265+ documents containing “mammals”.
Mammals of Michigan
There are many mammal species in Michigan, and this paper will discuss some of them, in terms of how they have evolved to live in the Michigan area, and how they have evolved to live off the land in the Michigan area. Something of the geological history of Michigan will also be discussed.
We will start with the extinct mammals of the Michigan area: about 12,500 to 11,800 years ago, the Michigan area was covered with boreal forest dominated by spruce trees, and the fauna that was dominant in this area over this period moved here from South of the area. The important mammals of Michigan during this period were: Scott's moose, giant beevers, flat-headed peccaries, woodland muskoxen, mammoths and mastodons. It has been suggested that the mammoths and mastodons, in particular, were drawn to Michigan because of the many salt seeps and the many sources of shallow water,….
Cloning to Preserve the Endangered Giant Panda
Among animals, mammals account for more than 15,000 species of vertebrate animals that have the ability to self-regulate their body temperature, have hair, and, in the females, produce milk. In the study of mammalogy, the branch of science that deals with mammals, there has been a growing concern at the rate of mammalian species nearing extinction. Thus, the Endangered Species Act of 1973 was put forth to protect animals and plants on the verge of extinction. It also provides policy to the Fish and Wildlife Service to determine a listing of endangered animals and to develop associated recovery programs. The Fish and Wildlife Service subsequently has registered a policy for controlled propagation of species listed under the Endangered Species Act for a restricted administration of conservation and recovery practices where the purpose is to oversee the "production of individuals, generally within a managed environment,….
Endangered Species Act of 1973." U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. June 1994. http://endangered.fws.gov/policy/pol003.html
Hawes, A. & M. Huy. "Giant Pandas." Smithsonian National Zoological Park. 2001. http://nationalzoo.si.edu/Animals/GiantPandas/
Lanza, Robert P., Dresser, Betsy L. & Philip Damiani. "Cloning Noah's Ark." Scientific
American. 19 Nov. 2000.
hat is a necropsy?
hen biologists wish to know the cause of death for a marine mammal, they conduct a necropsy. A necropsy is similar to an autopsy for humans. The marine mammal must be cut open, carefully examined and researched as to the cause of death, so the necropsy helps the biologist understand (through observations of the carcass) how the animal died, why it died, and if the public health will be impacted in any way -- or if "signs of human interaction are present on the carcass" (Section One, p. 15). The biologist or scientists who is performing the necropsy is initially making an objective evaluation to see if there are indeed obvious signs that human interaction (HI) might have been involved. Secondly, a subjective search is conducted -- much more involved and intense -- to evaluate further the possibility that humans in any way impacted the demise….
Eutheria, marsupalia, and monotremata are the three main "infraclasses" of the Mammaliam subclass Theria (Archibald). Of these three infraclasses, eutheria currently boasts the largest membership and monotremata the smallest. Eutherian mammals like bats are characterized by their production of placenta as well as live births. Marsupials like koalas are characterized by live births of immature young that continue their gestation in a pouch located externally on the mother's body; that pouch contains a nipple hidden inside. Unique to all mammals, the monotremes like echidnas give birth to eggs instead of live young but do produce milk. hereas bats are widely distributed around the globe, monotremes only exist in Australia. There are a few marsupials remaining in the Americas but most have become extinct and the greatest number currently exist in Australia.
Chiroptera (Bat), of which there are 928 species
The only member of the mammal class to truly be able to….
Archibald, J. David. "Eutheria." Retrieved online: http://www.bio.sdsu.edu/faculty/archibald/Archibald01Eutheria.pdf
"Ancient koalas may have been loud and lazy but they didn't chew gum." Science Daily. 1 Dec, 2009. Retrieved online: https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2009/12/091218122926.htm
Cooper, Dani. "Echidna Ancestor sam with Platypuses." ABC Science. Retrieved online: http://www.abc.net.au/science/articles/2009/09/22/2692080.htm
"Monotremes." Retrieved online: http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu /mammal/monotreme.html
Climate Change on Marine Mammals
Sustained scientific observations reveal and alert everyone that climate change has asserted alarming effects on the oceans (Simmonds & Isaac 2007). Scientists agree that these effects are likely to be in the form of alterations in prey distribution and volume. They also agree that the more mobile species of marine mammals may possess enough resilience to adapt to the changes. ut the extent of their adaptability remains a question. This question arose from recent observations that many species of these mammals may be vulnerable to climate changes. Vulnerability may be in the form of limited range of habitat, such as specific species, which can survive only in icy environments. Mammals that are forced to migrate to polar regions in search of feeding grounds have also become a subject of serious concern. These are only the major impacts of climate change on these mammals, which call….
Burek, K. A. et al. Effects of Climate Change in Arctic Marine Mammals. Vol. 18, 2
Supplement, Ecological Applications, 2008. Retrieved on October 9, 2015 from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18494366
Burkett, V., et al. Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. Chapter 6 Coastal Zone and Marine
Ecosystem: Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, 2015. Retrieved on October 9, 2015
ancient Michigan basin area and discuss a brief geological history of the area and how the mammals that lived during the Ice Age adapted to their environment over the years.
Use at least 12 sources of information; use quotes
Michigan experienced the great Ice Age and was covered by glaciers several times. These events in turn affected the mammals that inhabited what are now the Great Lakes region and the state of Michigan.
Mammals of Michigan
History of Ice Age Michigan
Twenty thousand years ago, mile-thick glacial ice sheets that extended from Canada to the Ohio River covered Michigan and most of northern North America. It took more than 12,000 years for the ice to melt, leaving Michigan a glacially scarred landscape with the Great Lakes. Four huge continental glaciers that formed over the Midwest eventually formed the state's features. The last one known as the Wisconsin Glacier occurred about 14,000 years ago. This….
Michigan Dept. Of Environmental Quality, Geological Survey Division. General Geology of Michigan. 1998. http://www.calvin.edu
Oard, Michael J. "A Post-Flood Model." 1990.
Eschberger, Beverly. "Prehistoric Michigan." 1998-2000 http://www.geobop.com .
Extinct in the Wild. http://www.bagherra.com .
The author of this response has been asked to answer to a fairly specific question. The question at hand is whether marine mammals can suffer from decompression sickness. If they can, the author of this report is to confirm this. The author would also need to confirm under what circumstances the marine mammals would suffer from the sickness. Only scientific papers and journal offerings will be used to answer this question.
First off, the answer to the question at hand is an absolute "yes." Marine mammals can indeed incur decompression sickness and this would include any mammals who engage in diving. It was once thought that marine mammals were generally immune to decompression sickness but more recent findings have found this to be untrue (Hooker et al., 2012). This phenomenon has been verified through the use of diagnostic imaging in creatures like cetaceans and pinnipeds (Dennison, Fahlman & Moore, 2012).….
Van Bonn, W., Montie, E., Dennison, S., Pussini, N., Cook, P., Greig, D., & ... Gulland, F.
(2011). Evidence of injury caused by gas bubbles in a live marine mammal: barotrauma in a California sea lion Zalophus californianus. Diseases Of Aquatic Organisms, 96(2),
Sea Turtles (SeaWorld, 2004)
From a taxonomy perspective, sea turtles belong to the overall class of reptilia. The order is testudines. The suborder cryptodira also includes fresh water turtles. There are two families of sea turtles. ased on their carapaces, sea turtles are divided into two families: bony -- covered with horny scutes -- turtles and leatherback turtles. There are eight species of sea turtles: green Chelonia mydas, black Chelonia agassizii, loggerhead Caretta, Kemp's ridley Lepidochelys kempii, olive ridley Lepidochelys olivacea, hawksbill Eretmochelys imbricate and. flatback Natator depressus. The first turtle records are from the Triassic era.
The habitat of sea turtles is mostly relatively temperate waters. They are often found in the shallower waters of lagoons, costal waters and bays. The migration process however often involves thousands of miles. Females often make this migratory trip to lay eggs on certain beaches. When these eggs hatch, the hatchlings make the journey….
Amador, Armando. Indo-Pacific Hump-Backed Dolphin. Il-Sci-Acad-Sci.org, 1999. Accessed August 6, 2004. Available at http://www.il-st-acad-sci.org/mammals/whale009.html.
AntarcticConnection. Leopard Seals: Description & Characteristics. Wildlife of Antarctica, 2004. Accessed August 7, 2004. Available at http://www.antarcticconnection.com/antarctic/wildlife/seals/leopard.shtml.
Parks.Ca. Elephant Seals. California State Parks, 2004. Accessed August 5, 2004. Available at http://www.parks.ca.gov/default.asp?page_id=1115 .
PBS. Southern Elephant Seal. PBS.org, 2004. Accessed August 8, 2004. Available at http://www.pbs.org/kratts/world/ant/seal/ .
However, there simply does not seem to be sufficient evidence for the disease hypothesis. First, there has been no evidence of disease found. Next, even extremely virulent diseases, like the plague or West Nile Virus, do not have the kill rates necessary to cause the extinction of an entire species. In addition, one has to realize that the extinction of large mammals coincided with the extinction of other animals, like birds, marsupials, placentals, testudines, and crocodilians. It is unlikely that a disease would be lethal in such a wide-variety of animal populations, especially when it did not destroy all species of certain animal genus.
The final theory is that a meteor killed the large mammals. There is evidence that meteor impacts caused earlier extinctions like the Permian-Triassic extinction and the extinction of the dinosaurs. Meteor impacts can interfere with food sources, because the resulting dust in the air interferes with….
The Delta is also a habitat for many species of fish, birds, mammals, and plants, and it supports agricultural and recreational activities while also being the focal point for water distribution throughout the State.
The development of the Delta as it exists today started in late 1850 when the Swamp and Overflow Land Act transferred ownership of all swamp and overflow land, including Delta marshes, from the federal government to the State of California. In 1861, the State Legislature created the Board of Swamp and Overflowed Land Commissioners to manage reclamation projects, and in 1866, the authority of the Board was transferred to county boards of supervisors. The Delta now covers 738,000 acres interlaced with hundreds of miles of waterways, with much of the land below sea level, relying on more than 1,000 miles of levees for protection against flooding. 20
White sturgeon is one of the most spectacular native species….
1. Northridge, S.P. An updated world review of interactions between marine mammals and fisheries. FAO Fisheries Technical Paper. No. 251, Suppl. 1. Rome,
FAO. 1991. 58p.
2. DeMaster, Douglas P., Fowler, Charles W., Perry, Simona L. And Richlen,
Michael F. Predation and Competition: The Impact of Fisheries on Marine-Mammal
Behavioral Episodes in elation to Leopard Seals
Leopard seals are widely known for their ferocity and have been acknowledged as top predators for a long time now. These are large but slender mammals, with females usually exceeding males in size and weight. The spotty coats, distributed along their bodies, define the leopard appearance and allure to the hunting abilities they possess. With powerful jaws and canine teeth, leopard seals can prey on creatures of whatever size. Their agility and reputation have long formed individuals' negative perception upon the former. This document is to try to dismantle the negative image leopard seals have been inoculated with for such a long time. This proposal looks at some of the facts that have led people forming drastic opinions as well as some episodes that appear to indicate how little we may in fact know in relation to leopard seals.
Statement of Problem
Explorers in the….
Aguayo-Lobo, A., R., Acevedo, J., Brito, J.L., G., Acuna, P., Bassoi, M., Secchi, E., R., and Rosa, L.D. 2011. Presence of the leopard seal, Hydrurga leptonyx (De Blainville, 1820), on the coast of Chile: An example of the Antarctica -- South America Connection in the marine environment. Oecologia Australis 15(1): 69-85. doi: 10.4257/oeco.2011.1501.07
Ainley, D.G., Ballard, G., Karl, B.J., and Dugger K.M. 2005. Leopard seal predation rates at penguin colonies of different size. Antarctic Science 17(3): 335-340.
De Laca, T.E., Lipps, J.H., and Zumwalt, G.S. 1975. Encounters with leopard seals (Hydruga leptonyx) along the Antarctic Peninsula. Antarctic Journal of the United States 10(3): 85-9.
Hiruki, L.M., Schwartz, M.K., and Boveng, P.L. 1999. Hunting and social behavior of leopard seals (Hydrurga leptonyx) at Sea Island, South Shetland Island, Antarctica. Journal of Zoology, London 249(1): 97-109. Retrieved from http://digitalcommons.unl.edu/usdeptcommercepub/151/
SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY AND WHAT DOES IT AIM TO STUDY?
Inspired by Kurt Lewin (1951), social psychology adopted the experimental method to study human behavior (Wood & Kroger, 1998). In this regard, Wood and Kroger (1998) report that, "Lewin's experiments in leadership style (autocratic, democratic, laissez-faire) became classics in the new experimental social psychology" (p. 267). Lewins' early work was carried on by Festinger and others who explored cognitive dissonance for the next 20 years at MIT and subsequently at the Universities of Michigan and Minnesota, making this one of the foundations of social psychology (Wood & Kroger, 1998).
Simply stated, social psychology uses the scientific method to study human social behavior (ogers, 2003). According to ogers, psychological social psychology "studies how social events and phenomena influence the ways in which individual people feel, think and act. It is concerned with the psychological processes (such as social perception and cognition) that go….
Hayes, D. (2004). RoutledgeFalmer guide to key debates in education. New York:
Karakashian, L.M., Walter, M.I., Christopher, A.N. & Lucas, T. (2006). Fear of negative evaluation affects helping behavior: The bystander effect revisited. North American
Journal of Psychology, 8(1), 13.
Like most other animals, the artic fox's cot changes to reflect the summer arctic habitat, becoming a brown or gray color that matches the summer environment (National Geographic, 2008). The photograph by Norbert Rosing (National Geographic, 2004), demonstrates the usefulness of the animal's camouflage: (Norbert Rosing, National Geographic, October, 2004, online at http://ngm.nationalgeographic.com/ngm/finaledit/0410/,2008).
The artic fox contributes to the balance of nature because its diet includes rodents, which have a tendency to multiply rapidly in any conditions; birds, and fish (National Geographic, 2008). However, rodents are more plentiful during the summer months in the artic. During the winter months, when its food sources are scarcer, the fox will be follow the trail of the polar bears, acting as a scavenger to the remains of the larger animal's kills (National Geographic, 2008). The arctic fox also eats some amounts of vegetation, usually vegetables (National Geographic, 2008).
The arctic fox is a beautiful….
The Fox in World Literature: Reflections on a "Fictional Animal." Asian Folklore Studies 65.2 (2006): 133+. Questia. 10 Feb. 2008 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5018927838 .
National Geographic, 2008, found online at http://video.nationalgeographic.com/video/player/animals/mammals-animals/dogs-wolves-and-foxes/fox_arctic.html?fs=animals-panther.nationalgeographic.com, retrieved 8 February, 2008. www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000329203
Sims, Grant. "Paradox of the Arctic Fox." National Wildlife Feb.-Mar. 1996: 16+. Questia. 10 Feb. 2008 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000329203 .
Measurements were obtained both in the presence of and the absence of whale watching boats. It was observed that a period of intense boating activity caused the killer whales to adjust their call duration levels to compensate for the background noise. This clearly indicates that anthropogenic noise levels directly interfere with the routine life of the killer whales, which are dependent on vocal communication for successful hunting and survival. [Andrew et.al. 2004]
It is well-known that anthropogenic sounds can even have fatal consequences as evidenced by the recent mass strandings of beaked whales that coincided with the mid frequency sonar exercises by the navy. A recent research by (Holt et.al, 2009) focused on the effects of anthropogenic sounds on the vocal behavior of killer whales. The resident killer whales of the waters of the Puget Sound, Seattle, were the subjects of this study. The southern resident killer whales in three….
Whale Songs, 'Killer Whale', Accessed 15th March 2009, available at http://www.whalesongs.org/cetacean/killer_whale/home.html
SeaWorld, ' Killer Whales: Communication and Echo Location," Accessed 15th March 2009, available at http://www.seaworld.org/animal-info/info-books/killer-whale/communication.htm
Wilfredo Santiago Benitez, 'Echolocation and strategy used by Southern resident Killer Whales (Orcinus orca) during foraging', 2005, Accessed 15th March 2009, available at http://beamreach.org/051/papers/wilfredo.pdf
Volcker B. Deecke, John KB Ford & Peter JB Slater, 'The Vocal Behavior of Mammal eating killer Whales: Communicating with Costly Calls ' Animal Behavior, 2005, 69, 395-405, http://www.behaecol.amu.edu.pl/files/the_vocal_behav_of_mammal-eating_killer_whales.pdf
gender have influenced the historic development of science in the west, as reason and science have long been seen as male traits. Similarly, gender ideals such as the characterization of females as maternal, associated with nature, irrational, and week have been reflected in scientific literature. Today, science continues to be influenced by ideas of gender, as literature reflects gender biases, and female scientists routinely must challenge gender biases.
Many of the ideals the influence the historic development science come from the Enlightenment, a time during the 17th and 18th centuries where reason was seen to be a driving force for progress. Enlightened men were rational, and sought happiness, knowledge, and freedom. Given this emphasis on rationality, and the association of women with the home and emotion, women were largely excluded from the ideals of the Enlightenment. The rational affairs of humankind were thought to be left to men, who acted….
Martin, Emily. 1991. The egg and the sperm: How science has constructed a romance based on stereotypical male-female roles. Signs 16:3, 485-501.
Schiebinger, Londa. 1993.
Why Mammals Are Called Mammals. In: Nature's Body: Gender in the Making of Modern Science. Beacon Press, 40-74.
Mammals of Michigan There are many mammal species in Michigan, and this paper will discuss some of them, in terms of how they have evolved to live in the Michigan…Read Full Paper ❯
Mammals Cloning to Preserve the Endangered Giant Panda Among animals, mammals account for more than 15,000 species of vertebrate animals that have the ability to self-regulate their body temperature, have hair,…Read Full Paper ❯
Marine Mammals hat is a necropsy? hen biologists wish to know the cause of death for a marine mammal, they conduct a necropsy. A necropsy is similar to an autopsy for…Read Full Paper ❯
Eutheria, marsupalia, and monotremata are the three main "infraclasses" of the Mammaliam subclass Theria (Archibald). Of these three infraclasses, eutheria currently boasts the largest membership and monotremata the smallest.…Read Full Paper ❯
Climate Change on Marine Mammals Sustained scientific observations reveal and alert everyone that climate change has asserted alarming effects on the oceans (Simmonds & Isaac 2007). Scientists agree that…Read Full Paper ❯
ancient Michigan basin area and discuss a brief geological history of the area and how the mammals that lived during the Ice Age adapted to their environment over…Read Full Paper ❯
Marine Mammals The author of this response has been asked to answer to a fairly specific question. The question at hand is whether marine mammals can suffer from decompression sickness.…Read Full Paper ❯
Coastal Animals Sea Turtles (SeaWorld, 2004) From a taxonomy perspective, sea turtles belong to the overall class of reptilia. The order is testudines. The suborder cryptodira also includes fresh water turtles.…Read Full Paper ❯
However, there simply does not seem to be sufficient evidence for the disease hypothesis. First, there has been no evidence of disease found. Next, even extremely virulent diseases,…Read Full Paper ❯
The Delta is also a habitat for many species of fish, birds, mammals, and plants, and it supports agricultural and recreational activities while also being the focal point…Read Full Paper ❯
Behavioral Episodes in elation to Leopard Seals Leopard seals are widely known for their ferocity and have been acknowledged as top predators for a long time now. These are…Read Full Paper ❯
SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY AND WHAT DOES IT AIM TO STUDY? Inspired by Kurt Lewin (1951), social psychology adopted the experimental method to study human behavior (Wood & Kroger, 1998). In…Read Full Paper ❯
Like most other animals, the artic fox's cot changes to reflect the summer arctic habitat, becoming a brown or gray color that matches the summer environment (National Geographic,…Read Full Paper ❯
Measurements were obtained both in the presence of and the absence of whale watching boats. It was observed that a period of intense boating activity caused the killer…Read Full Paper ❯
Women's Issues - Sexuality
gender have influenced the historic development of science in the west, as reason and science have long been seen as male traits. Similarly, gender ideals such as the…Read Full Paper ❯