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The bulk of the novel deals with his son, Paul, who now must step into the void of the family patriarchy that Geremio's death created. Paul's sacrifice is a less tangible manifestation of the same stereotypical role that causes Geremio's more literal martyrdom -- whatever dreams Paul may have had must be put on hold while he steps into the provider role of the family. Though not unique to Italian-Americans, this concept of patriarchal duty that Paul has is reinforced by Italian tradition and Catholic teaching about sufferance and self-sacrifice.
John Fante's Wait Until Spring, Bandini takes a somewhat lighter view of the conflict the ideas of Italian maleness and Catholic teachings can produce. In this coming-of-age story, the male protagonist is conflicted between the moral prohibitions of strict Catholicism and his desire for Rosa, a girl around his age. The role of the Italian male includes sexual desirability and…
The authors are successful in this aim up to a large extent. However, they have not discussed gender discrimination individually; rather this topic has been explained collectively with the multi-cultural workforce management. The OB theories, models, and organizational justice approaches which the authors have used in writing this book can help in explaining the inequality practices which modern business organizations have adopted at their workplaces.
"The New American Workplace"
By James O'Toole, & Edward E. Lawler
This book is based on the results of a nation-wide survey conducted by the Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare in the United States. The purpose of the survey was to analyze the working conditions in the country from the perspective of working patterns, equal opportunities, flexible work options, gender inequality, and the like. The book is co-authored by the Chairman of the team himself. The findings of the research suggest that business organizations…
171). On the other hand, men are sometimes depicted in the opposite stance: as overtly dominant. The difference between the "willing subordination" and the cocky gaze is that the former is a pose formally reserved for females whereas the latter epitomizes male social roles of dominance and political control. The individual who gazes directly at the viewer is confident and in control, whereas the individual who bears his or her behind and looks away from the viewer is saying "take me, do what you want with me." Interestingly, Bardo discovers a racial and age disparity among the images. African-American males are more likely to be shown in a dominant role, whereas young males are more likely to be represented as submissive (p. 192).
Thus, Bardo explores the language of visual imagery through a direct discussion of the male body. hereas the female body has been the de facto tableau on…
Bardo, Susan. "Beauty (Re)Discovers the Male Body." In the Male Body: A New Look at Men in Public and in Private. Farrar, Straus and Giroux; 1st edition (July 15, 2000)
Many of Hemingway's men turn to the drink. The men in "Out of Season" and "The Doctor and the Doctor's Wife" exhibit thinly-veiled aggression.
Masculinity is an especially problematic subject for Hemingway. On the one hand, masculinity is a sign of health and success. Pedro Romero in the Sun Also Rises would represent the healthy type of masculinity. Interestingly, however, Hemingway implies that women sap the natural and positive masculinity from men. Brett claims leaving Romero specifically so that she would not hinder his potency, which he should channel into his bullfighting. The idea that women sap the potency of men is common in of Hemingway's stories. For instance, Mr. Elliot built up his male potency through years of celibacy, only to lose his manliness to marriage and the bottle. Marriage seems especially poisonous for male-female relationships largely because marriage enforces traditional gender roles that place the male in a…
Saudi Women's Role in Respect of Raising Family Within the Male-Dominated Culture
The present study reports an interview with a Saudi woman on the changing role of women in the Saudi society in regards to raising a family within the male-dominated culture that characterizes the Saudi society. Attached to this study are an informed consent form as well as the interview transcript marked Appendix A and Appendix B, respectively. This study will review the narrative contained in the interview to this study and will conduct an analysis and interpretation of the interview findings answering the question of what areas of inquiry can this personal story lead to and as to the types of theories that explain the situation faced by Mrs. K.
The first question in the interview with Mrs. 'K' asks about the daily routine of the interviewee as a Saudi woman 'right now'. Mrs. K stated…
For the most part women in the Odyssey are essentially one of three things: sexualized monsters, in the form of Circe, Calypso, the Sirens, and even Scylla; asexual helpers and servants, in the form of Athena and Eurycleia; and finally, seemingly helpless damsels, in the form of Penelope. To this one may add what is essentially the lowest of the low class within the poem, those women who are sexually liberated but who do not even have supernatural power to defend their desire for sexual autonomy, namely, Penelope's maids. Circe and Calypso both express sexual desire, but they are ultimately spared due to their status as goddesses, and thus they merely have to give up Odysseus. Penelope's maids have no such extra status, and thus in the hierarchy of power represent the lowest of the low, and receive punishment in return.
As a result, they are summarily executed for having…
Homer. The Odyssey. Trans. Samuel Butler. New York: Plain Label Books, 2009. Print.
This has often made it very difficult for black individuals to become high educational and social achievers. Racists then twist the reasons behind this lack of achievement and use it as evidence that members of the group are inferior (Gimlin, 2005). Racism and discrimination are both common threads in prejudiced activity toward black women, and this works to perpetuate the problems that they have faced in the past and that they are still facing in society today.
There is little that can be done to eliminate biological differences between the ethnic groups, but society can change differences that have been created by its own political and economic systems. Some psychologists even argue that racism should be treated like a mental health issue. Racism, therefore, becomes a double-edged sword and both the oppressors and the oppressed suffer from and for it. The oppressors have guilt, shame, and remorse, while the…
Collins, Patricia Hill (1998) "Mammies, matriarchs, and other controlling images, black feminist thought" New York: Routledge
Espiritu, Yen Le (2007) "Chapter five: Ideological racism and cultural resistance." In Asian-American women and men: Labor, laws, and love. New York: Rowman and Littlefield
Hook, Bell (1998) "Selling Hot Pussy: Representations of Black Female Sexuality in the Cultural Market" in: R. Weitz (ed) The Politics Of Women's Bodies: Sexuality Appearance and Behaviour. Oxford: Oxford University Press
Gimlin, Debra. (2005). "Cosmetic Surgery: Paying for Your Beauty." In L. Richardson, V. Taylor and N. Whittier (ed), Feminist Frontiers, 6th edition. New York: McGraw-Hill
Gender reflection: On identifying with a particular gender
Until I took a class in critical theory, I never gave much thought to my gender. I am sure that some of this is by virtue of being a straight male. I have female friends who have experienced discrimination or harassment in school and at work by virtue of not being male. I do not believe I have experienced such direct prejudice as a result of my gender. Also, physical fitness is a very important part of my life, and many of my female friends and girlfriends have been very passionate about working out, yet unlike me they have been told not to lift weights or box because this would give them 'bulky' and masculine-looking muscles (which is not true). Obviously, I have never faced such discrimination based upon my interests or because I look strong.
I have come to understand that…
"Dude, you're a fag." YouTube. 20 Sept 2011. [8 Apr 2013]
Fogel, Curtis. Review of Kath Woodward, Boxing, Masculinity and Identity: The 'I' of the Tiger.
New York: Routledge, 2007. Gender Forum: An Internet Journal of Gender Studies, 19 (2007): 1-2. [8 Apr 2013] http://www.genderforum.org/issues/illuminating-gender-ii/kath-woodward-boxing-masculinity-and-identity-the-i-of-the-tiger-new-york-routledge-2007/
Confucianism is one of the major factors that influenced gender views and perception in traditional East Asia, particularly in relation to the treatment of women in these societies. Confucianism is primarily a teaching that was brought by Confucius, a philosopher, political figure, and educator. The teachings of Confucius formed the foundation of education in the traditional societies in East Asia, especially in China, Korea, and Japan. Confucius teachings affected many things in these societies including fixing gender roles between women and men. Based on these teachings, which influenced nearly every facet of life in the conventional Korean, Japanese and Chinese societies, placed women at a disadvantaged position. The teachings contributed to the development of a patriarchal environment in these societies, which worked to the disadvantaged of women. This paper examines how women exerted power and influence in a patriarchal environment in these three societies and what it teaches us about…
Stresses associated with migration itself, discrimination against racial minorities in this country, poverty, unemployment, and crowded living conditions heighten the chance that a husband will become abusive" (p. 1402). From the Vietnamese-American perspective, these issues are even more pronounced and they are discussed further below.
a. Male dominance. One of the most powerful forces affecting Vietnamese families at home and abroad today is Confucian ideology, an ideology that is predicated on the dominance of men over women (Kibria, 1993). According to Lowe and her colleagues (2003), some gender socialization influences on Vietnamese men are similar to those that are typically experienced by men in other Asian cultures. "Similarities in gender role socialization that Vietnamese men share with other Asian men arising from shared influences of Confucian, Taoist, and Buddhist philosophies include messages about appropriate family roles, emotional expressiveness, and the role of assertive behavior" (Lowe et al., p. 246). For…
Anderson, M.J. (1993). A license to abuse: The impact of conditional status on female immigrants. Yale Law Journal, 102(6), 1401.
Daniel, A.M., & Yi, J.K. (2001). Substance use among Vietnamese American college students. College Student Journal, 35(1), 13.
Do, H.D. (1999). The Vietnamese Americans. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.
Doan, J.H.D., Huer, M.B., & Saenz, T.I. (2001). Understanding the Vietnamese American community: Implications for training educational personnel providing services to children with disabilities. Communication Disorders Quarterly, 23(1), 27.
And as with male road pictures, it is sex that threatens to divide the two women. Not when they unite to blow up the truck of a leering, misogynistic truck driver, but when the drifter they pick up tires to exploit them and Thelma's attraction towards him. Thelma is more flighty and sexual, and her youthful, sexual drive, unfulfilled in her relationship with her husband, causes the events that propel the narrative of the road picture, and perpetually frustrates Louise. The film does seem to imply that women cannot have sex, love, freedom, and power but then again most road pictures suggest that men cannot settle down into marriage with women and still glory in the freedom of the road. Like the women's relationships, the male relationships of road pictures often seem homoerotic in their intensity and disdain of the opposite gender's compassion. However, when transposed onto a feminine narrative,…
Thelma and Louise." Directed by Ridley Scott. 1991.
Secondly, the report alluded to by CSC asserts that in "gender symmetric" sports there are "far more scholarships available for women (32,656) than for men (20,206)." The third bullet point in the CSC press release points out that men's volleyball is the "by far the most difficult" scholarship at the Division I level; there are reportedly 489 high school athletes for every full ride NCAA scholarship.
The "underlying" data that CSC used to put together their press release comes from two NCAA reports: "1981-82-2006-07 NCAA Sports Sponsorship and Participation Rate Report" and "2006-07 NCAA Division I Manual." Also factored into the report is data from the national Federation of State High School Associations. And so what is the College Sports Council calling on the federal government -- and the Department of Education (DOE) -- to do? The press release says that "women are accorded far more opportunities to compete and…
American Association of University Women. "Report Card on Gender Equity." Retrieved
June 28, 2009, from http://www.aauw.org . (2004).
Brake, Deborah. "Revisiting Title IX's Feminist Legacy: Moving Beyond the Three-
Part Test." Journal of Gender, Social Policy & The Law, 12(3), 453-473. (2004).
it's like Bordo's example, "A black man jogs down the street in sweat clothes, thinking of the class he is going to teach later that day; a white woman passes him, clutches her handbag more tightly, quickens her step; in her eyes, the teacher is a potentially dangerous animal" (Bordo 134). This is almost exactly how North Koreans will perceive Americans after seeing this picture. American soldiers could be going to North Korea thinking about how they are going to help the North Koreans by opening new schools and hospitals. But looking at the image, the North Koreans will only see us as potentially dangerous animal, ones that would hurt them at their earliest convenience.
In 2006 National Geographic aired a special program "National Geographic: Inside North Korea." It is a living example of the power of propaganda. It showed little kids singing a song about killing Americans. In one…
Bartholomae, David and Anthony Petrosky, eds. Ways of Reading: An Anthology for writer.
8th edition. Boston: Bedfors/St. Martiri's, 2008. Print
Bordo, Jane. Beauty (Re)discovers the Male Body. Bartholomae and Petrosky. 130-76. Print
"Anti American propaganda from North Korea." Oriens Magazine Trend. Web. 14 Oct 2010. http://theoriens.com/anti-american-propaganda-from-north-korea
Thus, though she must perform a "masculine" role in order to be successful, she must perform it in a "feminine" way, and thus disrupt the idea of gender.
This also ties in quite nicely with Cullen's assertion that the modern individual is defined by love and connection with their family, rather than by their place in society. The very fact that meg is the one to save Charles allace is a further affirmation of the willingness -- on the part of both Meg and L'Engle -- to buck the societal roles that have been laid out for women and instead to embrace their own identity based on their love for others, and to a greater or lesser degree the love that others bear them. Of course, the romance that is still blossoming between Meg and Calvin still entrenches this novel somewhat in the old mentality of romance and love, but…
Culler, Jonathan. Literary Theory: A Very Short Introduction.
L'Engle, Madeleine. A Wrinkle in Time. New York: Yearling, 1973.
History has shown that the form of government which emerged out of the American evolution was by no means perfect, but to recognize this does not diminish the importance of what was achieved as a result of the Constitutional Convention. Instead, it allows one to appreciate the disruptive and groundbreaking nature of the compromise government established by the various delegates while realizing how much it represents a continuity with the past. By examining Berkin's 2002 account of the creation of the American Constitution in her book A Brilliant Solution: Inventing the American Constitution alongside Middlekauff's 2005 study The Glorious Cause, one is able to better appreciate the process and goals that went into the creation of the American Constitution, and how the problems that existed at its creation continue to plague the country to this day.
Before beginning this discussion of the Constitutional Convention and its details, it…
Berkin, C. (2002). A brilliant solution: Inventing the american constitution. Orlando: Harcourt
Middlekauf, R. (2005). The glorious cause: The american revolution, 1763-1789. Oxford:
Frankie replies by allowing her to keep the bag she is hitting and giving her some hope. Later, Frankie agrees to train Maggie, but still maintains his distance by telling her that he will not be her manager. He even goes so far as to arrange for her to meet a manager, but Maggie insists on Frankie for the entirety of her boxing career, and after getting to know her better, Frankie concedes. Thus, Frankie begins to accept Maggie as he becomes more and more aware of her persistence and determination. His ability to accept her, then, some may argue, is built on her having masculine characteristics. If she were feminine at all, this critic would suppose, he would not accept her. However, this argument can be countered by simply suggesting that no characteristic is inherently feminine or masculine, but that each gender has equal ability to experience many characteristics.…
Cyber Feminism, Gender and Technology
Cyberfeminism, Gender and Technology
Feminist movement found on the internet is known as Cyberfeminism. In recent times, the term has gained controversial status. Cyberfeminism, a fundamental issue from the feminist perspective, is mostly ignored by researchers and academics. It concentrates on empowerment of women through the cyberspace. Furthermore, it deals with female enlightenment and concentrates on creating awareness on how the digital technologies can influence the rights and social status of women. The digital technologies act as a medium of re-embodying the issue of racism and gender. Internet is the new medium used to erase the identity of women; that is; women are the erased race. However, the internet has played a significant role in promoting Cyberfeminism by pointing out that several feminist studies and internet activities are done by the online media. It cannot be denied that technology plays an important role in promoting…
1. Chon, Margaret. Erasing Race? A Critical Race Feminist View of Internet Identity Shifting, 1999.
2. Nakamura, Lisa. Digitizing Race: Visual Cultures of the Internet. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2008.
3. Nakamura, Lisa. Cybertypes: Race, Ethnicity, and Identity on the Internet. London: Routledge, 2002.
4. Wilding, Faith. Where is Feminism in Cyberfeminism?. 28 March 2006. Cyberfeminist International. 4 June 2011.
movie, A League of Their Own centers on the All-American Girls Professional aseball League's (AAGPL) first season; the league was initiated to bridge the chasm that was formed by disbanding of the Major League aseball on account of the Second World War. For the very first time in baseball history, young females from urban softball and farm leagues across America were sought for playing professional baseball. The league was fairly short-lived, partly due to a return of the men following the war's culmination and subsequent re-establishment of ML; as a result, the AAGPL's popularity dropped. The dozen years for which the league operated left its mark on sports history, since it offered female athletes a chance to professionally pursue baseball and make much more money than factory workers.
How does the film relate to what you read about the early history of sport (Module 3: The Early History of Sport…
AAGPBL. (n.d.). League History. Retrieved from www.aagpbl.org: http://www.aagpbl.org/index.cfm/pages/league/12/league-history
Bonzel, K. (n.d.). A League of Their Own: The Impossibility of the Female Sports Hero. Retrieved from www.screeningthepast.com: http://www.screeningthepast.com/2013/10/a-league-of-their-own-the-impossibility-of-the-female-sports-hero/
Crosset, T. (n.d.). Masculinity, Sexuality, and the Development of Early Modern Sport.
Early history of sport. in North America. (n.d.)
omen and Gender Studies
Of all the technologies and cultural phenomena human beings have created, language, and particularly writing, is arguably the most powerful, because it is the means by which all human experience is expressed and ordered. As such, controlling who is allowed to write, and in a modern context, be published, is one of the most effective means of controlling society. This fact was painfully clear to women writers throughout history because women were frequently prohibited from receiving the same education as men, and as the struggle for gender equality began to read a critical mass near the end of the nineteenth century, control over women's access to education and writing became a central theme in a number of authors' works, whether they considered themselves feminists or not. In particular, Charlotte Perkins Gilman's 1892 story The Yellow allpaper features this theme prominently, and Virginia oolf's extended essay A…
Bak, John S. "Escaping the Jaundiced Eye: Foucauldian Panopticism in Charlotte Perkins
Gilmans "the Yellow Wallpaper." Studies in Short Fiction 31.1 (1994): 39-.
Carstens, Lisa. "Unbecoming Women: Sex Reversal in the Scientific Discourse on Female
Deviance in Britain, 1880-1920." Journal of the History of Sexuality 20.1 (2011):
Social Identities in a Society
The concept of social identity encompasses psychological, emotional, and evaluative aspects engulfed in a person's physical attributes. The fundamental significance of social identities spreads to how individuals think about others and personal well-being. The psychological foundation of social identity and the role of social categorization in human action and perception occur as building blocks in the definition of this concept. Social identities influence individual responses to others. Further, shaping identity processes improves personal and intergroup relations. For a long time, a personal identity that operates within psychology occurs as a critical aspect of individual functioning, actual accomplishment, and feelings of well-being. The significance of social behavior spreads to significant reference groups like racial group membership and intergroup relations.
Privileges Resulting from Individual Social Identities
Self-exploration occurs as a primary factor in the growth of individuals; the relationships fostered with others, and the ability to promote…
Kimmel, Michael and Ferber Abby (2010). Privilege: A Reader, 2nd ed. Philadelphia: Westview Press
McIntosh, Peggy. White Privilege: Unpacking the Invisible Knapsack. 1990 reprint. The issue of Independent School. Retrieved from http://ted.coe.wayne.edu/ele3600/mcintosh.html
Attitudes toward Marital ape among College Students
Close to 62% of female rape victims are between the ages of 12 and 24 (osenthal 407), an age group which encompasses the college years. This would explain why an estimated one in four college women have been raped while attending college (osenthal 412). The men responsible for this statistic, between 7 and 25% of all male college students, admit to forcing a woman to have sex and most see nothing wrong with doing so. Feminist theory would have us believe that these acts are the product of males attempting to preserve a male dominated society through an act of violence, while evolutionary theory would posit that these men have low social status and therefore little chance of mating success (osenthal 207). Neither theory seems to capture the fact that fraternity members are responsible for at least 50% of all rapes…
Auster, Carol J. & Leone, Janel M. "Late Adolescent's Perspectives on Marital Rape: The Impact of Gender and Fraternity/Sorority Membership." Adolescence 36.141 (2001): 141-52. Print.
Rosenthal, Martha S. Human Sexuality: From Cells to Society. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, 2013. Print.
Oppression of Class And Gender
Class and gender are two separate but related concepts in the sociological analysis and understanding of inequality and oppression in society. A definition of class is "A group of individuals ranked together as possessing common characteristics; as, the different classes of society; the educated class; the lower classes." (Definition of class)
According to the sociologist Max Weber class is defined in relation to the way that goods and services are distributed or allocated in a society.
All communities are arranged in a manner that goods, tangible and intangible, symbolic and material are distributed. Such a distribution is always unequal and necessarily involves power. "Classes, status groups and parties are phenomena of the distribution of power within a community."
(MAX WEER: asic Terms)
Class therefore refers to the categories in a society of those who have access to wealth and privilege and those who do not.…
"Advertising Images of Girls and Women." 1997 Children Now. Retrieved May 12, 2005. ( http://www.childrennow.org/media/medianow/mnfall1997.html )
Chaffins, S., Forbes, M., Fuqua, H.E., & Cangemi, J.P. 1995. "The Glass Ceiling: Are Women Where They Should Be." Education, 115(3), 380+. Retrieved May 12, 2005, from Questia database. ( http://www.questia.com )
Cohen, C.I. 2002. " Economic Grand Rounds: Social Inequality and Health: Will Psychiatry Assume Center Stage? Retrieved May 11, 2005. ( http://ps.psychiatryonline.org/cgi/content/full/53/8/937
"Changing Ideal Body Types over the Century." 2002. Retrieved May 12, 2005.
sex and marriage as found in the Wife of Bath and the Franklins' Tale of Chaucer's Canterbury Tales. Looking at how they define love, sex and marriage within certain aspects of the time and how they relate to one and other within the texts.
Marriage and the Canterbury Tales journey can be a slow and tiring event. This is as true today as it was in the fourteenth century. Travellers will often get talking with each other, passing the time of day and pleasantries, however, back in the fourteenth century a journey was likely to be longer.
In Chaucer's Canterbury tales, we see the stories of traveller being told to pass the time. In these tales there are some common themes, but the perspective of the tales may be seen as interesting and different.
The role of choices and destiny maybe seen contrasting in the stories of Wife of Bath…
Chaucer G (1998), The Canterbury Tales, Oxford, Oxford Univ Pr
Sexual Advertising Can Hurt Women
Kilbourne, (2012) perpetuates an idea which may be argued as a myth in American culture. Building on the work of past feminists, such as Goffman (1979) and Mulvey (1989), drawing the ideas into the twenty-first century. The underlying context is not only the idea of a patriarchal society where male dominance subordinates women, it places advertising a key influence in that process, where women are portrayed not as people but objects, creating a normalisation of attitudes which normalises the ideas of male dominance and aggression towards women (Kilbourne, 2012). This concept which leads to the idea of a victimised female population, subject to the rules of the patriarchal society has become a myth. However, it may also be argued that this is an over simplistic radical view of advertising. There is little doubt that women are sexualised in advertising images and words, but portraying them…
Banerjee, S. (2008). Strategic brand-culture fit: a conceptual framework for brand Management. Journal of Brand Management, 15(5), 312-322.
Boston, S. (2015). Women Workers and the Trade Unions. London: Lawrence & Wishart Ltd.
Garner, M. (2012). The missing link: the sexualisation of culture and men. Gender and Education, 24(3), 325-331.
Goffman, E. (1979). Gender Advertisments. New York: Harper.
Since males of all sexually reproducing species are naturally drawn to signs of fertility in females (Zuk 2002), they naturally express more interest in females when they ovulate, or come into heat in the vernacular applied to non-human animals. In many other species that do not rely as much on a monogamous pair bond for the survival of the fetus (Barash & Lipton 2001), females exhibit very clear external signals corresponding to their ovulation. This system is very well suited to species where a single male (or several) mate with many females, such as among lions and many mammals; in fact, it probably reduces any potential for conflict among harem females for male attention.
Human females replaced the outward signals of ovulation and fertility by evolving a suppression of any outward manifestation, precisely, to ensure that males provided for, guarded, and protected them continually rather than only that portion of…
Ackerman, Diane. (1995) a Natural History of Love. New York: Vintage
Angier, Natalie. Birds Do it. Bees Do it. People Seek the Keys to it; the New York Times (Apr. 10/07)
Barash, David, P. And Lipton, Judith E. (2001) the Myth of Monogamy. New York: Henry Holt.
Branden, Nathaniel (1999) the Psychology of Romantic Love. New York: Bantam.
Likewise, woman in Saudi Arabia are still suppressed enough that they are not allowed to drive on the road. When recently one Saudi woman rebelled and was jailed and the foreign media raised the issue, the government of Saudi Arabia stood firm by their laws pertaining to female liberties in the face of the international media.
3. Provide an overview of hegemonic masculinity
The concept of hegemonic masculinity is a normative notion that promotes the idea of male dominance and power over the opposite gender in the society. Since the societies that adhere to patriarchal structure see gay men as 'weak' according to social norms, under the concept of hegemonic masculinity a normal 'strong' male member of the society is not only expected to have power over the females but also the 'weaker' males. In such social structures when male members cannot attain financial successes, they exercise their power by…
Connell, C. (2009). Gender. Cambridge. Polity Press.
Adler, L.L. (Ed.). (1993). International Handbook on Gender Roles. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press. Retrieved July 31, 2011, from Questia database:
Women and the Information Technology Industry: Where is the Attraction?
Opportunities in technology companies are fueling the economy, yet few women pursue them. A recent Pittsburgh Technology Council panel discussion revealed that there are many reasons for women's lack of interest in IT, as were personal priorities (Czetli, 2003). "It might be an issue of self-selection -- women might not be risk takers," said obin Steif, chief financial officer of Maya Design. "It might also have something to do with the work/family issue, because entrepreneurs work way more than 40 hours per week."
Acknowledging that women seeking careers in technology industries faced barriers, there was no evidence that those roadblocks were any more significant than those encountered by minorities or even by men. "I think there is certainly a glass ceiling," said Joy Evans, a management consulting partner at Deloitte & Touche (Czetli, 2003). "But I tend to think of…
Carr, Sylvia. (May 14, 2004). Women still outnumbered, underpaid in IT. San Jose Magazine.
Clements, David. (August 2, 2002). What are the Theories Behind Computer Technology Gender Gap? VOA News
Cockburn, Cynthia, (1985), Machinery of Dominance - Women, Men and Technical Know-how, Pluto Press, London.
Czetli, Steven. (April 3, 2003). Women in tech fields? Washington Post Gazette.
But in instances where the TV does not provide good moral and role models for the teenagers then it is just to say that the TV programs are the major contributing factor towards homophobic tendencies among the society members. The lack of positive role modeling is also being viewed on the side of lesbians, gays and bisexual youth Kielwasser AP and olf MA ( 378)
. Most gays and lesbians in the society are brought up in a straight community with few gays and lesbians role models; thus they are specifically vulnerable to the portrayals of gay people in the mass media (Ryan & Futterman, 124).
The mainstream media has treated the sexual minorities as if they are not part of the human race, as if they do not exist. In addition, it was observed that the gay people of whichever age are rarely portrayed, and mostly the little portrayal…
Bandura a. "Social Cognitive Theory of Mass Communication." Media Psychology 3 (2001): 265 -- 99. Print.
Battles K, and Morrow-Hilton W. "Gay Characters in Conventional Spaces: Will and Grace and the Situation Comedy Genre." Critical Studies in Mass Communication 19.1 (2002): 87 -- 105. Print.
D'Augelli, a.R. "Lesbian and Gay Male Undergraduates' Experiences of Harassment and Fear on Campus." Journal of International Violence 7.383-395 (1992). Print.
David P. Pierson. "Hey, They're Just Like Us!" Representations of the Animal World in the Discovery Channel's Nature Programming." J. Pop Cult (2005): 698-712. Print.
Gender, Work and Global Economy: The Impact of Globalization on Human Trafficking
The process of globalization has facilitated an integrated world economy and although it has had numerous positive impacts, it continues to produce negative impacts as well. For instance, it has led to the increase of human trafficking at such an alarming rate that it is now considered the third most wide spread and fastest growing criminal enterprise in the world - after weapon and drug trafficking. According to the United Nations Office of Drugs and Crime UNDOC (2015) human trafficking is the recruitment, transfer, transportation, or receipt of people by improper means such as fraud, threat, coercion, abduction or use of force with the aim of exploiting them.
Kempadoo (2005) explains that the vice first caught the attention of the public at the start of the 21st century and it is now a lucrative business that has became…
Acker, Joan.(2004). Gender, Capitalism and Globalization. In critical sociology, Vol. (30)1, 1-27.
Burke, M.C. (2013). Human Trafficking: Interdisciplinary Perspectives. New York: Routledge
Kempadoo, Kamala. (2005). Introduction: from Moral Panic to Global Justice: Changing Perspective On Trafficking "In Trafficking and Prostitution Reconsidered: New Perspectives On Migration, Sex Work, and Human Rights: Paradigm Publishers 193-204.
Kuokkanen, Rauna (2006). Globalization as Radicalized, Sexual Violence . International Feminist Journal of Politics, 10(2): Taylor and Francis . P.299 -315.
Female Agency in Short Stories
There are numerous points of similarity between Eileen Chang's "Shame, Amah!" and Wang Anyi's "Granny". Both stories depict the lives of Chinese domestic workers. Moreover, each tale is set during the same time period -- the years surrounding the Second World War. Furthermore, both of the authors are Chinese and display a marked affinity for the intimate details surrounding Chinese culture, which factors prominently in each respective tale. Still, there is a distinct point of differentiation in these works when it comes to the notion of female agency, and how it is displayed in each piece. It is significant that female agency factors into each of these tales. However, "Granny" is largely a story about a somewhat unconventional matriarch who is able to become the provider for a host of people. The concept of female agency in Chang's piece is centered around conventional notions of…
omen's Roles in Early America (1700-1780)
hat were the roles of women in the early American period from roughly 1700-1780? Although a great portion of the history of families and people in early America during this period is about men and their roles, there are valid reports of women's activities in the literature, and this paper points out several roles that women played in that era.
The Roles of omen in Early America -- 1700 -- 1780
In the "Turns of the Centuries Exhibit" (TCE) relative to family life in the period 1680 to 1720, the author notes that colonial societies were organized around "…patriarchal, Biblically-ordained lines of authority." Males basically asserted the authority over their wives, their children, their servants and any other dependents that may have been in the household. One reason for the male dominance in this era was do to the fact that "…law did not…
Breneman, Judy Anne. (2002). The Not So Good Lives of New England's Goodwives. Retrieved February 23, 2012, from http://www.historyofquilts.com/earlylife.html.
Cody, Cheryll Ann. (2003). In the Affairs of the World: Women, Patriarchy, and Power in Colonial South Carolina. Journal of Southern History, 69(4), p. 873.
Letters of Abigail Adams. (2002). Letters Between Abigail Adams and her Husband, John
Adams. Retrieved February 23, 2012, from http://www.thelizlibrary.org/suffrage/abigail.htm .
In the novel, Ani possesses power primarily because she is the one who makes it possible for Umuofia members to have productive harvests and for women to bear more children, yields greater power in the patriarchal Umuofia community (30-1). The power Ani wields to the village reflect the importance given to agriculture and fertility, symbolic and actual concepts related to reproduction, which would not become possible without the participation and presence of women. Thus, Ani embodies the collective power of women in Umuofia, whose ability to reproduce makes them more powerful than the monied and powerful men of their village. Through Ezinma and Ani, female power has managed to emerge and become influential in Umuofia, although male dominance is tolerated in order to maintain the status quo in the tribe.
Achebe, C. (1994). Things Fall Apart.…
Achebe, C. (1994). Things Fall Apart. NY: First Anchor Books.
Finding no recourse or way to express her true feelings and thoughts, the Narrator began reflecting on her oppression through the yellow wallpaper patterns on the walls of her room: "The front pattern does move -- and no wonder! The woman behind shakes it! Sometimes I think there are a great many women behind, and sometimes only one, and she crawls around fast...and in the very shady spots she just takes hold of the bars and shakes them hard" (Roberts and Jacobs, 1998:550). This passage can be interpreted in two ways: seeing the woman within the wallpaper patterns may signify her dissociation from herself psychologically by succumbing to insanity. However, this process may also be construed as her way of breaking out of the prison that is her marriage, the oppression she felt being dominated by John and the limits that marriage had put on her as a woman. Though…
Jacobs, H. And E. Roberts. (1998). Literature: an introduction to reading and writing. NJ: Prentice Hall.
omen in Ancient Tragedy and Comedy
Both the drama of Euripides' "Medea" and the comedy of Aristophanes' "Lysistrata" seem unique upon a level of even surface characterization, to even the most casual students of Classical Greek drama and culture. Both in are female-dominated plays that were produced by male-dominated societies and written by men. Both the drama and the comedy features strong women as their central protagonists, whom are depicted under extreme circumstances, in relatively positive lights. And both plays, despite their very different tones, also have an additional, unique feature in that they show 'the enemy' -- or the non-Greek or non-Athenian, in a fairly positive and humane fashion.
The sympathies of the viewer for female's plights are immediately arisen by Aristophanes from the first scene of "Lysistrata," as Cleonice, the friend of Lysistrata, and a common Athenian housewife states, regarding the lateness of the other women that frustrates…
Arkins, Brian. "Sexuality in Fifth-Century Athens." Ancient History: Journal of University College Dublin, Ireland, Volume 1: 1994. http://ancienthistory.about.com/gi/dynamic/offsite.htm?site=http://www.ucd.ie/%7Eclassics/94/Arkins94.html
Aristophanes. "Lysistrata." Retrieved on 6 November 2004 from Exploring World Cultures Website, 1997. http://m3.doubleclick.net/875354/freeze10012004.html
Euripides. "Medea." MIT Classics Archive, 2001. Retrieved on 6 November 1997 at http://classics.mit.edu/Euripides/medea.html
Hemminger, Bill. "Why Study Ancient World Cultures?" Retrieved on 6 November 2004 from Exploring World Cultures Website, 1997.
Of the alleged chief tragedies penned by Shakespeare, Othello has led to a certain degree of embarrassment. This 'domestic tragedy' lacks the dynastic and political consequences that characterize Macbeth, Hamlet, and Lear. The protagonist, Othello, behaves like a blockhead. eaders are led into doubting his claims to greatness right from the start. The Bard of Avon is famous for his interest in identity issues. Antagonists may cruelly impose themselves on other characters and assert their self-identity, but sensitive characters require external identity confirmation (ees). Othello's unique rawness stems from the way the playwright has dramatized the normal and ordinary, and exposed such normalcy as intrinsically cruel and horrific. A number of contemporary critics account for Othello's conduct by claiming it arose from the black Othello's insecure feelings in a white racist society. But I personally believe this tale compellingly fights racism (a theory that hypothesizes an essential difference between…
Corbett, Lisa Ashley. "Male Dominance and female exploitation: A study of female Victimization in William Shakespeare Othello, Much Ado about nothing, and Hamlet." ETD Collection for AUC Robert W. Woodruff Library (2009). Thesis.
Djundjung, Jenny M. "Iago and the Ambiguity of His Motives in Shakespeare's Othello." Jurusan Sastra Inggris (2002): 1 - 7. Journal.
Goll, August. "Criminal Types in Shakespeare." Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology (1939): 22 - 51.
Rees, Joan. "Othello as a Key Play." The Review of English Studies - Oxford University Press (1990): 185 - 190.
Domestic Violence in the Latina Community
Domestic violence is an ongoing issue that experienced worldwide. Many of the victims of domestic violence are women. Although women experience domestic violence regardless of culture or societal norms, certain populations may experience a higher incidence of domestic violence than others. Latinas exist in a culture that values male dominance. Such a culture places women as having to serve the man and behave in an obedient and submissive manner. By adhering to these ideas of masculinity and femininity, the imbalance of power can lead to increased occurrence of domestic violence. Although Latinas have made strides in recognizing and fighting domestic violence, many still do not recognize domestic violence when they encounter. This essay aims to help identify why Latinas may not recognize or report domestic violence, why domestic violence occurs in the Latina community, and greater recognition of domestic violence amongst Latinas.
Ahrens, Courtney E., et al. "Talking about interpersonal violence: Cultural influences on Latinas' identification and disclosure of sexual assault and intimate partner violence." Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy, vol. 2, no. 4, 2010, pp. 284-295.
Edelson, Meredyth G., et al. "Differences in Effects of Domestic Violence Between Latina and Non-Latina Women." Journal of Family Violence, vol. 22, no. 1, 2007, pp. 1-10.
Kulkarni, Shanti J., et al. "Examining the Relationship Between Latinas' Perceptions About What Constitutes Domestic Violence and Domestic Violence Victimization." Violence and Victims, vol. 27, no. 2, 2012, pp. 182-193.
Maker, Azmaira H., and Terri A. DeRoon-Cassini. "Prevalence, Perpetrators, and Characteristics of Witnessing Parental Violence and Adult Dating Violence in Latina, East Asian, South Asian, and Middle Eastern Women." Violence and Victims, vol. 22, no. 5, 2007, pp. 632-647.
Over time -- in fairly short order, in fact -- Davis got over this sense of secretiveness, and soon many of her actions were matters of national news. She reflects that this celebrity has made it difficult at times both for her to arrive at and explain the truth of her own role in the movement, and the motives and constructs that allowed for the movement to happen in the manner it did: "I know that almost inevitably my image is associated with a certain representation of Black nationalism that privileges those particular nationalisms with which some of us were locked in constant battle" (Davis 322). Davis (somewhat) clarifies this statement in explaining that the "nationalism" with which many typify the Civil Rights struggle -- especially the Black Panthers -- was perhaps radical but did not aim at isolation, and she cites several instances where cooperation with other marginalized groups…
people of Sudan, commonly known as the Sudanese, bring with them numerous traditions and cultural mainstays when they enter the United States. Their history, culture, medical practices and traditions provide them with a sense of home, and allow them to continue to preserve their past while allowing them to lead better lives. However, while their traditions and culture are vital to this preservation, their new positions in the United States often lead to struggles and conflict. This paper will outline the culture of the Sudanese, and will examine how that culture has altered in response to life in the United States.
One of the main differences in culture and medical practices lies in the circumcision of females in Sudan and in the female perspective overall. Female circumcision is a common practice in Sudan, since it is believed to ensure the virginity of young Sudanese women. In Sudan, circumcision is required…
Anderson, Mark. "Sudanese Refugees Lack Skill to Negotiate U.S. Culture." Lincoln Journal Star, 19 May 2004, C13.
Eastburn, Kathryn. "Circle of Refuge." Colorado Springs Independent, 23 January 2003, 1-2.
Halim, Abdel. Honorable Daughters: The Lived Experience of Circumcised Sudanese Women in The United States. June, 2003. Retrieved from Ohio Library and Information Network database. 5 October 2005. http://www.ohiolink.edu/etd/send-pdf.cgi-acc_num=ohiou1061240934 .
Matre, Lynn Van. "DuPage Agency to Aid Refugees from Sudan." Chicago Tribune, 14 February 2001, 15.
The main link between the brain and the mind is through the nervous system. It processes information from various regions in the body and transmits it via electrical and chemical signals. The study of the relationship that the brain has on the mind, consciousness and behavior is called behavioral psychology. Decades ago, scientists would use electrodes to stimulate various regions of the brain to understand how it affected the body. Today psychologists use modern radiological techniques to understand mental processes and behaviorism in diseases ranging from Huntington to Epilepsy. (Nobus, 2000)
Although many interesting stories and interpretations have led to the evolution of biological psychology, a great contribution to this field was made by the famous psychologist, Signmund Freud.
Sigmund Freud was born in 1856 and spent most of his life in Vienna. From early on in life, Freud had a strong inclination towards human concerns, and even…
Ablon JS., & Jones EE. (1999). Psychotherapy process in the National Institute of Mental Health Treatment of Depression Collaborative Research Program. J Consult Clin Psychol, 67:64 -- 75.
Cameron, P. (1967). Confirmation of the freudian psychosexual stages utilizing sexual symbolism.Psychological Reports, 21(1), 33-39. doi: 10.2466/pr0.1918.104.22.168
Sigmund, F. (1925). An autobiographical study . Retrieved from http://www2.winchester.ac.uk/edstudies/courses/level two sem two/freudautopdf.pdf
Westen, D., & Gabbard, G. (2002). Developments in cognitive neuroscience: I. conflict, compromise, and connectionism. J Am Psychoanal Assoc, 50(1), 53-98.
According to anthropologist Lalervo Oberg, culture shock arises when suddenly one's sense of certainty is destroyed when one enters a foreign environment. A person undergoing culture shock experiences it as a series of "upsets -- breaks in reality because people behave differently" in a new culture and because the shocked individual finds him or herself in unfamiliar circumstances (Oberg, 2007). Yet the extraordinary clash of "The Father" does not result suddenly, even though the news is sudden -- the daughter's schema of values has been changing over time, only the father has ignored it, or not wished to see this change. Oberg says the clash occurs because "families and friends are far away," but in this case, the family member is close by, yet changed by her upbringing in a new culture.
Babli feels far away to her father. Her father experiences all of the "discontent, impatience, anger, sadness, and…
Guanipa, Carmen. "Culture Shock." San Diego University. 17 Mar 1998. 2 Jul 2007. http://edweb.sdsu.edu/people/CGuanipa/cultshok.htm
Mukherjee, Bharati "The Father." From Literature and the Writing Process.
Elizabeth McMahan, Susan X Day, & Robert Funk (Eds.). New York Prentice
Similar with Nawal el Saadawi in "A Modern Love Letter," Nadine Gordimer's "A Soldier's Embrace" reflects how within societies where numerous differences and dichotomies exist, it is the women sector who suffers the most, and these sufferings further escalate if, apart from being females, they also belong to other marginalized sectors in the society (e.g., the poor sector, colored people, the elderly, among others).
In her short story, Gordimer provides detailed imagery of subtle and implied oppression that a South African woman experiences in the hands of both white and colored soldiers. The story begins with this powerful imagery, narrated as follows: "There were two soldiers in front of her, blocking her off by a clumsy embrace...and the embrace opened like a door and took her in...They all gasped with delicious shock..." This momentary illustration of the "soldier's embrace" demonstrates the that, amidst he differences in race of the two…
Human rights in human resources
'Equality is a juridical principle . . . Difference is an existential principle which concerns the modes of being human, the peculiarity of one's own experiences, goals, possibilities, and one's sense of existence in a given situation and the situations one wants to create for oneself. The difference between woman and man is the basic difference of humankind [. . .] Equality is what is offered as legal rights to colonized people. And what is imposed on them as culture.'
Carla Lonzi's (1970) early insights into the shift in global situations in the workplace, where transformations in the international economy would leave workers wide open to inexplicable cultural differences in rights and responsibilities to their companies. The foregoing essay looks at the interchange of corporate workday experiences and the emergent human rights as human resources in the South American context. Based on Brazilian organizational…
Enloe, Cynthia (1990). Bananas, Beaches and Bases: Making Sense of Feminist International Politics. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Jaquette, Jane S., ed. (2009). Feminist Agendas and Democracy in Latin America. Durham: Duke University Press.
Lonzi, Carla (1970). 'Let's Spit on Hegel.' Bono, Paula & Sandra Kemp, eds. Italian Feminist Thought: A Reader. Oxford & Cambridge: Basil Blackwell, 41.
UN Convention on the Elimination of all forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW). Retrieved from: http://www.un.org/womenwatch/daw/cedaw/text/econvention.htm#article5
Women Do Not Make Good Police Officers
Police is an essential unit of society and its function is as important as the functioning of a vital organ in the human body. If one removes this unit then the society will fall apart and become diseased and corrupted beyond imagination. It controls the crime within a society and within a nation. It protects the rights of a normal civilian and gives him security and shelter. This department aims to zoom in to the problem factors of society e.g. drugs, prostitution, thefts, murders etc. And eliminate the people who cause such factors to exist. These factors corrupt a society from within and causes harm to the well being of the general public. The department to prevent domestic violence is called "Police." Hence the proper and efficient functioning of a police department is of unprecedented importance. If one travels back in time, we…
(1) Prenzler, T., & Wimhurst, K. (1997). Blue tunics and batons: women and politics in the Queensland police, 1970-1987. Journal of Australian Studies, (52), 88
(2) Linden, R. (1983) "Women in policing - a study of lower mainland RCMP (royal Canadian mounted police) Detachments." Canadian Police College Journal, 7(3), 217
(3) Steinberg. (1982) Typical and Alternative Routes to Promotion of Women and Minorities. Journal Public and Internal Affairs 3, 13 (Fall/Winter). 21
(4) Grant, Nancy K., Garrison, Carole G., McCormick K. (1990) Perceived Utilization, Job Satisfaction and Advancement of Police Women. Public Personnel Management. 19. (2) 147.
This view is evident in this earlier advertisement for United Airlines; which uses the female stereotypes of nature to convey its message of care and stability.
The following advertisement from a magazine cover from the 1940's also strongly suggests female stereotypes associated with food and family. Note as well the title of the magazine - Everywoman - which suggests a stereotypical ideal that women should strive for.
Many contemporary advertisements still tend to use male and female stereotypes but this usage in the media has become more sophisticated and subtle in terms of the way that it is encoded in the style and the visual language of the advertisement. The following comparison clearly shows this aspect.
Fig.3 Davidoff Cool ater-oman
Fig.4 Davidoff Cool ater - Man
Source: Introduction: Advertising & Gender
In the above advertisements, both figures three and four display the same style of photography…
Controlling Advertising ? ASA Schools and Colleges resources No 1. December
Dolls. December 20, 2007. http://www.ltcconline.net/lukas/gender/pages/dolls.htm
Garst J. And Bodenhausen G. Advertising's effects on men's gender role attitudes. Sex Roles: A Journal of Research, May, 1997. December 20, 2007. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m2294/is_n9-10_v36/ai_19647328
4). This idea has since been abandoned. The mythology of the Amazons, a matriarchy of warrior women, has been discounted as no more than a myth, one deriving from the deep-seated fear on the part of males that they might lose their power and authority. In matrilineal societies, men tend still to monopolize the rights of power. Some Chinese anthropologists believe the stories of true matriarchal societies in some regions of China in the past, but this is uncertain. A matriarchy would be presumed to be less warlike and more nurturing as a social order and would not subordinate men in the way men have done to women in the patriarchal society.
The formulation and operation of power in the largely patriarchal social order in the world today divides along other line than gender, with political action influenced most by ideology, religion, divisions of power, and other aspects of group…
Adler, F. (1983). Nations Not Obsessed with Crime. Littleton, Colorado: Fred B. Rotham and Co.
Berry, J.M. (1997). The interest group society. New York: Longman.
Crapo, R.H. (1993). Cultural anthropology. Sluice Dock Guilford, Conn.: Dushkin.
El-Awa, M.S. (1982). Punishment in Islamic Law. Indianapolis, Indiana: American Trust Publications.
Girls and Gangs
When people think of gangs and gangsters, they often think of young males. While females may be part of gang culture, they are often viewed as being in the periphery. In many ways, this view of female gang membership is correct. For example, females that are affiliated with gangs have oftentimes been reduced to sexual objections, being used for the gratification of gang members, as a way to lure new recruits (Firmin 2009, p. 15). Furthermore, female sexuality has traditionally been seen as a way to ensnare rival gang members, so that female gang members and females associated with gangs have often acted as spies infiltrating rival gang networks (Aabbad 2012, p.272). However, the traditional view of girls as sexual accessories and playthings for gang members does not reflect the reality of the modern-day gang situation. While women still face significant marginalization and sexual violence within the…
Contemporary Wales, vol. 22, no.1, pp.178-195.
Young, T. 2009. 'Girls and gangs: Shemale gangsters in the UK?', Youth Justice, vol. 9, no.3,
There are numerous reasons why so many movies fail the Bechdel test. Most of these reasons directly correspond to the exact nature of this assessment, and what it reveals about society. Still others of these reasons pertain to the function of films within society. For the most part, they are used to reinforce societal values and mores. To a lesser extent, this medium is also widely deployed as a means of introducing new societal norms which will one day become part of the social establishment. Finally, still other reasons directly correlate to the notion of gender and gender constructs in Westernization today. A thorough examination of these different reasons reveals so many movies fail the Bechdel test because they reflect the values of a male-dominated society.
In examining the specific way in which this this thesis applies to some of the theorists analyzed within this class, it is first necessary…
Peter Mullan's 2002 movie The Magdalene Sisters depicts the dark side of Irish culture, church, and history. From the late nineteenth to the late twentieth century, the Sisters of Mercy in Ireland ran profitable asylums for women. The laundry businesses allowed the convents to earn money while keeping socially scorned women behind bars. Yet far from being a place of spiritual refuge, the Magdalene laundries often became torture houses closely resembling concentration camps. As Mullan shows, spirituality was completely superceded by cruelty, greed, torture, and manipulation. The brutality shown on screen reveals a chilling behind-the-scenes glimpse of what actually did occur regularly in Magdalene asylum laundries.
The culture that supported such institutions was an inherently sexist one, as many of the interred women committed no offense other than having shamed their families or being attractive. Although a fictionalized account, The Magdalene Sisters shows what mental and physical abuse…
Ackstrom, Kevin. "Prominent Order of Nuns Apologizes for Role in Magdalene Laundries." Beliefnet.com. 2003. Online at < http://www.beliefnet.com/story/130/story_13095_1.html >.
Brown, Hillary and McGarry, Matt. "Ireland's Dirty Laundry: Wounds Still Fresh For Thousands of Women Enslaved by the Catholic Church." Online at < http://www.childmigrants.com/the_magdalene_sisters.htm>.
Dolbee, Sandi. "Magdalene Sisters' awash in controversy." Copley News Service. 8 Sept. 2003. Online at < http://www.catholicsforchoice.org/new/inthenews/090803Copley.htm>.
Greydanus, Steven D. "The Magdalene Sisters Controversy." 2003. DecentFilms.com. Online at < http://www.decentfilms.com/commentary/magdalenesisters.html>.
Their plays were similar to the Greeks and many of them were just translated versions. Theatre was an instrument used by the administration to keep the public from devoting much time to the political affairs. Thus any mentioning on stage regarding the political situation or activities would have serious consequences for the author for writing it and the actor for agreeing to perform it. In addition it also served as a purpose to get away from everyday life and worries. It was a part of their life and civilization. As time passed by the theatre evolved but women were not allowed to take part in it for a very long time. With the establishment of churches and the influence of popes, women faced yet another problem in getting accepted as being part of the society. oman theatre was a major influence on the later European theatre and they learnt much…
1) Giulia De Dominicis - Article Title: The Roman Theatres in the Age of Pius VI. Journal Title: Theatre History Studies. Publication Year: 2001. Page Number: 81.
2) Live Hov - Article Title: The 'Women' of the Roman Stage: As Goethe Saw Them. Journal Title: Theatre History Studies. Publication Year: 2001. Page Number: 61.
3) Garret Fagan - Article Title R.C. Beacham. Power into Pageantry: Spectacle Entertainments of Early Imperial Rome. Journal Title: Comparative Drama. Volume: 35. Issue: 3. Publication Year: 2001. Page Number: 465+.
4) The Columbia Encyclopedia - Encyclopedia Article Title: Drama, Western. Encyclopedia Title: The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. Publisher: Columbia University Press. Place of Publication: New York. Publication Year: 2004.
A significant theme in Lone Star is history. Too often history can become a burden; it can mean to us what we narrowly allow it to mean. Humans have often felt compelled to act as if they are influenced only from the past rather than from the present. Express your thoughts and feelings, regarding this statement. Be sure to offer examples.
Lone Star (1996) is a film about a colonized region in the borderlands of the Southwest, which were annexed to the United States under the provisions of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo in 1848. hen Abraham Lincoln was in Congress, he described the Mexican ar as an act of aggression and conquest against a sovereign nation, and many people at that time and later agreed with him. As a result of the war, the northern half of Mexico was incorporated into the United States, including Colorado, New…
Lone Star. Director: John Sayles. Producers: Columbia Pictures; Castle Rock Entertainment. USA, 1996.
Lone Star Lecture Notes, 2011.
Torres, Eden F. Chicana without Apology: The New Chicana Cultural Studies. Routledge, 2003.
Women and men are two parts of the human race. Men are important to society just as women are. However, because of the social structure of many cultures and society, men appear as the dominant, superior sex. This leads to the belief that men must control women, dominate them in order to be seen as 'real men'. Katz explore in his novel the need to remove such belief systems and create gender equality to end violence against women and create a balanced society.
Domestic violence is an issue many people face on a daily basis. However, in Katz book, The Macho Paradox, chapter 1 opens the discussion of domestic abuse seen as a common event in the American landscape. "...found that two-thirds of American men say that domestic violence is very or fairly common in the U.S., and in a 2005 national survey...92% of respondents said that family violence is…
Personality Psych Analysis of Tony Soprano
Freudian Psychoanalytic Theory of Personality
Sigmund Freud’s psychoanalytic theory of personality makes the argument that human behavior is resultant of the interrelations amongst three constituent parts of the mind including the id, ego, and superego (Petocz, 1999). This theory of personality lays substantial significance of the manner in which conflict, more often than not unconscious, amongst the areas of the mind end up shaping an individual’s behavior and personality. The Id deals with instantaneous satisfaction of basic physical needs and desires and it functions completely unconsciously. The Superego takes into account social rules and morals, and is largely referred to as a person’s conscience. The Superego develops as a child progressively learns what is deemed to be right or wrong. Lastly, the ego, unlike the instinctive Id and the ethical superego, the Ego is the sensible, realistic part of an individual’s personality…
' Thus the novel is just as unsparing in the way that it shows the limits of a female-dominant perspective that simply reverses the dominant paradigm of male dominance. For example, when Jael suspects a male still believes in the inequality of women, she kills him, and hopes that all of the main characters, whom she sees as 'the same' as herself, all part of the same woman yet existing in different universes will adhere to her own society's goals to create all-female worlds. Jael does only live in a society that is absent of men, like Janet, but she is openly hostile towards males.
One of the most striking aspects of the complexity of the novel is evident at the end, when Jael tries to mobilize the women to do away with all of the males in their respective worlds. Janet refuses. Then Jael reveals that, rather than a…
Women's choice lead a celebate life, remain a virgin, a rejection societal expectations? A conclusion drawn thesis question. I attaching suggested books citation. Essay 12 pages length counting citations bibliography.
Was a Women's choice to lead a celibate life or remain a virgin a rejection of societal expectations?
The role of women in the society has been widely debated throughout the history of both philosophical thought and social sciences. Women have a particular place in society since ancient times and there are clear indications, in the religious literature, that women have had specific views and opinions regarding their own place in the society. In this context, the current research discusses the choice of women to lead a celibate life or keep herself a virgin and whether this choice was a reaction to societal expectations and social pressures. The perspective of the research analysis is focused on Christian traditions from the…
Kung, 2001, p22-3
Karant-Nun, 2003, p10
Gender and Sex: Blurred Lines or Clear Boundaries?
One of the hottest songs of summer 2013 was a song by Robin Thicke called "Blurred Lines." The song gained popularity because of its catchy tune, and many people who found themselves dancing along to the song found themselves surprised by the lyrics when they actually listened to the song. In fact, the lyrics to the song were sufficiently suggestive that discussions about whether they were a symbol of rape culture became almost as popular as the song itself. The lyrics were not helped by the video for the song, which featured Thicke, two guest artists, and three scantily clad models in situations that could only be described as bizarre, leading to allegations that the video marginalized its female performers. Adding fuel to this fire was a performance by Thicke featuring Miley Cyrus, in which they seemingly referenced the video and Miley…
Butler, Judith. Gender Trouble: Feminism and the Subversion of Identity. New York:
Lynskey, Dorian. "Blurred Lines: The most controversial song of the decade." The Guardian.
The Guardian, 13 Nov. 2013. Web. 17 Nov. 2013.
Bergvall, Victoria L., Janet M. Bing, and Alice F. Freed. Rethinking Language and Gender Research: heory and Practice. New York: Addison Wesley Longman Limited, 1996.
Rethinking Language and Gender Research" is a compilation of articles and quantitative studies about the biological and cultural influences that gender differences have over language. Of vital importance is Bergvall and Bing's introductory chapter in the book, an article entitled, "he questions of questions: beyond binary thinking." his article summarizes the scholarly studies conducted over the years by social scientists and linguists in an attempt to explain how gender differences affect the language spoken in various areas and cultures. Bergvall and Bing explore this problem by explaining the language and gender problem through the biological and cultural approaches. he authors establish the fact that studies on gender effect on language is historically based on the premise that language is based on the strict dichotomy of…
This web page by the University of Pennsylvania Linguistic Data Consortium Web site is a comprehensive discussion of the differences between men and women language, supported by biological studies (illustrated by graphical representations) and research that proves how gender differences affects language. The cultural and psychological approaches are also used to explain the problem of gender difference in language. The web page also includes a proper distinction of the definitions of sex and gender for better comprehension of the readers.
Rosenfeld, Lawrence, and Ronald B. Adler. Interplay: The Process of Interpersonal Communication. New York: Harcourt Brace and Company, 1998.
The topic of gender and language can be found in second part, Chapter Five of the book, wherein Language is thoroughly discussed as a tool for communication. The discussion about gender and language mainly focused on research studies conducted that explains what are the primary factors that determine the differences and similarities among male and female communication and everyday language. The part on gender and language includes a study of the researches about the content, reasons for communicating, and communicating styles among men and women. The gender and language discussion if the book does not offer a critical study of the issue of gender and language, but is a useful resource for getting some research/study results about the dynamics and content of male and female communication and language.
Traditions that are presented as age old and showcase a link between the distant past and present tend to have their origins in present times and are rather modern public, social, cultural and political manifestations. Most have their origins not more than three to four centuries ago. 'Invented traditions' is hence the name coined to aptly, if loosely, represent the devised or imposed (if forced) traditions seen today. These new traditions may have been instituted formally in recent times (and can be ascertained to a specific date or year) but were established very rapidly, and came to be recognized as traditions. The tradition of the royal broadcast of Christmas is an example, which illustrates the point. The broadcast started in Britain in 1932.
Invented traditions are those practices that are impressed upon the peoples of a nation or society or even a part of the society through repetition, making it…
Hobsbawm, E., & Ranger, E. (2012). The Invention of Tradition. Canto Classics. Retrieved from http://www.cambridge.org/us/academic/subjects/history/regional-and-world-history-general-interest/invention-tradition-2
She argues that the evasiveness and incongruites in the narrative exist since Spenser is facing issues that are not easily answered.
From the start, Britomart represents an authority figure, a power not found in any other knight in the Faerie Queene. Spenser says that Britomart literally cannot be beaten, since she carries a powerful magic spear, or phallic symbol (depending on the interpretation) that refers back to the theme of woman's chastity. Britomart easily knocks Sir Guyon off his horse at the beginning of Book 3. She then comes to a castle and once again pushes her authority, characterized as "masculine" with her armor and spear, and confronts six of Malecasta's knights at the Castle Joyous at the end of the first canto.
At last as nigh out of the wood she came,
A stately Castle farre away she spyde,
To which her steps directly she did frame.
Abate, Corinne S. Spenser's 'The Faerie Queen. The Explicator 55.1 (1996): 6+.
Heale, Elizabeth. The faerie queene: a reader's guide. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press,
Spencer, Edmund. The Faerie Queene. Gutenberg. 29 April 2010. http://www.gutenberg.org
The first analysis of this comes from the Aristotelian and Aristotelian inspired Christian view. This perspective identifies women as being passive, non-rational (or latently rational) counterparts to the active male gender. As such, the male gender is related to the spirit and the female as the nurturing of materiality and natural features of reality and social life. The second analysis places women as Nature and Spirit as immanent. This is primarily a prejudicial scientific enterprise that compares the male to reason and purpose, while the feminine is comparable to the abstraction of Nature and 'feeling as well as the inanimate character of materiality. Thirdly, an analysis which finds its subject of spirituality as domesticated and thus related to the ancient ideals of venerating the female as god-like so as to increase male dominance. And the last analysis is that of a feminist's interpretation where the gender distinction ironically is emphasized…
Feminization of Poverty and Education in Canada
It is often assumed that gender divisions in the economy and major political and social institutions are higher in the developing countries than in the developed nations of Western Europe, Japan, and the United States. Many UN, UNDP, UNIFEM and other reports suggest that women suffer from greater inequality of opportunities in the non-industrialized world. Estimates suggest that from sixty to seventy percent of the poor people in the developing world are female (Marcoux 1998). While these reports are not without merit, they are sometimes misleading as the level of gender inequality is still quite high in much of the industrialized countries.
Available data suggests that poverty in the developed countries is also unevenly distributed among men and women. This paper will discuss the specific case of Canada where feminization of poverty has significantly influenced the so-called "equality of opportunity" for education in…
Curtis, B., Livingstone, D. & Smaller, K. 1992. Stacking the Deck: The Streaming of Working-Class Kids in Ontario Schools. Toronto: Our Schools Ourselves/Garamond.
Dooley, M.D. 1994. Women, Children and Poverty in Canada. Canadian Public Policy, 20(4): 43-443.
Gaskell, J. 1993 Feminism and Its Impact on Educational Scholarship in Canada. In Stewin, L., & McCann, S. (eds.), Contemporary Educational Issues: The Canadian Mosaic 2nd ed., Toronto: Copp Clark.
Lessard, C. 1995. Equality and Inequality in Canadian Education. In Ghosh, R, & Ray, D. (eds.), Social Change and Education in Canada, 3d ed. Toronto: Harcourt Brace.