prevalent and easier to develop than others. Whereas a serious disease that manifests various forms of psychosis like schizophrenia is mostly prevalent in those who inherit it from family members, those who have abused drugs long-term and consistently, or those with brain injuries, milder conditions like bipolar disorder can be developed by virtually anyone. In the United States, about 2.5% of the population has some form of bipolar disorder (WedMD, 2014). This translate to about 6 million people.

Because of this high number of sufferers, increasing research attention in the psychiatric and medical fields…… [Read More]

References

Cusin, C., Hilton, G.Q., Nierenberg, A.A., and Fava M. (2012). Long-Term Maintenance With Intramuscular Ketamine for Treatment-Resistant Bipolar II Depression. American Journal of Psychiatry. Retrieved from: http://journals.psychiatryonline.org/article.aspx?articleid=1268250

Mayo Clinic. (2014). Bipolar Disorder. Retrieved from: http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/bipolar-disorder/basics/symptoms/con-20027544

PsychCentral (2014). The Two Types of Bipolar Disorder. Retrieved from: http://psychcentral.com/lib/the-two-types-of-bipolar-disorder/000612?all=1

Sole, B., Martinez-Aran, A., Torrent, C., Bonnin, C.M., Reinares, M., Popovic, D., Sanchez-Moreno, J., and Vieta, E. (2011). Are bipolar II patients cognitively impaired? A systematic review. Psychological Medicine. Retrieved from:  http://diposit.ub.edu/dspace/bitstream/2445/52283/1/587142.pdf
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Schizoaffective Disorder Is a Mental

Words: 1002 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56285561

The exact regimen depends on the type and severity of symptoms, and whether the disorder is of depressive or bipolar type. Medications are usually prescribed to alleviate psychotic symptoms, stabilize mood and treat depression, while psychotherapy can help curb distorted thoughts, teach social skills and diminish social isolation. ("Schizoaffective Disorder," 2006)

Medication: Medications generally include antipsychotic drugs prescribed to alleviate psychotic symptoms, such as delusions, paranoia and hallucinations. Mood-stabilizing medications are prescribed in bipolar disorder, which help to level out the highs and lows of manic depression. Anti-depressants such as citalopram (Celexa), fluoxetine (Prozac) and escitalopram (Lexapro) are normally prescribed for depressive subtype schizoaffective disorder, as they are likely to alleviate feelings of sadness, hopelessness, or sleeplessness and lack of concentration. (Ibid.)

Psychotherapy and Counseling: Although there has been far less research on psychotherapeutic treatments for schizoaffective disorder than in schizophrenia or depression, the available evidence suggests that cognitive behavior…… [Read More]

References

Brannon, G.E. (2005). "Schizoaffective Disorder." E-Medicine. Retrieved on April 18, 2007 at http://www.emedicine.com/med/topic3514.htm

Facts About Schizoaffective Disorder." (2001). Family Social Support Project at UCLA. Retrieved on April 18, 2007 at http://www.npi.ucla.edu/ssg/schizoaffective.htm

Grayson, C.E. (2004). "Schizoaffective Disorder." Mental Health America. Retrieved on April 18, 2007 at http://www.nmha.org/go/information/get-info/schizophrenia/schizoaffective-disorder

Schizoaffective Disorder." (2006). Mayo Foundation for Medical Educational and Research. Retrieved on April 18, 2007 at http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/schizoaffective-disorder/DS00866
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The Aviator Howard Hughes OCD and Bipolar

Words: 1673 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38951893

Hughes would be diagnosed with bi-polar disorder, with differential diagnoses consisting of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and agoraphobia. As DSM-V (2013) states, the diagnostic criteria for Bipolar 1 Disorder are as stated, "For a diagnosis of bipolar 1 disorder, it is necessary to meet the following criteria for a manic episode. The manic episode may have been preceded by and may be followed by hypomanic or major depressive episodes" (p. 123). This diagnosis may very well apply to Howard Hughes, as throughout the film The Aviator, he demonstrates an impulsive personality and is not adverse to taking enormous risks, in which his entire fortune and even life are on the line. He alternates between manic-depressive moments, where he shuts himself away for months, and moments where he emerges as a king-of-the-world type of figure (as in the court room scene towards the end of the film, when he defends himself). These…… [Read More]

References

Campbell, G. (2001, May). The anxious client reconsidered: Getting beyond the symptoms to deeper change. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com.proxy1.ncu.edu/docview/233312959?accountid=281

Chouinard, V. (2012). Mapping bipolar worlds: Lived geographies of 'madness' in autobiographical accounts. Health & Place, 18(2): 144-151.

Connolly, K., Thase, M. (2011). The clinical management of bipolar disorder: A review of evidence-based guidelines. Primary Care Companion for CNS Disorders, 13(4): 1-4.

Steketee, G. (2003). Clinical update: Obsessive compulsive disorder
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Post Traumatic Stress Disorder Quantitative

Words: 1934 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94683735

Similarly, researchers should be aware of the consequences of halo, prejudice to the leniency or seriousness of fundamental trend and position or propinquity of deviation from the pace that can artificially increase reliability of measure devoid of improving reaction correctness or validity. (Williams, and Poijula, 2002).

Limitations/Strength and Weaknesses

The following conditions might have affected the results of the present study:

1. The sample will not be random,

2. all demographic information will be self reported and not verified,

3. all the subjects for the study came from 3 local Kansas mental health facilities located in South Central Kansas,

4. all data for the BDI-II is self reported,

5. data is for individuals with specific DSM-IV diagnosis,

6. data is for individuals who are currently seeking treatment for the specified DSM-IV disorders (Schiraldi, 2000)

major strength is that respondents will be selected from ? number of different places for better…… [Read More]

References

Schiraldi, Glenn. (2000) Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Sourcebook. McGraw-Hill; 1 edition p. 446

Williams, Mary Beth and Poijula, Soili (2002) the PTSD Workbook: Simple, Effective Techniques for Overcoming Traumatic Stress Symptoms. New Harbinger Publications; 1 edition. p. 237

Foa, Edna B. Keane, Terence and Friedman, M. Matthew J. (2000) Effective Treatments for PTSD: Practice Guidelines from the International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies. The Guilford Press; 1 edition. p. 388

Wilson, John P. And Keane, Terence M. (1996) Assessing Psychological Trauma and PTSD. The Guilford Press; 1st edition. p. 577
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Assessing a Patient With Bipolar 1 Disorder

Words: 912 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71657240

Danny's case, we do not have enough information thus far to make an accurate diagnosis. The information that he has provided is helpful as a starting point, but Danny has indicated that he is somewhat uncooperative at this point (he says he is not here for you to diagnose him with depression and that his arrival at your office is mandated by the school as part of his probation -- otherwise he would not be there). So, in order to properly diagnose Danny, more time will be needed and more information. Nonetheless, there are signs, just from the little that we have to go on, that could point us in the right direction. The history provided by the parents and the comments made my by Danny himself do suggest that Danny may be showing symptoms of bi-polar disorder…but more work must be done before this diagnosis can be made.

In…… [Read More]

References

American Psychiatric Association. (2013). DSM-V. DC: APA.
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Clinical Staging of Psychiatric Disorders

Words: 1272 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 74939890

DSM diagnostic criteria have long been a source of criticism. McGorry, Hickie, Yung, Pantelis, and Jackson (2006) point out some basic deficiencies of the DSM diagnostic system. First the authors state that the function of a diagnosis is to state what treatment should be applied or predict the prognosis of the condition. These are certainly functions of a diagnosis, but a diagnosis has broader implications. First and foremost the idea of having a diagnosis is to take a series of related signs and symptoms that hang together consistently and label them so as to facilitate communication between health care professionals. A diagnosis alone is useless unless it allows professionals to communicate about the same entity. Then descriptions of course, treatment, and prognosis can follow.

McGorry et al. charge that in the DSM system the clinical features that occur early in the course of the disorder are not distinguished from those…… [Read More]

References

Fava G.A. & Kellner, R. (1993). Staging: a neglected dimension in psychiatric classification. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 87, 555-558.

Fava, G.A. & Tossani, E. (2007). Prodromal stage of major depression. Early Intervention in Psychiatry, 1, 9-18.

Hetrick, S.E., Parker, A.G., Hickie, I.B., Purcell, R., Yung, A.R., & McGorry, P.D. (2008).

Early identification and intervention in depressive disorders: Towards a clinical staging model. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, 77, 263-270.
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Fictional Case of Ms Jean

Words: 3573 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38755970



A diagnosis of Major Depressive Disorder is usually determined through the observation and evaluation of the person's own self-reported experiences. No form of testing, including laboratory tests can determine if a person has this kind of disorder. It is only through analysis of the person's behavior and communication can a psychiatrist identify the disorder.

Major Depressive Disorder tends to exhist in people who have had depression for quite some time or have had recurring depression. Although it is difficult to identify it can be determined and identified. Treatment usually involves cognitive-behavioral therapy.

Mood- Incongruent psychotic features is a term used to describe the characteristics of psychosis. The psychosis usually consists of delusions and hallucinations. They tend to be consistent with an elevated mood such as experienced in Bi-Polar disorder or in depression such as Major Depressive Disorder.

Something such as Schizophrenia is a Mood-Incongruent Disorder. Mood- Incongruent psychotic features tend…… [Read More]

References

Fink M, Taylor MA: Catatonia: A Clinician's Guide to Diagnosis and Treatment. Cambridge, UK, Cambridge University Press, 2003

Fink M, Abrams R, Bailine S, et al.: Ambulatory electroconvulsive therapy. Task Force Report of the Association for Convulsive Therapy. Convulsive Ther 12:42-55, 1996

Husain M, Rush AJ, Fink M, et al.: Speed of response and remission in major depressive disorder with acute ECT: a Consortium for Research in ECT (CORE) report. J Clin Psychiatry (in press)

Kantor SJ, Glassman AH: Delusional depressions: natural history and response to treatment. Br J. Psychiatry 131:351-360, 1977
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Childhood Depression

Words: 4442 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 78449735

Childhood Depression

Major depressive disorder, or MDD, may affect up to twenty percent of the adult population. The recognition of depression as a serious and common mental disorder has been vital in the identification and treatment of depression in adults. Leaps and bounds have been made in the field of depression research. The widespread recognition of the many possible causes of depression, including chemical imbalances with genetic or medical origins as well as traumatic life events, has made it possible for those suffering from depression to openly seek treatment options and discuss their depression without necessarily feeling the same overwhelming shame and isolation that were inevitable in generations past. Depression is more likely to be identified in an affected individual by family members, physicians, or others because of the public information that is available for professionals and the common people. Research is constantly revealing new treatment options, identifying causal factors,…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Fremont, W.P. (2004, April) Childhood reactions to terrorism-induced trauma: a review of the past 10 years. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. v43, i4, 381(12).

Gaughan, D.M., et al. (2004, June) Psychiatric hospitalizations among children and youths with human immunodeficiency virus infection. Pediatrics. v113, i6, 1793(1).

Gazelle, H. & Ladd, G.W. (2003, January-February) Anxious solitude and peer exclusion: a diathesis-stress model of internalizing trajectories in childhood. Child Development. v74, i1, 257(22).

Louters, L.L. (2004, September) Don't overlook childhood depression: an effective approach to childhood depression requires that you maintain a high index of suspicion and understand the disorder's full spectrum of manifestations. JAAPA - Journal of the American Academy of Physicians Assistants. v17, i9, 18(7).
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Mdd Tina's Case STUDY& 8230 Tina's Case Study

Words: 3317 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90576378

MDD: Tina's Case Study…"

Tina's Case Study MDD

"MDD: Tina's Case Study.."

Major Depressive Disorder: Tina's Story

Tina's Story- Case Study

Tina is a 23-year-old black female. She is currently separated from her husband of five years. She is currently employed by two companies, one at which she works Monday- Thursday mornings, and the other on Wednesday -- Friday evenings, and all day Saturday and Sunday. However, she hasn't shown up for work on a consistent basis for the last four weeks, and not at all in the last two days.

Once an energetic, active, healthy female who loved to exercise at the local gym three days a week, Tina now spends most of her time in her apartment. She hasn't been to the gym in over four weeks, and her body movements that used to be quick and marked are now slow and sluggish. Even though she hasn't changed…… [Read More]

References

Aglan, A., Williams, J.G., Pickles, A., & Hill, J. (2010). Overgeneral autobiographical memory in women: Association with childhood abuse and history of depression in a community sample. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 49(3), 359-372. doi:10.1348/014466509X467413

American Psychological Association (2000) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders DSM-IV-TR Fourth Edition (Text Revision) DSM IV-TR, Arlington VA: American Psychiatric Publishing.

Craigie, M.A., Saulsman, L.M., & Lampard, A.M. (2007). MCMI-III personality complexity and depression treatment outcome following group-based cognitive -- behavioral therapy. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 63(12), 1153-1170. doi:10.1002/jclp.20406

Hybels, C.F., Blazer, D.G., Steffens, D.C., & Judith A., N. (2006). Partial remission. Geriatrics, 61(4), 22-26. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.
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Nursing Mindfulness and its impact

Words: 1585 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52739138

PICOT Question and its Significance

The PICOT question is: Does mindfulness meditation (I) reduce long-term risk factors and suicidal behaviors (O) among psychiatric patients (P) versus those who do not participate in the meditation programs (C)? This is of great significance to the nursing practice because psychiatric disorders are risk factors that cause an increase in the probability of a suicidal occurrence. As a result, it is imperative for psychiatric nurses to comprehend how to pinpoint such risk factors and institute a clinical practice setting that dissuades suicide. More importantly, nursing practice encompasses the execution of best practices for generating a clinical setting that diminishes risk such as mindfulness meditation.

Summary of Literature Review

The mindfulness meditation theory is deemed to the most prospective one in treating addictive disorder patients. The safety of these models is guaranteed if carried out in the framework of clinical studies. In recent periods, associated…… [Read More]

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Impact of meditation on addiction therapy

Words: 1104 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31783494

A synthesis of what the studies reveal about the current state of knowledge on the question developed

The mindfulness meditation theory appears to have the potential to treat addictive disorder patients. Zgierska and coworkers (2009) state that such models seem to be safe if implemented within the context of clinical studies. One can find considerable methodological shortcomings in a majority of existing works on the subject. Further, which addiction-diagnosed individuals may derive maximum benefits out of mindfulness meditation isn’t clear. But, of late, related initiatives and practices in the role of complementary clinical aids for treating multiple physical and psychological ailments have grown in popularity. MBCT (mindfulness-based cognitive therapy) and MBSR (mindfulness-based stress reduction) as clinical initiatives have specifically been analyzed, with a sound evidential pool recording their efficacy. Integration of the latter initiative’s aspects and cognitive behavioral therapy and cognitive psychology strategies resulted in the former’s creation. At first,…… [Read More]

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Depression the Nature of Depression Depression Exists

Words: 1607 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 7455366

Depression

The nature of depression

Depression exists as a regular mental disorder presented in the form of loss of interest, depressed moods, and feelings of low self-worth, guilt, poor concentration and disturbed sleep. The most common symptoms of depression are manifested in the form of anxiety. The problems could become recurrent or chronic, leading to notable impairments in a person to become responsible. When it reaches its worst stage, depression might lead to suicide. Over one million succumb to depression annually. This translates to at least three hundred suicidal deaths per day (Stark, 2010). A single individual who commits suicide motivates twenty more to attempt suicide.

People can suffer from multiple variations of depression. The most significant difference is depression among individuals who do not have or who have a history of maniac episodes. Depressive episodes draw symptoms like loss of interest, increased fatigability and depressed mood. Depending on the…… [Read More]

References

Joiner, T.E. (2010). Interpersonal, cognitive, and social nature of depression. Mahwah [u.a.: Erlbaum.

Knittel, L. (2013). User's guide to natural remedies for depression: Learn about safe and natural treatments to uplift your mood and conquer depression. North Bergen, NJ: Basic Health Publ.

Stark, K.D. (2010). Childhood depression: School-based intervention. New York: Guilford Press.

Wasserman, D. (2011). Depression. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
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Features and Comparison of Various

Words: 1655 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68980890

e., unreasonable expectations of especially favorable treatment or automatic compliance with his or her expectations" (DSM-IV, 2000));

d) has no empathy for those he has taken advantage of, such as family members (asking for a loan), landlords (failure to pay rent on time), investors (when the company goes "belly up" (DSM-IV, 2000)).

orks Cited

American Psychiatric Association (2000) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. Fourth Edition. Desk Reference. (ashington, DC: American Psychiatric Association).

Assumptions held by BPD Sufferers." BPD Central ebsite. Retrieved November 20, 2003 at http://www.bpcentral.com/resources/basics/assumptions.shtm

Bardi, Jason Socrates. "Molecules on the Mind." News & View section. Vol. 3, Issue 5, Feb. 10, 2003. The Scripps Research Institute eb site retrieved November 24, 2003 at http://www.scripps.edu/newsandviews/e_20030210/sutcliffe.html

Borderline Personality Disorder - Fear: A Roller-Coaster Ride." Retrieved November 20, 2003 at http://www.borderlinepersonality.ca/borderrollercoaster.htm

From the Inside Out by a.J. Mahari)

Diagnostic Criteria for Narcissistic Personality Disorder

http://wave.prohosting.com/healnpd/DSMIV.html

http://www.upcmd.com/dot/diseases/00186/disease_definition.html

Dysthymia Symptoms." Retrieved…… [Read More]

Works Cited

American Psychiatric Association (2000) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. Fourth Edition. Desk Reference. (Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association).

Assumptions held by BPD Sufferers." BPD Central Website. Retrieved November 20, 2003 at http://www.bpcentral.com/resources/basics/assumptions.shtm

Bardi, Jason Socrates. "Molecules on the Mind." News & View section. Vol. 3, Issue 5, Feb. 10, 2003. The Scripps Research Institute Web site retrieved November 24, 2003 at  http://www.scripps.edu/newsandviews/e_20030210/sutcliffe.html 

Borderline Personality Disorder - Fear: A Roller-Coaster Ride." Retrieved November 20, 2003 at  http://www.borderlinepersonality.ca/borderrollercoaster.htm
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Theoretical Analysis of Obsessive Compulsive

Words: 3218 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49908541

Clinically meaningful differences between juvenile and adult participants were also found. Compared to adults, juveniles were more likely to be male, recall an earlier age at OCD onset, and have different lifetime comorbidity patterns. Significant outcomes were that children were less likely than either adolescent or adults to report aggressive obsessions and mental rituals.

The glaring - and possibly only -- distractions that I see with this study are that groups are ill matched. There is a large range of ages even amongst each group (children ranged between 6-12 whilst adolescents ranged between 13-18); they were ill-matched in OCD symptoms too; there were far less children than adolescents; and adults more than doubled the size of the juvenile and children group combined. Self-reported OCD symptom could have been produced by an alternate factor (another determinant) that was not taken into account. What could have been taken then as start of…… [Read More]

References

Abramowitz, J. (1997) Effectiveness of psychological and pharmacological treatments for obsessive-compulsive disorder: a quantitative review Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 57, 1-35

Fineberg, N.A. & Gale, T.M. (2005). Evidence-based pharmacotherapy of obsessive-compulsive disorder. Int J. Neuropsychopharmacol; 8, 107-29.

Foa, E.B. & Goldstein, a. (1978) Continuous exposure and complete response prevention in the treatment of obsessive-compulsive neurosis. Behav Ther; 9, 821-9.

Freeman, J.B. et al. (2008). Early Childhood OCD: Preliminary Findings From a Family-Based Cognitive-Behavioral Approach J. Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 47, 593 -- 602
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Planning for Diagnosis and Treatment

Words: 1945 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12197589

Diagnosis and Treatment Planning

Contemporary Approaches Used for Assessment and Diagnosis

The Center for Quality Assessment and Improvement in Mental Health relates screening tools used for screening for bipolar disorder to include the 'Mood Disorder Questionnaire' (MDQ); the 'Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) ipolar Disorder Screening Scale'; Differential Diagnosis of ipolar Disorder I & II vs. Major Depressive Disorders; and Obtaining a Family History Through the Use of a Genogram. The MDQ is designed for use as a tool to aid in screening for present and past incidences of mania and hypomania and includes 13 questions related to the symptoms of bipolar disorder in addition to items that assess the clustering of symptoms as well as any functional impairment. (CQAIMH, 2014, paraphrased) The Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) ipolar Disorder Screening Scale' can be used to make accurate identification of "both threshold and sub-threshold bipolar disorder." (CQAIMH, 2014, p. 1)…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Bipolar Disorder (2014) Mayo clinic. Diseases. Retrieved from: http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/bipolar-disorder/basics/tests-diagnosis/con-20027544

Bipolar Disorder (2014) University of Maryland Medical Center. Retrieved from:  http://umm.edu/health/medical/reports/articles/bipolar-disorder 

Bipolar Disorder Screening (2014) Center for Quality Assessment and Improvement in Mental Health (CQAIHM). Retrieved from:  http://www.cqaimh.org/tool_bipolar.html 

Bipolar Disorder Treatment (2014) NHS. Retrieved from:  http://www.nhs.uk/Conditions/Bipolar-disorder/Pages/Treatment.aspx
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Beck Depression Inventory-Ii Bdi-Ii Is a 21-Item

Words: 4152 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83941983

Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) is a 21-item clinician administered and scored scale that is designed to measure a person's mood and symptoms related to depression. The BDI-II was designed to conform to the DSM-IV depression diagnostic criteria and represents a substantial improvement over its predecessor, the original Beck Depression Inventory. The BDI-II has been used both as a research measure (its primary intended use) and to assist with the clinical diagnosis of depression. The BDI-II has been subject to numerous empirical studies designed to measure its internal consistency, convergent and discriminant validity, criterion validity, and construct validity and the test demonstrates acceptable psychometric qualities, but there have been some concerns with its use. This paper reviews the development of the BDI-II, its psychometric properties, uses, strengths, and weaknesses. Advantages and disadvantages of using the BDI-II and recommendations for future research regarding its use are also discussed.

Title of paper

The…… [Read More]

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HIV and AIDS

Words: 6090 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28504650



The second session had camera instruction. The third session had each participant given a camera and they were instructed to "(t)ake pictures of the challenges and solution in addressing HIV and AIDS" (Mitchell et al., 2005). The fourth session saw the photos developed and asked small groups to compare and contrast their pictures by creating posters. The authors draw on previous research on photo-voice techniques, as well as memory and photography and self-representation through photography.

In the end, the authors' qualitative research concluded that although many projects use photography to give voice to participants, it is especially significant in the giving a voice to community health workers and teachers in rural South African communities. In these remote areas, the communities do not have to wait for researchers to provide them answers, instead they are able to take action themselves and give a visible face to the HIV and AIDS plight…… [Read More]

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Women and Depression

Words: 2214 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88717040

Women Depression

Women and Depression

Depression is among the most studied psychiatric disorders in the world. While it is known that every person will go through periods of mild, short-term depression (following a death, divorce, etc.), there is a growing number of individuals who are experiencing depression on a much more serious scale. Among the research findings is a curious finding that women suffer the condition at a much greater rate than men. Again, this means that women suffer clinical depression at a much greater rate than men. The research has tried to determine the causes, symptoms and treatments for the condition, and there has been some success in this endeavor. In this paper, depression's causes, symptoms and treatments modalities will be examined as they apply to women as a body.

Causes

It may seem necessary to discuss symptoms before causes since it is easier to delineate what the symptoms…… [Read More]

References

American Psychiatric Association (APA). (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th Edition). Washington, DC: Author

Cirakoglu, O.C., Kokdemir, D., & Demirutku, K. (2003). Lay theories of causes and cures for depression in a Turkish university sample. Social Behavior & Personality, 31(8), 795-799.

Craig, C.D. (2009). Depression, sociocultural factors, and African-American women. Journal of Multicultural Counseling & Development, 37(2), 83-91.

Grote, N.K., Bledsoe, S.E., Larkin, J., Lemay, E.P., Jr., & Brown, C. (2007). Stress exposure and depression in disadvantaged women: The protective effects of optimism and perceived control. Social Work Research, 31(1), 19-35.
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DSM-IV Classifications the Diagnostic and

Words: 882 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65050322



Generally, mood disorders are influenced by both biological and environmental factors. In order words, these disorders can be inherited. The bipolar and cyclothmic disorders generally include both euphoric and depressive feelings, while the dysthymic and major depressive disorders only include depressive feelings. The bipolar and major depressive disorders have received most attention in terms of research. These disorders are generally treated by a combination of medication and psychotherapy. Being more severe than the other two mood disorders, they may also at times require hospitalization to ensure the safety of the patient.

The cyclothmic and dysthymic disorders are both less severe than the other two, but can also be disruptive if not appropriately treated. The prognosis for both of these are good in terms of functioning effectively in society. The more severe disorders may hamper functioning effectively in social and workplace situations, although the correct combination of psychotherapy and medication can…… [Read More]

Sources

AllPsych. (2003). Psychiatric disorders. http://allpsych.com/disorders/index.html

Hsiung, Robert. (2008, March 3). DSM-IV Diagnoses and Codes.  http://www.dr-bob.org/tips/dsm4a.html 

Psychnet.uk. (2009). Complete List of DSM-IV Codes. http://www.psychnet-uk.com/dsm_iv/_misc/complete_tables.htm
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Adolescent Substance Use Screening Instruments 10-Year Critical

Words: 14685 Length: 53 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28105173

Adolescent Substance Use Screening Instruments: 10-Year Critical eview of the esearch Literature

Over ten million teenagers in the United States admit in a national survey that they drink alcohol, although it is illegal under the age of 21 in all states. In some studies, nearly one-quarter of school-age children both smoked cigarettes and drank alcohol. Over four thousand adolescents every day try marijuana for the first time. The dangers of use, abuse and dependency on each of these substances have been established. When we also consider that these three substances are considered gateway drugs, that is, drugs whose use is likely to lead to experimentation with "hard" drugs, the potential problem of such widespread use is even more severe. Additionally, use of these substances is known to co-occur with a number of other psychiatric conditions as well as health issues such as the incidence of sexually-transmitted diseases, unwanted pregnancies and…… [Read More]

References

Aarons, Gregory A.; Brown, Sandra A.; Hough, Richard L.; Garland, Ann F.; Wood, Patricia A. Prevalence of Adolescent Substance Use Disorders Across Five Sectors of Care (Statistical Data Included). Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, April 2001 v40 i4 p419

Adger, Hoover Jr.; Werner, Mark J. The pediatrician (role in treatment of alcohol-related disorders). Alcohol Health and Research World, Spring 1994 v18 n2 p121 (6)

Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse Symptoms of Adolescents. National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence of the San Fernando Valley, Inc. [Online]. Retrieved January 20, 2003 from http:/ / www.ncadd-sfv.org/symptoms/teen_symptoms.html

Alcohol use and abuse: a pediatric concern (American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Substance Abuse). Pediatrics, March 1995 v95 n3 p439 (4)
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Isabella's Sleeping Issues Diagnosed

Words: 2281 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56243656

318. However, in this and other studies, it seems that lack of effectiveness may be due to a cessation of the CBT and not due to its lack of effectiveness while in treatment (Belleville, 2011, p. 318). egardless, there are very few, if any, studies that show evidence of negative effects of CBT.

An additional factor that should be taken into account in Isabella's case is that substance use may be involved. Neither the DSM nor the DASS questionnaires address the theory that substance use may exacerbate or may be premorbid to anxiety/depression/stress disorders. Perhaps additional questionnaire(s) regarding substance use should have been presented to her. The Cannabis Expectancy Questionnaire is an example of a questionnaire that directly addresses substance use by assessing use by the patient (Connor, 2010).

An important additional consideration regarding Isabella's case is that in her verbal report she states that her inability to relax and…… [Read More]

References

American Psychiatric Association (2000). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental

Disorders (4th Ed.) Text Revision. Washington D.C.: American Psychiatric

Association.

Belleville G., Guay S., Marchand a. (2011). Persistence of sleep disturbances following cognitive-behavior therapy for posttraumatic stress disorder. Journal of Psychosomatic
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Language in Clients With Schizophrenia

Words: 1736 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70660220

"

Done, D.J. Crow, T.J. Johnstone, E.C. Sacker, a. (September 1994) Childhood Antecedents of Schizophrenia and Affective Illness: Social Adjustment at ages 7 to 11.BMJ, 309:699-703.

Teacher appraisal using the national child development study was utilized to examine differences between normal individuals and those who exhibit adult psychological disorders. "At the age of 7 children who developed schizophrenia were rated by their teachers as manifesting more social maladjustment than controls (overall score 4.3 (SD 2.4) v 3.1 (2.0); P… [Read More]

Harrison contends that there is a growing body of data, though as yet inconclusive, with regard to control and repeatability that shows some differences in brain MRI between patients with and without mood disorders. Interestingly the areas of the brain that are shown to be affected in those with mood disorders, such as bipolar disorder are areas of the brain which control language function, not in its source but in its ability to be transmitted by the patient. This could indicate some correlation, in behavioral indices where patients with bipolar disorder report a sense that they cannot think straight or communicate their thoughts effectively. "The neuropathology is postulated to contribute to the pathophysiology and dysfunction of the neural circuits which regulate mood and its associated cognitions, behaviours and somatic symptoms."

Done, D.J. Crow, T.J. Johnstone, E.C. Sacker, a. (September 1994) Childhood Antecedents of Schizophrenia and Affective Illness: Social Adjustment at ages 7 to 11.BMJ, 309:699-703.

Teacher appraisal using the national child development study was utilized to examine differences between normal individuals and those who exhibit adult psychological disorders. "At the age of 7 children who developed schizophrenia were rated by their teachers as manifesting more social maladjustment than controls (overall score 4.3 (SD 2.4) v 3.1 (2.0); P <.01). This was more apparent in the boys (5 (2.6)) than the girls underreactive behaviour. At both ages prepsychotic (affective) children differed little from normal controls. By the age of 11 preneurotic children, particularly the girls, had an increased rating of maladjustment (including overreactions and underreactions)... Abnormalities of social adjustment are detectable in childhood in some people who develop psychotic illness. Sex and the rate of development of different components of the capacity for social interaction are important determinants of the risk of psychosis and other psychiatric disorders in adulthood." The implication of this in terms of language and speech pathology is that there is again a greater connection between childhood social communication disorders and later diagnosis with adult psychotic disorders and this can be seen in language and communication patterns. No differences were distinguished or investigated between types of later psychotic disorders, though schizophrenia and bipolar disorder were included in the study.
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DSM-IV as a Classification System

Words: 1816 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52052681

DSM-IV as a Classification System

Systems of classification for psychiatric diagnosis have several purposes: to distinguish one psychiatric diagnosis from another, so that clinicians can offer the most effective treatment; to provide a common language among health care professionals; and to explore the causes of the many mental disorders that are still unknown (Kaplan, Sadock, 1998, p. 287, from client's essay request).

Diagnosis is the foundation of all medical practices (errios, 1995). In recent years, the medical industry has experienced a revolution in medicine's ability to identify and treat the illnesses that burden humanity. The psychiatric industry, which specializes in treating mental illnesses, has been a key participant in this revolution, identifying new diagnostic measures and systems of classification for many psychiatric disorders.

As a result, modern psychiatrists rely on accurate and efficient diagnostic tools to help them identify the specific mental illnesses their patients suffer. Identifying these illnesses enables…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Frances A, Pincus H, Widiger T, Wakefield Davis W, First M. (1990). "DSM-IV: Work in Progress." Am J. Psychiatry 147:11.

Frances A, Wakefield Davis W, Kline M, Pincus H. First M, Widiger T. (June, 1991). "The DSM-IV Field Trials: Moving towards an Empirically Derived Classification." Eur Psychiatry.

Kline M, Sydnor-Greenberg N, Wakefield Davis W, Pincus H, Frances A. (1993). "Using Field Trials to Evaluate Proposed Changes in DSM Diagnostic Criteria." Hospital and Community Psychiatry 44:7.

Wakefield Davis W, Bauer M, Severino S, Spiegel D, Widiger T. (1993). "MacArthur Data Reanalyses: Examples from the Second Stage of Empirical Review." Hospital and Community Psychiatry 44:5.
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Special Education and Students With

Words: 1459 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10289465



(4) Have participating teachers develop and lead online collaborative projects for students with emotional and behavioral disorders.

(5) Develop and maintain an online community for teachers in self-contained units where ideas, lessons, and strategies can be shared.

(6) Train staff on the concepts surrounding Positive ehavioral Intervention Support (PIS) and support teachers as they develop preventative behavioral intervention plans that utilize PIS strategies and concepts. (Rush, 2010, p.1)

Rush (2010) states that the key elements of the model were online, collaborative learning and accessible computer-based educational resources. The results are stated to have exceeded initial expectations for "changing the focus in self-contained classrooms from behavior control to academic achievement." (Rush, 2010, p.1) Not only is academic achievement up but as well it is reported that "behavior referrals are down, and teachers report improved student outcomes in all areas." (Rush, 2010, p.1)

The work of Pierangelo and Guiliani (2008) states the…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Pierangelo, R. And Guiliani, G.A. (2008) Classroom Management for Students With Emotional and Behavioral Disorders: A Step-by-Step Guide for Educators. Corwin Press, 2008.

Jolivette, Kristine, et al. (2000) Improving Post-School Outcomes for Students with Emotional and Behavioral disorders. ERIC Clearinghouse. ERIC/OSEP Digest #E597. Online available at: http://eric.hoagiesgifted.org/e597.html

Salmon, Hallie (2006) Educating Students with Emotional or Behavioral Disorders. Law & Disorder. Online available at:  https://scholarworks.iu.edu/dspace/bitstream/handle/2022/201/salmon%20educating%20students%20with.pdf?sequence=1 

Rush, Sharron (2010) Improving Education for Students with Emotional Disturbances. Knowbility. Online available at: http://www.knowbility.org/research/?content=improve
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Fisher King Was a 1991 Movie That

Words: 2596 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83124991

Fisher King was a 1991 movie that starred Robin illiams and Jeff Bridges and was directed by Terry Gilliam. The movie provided a unique insight into the world of abnormal psychology. It depicted accurate per trails of a few psychological disorders and psychosis that were brought on by a single stressor for both of the leading roles as well as a plethora of disorders by lesser characters brought on by life. Neither illiams nor Bridges earned grandiose Hollywood awards for their roles and the movie itself did not rake in billions, but it does serve as a very good example of just how delicate human nature is and what can happen to each and every one of us without a moment's notice. At the time of the stressor in this movie, Bridge's character was on top of his game in the world of radio and was about to 'add a…… [Read More]

Works Cited

About.com. "Depression." 2009. Retrieved on November 18, 2009, from http://depression.about.com/cs/brainchem101/a/brainchemistry.htm.

Quicksilver. "The Fisher King: starring Robin Williams and Jeff Bridges." Dir. Terry Gilliam. 1991. Retrieved on November 18, 2009, from http://ipb.quicksilverscreen.com/lofiversion/index.php/t100510.html.

Schizophrenia.com. "Schizophrenia." 2009. Retrieved on November 18, 2009, from  http://www.schizophrenia.com/disease.htm .
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Unintended Limitations on Ada Protections ADA Protections

Words: 1371 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27711420

Unintended Limitations on Ada Protections

ADA Protections

The American with Disabilities Act of 1990 (ADA) was designed to prevent discrimination in terms of employment (Title I), telecommunications (Title IV), and public services (Title II), transportation (Title II), and accommodations (Title III), for persons with physical and/or mental disabilities (EEOC, n.d.; Disabled World, 2009). Employers and public establishments are required under the ADA to make accommodations for persons with disabilities, unless it imposes an undue hardship. To ensure compliance, a large number of different federal agencies act as enforcers of the ADA provisions.

The ADA defines a disabled person as anyone who is prevented from engaging in a major life activity, either currently or historically, or is perceived by others as being limited in this way. The latter criteria was intended to be one of three primary routes for bringing a discrimination suit to court, resulting in the 'regarded as' disabled…… [Read More]

References

American Diabetes Association. (2012). Diabetes basics: Symptoms. Diabetes.org. Retrieved 20 Oct. 2012 from  http://www.diabetes.org/diabetes-basics/symptoms/?loc=DropDownDB-symptoms .

Brown University. (n.d.). Major depressive disorder (DSM-IV-TR #296.2-296.3). Brown.edu. Retrieved 20 Oct. 2012 from  http://www.brown.edu/Courses/BI_278/Other/Clerkship/Didactics/Readings/major%20depression.pdf .

Disability Rights California. (2010). Employment rights under the Americans with Disabilities Act (and other related laws) (4th ed.). DisabilityRightsCA.org. Retrieved 20 Oct. 2012 from  http://www.disabilityrightsca.org/pubs/506801.pdf .

Disabled World. (2009). Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (ADA). Disabled-World.com. Retrieved 20 Oct. 2012 from  http://www.disabled-world.com/disability/ada/ .
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DSM-IV-TR & Differential Diagnosis the Client Marie

Words: 684 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44784858

DSM-IV-TR & Differential Diagnosis)

The client, Marie is a single, 25-year-old white female who is employed in an emergency room in a large urban hospital. Marie came to treatment on her own because of an inability to sleep, feeling down, and problems functioning at work.

DSM-IV-TR Diagnosis

Major depressive disorder

Anxiety disorders

Eating disorder

Sleeping disorder

Adjustment disorder

Other conditions that may be a focus of clinical attention

Axis IV

Occupational Problems

Other psychosocial problems

Axis V

Rating Level of Symptoms

Transient, slight symptoms that are reasonable responses to stressful situations; more than a slight impartment I social, occupational, or school functioning.

Differential Diagnosis

A differential diagnosis in this case must take into consideration other factors that may be a focus of clinical attention including conditions or problems for which the client may seek or be referred for professional help including: (1) relational problems; (2) problems related to abuse or…… [Read More]

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Paxil History of Paxil in the 1960s

Words: 1858 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97585016

Paxil

History of Paxil

In the 1960s a Danish company named Ferrosan began performing research on aspects of the central nervous system. Ferrosan was most interested in the relationship between the neurotransmitter serotonin and depressed mood in people. The original idea was that if a drug could be developed to increase serotonin levels in the brain it might lead to improvements in treating people with depression (DeGrandpre, 2006). The research resulted in the development of a formula for a compound then known as the "Buus-Lassen Compound" which allegedly had the capability to relieve the depression in people. The compound was patented in the United States in 1977 and the company later sold all rights and research surrounding this patent to SmithKline (now GlaxoSmithKline) in 1980 (DeGrandpre, 2006).

SmithKline put significant effort into developing the compound and much of this development occurred in the SmithKline plant in Harlow, England (DeGrandpre, 2006).…… [Read More]

References

Anderson, I.M. (2000). Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors vs. tricyclic antidepressants: A

meta-analysis of efficacy and tolerability. Journal of Affective Disorders, 58(1), 19-36.

DeGrandpre, R. (2006). The cult of pharmacology. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.

Kim, S.W., Grant, J.E., Adson, D.E., Shin, Y.C., & Zaninelli, R. (2002). A double-blind placebo-
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American Psychiatric Association Released the

Words: 1482 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16233276

According to the manual, the personality disorder 'is clinical syndrome which has more long lasting symptoms and encompass the individual's way of interacting with the world; the mental disorder includes paranoid, antisocial, and borderline personality disorders' (House, 2000). The deterioration of the physical condition is considered to be likely cause of the development, continuance, or exacerbation of clinical syndromes, developmental disorders and personality disorders. The DMS-IV manual has elaborated the conditions experienced by the patients in particular those under sever psychological trauma, and the physicians have been provided with the best possible technique to address the psychological pains and mental sufferings. The mental sufferings have their origin which is socially, politically, and naturally motivated or self-imposed (James, 2000).

The occurrences of the tragic events due the life span has the potential to create mental disorder, there have been cases where the patients have reflected their vulnerability of the mental dissatisfaction…… [Read More]

References

James Roy Morrison. The First Interview: Revised for DSM-IV. Guilford Press. 2000, pp. 34-54.

House, Alvin E. DSM-IV Diagnosis in the Schools. Guilford Press. 2000. pp. 45-76.

Michael B. First, Allen J. Frances, Harold Alan Pincus. DSM-IV: Diagnostics Differentials. 2000. pp. 187-201.

Thomas a. Widiger. DSM-IV Sourcebook. American Psychiatric Publication Inc. 2001. pp. 134-154.
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Regression vs Correlation Correlation Is Used to

Words: 1038 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12052463

egression vs. correlation?

Correlation is used to test whether two variables covary, the strength of the relationship, and the direction of the association. A correlation calculation will generate a P-value and a correlation coefficient (r). By comparison, regression will generate the slope and intercept for a best-fit line that can be used to predict unknown values for the dependent variable.

What percentage of depression is not associated with Facebook usage?

The coefficient of determination (r2) is 0.661, which means that 66.1% of the variance in depression is due to the amount of time spent on Facebook; therefore, 33.9% of the variation in depression cannot be explained by time spent on Facebook.

Q3: Variables that could be contributing to the variance not explained by time spent on Facebook?

The unexplained variance in depression scores is the amount of error between measured levels of depression for a study subject and what was…… [Read More]

References

Klengel, T. & Binder E.B. (2013). Gene-environment interactions in major depressive disorder. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 58(2), 76-83.
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Psychology in Management

Words: 1328 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 13846028

Bipolar Disorder

Case Story Bipolar Disorder

A girl suffering from Bipolar Disorder: Sarah

I was working in the community health center as an intern, when I received a call from a woman desperately looking for assistance for her 17-years-old daughter. The woman sounded tearful and anxious, as she spoke, and I immediately concluded that she was fearful and at the edge of giving up. I asked her to cool down and explain to me her problem calmly. She stated that the her daughter named Sarah, had been expelled from her school, the reason being that she was found having oral se with two boys in the school toilet. Mary, the woman's name and mother to Sarah, was a marketing executive, had not gone to work because she feared that if she left Sarah alone, the girl might flee.

Upon more information about Sarah, I leant that this was just one…… [Read More]

References

Baldessarini, RJ; Tondo, L; Hennen, J (2003). Lithium treatment and suicide risk in major affective disorders: Update and new findings. The Journal of clinical psychiatry 64 Suppl 5: 44 -- 52.

Belmaker, R.H. (2004). Bipolar Disorder. New England Journal of Medicine 351 (5): 476 -- 86

Parikh, SV; Kusumakar, V; Haslam, DR; Matte, R; Sharma, V; Yatham, LN (1997). Psychosocial interventions as an adjunct to pharmacotherapy in bipolar disorder. Canadian journal of psychiatry. 42 Suppl 2: 74S -- 78S
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Shore Case Study

Words: 4008 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31359343

Categories and Phases of Loss and Grief for Nancy

Diagnostic Statement for Nancy

Nancy is obese and reports feeling anxious and depressed. Nancy has gained 15 pounds does not sleep well, has low concentration ability and is forgetful. Nancy has a social phobia and exhibits some signs of paranoid schizophrenia. In addition, Nancy has a back injury, which contributes, to her general feeling of ill health and results in not getting the exercise she needs. Nancy is a chain smoker. Nancy feels that she has lost control of her life. Nancy's son Michael has asthma. It appears that Nancy's husband suffers from some type of behavior disorder and is likely somewhat mentally retarded.

DSM-IV-T (2000) Diagnosis

The multiaxial assessment includes analysis on the following five stated Axis:

(1) Axis 1: clinical disorders, pervasive developmental disorders, learning, motor skills and communication disorder

296.xx Major Depressive Disorder

301.0 Paranoid Personality Disorder

300.23…… [Read More]

References

Antonovsky, A. And Sourani, T. (1998) Family Sense of Coherence and Family Adaptation. Journal of Marriage and Family, Vol. 50. No. 1 Feb 1998. National Council on Family Relations. Retrieved from:  http://psych.wfu.edu/furr/362/Family%20Sense%20of%20Coherence%20Scale.pdf 

Connell, Cindi (2010) Multicultural Perspectives and Considerations Within Structural Family Therapy: The Premises of Structure, Subsystems and Boundaries. Rivier Academic Journal. Vol. 6. No. 2 Fall, 2010. Retrieved from:  http://www.rivier.edu/journal/ROAJ-Fall-2010/J461-Connelle-Multicultural-Perspectives.pdf 

Fischer, J. And Cocoran, K. (1994) Measures of Clinical Practice. Social Science. Retrieved from: http://books.google.com/books?id=y2C9YvSU53sC&source=gbs_navlinks_s

Ruiz, MA (nd) Transgenerational and Structural Family Therapy, An Analysis of Both Schools. Retrieved from:  http://miguelangelruiz.webs.com/Transgenerational%20and%20Structural%20Family%20Therapy.pdf
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suicide among psychiatric patients

Words: 880 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35676335

Suicide rates are remarkably high worldwide and nationally, making suicide one of the leading causes of death (Schwartz-Lifshitz, Zalsman, Giner et al, 2012; Tillman, 2014). Although most suicides do not occur in the hospital setting, psychiatric disorders—especially mood disorders and psychotic disorders—are risk factors that increase the likelihood of a suicidal event (Appleby, 1992; Sarzetto, Delmonte, Seghi, et al, 2017). Suicide not only affects the patient, but reverberates throughout the patient’s family and social circle, also causing distress and potential performance issues among clinical staff (Tillman, 2014).

Therefore, it is important that psychiatric nurses understand how to recognize risk factors, and establish a clinical practice environment that prevents suicide. Minimizing suicidal tendencies requires different types of treatment interventions individually tailored for at-risk patients, as well as implementing best practices for creating a clinical environment that reduces risk. Best practices may also include preparing, teaching, and training nursing staff, especially when…… [Read More]

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Facilitating an Individual Session With

Words: 986 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71238808

Not all patient expectations will be realistic, but a mental health professional needs to be honest with a client about which expectations are reasonable and which ones are unreasonable.

Another issue to investigate in each meeting with a patient with depression and anxiety, particularly uncontrolled depression and anxiety, is whether the disorders are impairing function and otherwise negatively impacting quality of life. If so, then the facilitator needs to direct attention towards improvement of real-life skills during the counseling session. This may mean less client-directed interaction than a therapist would otherwise seek in a one-on-one counseling session, but maintaining a baseline level of functioning and quality of life is critical.

In addition, the therapist must be aware that anxiety, unlike depression, can actually be a productive and helpful emotion. Therefore, a patient manifesting some level of anxiety might not be seeking treatment for that anxiety; on the contrary, eradicating anxiety…… [Read More]

References

National Guideline Clearinghouse. (2012). Summary: Practice guideline for the treatment of patients with major depressive disorder, third edition. Retrieved May 8, 2012 from NGC website: http://guideline.gov/content.aspx?id=24158
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Women's Mental Health

Words: 625 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72399655

Anxiety Disorders

In Chapter 11 "Anxiety Disorders," author Teresa Pigott provides an in-depth review of the definitions and types of anxiety disorders. Additionally, she provides discussions on the types of anxiety disorders that exist, and possible relationships to not only gender, but to the female reproductive cycle as well. Inferences are drawn to possible differences between reported rates of anxiety disorders between males and females, with some insight given to the psychosocial arena relating to prevalence rates among women. Further, Pigott touches upon the nature vs. nurture argument, by explaining the genotype/phenotype concept.

Pigott's descriptions, while accurate, are academic, medicinal, even sterile. It is great reading if you are studying for an exam, or attempting to self-diagnose, or even if you just want to be able to hold your own in a high-brow conversation on the topic. However, some concepts in the reading elucidate personal feelings of inadequacy. These feelings…… [Read More]

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Fibromyalgia One Might Consider Fibromyalgia to Be

Words: 6457 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37868620

Fibromyalgia

One might consider fibromyalgia to be one of the most confounding conditions around today. It is debilitating. It results in several quality of life issues. The confounding aspect of this condition is that it is difficult to diagnose. It is also difficult to treat. Most treatment modalities today recourse to treating one or more specific symptoms -- but there is no treatment that can comprehensively treat all the symptoms. (NIAMS, 2004) More holistic treatment modes however, are being researched, explored and considered. Fibromyalgia often presents symptoms of other diseases. Essentially therefore, fibromyalgia is characterized by widespread pain that cannot be localized to any part of the body. It is also associated with fatigue and other specific (though not necessarily widespread) symptoms that will be discussed later in this work.

Fibromyalgia syndrome is often referred to in its abbreviation FMS. Some of the symptoms (though not all) enjoy significant overlap…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Adiguzel, O., Kaptanoglu, E., Turgut, B., & Nacitarhan, V. (2004). The possible effect of clinical recovery on regional cerebral blood flow deficits in fibromyalgia: a prospective study with semiquantitative SPECT. South Med J, 97, 7, 651-655

Baldry, P. (1993). Complementary medicine. The practice of acupuncture needs tighter safeguards. Bmj, 307, 6899, 326

Baumgartner, E., Finckh, A., Cedraschi, C., & Vischer, T.L. (2002). A six-year prospective study of a cohort of patients with fibromyalgia. Ann Rheum Dis, 61, 7, 644-645

Bennet, Robert. (2000). The Scientific Basis for Understanding Pain in Fibromyalgia. Myalgia.com. Retrieved August 21, 2004, from the World Wide Web: http://www.myalgia.com/Scientific%20basis.htm
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DSM-5 Depression

Words: 1623 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18485765

First, the assignment of an arbitrary time period where bereavement is "normal" and after that particular time frame it becomes dysfunctional has no empirical basis. Secondly, the exclusion criteria in the DSM -- IV -- T most likely resulted in individuals who would have benefited from treatment not receiving treatment for their depressive symptoms until this particular time period expired. That is inexcusable. Finally, the research indicates that there may be some minor differences between bereavement and major depression; however, the two are not often clinically distinguishable aside from noting that in one case there was a loss of a loved one and yet individuals who are experiencing severe symptoms in bereavement are at risk for more serious issues. By eliminating the exclusion criteria clinicians are given much-needed room to treat their patients in individualized basis as opposed to a standardized cookie-cutter protocol.

eferences

American Psychiatric Association. (1980). Diagnostic and…… [Read More]

References

American Psychiatric Association. (1980). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders

(3rd Ed.). Washington DC: Author.

American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders

(4th Ed. -- Text Revision). Washington DC: Author.
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Analyzing Odyssey Dante Frankenstein

Words: 3056 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95647040

Depression in Adolescence

Depression in Adolescents

The link between symptoms, etiology, core biochemical processes, treatment outcome, and treatment response of affective (mood) disorders is yet to be adequately understood for allowing their categorization, such that it meets universal approval. Still, one has to make an attempt in this regard, and researchers propose a potentially-acceptable one, derived from extensive consultation.

In case of affective disorders, the basic disturbance is an affect (mood) change, typically extreme elation or depression (without or with related anxiety). An overall activity level change generally accompanies this change of mood, and a majority of other related symptoms either will be conveniently recognized in the context of these changes, or will be secondary to them. Most disorders have a tendency of repetition, and the commencement of individual bouts is usually linked to stressful circumstances or occurrences.

The key criteria of classification of affective disorders have been selected for…… [Read More]