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Mammals of Michigan
There are many mammal species in Michigan, and this paper will discuss some of them, in terms of how they have evolved to live in the Michigan area, and how they have evolved to live off the land in the Michigan area. Something of the geological history of Michigan will also be discussed.
We will start with the extinct mammals of the Michigan area: about 12,500 to 11,800 years ago, the Michigan area was covered with boreal forest dominated by spruce trees, and the fauna that was dominant in this area over this period moved here from South of the area. The important mammals of Michigan during this period were: Scott's moose, giant beevers, flat-headed peccaries, woodland muskoxen, mammoths and mastodons. It has been suggested that the mammoths and mastodons, in particular, were drawn to Michigan because of the many salt seeps and the many sources of…
Baker, R.H. (1991). Michigan Mammals.
Burt, W.H. (1968). Mammals of the Great Lakes Region.
Evers, D.C. (1996). Guide to Michigan's Endangered Wildlife.
Heinrich, E.W. (1976). The Mineralogy of Michigan.
Cloning to Preserve the Endangered Giant Panda
Among animals, mammals account for more than 15,000 species of vertebrate animals that have the ability to self-regulate their body temperature, have hair, and, in the females, produce milk. In the study of mammalogy, the branch of science that deals with mammals, there has been a growing concern at the rate of mammalian species nearing extinction. Thus, the Endangered Species Act of 1973 was put forth to protect animals and plants on the verge of extinction. It also provides policy to the Fish and Wildlife Service to determine a listing of endangered animals and to develop associated recovery programs. The Fish and Wildlife Service subsequently has registered a policy for controlled propagation of species listed under the Endangered Species Act for a restricted administration of conservation and recovery practices where the purpose is to oversee the "production of individuals, generally within a…
Endangered Species Act of 1973." U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. June 1994. http://endangered.fws.gov/policy/pol003.html
Hawes, A. & M. Huy. "Giant Pandas." Smithsonian National Zoological Park. 2001. http://nationalzoo.si.edu/Animals/GiantPandas/
Lanza, Robert P., Dresser, Betsy L. & Philip Damiani. "Cloning Noah's Ark." Scientific
American. 19 Nov. 2000.
hat is a necropsy?
hen biologists wish to know the cause of death for a marine mammal, they conduct a necropsy. A necropsy is similar to an autopsy for humans. The marine mammal must be cut open, carefully examined and researched as to the cause of death, so the necropsy helps the biologist understand (through observations of the carcass) how the animal died, why it died, and if the public health will be impacted in any way -- or if "signs of human interaction are present on the carcass" (Section One, p. 15). The biologist or scientists who is performing the necropsy is initially making an objective evaluation to see if there are indeed obvious signs that human interaction (HI) might have been involved. Secondly, a subjective search is conducted -- much more involved and intense -- to evaluate further the possibility that humans in any way impacted…
Section One and Section Three. Pinniped Necropsy Technique and Anatomy.
Eutheria, marsupalia, and monotremata are the three main "infraclasses" of the Mammaliam subclass Theria (Archibald). Of these three infraclasses, eutheria currently boasts the largest membership and monotremata the smallest. Eutherian mammals like bats are characterized by their production of placenta as well as live births. Marsupials like koalas are characterized by live births of immature young that continue their gestation in a pouch located externally on the mother's body; that pouch contains a nipple hidden inside. Unique to all mammals, the monotremes like echidnas give birth to eggs instead of live young but do produce milk. hereas bats are widely distributed around the globe, monotremes only exist in Australia. There are a few marsupials remaining in the Americas but most have become extinct and the greatest number currently exist in Australia.
Chiroptera (Bat), of which there are 928 species
The only member of the mammal class to truly…
Archibald, J. David. "Eutheria." Retrieved online: http://www.bio.sdsu.edu/faculty/archibald/Archibald01Eutheria.pdf
"Ancient koalas may have been loud and lazy but they didn't chew gum." Science Daily. 1 Dec, 2009. Retrieved online: https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2009/12/091218122926.htm
Cooper, Dani. "Echidna Ancestor sam with Platypuses." ABC Science. Retrieved online: http://www.abc.net.au/science/articles/2009/09/22/2692080.htm
"Monotremes." Retrieved online: http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu /mammal/monotreme.html
Climate Change on Marine Mammals
Sustained scientific observations reveal and alert everyone that climate change has asserted alarming effects on the oceans (Simmonds & Isaac 2007). Scientists agree that these effects are likely to be in the form of alterations in prey distribution and volume. They also agree that the more mobile species of marine mammals may possess enough resilience to adapt to the changes. ut the extent of their adaptability remains a question. This question arose from recent observations that many species of these mammals may be vulnerable to climate changes. Vulnerability may be in the form of limited range of habitat, such as specific species, which can survive only in icy environments. Mammals that are forced to migrate to polar regions in search of feeding grounds have also become a subject of serious concern. These are only the major impacts of climate change on these mammals, which call…
Burek, K. A. et al. Effects of Climate Change in Arctic Marine Mammals. Vol. 18, 2
Supplement, Ecological Applications, 2008. Retrieved on October 9, 2015 from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18494366
Burkett, V., et al. Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. Chapter 6 Coastal Zone and Marine
Ecosystem: Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, 2015. Retrieved on October 9, 2015
ancient Michigan basin area and discuss a brief geological history of the area and how the mammals that lived during the Ice Age adapted to their environment over the years.
Use at least 12 sources of information; use quotes
Michigan experienced the great Ice Age and was covered by glaciers several times. These events in turn affected the mammals that inhabited what are now the Great Lakes region and the state of Michigan.
Mammals of Michigan
History of Ice Age Michigan
Twenty thousand years ago, mile-thick glacial ice sheets that extended from Canada to the Ohio River covered Michigan and most of northern North America. It took more than 12,000 years for the ice to melt, leaving Michigan a glacially scarred landscape with the Great Lakes. Four huge continental glaciers that formed over the Midwest eventually formed the state's features. The last one known as the Wisconsin Glacier occurred…
Michigan Dept. Of Environmental Quality, Geological Survey Division. General Geology of Michigan. 1998. http://www.calvin.edu
Oard, Michael J. "A Post-Flood Model." 1990.
Eschberger, Beverly. "Prehistoric Michigan." 1998-2000 http://www.geobop.com .
Extinct in the Wild. http://www.bagherra.com .
The author of this response has been asked to answer to a fairly specific question. The question at hand is whether marine mammals can suffer from decompression sickness. If they can, the author of this report is to confirm this. The author would also need to confirm under what circumstances the marine mammals would suffer from the sickness. Only scientific papers and journal offerings will be used to answer this question.
First off, the answer to the question at hand is an absolute "yes." Marine mammals can indeed incur decompression sickness and this would include any mammals who engage in diving. It was once thought that marine mammals were generally immune to decompression sickness but more recent findings have found this to be untrue (Hooker et al., 2012). This phenomenon has been verified through the use of diagnostic imaging in creatures like cetaceans and pinnipeds (Dennison, Fahlman &…
Van Bonn, W., Montie, E., Dennison, S., Pussini, N., Cook, P., Greig, D., & ... Gulland, F.
(2011). Evidence of injury caused by gas bubbles in a live marine mammal: barotrauma in a California sea lion Zalophus californianus. Diseases Of Aquatic Organisms, 96(2),
Sea Turtles (SeaWorld, 2004)
From a taxonomy perspective, sea turtles belong to the overall class of reptilia. The order is testudines. The suborder cryptodira also includes fresh water turtles. There are two families of sea turtles. ased on their carapaces, sea turtles are divided into two families: bony -- covered with horny scutes -- turtles and leatherback turtles. There are eight species of sea turtles: green Chelonia mydas, black Chelonia agassizii, loggerhead Caretta, Kemp's ridley Lepidochelys kempii, olive ridley Lepidochelys olivacea, hawksbill Eretmochelys imbricate and. flatback Natator depressus. The first turtle records are from the Triassic era.
The habitat of sea turtles is mostly relatively temperate waters. They are often found in the shallower waters of lagoons, costal waters and bays. The migration process however often involves thousands of miles. Females often make this migratory trip to lay eggs on certain beaches. When these eggs hatch, the hatchlings…
Amador, Armando. Indo-Pacific Hump-Backed Dolphin. Il-Sci-Acad-Sci.org, 1999. Accessed August 6, 2004. Available at http://www.il-st-acad-sci.org/mammals/whale009.html.
AntarcticConnection. Leopard Seals: Description & Characteristics. Wildlife of Antarctica, 2004. Accessed August 7, 2004. Available at http://www.antarcticconnection.com/antarctic/wildlife/seals/leopard.shtml.
Parks.Ca. Elephant Seals. California State Parks, 2004. Accessed August 5, 2004. Available at http://www.parks.ca.gov/default.asp?page_id=1115 .
PBS. Southern Elephant Seal. PBS.org, 2004. Accessed August 8, 2004. Available at http://www.pbs.org/kratts/world/ant/seal/ .
However, there simply does not seem to be sufficient evidence for the disease hypothesis. First, there has been no evidence of disease found. Next, even extremely virulent diseases, like the plague or West Nile Virus, do not have the kill rates necessary to cause the extinction of an entire species. In addition, one has to realize that the extinction of large mammals coincided with the extinction of other animals, like birds, marsupials, placentals, testudines, and crocodilians. It is unlikely that a disease would be lethal in such a wide-variety of animal populations, especially when it did not destroy all species of certain animal genus.
The final theory is that a meteor killed the large mammals. There is evidence that meteor impacts caused earlier extinctions like the Permian-Triassic extinction and the extinction of the dinosaurs. Meteor impacts can interfere with food sources, because the resulting dust in the air interferes with…
The Delta is also a habitat for many species of fish, birds, mammals, and plants, and it supports agricultural and recreational activities while also being the focal point for water distribution throughout the State.
The development of the Delta as it exists today started in late 1850 when the Swamp and Overflow Land Act transferred ownership of all swamp and overflow land, including Delta marshes, from the federal government to the State of California. In 1861, the State Legislature created the Board of Swamp and Overflowed Land Commissioners to manage reclamation projects, and in 1866, the authority of the Board was transferred to county boards of supervisors. The Delta now covers 738,000 acres interlaced with hundreds of miles of waterways, with much of the land below sea level, relying on more than 1,000 miles of levees for protection against flooding. 20
White sturgeon is one of the most spectacular native…
1. Northridge, S.P. An updated world review of interactions between marine mammals and fisheries. FAO Fisheries Technical Paper. No. 251, Suppl. 1. Rome,
FAO. 1991. 58p.
2. DeMaster, Douglas P., Fowler, Charles W., Perry, Simona L. And Richlen,
Michael F. Predation and Competition: The Impact of Fisheries on Marine-Mammal
Behavioral Episodes in elation to Leopard Seals
Leopard seals are widely known for their ferocity and have been acknowledged as top predators for a long time now. These are large but slender mammals, with females usually exceeding males in size and weight. The spotty coats, distributed along their bodies, define the leopard appearance and allure to the hunting abilities they possess. With powerful jaws and canine teeth, leopard seals can prey on creatures of whatever size. Their agility and reputation have long formed individuals' negative perception upon the former. This document is to try to dismantle the negative image leopard seals have been inoculated with for such a long time. This proposal looks at some of the facts that have led people forming drastic opinions as well as some episodes that appear to indicate how little we may in fact know in relation to leopard seals.
Statement of Problem
Aguayo-Lobo, A., R., Acevedo, J., Brito, J.L., G., Acuna, P., Bassoi, M., Secchi, E., R., and Rosa, L.D. 2011. Presence of the leopard seal, Hydrurga leptonyx (De Blainville, 1820), on the coast of Chile: An example of the Antarctica -- South America Connection in the marine environment. Oecologia Australis 15(1): 69-85. doi: 10.4257/oeco.2011.1501.07
Ainley, D.G., Ballard, G., Karl, B.J., and Dugger K.M. 2005. Leopard seal predation rates at penguin colonies of different size. Antarctic Science 17(3): 335-340.
De Laca, T.E., Lipps, J.H., and Zumwalt, G.S. 1975. Encounters with leopard seals (Hydruga leptonyx) along the Antarctic Peninsula. Antarctic Journal of the United States 10(3): 85-9.
Hiruki, L.M., Schwartz, M.K., and Boveng, P.L. 1999. Hunting and social behavior of leopard seals (Hydrurga leptonyx) at Sea Island, South Shetland Island, Antarctica. Journal of Zoology, London 249(1): 97-109. Retrieved from http://digitalcommons.unl.edu/usdeptcommercepub/151/
SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY AND WHAT DOES IT AIM TO STUDY?
Inspired by Kurt Lewin (1951), social psychology adopted the experimental method to study human behavior (Wood & Kroger, 1998). In this regard, Wood and Kroger (1998) report that, "Lewin's experiments in leadership style (autocratic, democratic, laissez-faire) became classics in the new experimental social psychology" (p. 267). Lewins' early work was carried on by Festinger and others who explored cognitive dissonance for the next 20 years at MIT and subsequently at the Universities of Michigan and Minnesota, making this one of the foundations of social psychology (Wood & Kroger, 1998).
Simply stated, social psychology uses the scientific method to study human social behavior (ogers, 2003). According to ogers, psychological social psychology "studies how social events and phenomena influence the ways in which individual people feel, think and act. It is concerned with the psychological processes (such as social perception and cognition) that…
Hayes, D. (2004). RoutledgeFalmer guide to key debates in education. New York:
Karakashian, L.M., Walter, M.I., Christopher, A.N. & Lucas, T. (2006). Fear of negative evaluation affects helping behavior: The bystander effect revisited. North American
Journal of Psychology, 8(1), 13.
Like most other animals, the artic fox's cot changes to reflect the summer arctic habitat, becoming a brown or gray color that matches the summer environment (National Geographic, 2008). The photograph by Norbert Rosing (National Geographic, 2004), demonstrates the usefulness of the animal's camouflage: (Norbert Rosing, National Geographic, October, 2004, online at http://ngm.nationalgeographic.com/ngm/finaledit/0410/,2008).
The artic fox contributes to the balance of nature because its diet includes rodents, which have a tendency to multiply rapidly in any conditions; birds, and fish (National Geographic, 2008). However, rodents are more plentiful during the summer months in the artic. During the winter months, when its food sources are scarcer, the fox will be follow the trail of the polar bears, acting as a scavenger to the remains of the larger animal's kills (National Geographic, 2008). The arctic fox also eats some amounts of vegetation, usually vegetables (National Geographic, 2008).
The arctic fox is a…
Measurements were obtained both in the presence of and the absence of whale watching boats. It was observed that a period of intense boating activity caused the killer whales to adjust their call duration levels to compensate for the background noise. This clearly indicates that anthropogenic noise levels directly interfere with the routine life of the killer whales, which are dependent on vocal communication for successful hunting and survival. [Andrew et.al. 2004]
It is well-known that anthropogenic sounds can even have fatal consequences as evidenced by the recent mass strandings of beaked whales that coincided with the mid frequency sonar exercises by the navy. A recent research by (Holt et.al, 2009) focused on the effects of anthropogenic sounds on the vocal behavior of killer whales. The resident killer whales of the waters of the Puget Sound, Seattle, were the subjects of this study. The southern resident killer whales in three…
Whale Songs, 'Killer Whale', Accessed 15th March 2009, available at http://www.whalesongs.org/cetacean/killer_whale/home.html
SeaWorld, ' Killer Whales: Communication and Echo Location," Accessed 15th March 2009, available at http://www.seaworld.org/animal-info/info-books/killer-whale/communication.htm
Wilfredo Santiago Benitez, 'Echolocation and strategy used by Southern resident Killer Whales (Orcinus orca) during foraging', 2005, Accessed 15th March 2009, available at http://beamreach.org/051/papers/wilfredo.pdf
Volcker B. Deecke, John KB Ford & Peter JB Slater, 'The Vocal Behavior of Mammal eating killer Whales: Communicating with Costly Calls ' Animal Behavior, 2005, 69, 395-405, http://www.behaecol.amu.edu.pl/files/the_vocal_behav_of_mammal-eating_killer_whales.pdf
gender have influenced the historic development of science in the west, as reason and science have long been seen as male traits. Similarly, gender ideals such as the characterization of females as maternal, associated with nature, irrational, and week have been reflected in scientific literature. Today, science continues to be influenced by ideas of gender, as literature reflects gender biases, and female scientists routinely must challenge gender biases.
Many of the ideals the influence the historic development science come from the Enlightenment, a time during the 17th and 18th centuries where reason was seen to be a driving force for progress. Enlightened men were rational, and sought happiness, knowledge, and freedom. Given this emphasis on rationality, and the association of women with the home and emotion, women were largely excluded from the ideals of the Enlightenment. The rational affairs of humankind were thought to be left to men, who acted…
Martin, Emily. 1991. The egg and the sperm: How science has constructed a romance based on stereotypical male-female roles. Signs 16:3, 485-501.
Schiebinger, Londa. 1993.
Why Mammals Are Called Mammals. In: Nature's Body: Gender in the Making of Modern Science. Beacon Press, 40-74.
Part 2: Answer the following questions as they relate to the nine phyla in the assignment table. (Porifera, Cnidaria, Nematoda, Arthropoda, Platyhelminthes, Annelida, Mollusca, Echinodermata, and Chordata.)
1. Which phyla lack organs? What type of symmetry do they have?
Porifera and Cnidaria lack organs. Porifera lack any symmetry hence these are asymmetrical while Cnidaria have radial Symmetry.
2. List all of the phyla that show cephalization.
The phyla that show cephalization are Mollusca, Annelida, Chordata, Platyhelminthes and nematoda.
3. Do all organisms on the table have 3 germ layers (endoderm, ectoderm, and mesoderm)? If not, which phyla have fewer than three germ layers?
No, not all these organisms have 3 germ layers. Porifera has no germ layer and Cnidaria has two of them.
4. One phylum on the table has more species than all the others. State the name of this phylum, and provide several different…
Jeanson, N.T., (2010), "New Frontiers in Animal Classification," Retrieved from:
Zhang, (2011). "Animal biodiversity: An introduction to higher-level classification and taxonomic richness." Zootaxa, 3148: 7 -- 12.
© 20010-2011 Career Education Corporation University Group
For centuries, people have sought to explain not only what people dream about, but also why humans dream. In older times, dreams were used for prophecy. Later, they were used in the growing field of psychology.
But, until fairly recently, people only theorized about what dreams mean, and not why people themselves have evolved the capacity to dream.
This paper examines various theories that explain why human beings dream. The first part of the paper looks at the writing of Sigmund Freud regarding dreams as the royal road to the unconscious. Implicit in Freud's writings is the view that dreams evolved as humans were forced to sublimate their natural desires to live in society.
The paper then looks at the work of J. Allan Hobson, who saw dreams as a result of the natural physiological workings of the brain. In this body of research, Hobson meticulously matches the features…
Flanagan, Owen. Dreaming Souls: Sleep, Dreams and the Unconscious Mind. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001.
Foulkes, David. Childrens Dreaming and the Development of Consciousness. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1999.
Hobson, J. Allen. The Dream Drugstore: Chemically Altered States of Consciousness. Cambridge: MIT Press, 2001.
Kahn, Michael. Basic Freud: Psychoanalytic Thought for the 21st Century. New York: Basic Books, 2003.
Synapse Competition and Elimination
Throughout the growth and life of vertebrates and many animals, beginning even in the embryonic stages of development and continuing throughout adult life, a process known as synaptic competition takes place that eliminates certain underperforming synapses and neurons and leads to the dominance of a single motor neuron bringing even in embryonic stages (Wyatt & Balice-Gordon, 2003). This begins with the innervation of musculature during embryonic development by a single motor neuron that remains dominant and leads to the ongoing elimination of other motor neurons throughout life (Wyatt & Balice-Gordon, 2003). Though the mechanisms by which synaptic competition and the resulting synaptic eliminations occur are not precisely known, there has been some research into this area and the beginnings of reasonable theory explaining this phenomenon have been developed.
In embryonic development, synaptic competition begins prior to the innervation of musculature with developmental processes and random firings…
Howard, I. & Rogers, B. (1995). Binocular vision and stereopsis. New York: Oxford University Press.
Wyatt, R. & Balice-Gordon, R. (2003). Activity-dependent elimination of neuromuscular synapses. Journal of Neurocytology 32(5): 777-94.
9% of the turtles" -- and "plastics" dominated the debris found (Katsanevakis, p. 75). The list of plastic trash found in those turtles is too long to include in this research.
Seabirds (especially pelicans, gannets and gulls) often fall prey to "monofilament line"; albatrosses, petrels, penguins and grebes are not found entangled in plastic fishing line or other plastic debris as often as pelicans and gulls (Katsanevakis, 2008, p. 69). hat is particularly insidious about plastic is when it is ingested by marine animals is releases "toxic chemicals" due to the chemical additives that are added to the plastic during the manufacturing process. Once in the abdomen of the animal the toxic materials can block the digestive tract and block "gastric enzyme ingestion, diminished feeding stimulus, nutrient dilution, reduced growth rates, lowered steroid hormone levels, delayed ovulation and reproductive failure," Katsanevakis asserts (p. 71).
There is lethal danger for small…
Hill, Marquita K., 2010, Understanding Environmental Pollution, Cambridge University
Press, New York City, 585
Katsanevakis, Stelios, 2008, Marine Debris, A Growing Problem: Sources, Distribution, Composition, and Impacts, in Hofer, T.N., ed., Marine Pollution: New Research, Nova Publishers, Hauppauge, New York, p. 54-75.
Moore, Charles, 2003, Trashed: Across the Pacific Ocean, Plastics, Plastics, Everywhere,
It is common knowledge that the human body consists of about 65% water. People cannot live any longer than five days without H20. Individuals of all ages love to sail the oceans, swim in the sea and soar under or speed across the waves. It comes as no surprise, then, that some part of the human psyche remembers millions and millions of years ago before animals came on shore. What is still questionable is how or why these animals made the move from water to land. The journal articles discussed below give some of the latest findings on this topic.
Early in the Devonian Era, close to 400 million years ago, all the continents were grouped closely together and surrounded by the seas. The climate ranged from dry weather to torrential rains as some tropical areas do today. Even flowers had not yet evolved on land, let alone vertebrates.…
Clack, J.A. "An Early Tetrapod from Romer's Gap." Nature (2002) 418: 72-76. [electronic version]
Clack, J.A. "From Fins to Fingers." Science 304.5667 (2004): 57-59. [electronic version]
Coates, M.I, and J.A. Clack. "Polydactyly in the Earliest Known Tetrapod Limbs"
Nature. (1990) 347: 66-69. [electronic version]
Dredging the Port of Miami
Dredging refers to the activity needed to be conducted for removal of unwanted deposits present in water pathways. However, even though this activity facilitates marine traffic regularity, it isn't without its drawbacks[footnoteef:2]. Dredging poses a great threat to the aquatic environment, and should be carried out very carefully, facilitated only using the assistance of the appropriate dredges and dredgers. As a port for international cargo, the Port of Miami is a significant section of the Miami economy. A project, to expand the port area by means of dredging, has been planned for. This is intended to provide ingress and egress for the new larger PanaMax ships that will be coming through the improved Panama Canal, and thus is expected to draw more business in cargo shipping to the locality[footnoteef:3]. The proposed expansion zone is, however, also the site of a key ecosystem. Thus, arguments and…
Immunology - Toll-Like receptors
The family of Toll-like eceptors has gained in importance since the discovery that they could be potential regulators and controllers of the immune response system in the human body as they are capable of recognizing the molecular patterns that are associated with pathogens. It was found that Toll-like eceptors are capable of recognizing endogenous ligands, as well as microbial components and those Toll-like receptors are activated by small-molecular-mass synthetic compounds and for these reasons the Toll-like eceptors are significant in that they are potential targets for the development of new therapies for several diseases. (Toll-like receptors as potential therapeutic targets for multiple diseases)
Toll eceptors were first found in an insect, the fruit fly Drosophila and these receptors were found to play a significant part in the innate immunity by the recognization of microbial particles and also by triggering the immune cells against the source of…
Cohen J; Hopkins P. (April 6, 2002) "Toll-like receptors: the key to the stable door?" Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve& ; db=PubMed& list_uids=11983029& dopt=Abstract Accessed on 12/20/2004
Imler, Jean-Luc; Zheng Liangbiao. "Biology of Toll receptors: lessons from insects and mammals" Retrieved from http://www.jleukbio.org/cgi/content/abstract/75/1/18 Accessed on 12/20/2004
Lin-fu Zhou; Kai-sheng Yin "Toll-like receptors: function and roles in asthma." Retrieved from http://www.cmj.org/information/full.asp?id=1817 Accessed on 12/20/2004
"Multidisciplinary UI Team Awarded Grant to Study Innate Immune System" (November 24, 2003) Retrieved from http://www.uihealthcare.com/news/news/2003/11/24microbes.html Accessed on 12/20/2004
Felt never would agree
This level of disagreement was never reached, although there was some debate as to what constituted private and public traits and societal rules, for instance, in determining whether the different group's traits of dominance or subservience counted as societal rules.
Lack of clarity about group remark
There was some difficulty in defining what constituted a sociocultural rule, versus a personality characteristic. It was clear amongst all group members that the frogs were in the middle and subservient to mammals, and that the fish were prey, but just how this worked out in the society in terms of rules and laws was open to debate.
Lack of clarity about own message
Because I did not really emerge as a dominating and defining group force, in terms of the beginnings of the discussion that set the terms for the society, I did not feel that I was misunderstood,…
The finding that helped clinch the case was the New orld howler monkey. it's the only New orld monkey with full trichromatic vision, and the researchers found that it also has the worst sense of smell among New orld monkeys, with about 31 per cent of its olfactory receptor genes being nonfunctional. (Kleiner 12)
There is another interesting evolutionary difference between humans and our avian cohabitants. Even though birds are also trichromates, we do not use the same protein for detecting the color red. The primate version of this opsin apparently arose spontaneously in Old orld primates from a mutation of the green opsin gene on the X chromosome some 30 million to 40 million years ago. (Travis 235) Perhaps another evolutionary clue that birds are in fact really the descendants of dinosaurs, but that is a topic for another paper. This is also the point, seen on the our…
Blushing Start to Colour Vision." New Scientist; (2006) 189 p.22.
Chatterjee, Soumya Callaway and Edward M. "Parallel Colour-Opponent Pathways to Primary Visual Cortex. Nature; (2003) 426 p.668-671
Color vision: A matter of charge." Science News; (1979) 116 p. 427
Color Vision (a): One of Nature's Wonders." DIY Calculator. (2008). DIY Calculator. 26 Mar 2008 http://www.diycalculator.com/sp-cvision.shtml .
This entity follows the California Clean Air Act and the Federal Clean Air Act so that it is responsible for air monitoring, permitting, enforcement, long-range air quality planning, regulatory development, and education and public information activities with regard to air pollution.
A more recent concern has developed as the first cruise ship to enter Monterey ay since 1966 caused environmental groups to demand increased protection for marine sanctuaries and to increase regulation of the cruise ship industry. The water around Monterey ay has also been affected by sewage spills at local beaches, leading to viral and bacterial contamination. In 2000, four Monterey County beaches were closed because of sewage spills, and twenty-five warning advisories were issued. In 2001, there was one beach closure and eleven advisories. It has also been found that there is inadequate storm pipe maintenance in cities on the Monterey peninsula.
The California Ground Squirrel is a…
Burde, John H. And George a. Feldhamer. Mammals of the National Parks. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2005.
Environmental Impact Analysis." San Benito County 2005 RTP EIR (2005).
Castillo, Edward D. A Short Overview of California Indian History (1998). http://www.nahc.ca.gov/califindian.html .
Cato, Paisley. "Spermophilus beecheyi." San Diego Natural History Museum (2007), http://www.sdnhm.org/fieldguide/mammals/sper-bee.html .
The female wolverine delays implantation; the egg cells float in the uterus for some time attaching to the uterus wall. Delayed implantation means that the young can be born at the right time, from January to April, regardless of when mating takes place. The female produces one litter every two or three years. She digs out a den in a snowdrift, in a tree hollow, or under a rock, where she has her young, called kittens. Two or three kittens are born each year. The kits are born furry and their eyes are closed. The kittens feed only from their mother for two or three weeks. During this time she rarely leaves them, feeding on food she has stored. Later the mother brings food to the den, but the kittens are eight to ten weeks old before they are weaned. They reach adult size by early winter but may stay…
Campbell, N.C. (1996). An introduction to ecology: distribution and adaptation of organism.
Biology (pp. 1080). Menlo Park California: The Benjamin / Cummings Publication Inc.
Campbell, N.C., Mitchelle, L.G. & Reece, J.B. (1997). The Biosphere. Biology Concept and Connections (pp. 681). Menlo Park California: The Benjamin / Cummings Publication
Noam Chomsky's Language Criteria - Do Animals Have Language?
Philosophers and scientists have long wondered whether animals were capable of communicating with each other in the form of language. However, research regarding both the cranial and cognitive capacity of higher mammals suggests that these animals are capable of many cerebral functions that used to be the purview of humans.
This paper argues that higher mammals like primates, dolphins and whales are capable of and have evolved a complex language of their own. Towards this, the paper looks at the recent research done regarding the "whistling" and other auditory communication among dolphins. In arguing that this "whistling" constitutes and fulfills the functions of language, the paper uses the framework on the syntactic structures and the various aspects of language. Through an application of Chomsky's criteria, this paper argues that dolphins have evolved a communication system made of whistling sounds that serve…
Chomsky, Noam. Knowledge of Language: Its Nature, Origins, and Use. New York: Praeger Publishers, 1988.
Dolphin Whistles Offer Signs of Language Ability." New York Times, September 5, 2000: F2. Proquest Database.
Humes, Edward. "Navy Researchers see Marine Mammals' Potential to Perform Deep-sea Duty." Orange County Register, August 7, 1988: K01. Proquest Database
Suplee, Curt. "Dolphins May Communicate Individually; Exchange of 'Signature' Whistles in the Wild Suggests a Form of Language." The Washington Post, August 25, 2000: A3. Proquest Database.
Sharks are another vertebrate that are similar to dolphins in many ways and very different from dolphins in other ways. There are more that 250 species of sharks, ranging from the harmless whale shark to the ferocious great white.
The great white shark, known as Carchardon Carcharias, feeds regularly on marine mammals, such as seals, sea lions, otters, dolphins, and whales. They enjoy eating bottle-nosed dolphins whenever they get an opportunity. Samuel Gruber in Discovering Sharks writes that the great white consumes marine mammals when they come across a deceased one. The Great White shark, also known as the white death, is considered the most dangerous shark in the waters. The Great White has a conical instead of a flattened snout, black eyes, and large, serrated, arrowhead-shaped teeth. The upper and lower lobes of the tail are almost equal in size, and the body is blue or brown-gray, not white,…
Till the period up to 11,000 BC every individuals remained Stone Age hunters/gatherers. Nearly that time, the roads of growth of human societies on various continents started to move away in a large scale. (Guns, Germs, and Steel- the Fates of Human Societies: (www.2think.org) During that period, when Stone Age hunter-gatherers comprised the total human population, a big segregation happened in the proportion that the human societies progressed. In Eurasia, several regions of Americas, and Africa, agriculture started to be the existing pattern of livelihood when domestication of aboriginal wild plants and animals were done by the prehistoric planters and herders. Diamond fairly examines the human history on each continent starting from the Ice Age at a proportion that stresses just the widest traversals of people and concepts. However, his assessment is symmetrical: one eye has rather long-term view of the evolutionary biologist, whereas the other eye and his spirit…
Bradford, DeLong, J. Review of Diamond, Guns, Germs, and Steel. November 1999. Retrieved at http://www.j-bradford-delong.net/Econ_Articles/Reviews/diamond_guns.html. Accessed on 1 February, 2005
Editorial Reviews: Amazon.com. Retrieved at http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/product-description/0393317552/ref=dp_proddesc_0/104-9?%5Fencoding=UTF8&n=283155Accessed on 1 February, 2005
Guns, Germs, and Steel: The Fates of Human Societies. Retrieved at http://www.actionismyreward.com/item-0393317552.shtml . Accessed on 2 February, 2005
Guns, Germs and Steel: The Fates of Human Societies. Retrieved at http://search.barnesandnoble.com/booksearch/isbnInquiry.asp?isbn=0393317552&itm=1Accessed on 2 February, 2005
There is presently much controversy regarding the issue of dinosaurs, as the fact that experts have access to a limited amount of resources concerning this matter makes it difficult for them to express certainties concerning this particular animal reign. Even with the fact that there are presently no living dinosaurs to be dissected, scientists have come up with a series of theories based on how dinosaurs behaved. In spite of their physiology, most dinosaurs put across behavior characteristic to mammals and birds. One of the oldest debates in the history of dinosaur studies is related to the blood temperatures of these creatures, as some experts insist that they were cold-blooded while others maintain that they were warm-blooded. The presence of dinosaur fossils at high altitudes makes it possible for one to consider that dinosaurs were warm-blooded, taking into account that cold-blooded creatures typically evolve in warm areas.
Misiroglu, Gina, "The Handy Answer Book for Kids (and Parents)," (Visible Ink Press, 2009)
Norell, Mark; Gaffney, Eugene S.; and Dingus, Lowell, "Discovering dinosaurs: evolution, extinction, and the lessons of prehistory," (University of California Press, 2000)
Norman, David, "Dinosaurs: a very short introduction," (Oxford University Press, 2005).
If the water you drank leaked out of a tube in your stomach, your drinking would definitely change. Such a loss of water would trigger hypovolemic thirst, which is typically caused by bleeding, sweating, or other types of fluid loss. Here, "thirst is based on low volume" (Kalat 307). The water you drink is being lost out of the tube. As such, it is not filling the necessary level of water within the body, causing hypovolemic thirst to induce the individual to want to drink even more. Thus, if you had a tube letting water out of your body, you would still remain thirsty and would drink even more to try to compensate.
Some women crave salt during pregnancy because salt helps the body retain fluids. Pregnant women need to retain more water in order to help the progression of the pregnancy. Since sodium retains water,…
Kalat, James W. (2012). Biological Psychology. 11th ed. Wadsworth Publishing.
history documentary, part 1 was very interesting and well thought out. The CGI placing Europe's landmarks and buildings amidst ancient forest, desert, and ocean were well done. The most interesting part began during the rainforest era, 300 million years ago. This era was the most fascinating to me because of the all the giant bugs like the 3 meter long millipede and one of the world's earliest amphibians. That section also had giant ferns that were later identified throughout the ages thanks to the perfectly encased imprints they left behind. All these forests and fauna that existed back then laid the ground work for the coal that Europe had and has now.
They discussed specifically in the segment how 10 meters of forest became 1 meter of coal. Coal was one of the most important sources of energy for quite some time. They pointed to Europe being one of the…
"BBC Europe A Natural History 1 Genesis." YouTube. YouTube, 10 Dec. 2011. Web. 5 Mar. 2014. .
Lindahl, Kai. Europe, a natural history. New York: Random House, 1964. Print.
283). This led to the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA). This Act acknowledged the fact that there was a lack of knowledge about the ocean ecosystem. This was an important insight and "At its core, NEPA requires federal agencies to produce an environmental impact statement (EIS) whenever they propose a major federal action" but " it was unclear from the original language of the statute whether the lease of oil exploration rights was covered" (othbach, 2007, p. 283). However, in 1978 Congress amended this Act with regard to the current state of the law governing the leasing of offshore oil exploration rights. The 1978 amendments "…specifically state that if a plan for development and exploration of offshore oil resources is a major federal action, then an EIS must be produced" (othbach, 2007, p. 283). These events were to contribute to the growing concern about the environmental impact of…
Baird, S.L. (2008). Offshore Oil Drilling: Buying Energy Independence or Buying Time?. The Technology Teacher, 68(3).
Boesch, D.F., Butler, J.N., Cacchione, D.A., Geraci, J.R., Neff, J.M., Ray, J.P., et al. (1987). Chapter 1 an Assessment of the Long-Term Environmental Effects of U.S. Offshore Oil and Gas Development Activities: Future Research Needs. In Long-Term Environmental Effects of Offshore Oil and Gas Development, Boesch, D.F. & Rabalais, N.N. (Eds.) (pp. 1-53). London: Elsevier Applied Science. Retrieved March 14, 2010, from Questia database:
Additionally, conservationists suggest increasing patrols to improve overall enforcement of existing laws, better boundary demarcation, and the development of stronger hunting quotas. All of these measures require significant and lasting funding.
This Park is in a state of crisis. ith most of its large mammals now extinct from the Park, and illegal users on the rise, Park Rangers are simply outmatched. Poachers can find a thriving market for illegal bushmeat and rare birds. Illegal loggers easily find buyers for rare trees. The Park is under-staffed and under-funded and soon to face new challenges if the upstream dam is built along the Gambia River as planned.
The Galapagos Islands and the Niokola-Koba National Park represent two of Planet Earth's most valuable treasures. They contain biodiversity that not only provides scientific opportunity but may support the health of the entire ecosystem in their respective regions. Both sites are listed…
Novy, Julia W. 2010. Incentive Measures for Conservation of Biodiversity and Sustainability: A Case Study of the Galapagos Islands. United Nations
Environment Program: WWF-USA.
UN Chronicle. 1999. Conservation of Endemic Biodiversity of the Galapagos World
Heritage Site. Available at: http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1309/is_3_36/ai_58675442/
Elegans; and anterior and posterior patterning of the hox-mediated development pathway group in vertebrates and insects (Pasquinelli, Hunter and Bracht). Other hypothesized functions include regulation of "viral function and human cancer" (Miska).
Scientists Ke, Liu, Liu, and Liang (2003) have listed the identification markers for miNAs. To be identified as miNAs, NAs must: be single-stranded and between 21 and 25 nucleotides; be "cleaved from one arm of a longer endogenous double-stranded hairpin precursor" by the enzyme Dicer; exactly match genomic regions for encoding double-stranded precursor NAs; be phylogenetically conserved with their "predicted precursor secondary structures"; be able to be confirmed with their precursors by northern blots; and miNA precursors must aggregate whenever Dicer is wiped out in its original form (Ke and al).
ole in Gene Expression
miNAs are uniquely suited for gene regulation, even more so than traditional protein regulators (Ke and al). For example, miNAs are matched…
Fang, Chen and Yin Q. James. "Gene Expression Regulators: MicroRNAs." Chinese Science Bulletin 50.13 (2005): 1281-1292.
He, Lin and Gregory Hannon. "MicroRNAs: Small RNAs With a Big Role in Gene Expression." Nature Reviews 5 (2004): 522-531.
Ke, Xi-Song and et al. "MicroRNAs: key participants in gene regulatory networks." Current Opinion in Chemical Biology 7 (2003): 516-523.
Miska, Eric. "How MicroRNAs control cell division, differentiation, and death." Current Opinion in Genetics and Development 15 (2005): 563-568.
According to Fitzpatrick & Keegan (2010), "This use of historical ecology to study "the complex, historical interactions between human populations and the ecosystems they have inhabited" (Kirch 1997a, p.2; see also Crumley (ed.) 1994), has been applied in other parts of the world to observe anthropogenic changes through time. Archaeologists, influenced by a wide array of scientific fields, have taken a keen interest in understanding how humans adapted, influenced, modified, and impacted their environment. This is a difficult endeavor, however, because "environments change and the magnitude of change are never constant" (O'Brien 2001, pp. 29-30). (Fitzpatrick, Keegan, pg. 30, 2007)
Fitzpatrick & Keegan point to the uses of historical ecology to investigate the interrelationships between humans and the biosphere. The importance of noting environmental changes as separate from human involvement may be erroneous. Environmental changes are hinted by proponents of historical ecology to have been initiated by humans through their…
Anderson, a. 2009, Epilogue: Changing Archaeological Perspectives upon Historical Ecology in the Pacific Islands1, University Press of Hawaii.
Balee W. (1998), Historical Ecology: Premises and Postulates -- Chapter 1.
Bird DW., Richardson JL., Veth PM., Barham AJ. (2002) Explaining Shellfish Variability in Middens on the Meriam Islands, Torres Strait, Australia. Journal of Archaeological Science, 29, 457-469
Erlandson, Rick (2010) Archaeology Meets Marine Ecology: The Antiquity of Maritime Cultures and Human Impacts on Marine Fisheries and Ecosystems.
The ecology all over the world is different and the desert is an extreme environment. Deserts are found over one fifth of the earth surface. To be classified as a desert the rainfall is a criterion. The Iquique, Chile received only 0.6-inch rainfall for a twenty year period. Even in the worlds driest desert, like the Atacama Desert there is infrequent rain and it may also receive snowfall. (Bowman, 37)
The most cases of rainfall is usually lesser than 50 cm for a year. Great desert areas are the Sahara, Mexico, and other smaller deserts are found in the lower latitudes and are hot deserts. There are also cold deserts, like the desert at Utah and Nevada and some places at western Asia. There are vegetation and animal life found in the deserts that are suited to the harsh climate and the vegetation and all biomes are special.…
Bowman, Isaiah. Desert Trails of Atacama.
American Geographical Society: New York. 1924.
Bradley, Richard A. The Influence of Weather and Biotic Factors on the Behavior of the Scorpion (Paruroctonus utahensis)" Journal of Animal Ecology, 1988, vol. 57, no. 2, pp: 533-551.
Thinkquest. Biotic and Abiotic Factors.
Classification and common features
Monkeys are classified under the phylum Chordata, subphylum Vertebrata, class Mammalia, order Primates, superfamilies Cercopithecoidea and Ceboidea. (Classification: Infoplease) More specifically the term monkey "includes all primates that do not belong to the categories human, ape, or prosimian." (Monkey: Encyclopedia Com) There are two main groupings under which monkeys fall. These are New World and Old World monkeys. (Monkey: Wikipedia.)
The common characteristics of moneys include the following. They are all excellent climbers and are arboreal. They mostly live and can be found in subtropical and tropical climates. They are almost exclusively day-active animals. Their physiognomy is similar to humans, with flat faces and eyes pointed forward. They also have stereoscopic vision. Another distinguishing characteristic is that their hands and feet are highly developed for grasping and climbing. Many species have big toes and thumbs which are opposable. (Monkey: Encyclopedia Com)
Monkeys have characteristics…
Bergman J. 2004)
Why Mammal Body Hair Is an Evolutionary Enigma. CRS Quarterly. [Online] Available from: http://www.creationresearch.org/crsq/articles/40/40_4/Bergman.htm . December 26, 2004.
Classification: Infoplease. [Online] Available from:
http://www.infoplease.com/ce6/sci/A0859744.html . December 26, 2004
Pearl Jam's "Do the Evolution" is a modern take on the evolution of mankind. ritten from a social perspective, the song critiques the conceit that humans are somehow "superior" because they are the most highly evolved, or complex organism on Earth. The complete lyrics for Do the Evolution are listed at the end of this essay.
Pearl Jam's frontman, Eddie Venter, has quickly become the musical voice of Generation X His lyrics are almost always insightful and provocative, and often address important social issues. Do the Evolution is no exception to the rule, as Venter delivers a topical and pointed commentary on current status of what is arguably the most highly evolved animal on the planet: human beings.
From a purely scientific perspective, the process of evolution is simply change over time. Darwin sought to explain the process of evolution by putting forward the theory of evolution by natural selection.…
The Pearl Jam Network. 13 May 2002. http://pearljamnetwork.com/archive/lyrichuffer.cgi-yield/dotheevolution
Darwin, Charles On the origin of species by means of natural selection, or, The preservation of favoured races in the struggle for life. London; Toronto: H. Frowde, Oxford University Press, 1907.
Dawkins, Richard. The Blind watchmaker. New York: Norton, 1986.
Warm-blooded vs. Cold-looded Animals
Most animals can be classified as either warm-blooded or cold-blooded. For example, all mammals and birds are warm-blooded, while all reptiles, amphibians, insects and fish are cold-blooded. As the owner of a leopard gecko, which is cold blooded, and a dog, which is warm-blooded, I chose this topic for my essay because I wanted to understand exactly what it means to be warm-blooded or cold-blooded, and how these creatures differ.
asically, the temperature of an animal's blood is directly related to its body temperature. Warm-blooded creatures keep the inside of their bodies at a consistent temperature by generating their own body heat when they are in a cold environment, and cooling their body heat down when they are in a hot place. In order to create heat, warm-blooded animals transform all consumed food into energy. In comparison to cold-blooded animals, warm-blooded animals must eat a lot…
Daniels, Patricia. Warm-Blooded Animals. Raintree/Steck-Vaughn, 1983
Daniels, Patricia. Cold Blooded Animals. Raintree/Steck Vaughn, 1986.
The Encyclopedia of Animals: Mammals, Birds, Reptiles, Amphibians. Dimensions, 2002.
Environmental Biology: The Effects of Pollution in the Ocean
The oceans are being contaminated by pollution caused by oil spills, tanker discharges, untreated municipal wastes and agrochemical residues. Pollution is known to have destabilized many coastal ecosystems and is believed to be responsible for the decline in phytoplankton and consumable shellfish which usually thrive further out to sea. Medical wastes, beach visitors' garbage, waterfront businesses account for most of the toxic and most dangerous pollutants that lurk below the surface of the ocean. Oil spills and medical wastes only play a small part in ocean pollution (Energy Intelligence Group, 2002). Plants and factories spew over thirty-two billion gallons of poisonous chemicals and sewage into the sea every day. The Commerce Department's National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (2000) states that eighty percent of pollution to the marine environment comes from land-based sources, such as runoff pollution. Runoff pollution includes many small…
Adler, T. (1996, Feb.). The expiration of respiration; oxygen - the missing ingredient in many bodies of water. Science News, (149) 88.
Boukhari, S. (1998, July-Aug.). Marine blues. UNESCO Courier, (2) 47.
Conformer." Glossary of Marine Biology. Retrieved November, 7, 2002 from: http://life.bio.sunysb.edu/marinebio/glossary.c.html .
Energy Intelligence Group. (2002, May). Oil spills play small role in ocean pollution.
Glimpse into Neanderthal Culture
hen one thinks of the Humanoid genus Homo Sapiens neanderthalensis (HSN) they picture a very primitive creature, simplistic in nature with few social complexities. However, upon close examination of several Neanderthan archeological sites, one will find the Neanderthal man had all of the necessary elements for the beginning of the formation of modern society. It was once thought that these elements were only present after Neanderthan culture after contact with Home Sapiens (HSS). However, evidence now exists that suggests that Neanderthals were already well on their way to developing a formal, but rudimentary, culture well before contact with HSS. This research will examine these findings using evidence gathered from the Petralona, Larga Velhol, St. Cesaire, Shanidar, and Arago sites. This research will support the thesis that Neanderthals had the beginnings of an advanced society prior to contact with Home Sapiens and that the disappearance of the…
Bednarik, R.G. (1992). Palaeoart and archaeological myths. Cambridge Archaeological Journal 2(1): 27-43.
Chase, P. And Dibble, H (1987). Middle Paleolithic symbolism: a review of current evidence and interpretations. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 6:263-296.
A d'Errico, F. et al. (1998) "Neanderthal Acculturation in Western Europe? Current Anthropology, Supplement, 39:1-44, p. 3 in Morton, G. (1998) Neanderthan Culture. Internet Discussion. September 7, 1998. http://www.asa3.org/archive/evolution/199809/0121.html Accessed July, 2003.
Fagan, B. (1990) The Journey From Eden, (London: Thames and Hudson) in Morton, G. (1998) Neanderthan Culture. Internet Discussion. September 7, 1998.
He describes how wild grains and animals were domesticated, as well as the new technologies that made farming possible (sickles, baskets, pestles, gourds, irrigation, the wheel, the plow). He uses a chart to plot these movements. His evidence is mainly archeological, historical, and botanical with heavy doses of appeal to imaginary scenarios. Its power to convince is narrational. His ultimate point in cataloguing this change is to assert how, for first time in history, humans become a prime factor in altering earth's natural landscapes. Land was now exploited and degraded through deforestation for crops and soil erosion.
Summary: Ruddiman summarizes the history of how humans began to shape the earth through technology and landscape transformation. He relies on the credibility of his narrative.
Ch. 8, pp. 76-83: His main claim is that humans rather than nature have created a rise in atmospheric methane. He presents several lines of argument, beginning…
These gunboats would devastate wildlife area and other immense and indefinite environmental impact. These tankers would carry liquefied natural gas or LNG in cruising through Head Harbor Passage. It would take at least 90 minutes for each tanker, the size of Queen Mary, to cross the passage of whale and porpoise feeding areas, breeding grounds and nurseries as well as aquaculture sites and fishing grounds (Figart).
The Passamaquoddy people and their ancestors have, for thousands of years, lived, fished, hunted and cultivated land in the Quoddy region (Harvey, 2004). They have thrived on marine species for survival. ut over 200 years of permanent European settlement in the region since the late 18th century introduced environmental predators and developers. With the passing of the years, they increased and became more and more efficient (Harvey). In response to the situation, the United Nations Environment developed the Global Programme of Action…
Akagi, H.M. (2002). Appeal to the UN. NGO Committee of the United Nations
International Decade of World's Indigenous Peoples: Sipayik.com. Retrieved on December 19, 2009 from http://www.sipayik.com/akagi's_appeal_to_the_un.htm
CEC (1998). Impact of contaminants on the resources of the Gulf of Maine. A Global
Programme of Action Coalition for the Gulf of Maine. Commission for Environmental Cooperation: Horsley & Witten, Inc. Retrieved on December 20,
brevis blooms are not a new phenomenon, and fish kills that result from red tides caused by K. brevis in the Gulf of Mexico have been described in the scientific literature since 1960 or so and have been reported anecdotally for more than two centuries (Naar et al. 2002). In this regard, Backer and her associates (2005) emphasize that, "The human health effects from consuming shellfish with high concentrations of brevetoxins in their tissues have been well documented. However, there is very little information describing human health effects from environmental exposures. It is ironic that we know the least about the aspects of the Florida red tide problem that poses the greatest public health hazard in terms of number of people affected" (645). Today, K. brevis blooms are monitored closely in order to mitigate the foregoing health hazards that are related to the consumption of shellfish and shellfish harvesting is…
Aguirre, A. Alonso, Richard S. Ostfeld, Gary M. Tabor, Carol House and Mary C. Pearl.
Conservation Medicine: Ecological Health in Practice. New York: Oxford University
Backer, Lorraine C., Barbara Kirkpatrick, Lora E. Fleming, Yung Sung Cheng, Richard Pierce,
A "New York Times" reporter notes, "But unlike some other patents on animal cloning, this one does not specifically exclude human from the definition of mammals; indeed, it specifically mentions the use of human eggs" (Pollack). Another writer notes that there are virtually no limits on what a patent can be issued for, and so, the patent office can potentially issue patents on any number of controversial or ethical procedures and creations. He writes, "Under this approach, the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO or the Agency) issues patents on 'anything under the sun made by man'" (Bagley). Clearly, this policy can lead to muddy waters and questions of morality in the future. Most people agree that human cloning should not occur for any number of reasons, including the ability to create humans and even "perfect" humans to serve as workers or in effect "slaves." This is a moral and…
Bagley, Margo a. "Patent First, Ask Questions Later: Morality and Biotechnology in Patent Law." William and Mary Law Review 45.2 (2003): 469+.
Editors. "Can Living Things be Patented?" Bio.org. 2008. 15 Feb. 2008. http://www.bio.org/ip/primer/livingthings.asp
Kevles, Daniel J. "Of Mice & Money: The Story of the World's First Animal Patent." Daedalus 131.2 (2002): 78+.
Pollack, Andrew. "Debate on Human Cloning Turns to Patents." New York Times. 2002. 15 Feb. 2008.
Inuktitut in Modern Inuit Communities in Northern Canada
The role of language in identity construction of the Inuit in Nunavik (Quebec, Canada), which nourishes the evolution of their ethno-territorial movement in the eastern Canadian Arctic, had been around since the 1970s. This paper is an analysis of the legal-political context of the Quebec State then enables the detachment of the cornerstones of its policy speech in general, and finally those with respect to the indigenous population, in particular to the Inuit language.
There are eight major Inuit communities: those of the LABADO, the UNGAVA, and the BAFFIN, of Iglulik, the CAIBOU, of Netsilik and Copper as well as the Inuit of the Western Arctic (which replaced MACKENZIE INUIT). There are five main dialects Inuit in Canada Inuvialuktun, Inuinnaqtun, Inuktitut and inuttut grouped under a single language, Inuktitut or Inuktitut. (McGrath 2007) At the last census, 70% of Inuit said they…
Alia, Valerie (2009). Names and Nunavut: Culture and Identity in Arctic Canada. Berghahn Books. ISBN 9781845451653
Billson, Janet Mancini; Kyra Mancini (2007). Inuit women: their powerful spirit in a century of change. Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 9780742535961
Crandall, Richard C (2000). Inuit art: a history. McFarland. ISBN 0786407115
De Poncins, Gontran. Kabloona. St. Paul, MN: Graywolf Press, 1996 (originally 1941). ISBN 1-55597-249-7
Indeed, the drawing and expulsion of air is driven by muscular action; in early tetrapods, air was driven into the lungs by the pharyngeal muscles, whereas in reptiles, birds and mammals a more complicated musculo-skeletal system is used. In the mammal, a large muscle, known as the diaphragm, manages to drive ventilation by periodically altering the intra-thoracic volume and pressure; by increasing volume and decreasing pressure, air is sucked into the airways, and by reducing volume and increasing pressure, the reverse occurs.
Absorption in the intestines occurs mainly in the small intestine. This is evidenced in the fact that the small intestine has a particular folded texture in order to increase the surface area available for diffusion of nutrients through the intestinal wall so they can be absorbed. These microscopic folds are called microvilli. In an adult human, the small intestine is, on average, about seven meters long - which…
Genomics and Implications for the Future
The Human Genome Project has completed its monumental mapping of the genetic sequence in human DNA, and the field of genomics is taking advantage of these initiatives and innovations in technology to pursue scientific inquiries that could not have been imagined just a few years ago. More importantly, perhaps, new applications are being discovered based on the growing body of scientific evidence being developed by this emerging science. To determine what genomics is and how it is being used today and may be used in the future, this paper provides an overview of the biochemistry involved in the study of genomics, followed by an analysis of current and future trends in this field. A summary of the research will be provided in the conclusion.
Review and Discussion
Background and Overview.
Today, genetic-engineering techniques are increasingly being applied to a growing number of life forms,…
Dooley, Erin E. (2004). "Y. F. Leung's Functional Genomics." Environmental Health
Genome news. (2003, September). Body Bulletin 4(9):6.
Goodman, Alan H., Deborah Heath and M. Susan Lindee. (2003). Genetic Nature/Culture:
Macroevolutionary Transition of Cetaceans Back to the Sea
Today, one of the best known examples of macroevolution is that which can be speculated upon and observed in relation to marine mammals. ales, porpoises and dolphins, members of the Catacean order, share a number of distinctions in the marine ecosystem, not the least of which is their high intelligence. Additionally, that these species are mammals that must ascend to the surface for respiration has underscored long-standing zoological speculation as to their origins. As the question of macroevolution suggests, these origins may well denote that the species in question originated on land.
According to the research by Bajpai et al. (2009), the speculative nature of the macroevolutionary theory was given some of its strongest evidence to date by fossil finds in the Indian and Pakistan region. These have suggested that whales in particular can be shown to have evolved into aquatic creatures…
Bajpai, S.; Thewissen, J.G. & Sahni, A. (2009). The origin and early evolution of whales: macroevolution documented on the Indian subcontinent. Journal of Bioscience, 34(5), 673-685.
Barton, N.H.; Briggs, D.E.G.; Eisen, J.A.; Goldstein, D.B. & Patel, N.H. (2007). Evolution. Cold Springs Harbor Press.
Meek, P. (1996). Natural Selection. University of Michigan.
Moran, L. (1993). Random Genetic Drift. The Talk Origins Archive.
The infant does not need to grasp tightly or walk in the first few months after birth -- instead, it needs to feed and develop. Only when those basic functions are complete does the brain kick in for further development (Kalat, pp 124-5).
Part 3 - Haloperidol is a drug that blocks dopamine synapses. What effect would it be likely to have in someone suffering from Parkinson's disease?
Dopamine is an organic chemical that is a neurotransmitter and hormone. It is responsible for a number of neurological functions: reward-driven learning, motor function, voluntary movement, cognition, and mood. Parkinson's disease is an age-related degenerative condition that causes tremors, motor impairment, and lack of the individual's ability to control which muscles react to stimuli. Scientists believe that Parkinson's is caused by the loss of dopamine-secreting neurons in a part of the brain called the substantia nigra. This is an area of the…
Many researchers believe that Parkinson's is a genetic disorder that occurs in 20 times more of the population than is diagnosed. They believe it is both age and environmentally related, and that a combination of environment stress, the body's inability to repair cells as one ages, means that eventually, this gene would be expressed more if people lived longer. It would simply be a matter of statistics: the older the patient, the more likelihood of environmental damage and the less ability to repair cellular mechanisms (Kalat, p. 249, 256).
Kalat, J. (2010). Biological Psychology, 11th ed. New York: Wadsworth.
Melatonin & the Pineal Gland
The focus of this work is to examine melatonin and the pineal gland. Towards this end, this study examines the literature in this area of study and reports on the findings. The work of Turgut and Kumar (1996) addresses information on the pineal gland, "epiphysis…a small gland in the brain. Stated as that the chief product of pineal gland is that of melatonin. Aleandri, Spina and Morini report that the pineal gland hormonal activity "is influenced by both the dark-light cycle and the seasonal cycle, causing it to play an important role in the neuroendocrine control of reproductive physiology."
Melatonin & The Pineal Gland
The work of Turgut and Kumar (1996) addresses information on the pineal gland, "epiphysis…a small gland in the brain. Stated as that the chief product of pineal gland is that of melatonin. Aleandri, Spina and Morini report that the pineal gland…
Arendt, Josephine (1998) Melatonin and the pineal gland: in-uence on mammalian seasonal and Bercemi, N. et al. (2004) Melatonin for Treatment of Sleep Disorders. Summary: Evidence Report/Technology Assessment: Number 108. Retrieved from: http://www.ahrq.gov/clinic/epcsums/melatsum.htm
Borijgin, J. And Snyder SH (1999) The pineal gland and melatonin: molecular and pharmacologic regulation. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 1999;39:53-65.
Bowen, R. (2003) The Pineal Gland and Melatonin. Other Endocrine Tissues and Hormones 17 Mar 2003 Rerieved from: http://www.vivo.colostate.edu/hbooks/pathphys/endocrine/otherendo/pineal.html circadian physiology. Reviews of Reproduction 3; 13-22. Retrieved from: http://www.reproduction-online.org/content/revreprod/3/1/13.full.pdf
Summation -- Fluoride and Pineal Gland (2012) Fluoride Action Network. Retried from: http://www.fluoridealert.org/health/pineal/
BP Oil Spill
Strategy and Corporate Governance
The bp oil spill of 2010
British Petroleum (BP) is one of the largest oil exploring companies in the world. It is recognized for its efficient practices. In recent years it has positioned itself as an environmentally responsible company by stressing its commitment to undertaking exploration activities by causing minimum harm to the natural environment. It has also invested in technologies to make drilling under the seabed more secure so that oil spills do not occur. However, these claims were brought into question on April 20, 2012 when a massive explosion and oil spill took place on the Deepwater Horizon oil rig over the Macondo oil well in the U.S. Gulf. There was huge damage to the marine environment and to the livelihood of people living in the coastal communities in Louisiana and other coastal states. The poor response of the company was…
ABC News. (2010, July 27). BP CEO Tony Hayward Gets Golden Parachute. Is $18 Million Too Much? ABC News. Retrieved May 1, 2012, from http://www.abcnews.go.com/WN/bp-ceo-tony-hayward-receive-compensation-world-news/story?id=1257978
Alleyne, R. (2010, July 30). BP Oil Spill: Was Tony Hayward Right After All? The Telegraph. Retrieved May 1, 2012, from http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/northamerica/usa/7918000/BP-oil-spill-Was-Tony-Hayward-right-after-all.html
Arnott, S. (2010, July 28). BP CEO Tony Hayward: In His Own Words. Bloomberg Business Week. Retrieved May 1, 2012, from http://www.businessweek.com/globalbiz/content/jul2010/gb20100728_556093.htm
BBC. (2010, June 1). BP's Shares Fall 13% after Plan to Stop Oil Leak Fails. BBC. Retrieved May 1, 2012, from http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/10202162
Oceans & Waters
Surface runoff is the water that makes its way to water collection sites, streams, rivers, lakes and ultimately to the oceans when the ground itself is beyond the capacity to hold it. If this water works its way through places where many people live, it can pick up various chemical, materials and pollutants, which is what is often referred to as well as urban runoff. Surveys suggest that the public believes industry is mostly responsible for the damaging effects of this process, when in fact it is individual activities that make up the greatest concern (CA EPA 2001).
CONTOL OF PET WASTE: People tend to be misinformed about where the water goes that enters street drains. It does not go to treatment facilities, but usually gets diverted to local water holdings or into ground waters (CA EPA 2001). In waste plants, the waters are cleaned and given…
Bulkheads and Seawalls. Unattributed web posting. No date. .
California EPA. Urban runoff and water pollution. California Environmental Protection Agency, Regional Water Control Agency, Santa Ana Region 8. July 2001. < http://www.waterboards.ca.gov/rwqcb8/water_issues/programs/nps/docs/urbanrunoff.pdf >.
LKBlog. Global warming now threatening marine food chain. Mendo Coast Current. July 28, 2010. < http://mendocoastcurrent.wordpress.com/2010/07/28/global-warming-now-threatening-marine-food-chain/ >.
Puget Sound Shorelines. Bulkheads can change the beach. Department of Ecology. .
Intrinsically Photosensitive etinal Ganglion Cell
ecent studies on biological anatomy of the eye discovered an additional photoreceptor within the mammalian eye. The cells discovered mediate the primary non-image visual activities with the vision system. The functioning of these cells aids in various significant processes including the regulation of the papillary reflex activity in response to light, as well as, the circadian photo entrainment. These cells, called the intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells respond to more than the absolute light. The ipGCs have a unique feature of activity, as they differ from the usual photoreceptor cells of cones and rods. The rods and cones mediate on the vision of images by signaling the contrasts in light after adaptation. Interestingly, the ipGCs also do adapt to light contrast. The cells show sensitivity to flash of light, as is the case with other photoreceptors. The factor of action of the intrinsically photosensitive ganglion…
1. Bellintani-guardia, B., & Ott, M. (2002). Displaced retinal ganglion cells project to the accessory optic system in the chameleon (chamaeleo calyptratus). Experimental Brain Research, 145(1), 56-63. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00221-002-1091-z
2. Ben Simon, G.,J., Hovda, D.A., Harris, N.G., Gomez-Pinilla, F., & Goldberg, R.A. (2006). Traumatic brain injury induced neuroprotection of retinal ganglion cells to optic nerve crush. Journal of Neurotrauma, 23(7), 1072-82. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/neu.2006.23.1072
3. Engelund, A., Fahrenkrug, J., Harrison, A., & Hannibal, J. (2010). Vesicular glutamate transporter 2 (VGLUT2) is co-stored with PACAP in projections from the rat melanopsin-containing retinal ganglion cells. Cell and Tissue Research, 340(2), 243-55. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00441-010-0950-3
4. Henderson, D., & Miller, R.F. (2003). Evidence for low-voltage-activated (LVA) calcium currents in the dendrites of tiger salamander retinal ganglion cells. Visual Neuroscience, 20(2), 141-52. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/198275379?accountid=458
Environmental Effects on Species Habitats in the Southern California Mountains
Southern California is not for everybody. "Some people view the climate and laid-back lifestyle with longing. Others perceive the area, and its inhabitants, as a little too far over the edge" (Hutchings 2001:4D-Z). hile the region may not appeal to all types of humans, it does attract a wide range of species who make their home in the mountainous areas of Southern California. In fact, Southern California is dotted with several mountain ranges, including the San Gabriel, San Bernardino, San Jacinto, San Bruno, Santa Rosa, Cuyamaca, the Palomar Mountains and even the Chocolate Mountains (Havert, Gray, Adams & Gray 1996). One of the most biodiverse and well-studied of these ranges is San Gabriel (ake 1996). This paper will provide an overview of the ecosystems in these mountain ranges in general with an emphasis on the San Gabriel mountain range in…
Adams, Jonathan S., Lynn S. Kutner and Bruce A. Stein, eds. Precious Heritage: The Status of Biodiversity in the United States. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000.
Baur, Donald C. And Karen L. Donovan. The No Surprises Policy: Contracts 101 Meets the Endangered Species Act. Environmental Law, 27(3):767-90.
California's Plants and Animals. (November 24, 2003). Habitat Conservation Planning Branch, California Department of Fish and Game. Available: http://www.dfg.ca.gov/hcpb/species/lists.shtml.
Dasmann, Raymond F. (2004). Habitat Conservation. In Encyclopedia Britannica.com [premium service].
The Aleutian Islands run from the Peninsula of Kamchatka in the Asiatic portion of Russia to Alaska. All the islands are bare and mountainous and the coasts rocky and surrounded by crashing waves and enormous breakers. (Larkin, unpaged) Some believe the Aleutians offer the worst weather in the world: eather fronts originating in the South Pacific create storms hundreds of miles long and many weeks in duration (Sipes, unpaged) that pick up the frigid moisture of the waters and air as they move northward. It would seem that anyone desirous of living there would need some overwhelming reasons to do so. The Russians and Scandinavians who first 'discovered' the area for non-natives, and later the Americans, did have good reasons to be there. As for the Aleuts and Alutiiq, an abundance of fish and sea mammals might have been the attraction if, as some theories surmise, they arrived…
Aleut International Association Web site. Retrieved May 10, 2004 at http://www.arctic-council.org/aia.html
Aleutian Islands." Retrieved May 9, 2004 at http://www.planet.org.nz/pacific_action/national/a_b/aleutian.html
Crowell, L. Aron. "Maritime cultures of the Gulf of Alaska." Revista de Arqueologia Americana, July 1, 1999. Retrieved May 9, 2004 from www.highbeam.com.
Diamond, Jared. "Speaking with a single tongue." Discover, February 1, 1993. Retrieved May 10, 2004 from www.highbeam.com.
Healthcare as an Obligation of Each Citizen
The commercialization of services and goods has been on the rise with the prevalence of globalization to an extent that even essential services that human cannot survive without like the health care have widely been commercialized. The provision of healthcare especially in the cases of delicate surgical procedures and extensive medication has been left the selected few who go for it from the high end private hospitals with personal doctors and consultants. This privilege however comes at a cost, one that the poor and average Americans cannot afford hence they miss out on them and are rendered to make do with the public health services provided by the government.
It is hence an obligation of each individual to uphold the contributions towards the provision of the free and comprehensive universal healthcare for all the citizens of America. We all have the…
Michelangelo S., (2014). Obamacare Success Story: Man With HIV Thought He'd Be 'Dead Within 6 Months,' Now Has Awesome, Cheaper Insurance. Retrieved May 15, 2015 from http://www.huffingtonpost.com/michelangelo-signorile/obamacare-success-story-m_b_4413329.html
The Atlantic Monthly Group, (2015). The Precarious Success of Obamacare. Retrieved May 15, 2015 from http://www.theatlantic.com/health/archive/2015/03/for-those-that-hate-obamacare-do-you-know-why/387913/
Trees cover nothing less than one-third of the earth's surface, and it is estimated that around 3 trillion trees exist worldwide. Forests are found in different climates and locations, they exist in wet, dry, sweltering and bitterly climates. Each of these forests types have the natural peculiarities that allow them to develop in their respective climate (Motivans). Unfortunately, in the past few decades, there has been an enormous level of commercial activities that have subjected forests all over the world to a dire consequential threat with adverse felt by most of the woodlands around the world. Deforestation, road and building constructions form a major part of human threats on the woodlands. Adding to the human activities is the climate change, which has been very devastating on many of the species that inhabit these forests. The threats on their inhabitants are a direct danger of extinction to these woodlands, as what…
Some studies posit that casein consumption has a direct correlation to cancer cell growth, and patients with any form of cancer are counseled not to drink milk, and to limit the consumption of milk products. This is contradicted in terms of using milk to help with certain stomach and colon cancers (Hakkak, 2001). Men who drink large amounts of milk and consume numerous dairy products are at a higher risk for Parkinson's disease, and high levels of calcium intake (6 or more glasses of milk per day), also increase the chance for prostate cancer (Chen, 2007; Giovannucci, et.al. 1998). Additionally, a number of links have been made to digestive disorders such Crohn;'s disease and Hirschprung's disease, which are serious conditions of the digestive system and the bowel ("How Bacteria in Cow's Milk…" 2007).
The idea that the human body requires milk in order to produce calcium and create a stronger…
REFERENCES and WORKS CONSULTED
Champe, P. (2008). "Introduction to Carbohydrates." Lippincott's Illustrated
Reviews: Biochemistry. Williams and Williams.
Chen, H., et.al. (2007). "Consumption of Dairy Products and Risk of Parkinson's
Disease." American Journal of Epidemiology. 165 (9): 998+.