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reflect critically personal perspective philosophy managing change changed ( ) semester Drawing learning experiences semester (group case study, relevant change management theory, reflections relevant personal experiences organisational change), reflect critically personal perspective philosophy managing change changed ( ) semester.
The world we are living in is always changing. The nature of the business world today is very different than the way it was decades ago. Change is inevitable. This is because, as people are always faced with new problems and as such, come up with new ways of doing things in order to better their lives. The people therefore come up with new technologies to meet this needs. For an organization to remain relevant, it must be flexible enough to change with the changing times. Resisting to the wind of change will make the organization obsolete and lead to their collapsing Zilwa, 2010.
SINGH, M. & WADDELL, D. 2004. E-business innovation and change management, Hershey, Idea Group Publ.
WILLIAMS, A.P.O., DONBSON, P. & WOODWARD, S. 2002. Managing change successfully: using theory and experience to implement change, London, Thomson.
ZILWA, D.D. 2010. Academic units in a complex, changing world adaptation and resistance, Dordrecht, Springer.
The organization needs to be making the change for the right reasons and ones that fit the businesses needs. In other words, it shouldn't be incorporated out of the voice in the back of the head saying, "everyone else is doing it." After the business has decided it is a good match, then it needs to decide what exactly they need to make the changes -- that is, does the organization have to start from scratch? How far behind is the business? or, how far to left or right? Knowing exactly where the organization is and what has to be done in vital for an easier transition.
Once an organization knows what is needed, then is the time to do some old-fashioned research into different aspects of technology. There shouldn't be any investing in technology without some very careful research and consideration as part of the process. It inside of…
I wonder whether the job of a manager is not so much to manage the change process as to deal with people's genuine fears. So remember: don't underestimate the emotional impact that change has on people, don't ignore people's fears, don't lie or tell half-truths and do communicate and listen ad infinitum - you can't do too much of it." (Tyler, 2007)
This is confirmed in the work of F. John Rey states in the work entitled: "Managing Change: Managing People's Fear" that "Managing change means managing people's fear. Change is natural and good, but people's reaction to change is unpredictable and irrational. It can be managed if done right. Rey additionally states: "Resistance to change comes from a fear of the unknown or an expectation of loss. The front-end of an individual's resistance to change is how they perceive the change. The back-end is how well they are equipped…
Organizational Change Primer (2000) Management Decision and Research Center, Health Services Research and Development Service, Office of Research and Development, and the Department of Veterans Affairs. May 2000. Online available at http://www1.va.gov/hsrd/publications/internal/organizational_change_primer.pdf
Qubein, Nido R. (2002) Change: Embrace or Resist it. BNET Online available at http://www.frogpond.com/articles.cfm?articleid=nqubein02
Tyler, Debra Allcock (2007) People are right to fear change - Leading People. Third Sector 4 Apr 2007.
Managing Change: Managing People's Fear
The success of salesforce.com in the CR marketplace underscores how technology specifically designed to address users' unmet needs to become more productive yet not constrained by technology is a case in point. Technology that enables higher productivity and meets needs yet does not restrict users' flexibility in managing their work how they want succeeds.
anagerial Challenges and Responsibilities for Rapid Change anagement
When rapid organizational change is attempted, managers need to confront and often deal with internal organizational cultures, which are often impediments to rapid change. For any manager involved in rapid change, the challenge of slightly modifying an organizations' culture can be daunting. For USAA, as the organization is already adopting a process-centric view of change and working to integrate systems so that employees will be better able to serve customers, the habit of change, so to speak, is beginning to set in. Yet in many organizational cultures, the…
Managerial Expertise require to make Change Management Strategies Work
Countering resistance to change that starts with fear of the future takes nothing less than a leader who is passionate about making change part of the company's culture. Leadership behaviors to initiate and sustain the momentum of transforming it initiatives into high value and lasting business strategies is never a one-and-done proposition for any leader. It must be a constant passion to bring change into a company if any leader is going to be successful. Aguirre, Calderone, Jones (2004) argue that the CEO and senior management team must band together and have a consistent and strong show of support for any strategy to be successful.
Combined with a strong sense of purpose that drive a passion for change, managers need to transform themselves into leaders and also have exceptional grasp of BPR and BPM approaches to ensure both the processes re-defined and
In simple terms, the plant has been inefficient for most of its past, mainly because some of its technologies are still obsolete and need to be change. However, if one decides to change the machinery, then it is most likely that the budget will be surpassed and that there will be problems with the union, considering the fact that there will be a surplus of worker and that these will probably be laid off.
As such, it seems that, in order to solve a problem, one may expect troubles in the case of the other two. The case with the press is eloquent in this case. This had broken down because its shafts had never been changed since 1979, however, solutions in this case will bring additional trouble with the union and the budget, as we shall see further below.
6. 1) the operational changes implemented will probably have, in…
Having the skills and savvy to manage the many challenges in today's workforce does not come automatically, nor does it always come easily. It is a fact that many employees resist change, and hence this makes the task of leadership more imposing. This paper reviews several current challenges that executives and managers must meet with competency in order to bring their organizations through a period of change. Three challenges in particular are covered in this paper: assuring employees change is a necessary event in order to continue to be profitable; giving employees the skills and leadership to help them overcome doubts; managers must know how to communicate the vision the company has decided to set as a goal.
Resistance to Change -- How to Overcome Resistance
Botezat Elena -- with the Faculty of Economics at the University of Oradea -- lists several obstacles that are often present when…
Elena, B. (2012). Managing Change: Some Theoretical and Applicative Aspects. Economic Science Series, 21(1), 998-1002.
Palmer, I., and Dunford, R. (2002). Who says change can be managed? Positions,
Perspectives and Problematics. Strategic Change, Volume 11, 243-251.
Wilson, J. (2014). Managing Change Successfully. Journal of Accountancy, 217(4), 38-41.
Managing change in the organization often centers on one of several change strategies or approaches for implementing changes in an organization. Some are more applicable to some situations than others. A directive change strategy occurs when management takes all responsibility for the change and imposes it throughout the organization, using formal management channels already in place. This has the advantage of using existing personnel and structures and may be effective in gaining employee support through simple fiat. This approach works best if management is well-regarded and takes an active leadership position. The approach has the disadvantage of not soliciting information form all subordinates, who might have useful input. In addition, it can generate resistance if management is resented. A second approach is called negotiated change and occurs as the result of give-and-take between different interests. This has the advantage of involving all interested parties and so tends to eliminate resistance,…
Elliott, G. (2005). Planning and Enabling Change. Retrieved July 6, 2005 from http://www.onesixsigma.com/experience/white_papers/whitepaper_pages/g_eliott_change3.php .
Evans, J. & Berman, B. (1995). Principles of Marketing. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Simpson P.M. (2000). Market Segmentation and Target Markets. In Marketing: Best Practices, pp. 210-247. New York: Dryden Press.
Stratamax Grand Strategy (2005). Retrieved July 7, 2005 from http://www.paullemberg.com/grand-strategy-matrix.html.
Managing Change in the Criminal Justice System
One organization within the American criminal justice system that has undergone significant changes during the last few decades is the parole board, which is the institution responsible for determining when a prisoner is eligible for early release. Historically, parole has been used by the criminal justice system to regulate overcrowded prison inmate populations, while providing rehabilitated criminals with a second chance to assimilate into society. Since the beginning of the 21st century, however, a confluence of increased security during the War on Terror, rising crime rates across the nation, and widely publicized instances of recidivism has spurred politicians and the public alike to call for the abolishment of the parole system. According to the United States Senate esearch Center's brief on the shifting landscape of parole boards in the American criminal justice system, "while some states have abolished parole, systems similar to parole…
Bahe, E. (2004, March 22). Organizational change: Managing transition -- part 1. weLEAD Online Magazine. Retrieved from http://www.leadingtoday.org/Onmag/dec04/eb - dec04.html
Reimers, T. United Sstaes Senate, Senate Research Center. (1999). Parole: Then and now. Retrieved from Government Printing Office website: http://www.senate.state.tx.us/SRC/pdf/ib0599.pdf
Component of Modern Organizations
Change is a common component of modern organizations. How do leaders determine when change is necessary? Is there a specific time and place for change, or should change be continuous? Why?
Change is a crucial component of the organizational growth process. Therefore, it is crucial for an organization to take inventory and initiate change where needed. However, at times it could be challenging to determine when the organization needs change, especially for large companies where change may be difficult to execute (Burnes, 2004). Even when the change is difficult, it is important for leaders to revitalize their organizations and bring about enhanced productivity as well as growth. Against a backdrop of increasing deregulation, globalization, the rapid pace of technological innovation, a growing knowledge workforce, and shifting social and demographic trends, few would dispute that, today, the chief task of the management is the leadership of organizational…
businesses strive to be successful in the markets and industries, it is the level of efficiency of the top management in the corporation that normally determines whether the business is able to achieve its mission and objectives. Most of the objectives and values set by a company encompass conceptions covering quality products and services, invention, togetherness of the team and a level of management that is effective. Nonetheless, an aspect of change from these set goals and values as well as practices can cause a disconnect in a number of these areas and departments which in turn can instigate conflict, communication issues and problems within the organization. This paper will discuss the case of Donna Dubinsky and Apple Computer, Inc. where a sudden and unanticipated change within the organization brought about conflict and caused communication barriers within the company.
The interaction and management of the recipients of change…
Jick, T., & Peiperl, M. (2003). Managing Change: Cases and Concepts. Boston: McGrawHill/Irwin
Donna Dubinsky and Apple Computer (A)" case.
Power Point Slides.
Change in the words of Wong (2007, p.195) "may consist of policy changes, new requirements, reorganizations, new management, budget cuts, or a change in business plans." As the author further points out, these changes could either be systematic or sudden. Changes are largely inevitable. In projects, changes according to Meredith and Mantel (2009, P.167) could be caused by three things; errors in initial assessments, receipt of new info regarding the ongoing project, and project environment changes. In some instances, a manager could encounter some behavioral alterations on the part of team members as they encounter change. The said alterations in this case could be as a result of the different responses people have to change. For instance, as Wong (2007) notes, while there are those who may be curious to learn more or view the possibility of change as an opportunity, others could either be suspicious or skeptical…
Adair, J.E. ed., 2004. The Concise Adair on Team Building and Motivation. London: Thorogood Publishing.
Meredith, J.R. & Mantel, S.J. 2009. Project Management: A Managerial Approach. 7th ed. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons
Tomczyk, C.A. 2010. Project Manager's Spotlight on Planning. Alameda, CA: SYBEX Inc.
Wong, Z. 2007. Human Factors in Project Management: Concepts, Tools, and Techniques for Inspiring Teamwork and Motivation. San Francisco, CA: John Wiley & Sons.
Turning around a failing organization: NBC
One of the most outstanding management success stories of the latter 20th century was Jack elch's revitalization of the then failing GE corporate enterprise, through his statistically quantified quality control procedure known as Six Sigma. Quality control is defined as "the managerial process during which actual process performance is evaluated and actions are taken on unusual performance. It is a process to ensure whether a product meets predefined standards and requisite action taken if the standards are not met." ("Quality Control," Six Sigma, 2004) elch set standards for his new corporation in specific and quantifiable ways, and forced its different divisions to meet those specifications.
However, at present, there is a glaring decline in one of GE's key divisions, that of NBC. Once upon a time, long, long ago in entertainment news history, NBC was at the forefront of cutting edge television, with its…
CNN.com. (17 Jan 2005) "CBS Back on top of the Ratings." Retrieved 23 Jan 2005. http://www.cnn.com/2005/SHOWBIZ/TV/01/20/nielsens.ap/index.html
Six Sigma Dictionaries. (2004) "Quality Control." Retrieved 23 Jan 2005.
Change management involves thoughtful planning and sensitive implementation, and above all, discussion with, and involvement of, the people affected by the changes. If a company forces change on people in general problems will arise. Change must be sensible, achievable and quantifiable. Change should not be done for the sake of change. It should be used as an approach to accomplish some overall goal. Usually organizational change is provoked by some major outside driving force. Characteristically, organizations must start organization-wide change in order to evolve to a different level in their life cycle (Change Management, 2011).
Typically there are strong resistances to change. People are usually afraid of the unknown. A lot of people think things are already just fine and don't understand the need for change. Many are intrinsically cynical about change. Many doubt there are effective means to complete major organizational change. Often there are…
Change Management. (2011). Retreived from http://changingminds.org/disciplines/change_management/change_management.htm
Cosack, S., Guthridge, M. & Lawson, E. (2010). Retaining key employees in times of change.
Retreived from http://www.mckinseyquarterly.com/Retaining_key_employees_in_times_of_change_265
This was designed to reduce the uncertainty surrounding the changes, to involve the nurses in the changes, and to give the nurses a suitable method for voicing their concerns.
After this meeting, nurses did not initially respond well. The nurses continued to discuss issues and voiced various concerns, but they only did this amongst themselves and did not approach management. In response, Teresa spoke informally to nurses individually to ask them if they had any questions or concerns. In these one-on-one conversations, Teresa focused on the importance of offering the benefits of their experience and encouraged the nurses to provide feedback and suggestions on the procedures. This caused a greater level of involvement and the two-week review meetings were successful, with issues being raised. The review process continued, with the H department acting as mediator between the nurses and administration. This resulted in changes to many of the procedures and…
Daft, R.L. (1997). Management. Fort Worth, TX: The Dryden Press.
Rashford, N.S., & Coghlan, D. (1989). Phases and levels of organizational change. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 4(3), 17-22.
images managing change. These images change represent ways managers view effective strategy bring change. Each represents a mindset unique a manager summarize key components change.
Images of management
In the context of a dynamic business climate, economic agents have to continually devise new means of dealing with the emergent challenges. What this virtually means is that the companies across the globe strive to develop and implement changes that help them to better address the new tests. Economic agents are as such undergoing a constant change process, but this is in itself intricate and difficult to complete.
The success of any change process depends on a wide array of elements, such as the nature of the change, the benefits it would generate -- both real as well as perceived -- or the role played by the manager. In other words, the means in which the leader manages the change is pivotal…
Chowdhury, D.D., Structured approach to improve passive aggressive organizational behavior: an empirical research, Dihman Deb Chowdhury, ISBN 0557048680
Parkes, G.., 2010, Increasing workload weighs heavily on employees' well-being, AOL Jobs, http://jobs.aol.com/articles/2010/10/04/increasing-workload / last accessed on January 18, 2012
Managing Change Organization. Provide a significant change place a major organization, compare contrast established change management models/frameworks implementation phase common lessons learned.
Managing change in the organization: est uy
One of the most recent successful changes to be implemented at a major organization is that of the technology company est uy's shift to a results-only workplace (ROWE). In the ROWE model, workers are judged solely on their output, not on how many hours they log at the company headquarters. This is a complete shift from the previous organizational culture and the way of valuing employees at est uy before ROWE was implemented. efore, workers were encouraged to pride themselves about how early they came in to the office and how late they stayed. Today, measurable output alone is how workers are valued. "Employee productivity has increased an average of 35% in departments covered by the program," and the…
Brandon, John. 2007. Rethinking the time clock. CNN. Available:
http://money.cnn.com/magazines/business2/business2_archive/2007/03/01/8401022/index.htm [27 Jun 2012]
Major change frameworks and models. (n.d.). DePaul University. Accessed:
http://facweb.cs.depaul.edu/nsutcliffe/450-00Current/450Frameworks-Models.htm [27 Jun 2012]
In conclusion the Interpreter role would need to define the extent, interaction and depth of internal and external forces as exemplified by the growing acceptance of the SaaS platform by enterprise software purchasers. The competitive threat of SaaS would also need to be kept in context as well, as SaaS has the limitations of a lack of security as it is entirely stored on the Internet, and also has the limitation of not being as easy to integrate with as licensed applications, which is where Cincom has attained all its growth.
Making the Transition from Interpreter to Coach
Of all the images discussed in Table 3.1 on page 51 of the text the one that most resonates with me is Coach. Identification with the Coach image is one that stresses collaboration and cooperation and the need to be continually developmental in focus. This approach to managing change equips organizations to…
Hongwei He and Yehuda Baruch. 2009. Transforming organizational identity under institutional change. Journal of Organizational Change Management 22, no. 6, (November 1): 575-599.
Mueller, J. 2009. Maxims of Maximizing Organizational Change Effectiveness. The Business Review, Cambridge 14, no. 1, (December 1): 70-75.
Robinson, C. And K. Goudy. 2009. Leadership in These Challenging Times. Frontiers of Health Services Management 26, no. 2, (December 1): 21-26.
Persuading as a Part of Managing Change
Influencing and persuading
Influencing people means making them want to do what you want them to do, not simply telling them to do something.
The most obvious means of persuading people is through the use of coercion, such as limiting the number of parking passes available to employees to reduce the number of cars and raising the fines for persons who park illegally in handicapped areas. The company can also publicize the need for handicapped parking to 'guilt' employees not to take spaces away from those employees who genuinely need such accommodations.
Most people 'want' to be green rather than hurt the environment. Begin with this common point of reference. Use what people are already persuaded of to change their behavior, such as their desire to save time and money. Do not use empty corporate slogans about 'team spirit' that employees are likely…
Managing Human esources
Change and conflict are some of the manager's current challenges. This thesis tries to inquire into the change processes and managers response to conflicts that arise as a result of change resistance. The manifestation of conflict and the impact of conflict are also discussed. The thesis also looks into the different theories formulated to explain change process and their relationship to conflict management. Also covered is the way decision makers can mitigate conflict and bring sanity in their organizations.
Today's managers are faced with the trade off between change and conflict. Change has become an irresistible part of organization and managers must therefore come up withy strategies and policies of managing change in an order to reduce conflict that may hinder the performance and also to reduce performance gap.
Conflict is bound to occur when different individuals have different perception, opinion, ideas and thought. Change and…
Knudsen T.(2003).Human Capital Management: New Possibilities in People Management. Journal of Business Ethics, 21(2),42-45.
Humphreys, M. (2005). Natural Resources, Conflict, and Conflict Resolution: Uncovering the Mechanisms. The Journal of Conflict Resolution, 49 (4), 23-36.
Kindler, H.S. (2005). Conflict Management: Resolving Disagreements in the Workplace. London: Thomson/Course Technology.
Kotter, J. (1995, march-april). Leading Change:Why Transformation Efforts Fail. Havard Business School Review, 59-67.
Managing Change in the Workplace
The author of the article talks about change in the workplace. She states tat change is exhirating and terrifying. She also states that change is badly needed around any workplace. Whatever an individual's attitude to change is, it has to be the most reliable companion that anyone is likely to ever have. Change will always be with us so it mans that it's better off making friends. The author gives several tips on how to manage change within a workplace.
The first thing that needs to be understood is that growth requires change. If one doubles the number of customers they serve, then how will the current system s in place hold up? Therefore there is need to review the current processes and see how they work if there is an increase in workflow. It is important to ensure that the processes in place can…
Holland, J.(2005). Managing Change in the Workplace. Retrieved June 14, 2014 from http://ezinearticles.com/?Managing-Change-in-the-Workplace&id=35783
Existence value of resistance
Organization change involves introducing new conversations and shifting existing conversations and patterns of discourse. However, new conversations have a hard time competing with existing conversation and so the challenge for change agents is getting new conversation heard. This is where resistance can be of value. esistance helps to keep the conversations in existence. Although talking negatively or complaining and criticizing have been viewed as resistance, it can be beneficial because it keeps the topic alive, giving other the opportunity to participate in the conversation.
Engagement value of resistance
esistance is one possible form of engagement with change acceptance and ambivalence being others and might, in some cases, reflect a higher level of commitment than acceptance, because some resistance is thoughtful. Change recipients who are highly committed to the success of the organization but who disagree with proposed change because it threatens something of value to them…
Issham Ismail, 5th. (2010). Proceeding of the 5th International Conference on ELearning: Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang, Malaysia, 12-13 July 2010. Academic Conferences Limited.
Yuxia Qian, Ohio University. (2007). A communication model of employee cynicism toward organizational change. ProQuest.
Paul Parkin. (2009). Managing Change in Healthcare: Using Action Research. SAGE Publications Ltd.
Ford, J.D., Ford L.W. & DaAmelio (2008). Resistance to change: The rest of the story. Academy of Management Review, 33, 362-377.
If these managers are unfit at achieving such objectives, the change process will not be effective.
Establish the vision and the strategy
Any change management process must start by building a vision that the new organization will be based on. Same as all companies are built on a vision of their founders, so should the new organization that will result after the change management process, be built on a vision.
Although the manager will create the vision of the new organization, he should make sure that all the stakeholders in included in the process. The vision should not only be directed at how the museum will look like from an artistic point-of-view, but it should also be directed towards its employees and how they will participate in the change management process and in the new organization, and towards the new image that the Louvre will present in comparison with similar…
1. Change Management for Shared Services and BPO (2010). SourcingMag. Retrieved August 22, 2010 from http://www.google.ro/imgres?imgurl=http://www.sourcingmag.com/library/graphics/Framework_for_change_management.gif&imgrefurl=http://www.sourcingmag.com/content/c070618a.asp&h=454&w=445&sz=40&tbnid=d5hnQISSPQ2oRM:&tbnh=128&tbnw=125&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dchange%2Bmanagement&zoom=1&hl=ro&usg=__6JeBM0DmBEEc0EVToXVilzkpzrI=&sa=X&ei=fupwTOLODIPN4AbxnuzSCQ&ved=0CDcQ9QEwAw .
2. Kotter, J. (1995). John P. Kotter's eight steps to successful change. Retrieved August 23, 2010 from http://www.businessballs.com/changemanagement.htm .
3. Cellars, T. (2007). Change Management Models. Retrieved August 23, 2010 from http://www.associatedcontent.com/article/237685/change_management_models_a_look_at.html .
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Smaller firms can use change management concepts to assess the current economic and environment and find a unique niche that they can fill, and become a first mover in a new marketplace. Strategies for dealing with change resistance are often important in large organizations with many different employee subcultures, but a small firm may also be resistant because of its 'homey' atmosphere that can cause resistance to change. A smaller organization with more limited resources can likewise benefit from the constant housecleaning of inefficient ideas and processes of change management. In both small and large organizations, change only happens through people, and the people-focused strategy of managing change and making changes work rather than hinder the organization is useful to all organizations, regardless of size ("Thirteen Tips for Managing Change," 2006, North Central Regional Educational Laboratory).
McNamara, Carter. (1997). "Basic Context for Organizational Change." Management
Help. Retrieved 6…
McNamara, Carter. (1997). "Basic Context for Organizational Change." Management
Help. Retrieved 6 Mar 2007 at http://www.managementhelp.org/mgmnt/orgchnge.htm
Thirteen Tips for Managing Change." (2006). North Central Regional Educational
Laboratory. Retrieved 6 Mar 2007 http://www.ncrel.org/sdrs/areas/issues/educatrs/leadrshp/le5spark.htm
In my opinion, valuable organizational change is a process. It is nothing that comes from one day to the other. It requires the combined efforts of the organization as a whole: Skilled managers and the commitment of an organization's workforce alike.
Discussion of the paper's results: What are the key findings? What does it add to the body of knowledge?
The key findings of the paper are threefold.
First, the current management of organizational change tends to be reactive in its response to the pace of change that has never been greater than today. Second, successful management of change within organizations is a highly required skill. Third, further research into the nature of change management needs to be conducted and a new and pragmatic framework for change management is needed as a critical success factor for the management of change. It adds to the body of knowledge, that managerial skills…
This qualitative study, which used the methods of case study, in-depth interviewing, and focus group discussions (FGDs) is particularly vital to the implementation of change in organizational structures, from being a hierarchical to being decentralized. Like Perry, the study puts the manager's role as the most pivotal within the organization, primarily because s/he serves as the 'catalyst' for change and innovation in it.
Other literature also stress the role of power and control in helping the "new managers" of the 21st century to further develop their significant positions in the organization. Hill's (2005) study of managers for the century reflects how learning is achieved through experience, backs up theoretical assumptions that management for the 21st century does not demonstrate parallelism between its theories and actual applications. This assertion is mirrored in a theoretical study by Drejer (2004) and Klagge (1998), wherein he found out that training and learning for new…
Balogun, J. (2004). "Organizational restructuring and middle manager sensemaking." Academy of Management Journal, Vol. 47, Issue 4.
Callanan, G. (2004). "What would Machiavelli think? An overview of the leadership challenges in team-bases structures." Team Performance Management, Vol. 10, No. 3.
Drejer, a. (2004). "Back to basics and beyond: Strategic management -- an area where theory and practice are poorly-related." Management Decision, Vol. 42, Issue 3.
Hill, L. (2004). "New manager development for the 21st century." Academy of Management Executive, Vol. 18, Issue 3.
If the need for change is accepted, rationally, then emotionally, then gradually workers will become more willing and open to learn, and to incorporate the change into the organization's standard operating procedures. Individuals are more apt to accept change if, for example, they are convinced that it will improve patient care in the long run, than if the directive is merely dispensed as required because 'management says so.'
The critical aspect of fifth phase of the change process of "learning" is how changes are introduced. Communicating is an essential aspect of 'buy-in' but so is fostering a positive sense within the organization about the proposed changes by 'creating early wins' (Campbell 2008). This will lead to an increase in people's perceived own competence in their new roles. Unfortunately, starting with easier projects is not always feasible, but even if it is not, a Clinical Nurse Leader must be particularly sensitive…
Campbell, Robert James. (2008, January/March). Change management in healthcare.
The Health Care Manager. 27 (1): 23-39
Recklies, Oliver. (2010). Managing change. The Manager. Retrieved February 24, 2010 at http://www.themanager.org/strategy/change_phases.htm
Schuler, a.J. (2003). Overcoming resistance to change. Retrieved February 24, 2010 at http://www.schulersolutions.com/resistance_to_change.html
These form the foundation for creating more agile, and responsive change management strategies. What makes the 7-S Model stand out however is the integration of its seven core factors with a Balanced Scorecard (BSC), which seeks to equate organizational strategies to financial performance. Specifically included in the BSC approach are financial and customer perspectives, internal process perspective, and learning and growth perspective (Kaplan, 2005). The integration of the 7-S Model and BSC Methodology taken together create the most useful framework for initiating and managing change in organizations.
obert S. Kaplan (2005). How the balanced scorecard complements the McKinsey 7-S model. Strategy & Leadership, 33(3), 41-46. etrieved January 21, 2009, from ABI/INFOM Global database. (Document ID: 858853681).
Diane Moody, Andy Smith. (2004, October). Marching to the same beat. Personnel Today,23-24. etrieved January 20, 2009, from ABI/INFOM Global database. (Document ID: 723783371).
Philip . Walsh (2005). Dealing with the uncertainties of…
Robert S. Kaplan (2005). How the balanced scorecard complements the McKinsey 7-S model. Strategy & Leadership, 33(3), 41-46. Retrieved January 21, 2009, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 858853681).
Diane Moody, Andy Smith. (2004, October). Marching to the same beat. Personnel Today,23-24. Retrieved January 20, 2009, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 723783371).
Philip R. Walsh (2005). Dealing with the uncertainties of environmental change by adding scenario planning to the strategy reformulation equation. Management Decision, 43(1), 113-122. Retrieved January 19, 2009, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 828881461).
Hospital X is changing its documentation from one system of computerized charting to another. Your critical care unit has been selected to trial the new computerized documentation and make recommendations about its use. As the nurse manger, how would you proceed in this change process when your staff have openly expressed concerns about using a more sophisticated system for documentation? (6 points total possible)
I would frame my perspective from the standpoint of ogers' Diffusion of Innovation, which has been applied to many change management situations in nursing. What I appreciate about ogers' theory is that it begins with the assumption that people will adapt innovation at different rates and that a small minority will be non-adapters. Moreover, ogers provides strategic approaches to bringing about organizational and individual change that acknowledge the social realm in which change occurs -- a factor that is particularly true in nursing where…
Rogers theory asserts that innovation is communicated across channels and among the members of an institution through the social system, in much the same way that influencers in Malcolm Gladwell's book The Tipping Point operate. Confident and enthusiastic first adopters influence their peers to give the innovation a try. Often, the motivating factor is that first adopters are recognized by leaders and well-regarded peers -- a factor that can give adoption a boost. Each person must work through decisions about the innovation in order for a full and beneficial adoption to occur. The pattern of adoption decisions develops along these lines (Rogers, 162): 1) Knowledge about the innovation; 2) Persuasion occurs that is either sufficient or insufficient to generate a positive attitude toward the innovation; 3) Decision is made, at which point the individual acts in a manner that leads to adoption or rejection of the innovation; 4) Implementation occurs as the person folds the innovation into their practice; and 5) Confirmation takes place as the person evaluates the utility of their decision and integrates it into their mind-set. Whether this process is formal, as Marquis and Huston (2015) suggest it should be, or informal as Rogers indicates is the universal practice that underlies any formal structure for change management, the important thing is that "subordinates feel that they have played a valuable role in the change" (Marquis & Huston, 2015). The successful diffusion of an innovation can be characterized by an S-shaped curve that depicts the adoption by members of a social system. Usually, about 10 to 25% of the members of a social system rapidly adopt the innovation while the other members slowly pick up on the new practice. The primary hurdle to be overcome is the uncertainty of individuals regarding the enhanced utility of the innovation over the earlier practices with which they are familiar and in which they are likely to be fluent. A strong reason for reticence to change is a lack of confidence about the capacity of the system and resources available to the change agent to accomplish the change over to the innovation (Marquis & Huston, 2015).
Part 2: Reply to the below post:
Our case study depicts a very realistic problem for many organizations. As the nurse manager, my initial action would be to hold a meeting with all unit staff to roll out the new documentation, emphasizing that our unit is trialing the new system in order to generate feedback and recommendations. "As a rule, anyone who will be affected by
The change leader should feel confident about the change if decision criteria are driven by impartial and objective considerations and his position is based on organizational, mission, vision and strategies. Then leader should try to convince all employees on objective and factual grounds while also taking care of their emotional issues. If leaders do not behave well and control their own emotions then employee morale gets affected. "Most executives do a good job of communicating a strong sense of urgency to effect change and move people out of their comfort zones. This often launches a flurry of activities in the right direction to start with. However, sustaining the quality and level of activities is a different ball game. For the abstraction that is called business, it requires more than organizational structure, incentives and job descriptions to have a multitude of people work in a concerted manner towards a common objective…
Lawler III, E. & Mohrman, S.2003,'HR as a Strategic Partner: What Does it Take to Make it Happen?', Human Resource Planning, Vol.26, No.3, p.15+.
Thite, M. 2004, Managing People in the New Economy, Sage Publication, New Delhi.
David, F. (1991). Strategic Management. 3rd Ed. McMillan
Jansen, K. (2000). The Emerging Dynamics of Change: Resistance, Readiness, and Momentum. Human Resource Planning. Vol: 23. Issue: 2.
Anything that appears challenging or threatening in the external environment needs to be taken seriously and this is where management plays a key role.
Internal factors or forces on the other hand are more concerned with organizational culture, mission and values and human resource. While all managers are required to remain true to organization's culture and uphold its values at all times, a real manager is the one who knows when to mould the culture in such a way that it would remain close to its original values while at the same time also become more accepting of external changes. A manager who is blinded by his organization's culture and beliefs is likely to miss signs of external change. Management needs to understand that internal forces are within its control and thus can be used constructively for the benefit of the entire organization instead of allowing it to control the…
Lawton, P. (1995, September). Initiating and managing change in your organization. CMA Magazine, 69 28-32.
Anamnesis, A. (1996). The root ideas in dealing with change. Physician Executive, 22 41-45.
Software quality management, compliance, and collaboration across the entire organization also need to be integrated at the process and role level with the LMA supply chain. As the LMA supply chain is very unique in that it specifically deals with prototypes often that are under covered under security guidelines and clearances, there needs to be continual focus on change management and task ownership in this area as well. For LMA supply chains is their major source of pricing competitive advantage as the company ahs been responsible for several innovations in this process area (Cheung, Myers, 2008). In conclusion as CEO of LMA the challenge of attaining and strengthening global competitiveness begins with being a transformational leader followed by concentrating on transforming compliance into a competitive advantage, and also striving to create a high level of task ownership, mastery and collaboration within and between the company's teams and outside partners including…
Appelbaum, S., J. Berke, J. Taylor, and J. Vazquez. "The Role of Leadership During Large Scale Organizational Transitions: Lessons from Six Empirical Studies." Journal of American Academy of Business, Cambridge 13, no. 1
(March 1, 2008): 16-24.
Spencer Arnesen, and Jeff Thompson. "ERP merger mania." Strategic Finance 85, no. 4 (October 1, 2003): 30-36.
Mark Brenner. "It's all about people: change management's greatest lever." Business Strategy Series 9, no. 3 (May 1, 2008): 132-137.
Change Management Scenario
The contemporary business environment is rapidly evolving. Globalization has taken over the organization environment, and with this business is forced to undergo continuous and rapid change driven by increasing stakeholder expectations, new technological advances, and competition that is not only global, but viral (Bendell, 2005). This has resulted in a dramatically different business environment in which the modern business, in order to survive and prosper, is forced to evolve and regularly revise their internal and external business processes. Typically, aggressive and rapid change management systems germinate within the private sector -- only after trial and error, testing, and numerous permutations did they become standard within the public sector organization. This paradigm, however, changed in the late 1990s with a combination of rising client expectations to effectively address major socio-culture, economic, and demographic issues, and change in governmental oversight and minimal requirements pushed management in the public sector…
Home Depot, Inc. (September 29, 2012). The New York Times. Retrieved from:
Aluise, S. (January 19, 2012). Frank Blake Has Brought Home Depot Home. Investorplace.
Com. Retrieved from: http://investorplace.com/2012/01/frank-blake-has-brought-home-depot-home/
As we will see in the case studies, leadership is a decisive factor in the process of diagnosing and in the implementation of changes in the operation of a corporate organisation. IT, HR and corporate work ethics may be excellent. However, without secure and decisive leadership, the best organisational makeovers can fail miserably.
In this part of the essay, this author will illustrate three models and techniques in the change management professional literature for diagnosing organisations. ith regard to this, we will compare and contrast three different diagnostic models/techniques, including the main strengths and weaknesses of each. In this discussion, we will also examine the relationship between each diagnostic model/technique and the organisational development and political approaches to organisational change.
In the first we will consider, a great person and a great organisational management team leads change and the charge, focusing in on areas that needs to be changed.…
Aloini, D., Dulmin, R., & Mininno, M. (2007). Risk management in erp project introduction: Review of the literature. Information & Management, 44, 547 -- 567.
Flamholtz, E.G. (2011). The leadership molecule hypothesis: Implications for entrepreneurial organizations. International Review of Entrepreneurship, 9(3), 1-24.
Ford, M.W., & Evans, J.R. (2006). The role of follow-up in achieving results from self-assessment processes. International Journal of Quality & Reliability Management, 23, 589-606.
Friedman, B.A. (2007). Globalization implications for human resource management roles. Employment Responsibility Rights Journal, 19, 157 -- 171.
Ann Bib Innovation Stream
Smith, W., & Tushman, M. (2005). Managing Strategic Contradictions: A Top Management Model for Managing Innovation Streams. Organizational Science, 522-536.
This article was published in 2005 in a very reputable journal. The credentials of the authors and their school affiliations are excellent. One of the authors is affiliated with Harvard Business School which is one of the leading business schools in the world. Organization Science is widely recognized as one of the top journal in the fields of strategy, management, and organization theory. The journal publishes groundbreaking research about organizations, including their processes, structures, technologies, identities, capabilities, forms, and performance.
This article centers on the idea of paradox in management; "The paradox of administration [involves] the dual searches for certainty and flexibility." When this paradox is applied to modern organizations, it can be used to consider how innovation works and…
Management Issues and Practices
James Strong, the former CEO and managing director of Qantas Airlines, twice sat on the panel convened at the Sydney office of CPA Australia to select those who would be recognized for the annual 40 Young Business Leaders list. Strong believed in the importance of nurturing young talent and threw himself wholeheartedly into leading much of the discussion among prominent leaders from all over the globe. Criteria for entrants included "the ability to land a top job, develop others and get the most from a team, and leading by example was also a must-have attribute" ("CPA Australia," 2014). To provide the scope and depth of the list-building endeavor, it is informative to explore the names of other participants on the panel, and to match them to the criteria they articulated for entrant evaluation. Here is a quick run down: James Strong looked for entrants who had…
40 young business leaders. In the Black. 2014 CPA Australia Ltd. Retrieved from http://www.itbdigital.com/lists/40-young-business-leaders-2013/
Bennis, W. (1997). Managing people is like herding cats. Covey Leadership Center.
Braithwaite, J. & Mannion, R. (2011). Managing change. In K. Walshe & J. Smith, Healthcare Management, pp. 830-861. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Education.
Cummings, G.G., McGregor, T., Davey, M. Lee, H., Wong, C.A., Lo, E., Muise, M. & Strafford, E. (2010). Leadership styles and outcome patterns for the nursing workforce and work environment: A systematic review. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 47(3), 363-385. doi: 10.1016/j.jnurstu.2009.08.006.
Managing Organisational Change
Kotter's 8-Step model is one of the most commonly used models in change management. The model provides eight useful guidelines which can be applied to change management within the context of human resource management (HM). This paper explores the applicability of the model to a change initiative aimed at shifting from job-based compensation to knowledge-based compensation at Dataversity. Dataversity provides digital educational and publishing services to business and information technology (IT) professionals concerned with data utilisation and management. The paper specifically demonstrates how each step of Kotter's model can be applied to the identified change situation.
The first step in the model is to create a sense of urgency (Kotter & Schlesinger, 2008). This essentially entails demonstrating to members of the organisation why the change is important as well as what could happen if the change is not implemented. The management and employees of Dataversity must understand…
Anderson, D., & Anderson, L. (2010). Beyond change management: how to achieve breakthrough results through conscious change management. San Francisco: Pfeiffer.
Cummings, T., & Worley, C. (2013). Organisation development and change. 10th ed. Boston: Cengage Learning.
Hayes, J. (2014). The theory and practice of change management. London: Palgrave Macmillan.
Kotter, J., & Schlesinger, L. (2008). Choosing strategies of change. Harvard Business Review, 86(7/8), 130-139.
Ben & Jerry's Ice Cream
The two founders, Ben Cohen and Jerry Greenfield, became friends in 1963, while still in high school, and were resolute to making a commitment to their beliefs and their way of life. As such, they moved to a rural area in Vermont and incorporated an ice cream making company in December 1977. Their first shop was opened four months later and was an immediate success. Their company grew consistently throughout the 80s, melding their social beliefs to economical boost.
Ben Cohen, one of the two founders of the company, is still the force that drives the company forward. His strategic vision and imagination is appreciated by everyone working with him. President and chief executive officer until 1989, he is currently leading the marketing and promotion actions. For Ben, the company's social mission still remains a top priority and objective, generally more…
1.3. Summary of argument, Hypothesis
The role of leadership styles and their applicability to the success or failure of mergers, acquisitions and alliances is the focus of this research. Any leadership study, to be relevant, must also focus on the needs of those served by the organizations studies. That is why in the proposed Change Management Equilibrium Model have customer-driven processes at their center or core. The focus of the research to either validate or refute the model is based on consistency and collaboration as two factors that also serve to create greater levels of integration between the two or more healthcare providers merging or changing their organizational structures to better serve the market. This market orientation is what many public-ally-owned and operated healthcare providers struggle with, as often the source of funding becomes their "customer" or whom they serve (Brinkmann, O'Brien, 2010). Studies by AM esearch for example show…
Abbott, R., Ploubidis, G., Huppert, F., Kuh, D., & Croudace, T.. (2010). An Evaluation of the Precision of Measurement of Ryff's Psychological Well-Being Scales in a Population Sample. Social Indicators Research, 97(3), 357-373.
Faten Fahad Al-Mailam. (2004). Transactional vs. Transformational Style of Leadership-Employee Perception of Leadership Efficacy in Public and Private Hospitals in Kuwait. Quality Management in Health Care, 13(4), 278-284.
Antonakis, J., & House, R.J. (2002). The full-range leadership theory: The way forward. In B.J. Avolio & F.J. Yammarino (Eds.) Transformational and Charismatic Leadership, Volume 2, p. 3 -- 33. Boston: JAI Press.
Avolio, B.J., & Yammarino, F.J. (2002). Introduction to, and overview of, transformational and charismatic leadership. In B.J. Avolio & F.J. Yammarino (Eds.) Transformational and Charismatic Leadership, Volume 2, p. xvii -- xxiii. Boston: JAI Press.
Competing for the Future: Komatsu and Home Depot
Komatsu is now one of the leading earth moving equipment manufacturers in the world, however, it wasn't always so. Komatsu began in 1921, as a specialized manufacturer of mining equipment. Yet, even in those early years, before information technology began to eliminate geographical and cultural borders, Mr. Takeuchi, Komatsu's founder, had a globalized and customer-centric vision. He knew it was important for his management team to have "an 'overseas orientation' and a 'user orientation'" (Hamal & Prahalad 3) if they were to compete against much larger corporations.
Komatsu has managed to grow from these very modest beginnings to a multi-billion dollar industry-leading competitor, in only two generations.
It this success has been fraught with challenges. From intensified local competition when American companies were allowed to partner with Japanese companies for joint ventures in Japan, to technological weaknesses in their product line, to…
Hamal & Prahalad. Competing for the Future. Place of Publication: Publisher, Year of Publication.
MacAyeal, J. "The Home Depot, Inc." Hoover's Online 2004. Hoover's Online database. Hoover's. University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ. September 22, 2004 http://premium.hoovers.com.
Using Kotter's 8 steps, the three most significant errors made out of all the change stories presented were: McDonald's failure to create urgency when it implemented its initial menu changes; Kodak's failure to communicate its vision for change; and Fiorina's failure to form a powerful coalition prior to the merger between HP and Compaq Computer Corp. However, it is important to keep in mind that Kotter's approach may not best describe organizational change; its popularity may be more attributable to its usable format than from any evidence that Kotter's approach to change management is superior to competing approaches (Appelbaum et al., 20120).
McDonald's made half-hearted efforts to respond to consumer demands for healthier menu options. However, at that time, it had not seen any reduction in profits because of the perceived lack of nutritional value of its offerings and was not committed to expanding beyond its traditional fast-food repertoire.…
Applebaum, S., Habashy, S., Malo, J., & Shafiq, H. (2012). Back to the future: Revisiting
Kotter's 1996 change model, Journal of Management Development, 31(8), 764-782.
Palmer, I., Dunford, R., & Akin, G. (2009). Managing organizational change: A multiple perspectives approach, 2nd Ed. McGraw-Hill.
Parker, D., Verlinden, A., Nussey, R., Ford, M., & Pathak, R.D. (2013). Critical evaluation of project-based performance management: Change intervention integration, International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management, 62(4), 407-419.
As our course has shown, best practices in managing change in a construction project involves iteration after iteration of involvement and a continual reinforcing of trust and communication. Without these aspects of a project in place and solidified to the foundational culture of a project, change itself has the potential to derail even the best-managed project teams. The text and lectures in class pertaining top change management have also strongly implied the need for clear autonomy and transparency, including the development of trust within and between teams and individuals. Yet in Effective Management of Project Change Orders (Douglas, 2003) these critical factors are not mentioned and there is no implied or expressed infusion of trust into the overall structure of change orders and more specifically, change management. Instead the author continually concentrates on scope, time and budget as the three most critical triangulating factors in defining the overall performance of…
Douglas, Edward E., I.,II. (2003). Effective management of project change orders. AACE International Transactions,, PM111-PM114.
Doyle, J.T., Molnar, M.M., & Brown, R.B., P.E. (2008). Lessons learned on reducing change orders. AACE International Transactions,, OW21-OW29,OW210-OW216.
While the authors contend through cited research that the rational for formalizing organizational hierarchy can in various structural contexts be effective, they revert back to the triad factors of strategy, systems and structures to continually make their point regarding how change must be systemic. They don't see change as an add-on; rather it must emanate out of the culture of an organization to be successful (Oxman, Smith, 2003).
In the article Memo to: CEOs (Simons, Mintzberg, Basu, 2002) the authors mix metaphor and meaning to communicate in a direct, blunt style ot CEOs regarding how they need to lead their companies not as figureheads, but as actual leaders. The entire article resonates with how critical it is for CEOs to see their businesses as continually improving, adding in key functions and requirements over time but still staying focused on broader objectives. The call to leadership is also consistently shown throughout…
Beer, M. Eisenstat, R.A., and B. Spector, 1990. Why change programs don't produce change. Harvard Business Review.68(6) 158-166.
Cascio W.F. 1993 Downsizing: What do we know? What have we learned? Academy of Management Executive 7(1) 95-104.
Oxman, J. And Smith, B, 2003. The Limits of Structural Change, Sloan Management Review. 77-82.
Simons, R. Mintzberg. H., Basu. K.2002. Memo to: CEOs Fast Company 59, 117-121
Kotter's and Lewin's models and discusses their roles as diagnostic tools and as implementation agents. It is the nature of organizations to face constant change, whether the source comes from competitive pressures, new opportunities, technological advances or new initiatives and so forth. Both models offer a methodology for effectively managing change.
Kotter's 8-Step Change Model
Change management models help organizations to effect change in a systematic manner while avoiding some of the pitfalls associated with organizational change development. According to John Kotter, organizations frequently make the same mistakes when they try to bring about change; they allow too much complacency or they fail to communicate and so forth (Reynolds, 2009).
Kotter's 8-step change model has been shown to be a powerful and successful method for implementing change. The purpose of Kotter's model is to efficiently and effectively achieve change management. People respond better to change when they are actively involved…
21st Century Leader. (n.d.). Kotter's eight step model of change. Retrieved January 12, 2012 from: http://www.21stcenturyleader.co.uk/kotter/
Chapman, A. (2010). Change management. Retrieved January 12, 2012 from: http://www.businessballs.com/changemanagement.htm
DealTime. (2000). Leading change, or changing leaders? [Review of the book Leading Change]. Retrieved from http://www.dealtime.com/Leading_Change_by_John_P_Kotter/leading-change-or-changing-leaders/RD-990772/reviews
Faucheux, M. (2009). Negotiating the advantages and disadvantages of change management. Retrieved January 12, 2012 from: http://www.brighthub.com/office/project-management/articles/18477.aspx
And Cohen, D. (2002), there are eight steps that were formulated by Kotter to be followed for there to be effective change management. This method that Kotter came up with has been widely accepted by many management practitioners and is as follows below. If the Walmart applied all or some of these steps, then it could have increased the chances of the changes to be effective.
Step 1-Create urgency-since change can only be effectively initiated when the entire organization sees the need for the change and the change that should be experienced soon. The Walmart management did not take time to explain the employees why these changes were essential and urgent. Walmart management should have opened a candid and honest discussion with the employees about the change that is required in relation to the outside forces in order to create the urgency.
Step 2- Form a powerful coalition- such a…
Managing Change, (2012). The 8 Step Kotter Theory to Master Organizational Change.
Retrieved March 31, 2014 from http://www.managing-change.net/kotter-theory.html
Adam Hartung (2012). Wal-Mart's Wrong-Headed Reorganization. Received March 31, 2014 from http://www.forbes.com/sites/adamhartung/2012/01/30/wal-marts-wrong-headed-re-organization/2/
Kotter J. And Cohen D. (2002). The heart of change: Real-Life stories of how people change their organizations. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press.
management and organization and reviews new trends. The essay also discusses new trends in management that affect organizations and the implications of those trends.
A survey of the literature reveals various definitions of management in use. Management has been defined as the process of getting things done through and with people. It is the planning and directing of effort and the organizing and employing of resources, both human and material, to accomplish some predetermined objective. (Jones and Bartlett, 2011).
BusinessDictionary.com (2011) defines management as the organization and coordination of the activities of an enterprise in accordance with certain policies and in achievement of defined objectives. Management consists of the interlocking functions of formulating corporate policy and organizing, planning, controlling, and directing an organization's resources to achieve the policy's objectives.
Traditionally the term management refers to the activities, as well as the group of people, involved in four general functions: planning,…
BusinessDictionary.com. 2011. Management. [online] Available at: http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/management.html [Accessed 19 July 2011].
Clemmer, J. 2010. Management vs. Leadership. [online] Available at: http://www.jimclemmer.com/management-vs.-leadership.php [Accessed 19 July 2011].
Jones and Bartlett. 2011. Today's Concept of Organizational Management. [online] Available at: http://www.jblearning.com/samples/0763746177/46177_CH03.pdf [Accessed 19 July 2011].
McNamara, C. (n.d.). Introduction to Organizations. [online] Available at: http://managementhelp.org/organizations/index.htm [Accessed 19 July 2011].
Managing Organisational Culture
The values and behaviors that contribute to the unique social and psychological environment of an organization make up the organizations culture. Organizational culture is the summation total of an organization's past and current suppositions, incidents, viewpoint, and values that hold it together, and is articulated in its self-image, inner workings, connections with the outside world, and future prospects.
In dealing with the management of organisational culture, it is firstly essential to recognize as fully as possible the characteristics of the existing or new target culture to include the myths, symbols, rituals, values and assumptions that strengthen the culture. Organisational culture is not something that can be viewed very easily it is consequently quite hard to replace it. Usually when certain leaders form a company, their values are converted into the actions of the members of that organisation. When other leaders take over, it may not…
Background To Business in China. n.d. [ONLINE]. Available at: http://www.worldbusinessculture.com/Chinese-Business-Style.html [Accessed 18 August 2012].
Campbell, B. 2010. [ONLINE]. How To Improve Your Corporate Culture. Available at: http://www.bcbusinessonline.ca/bcb/business-sense/2010/05/28/how-improve-your-corporate-culture [Accessed 15 August 2012].
Differences in Culture. n.d. [ONLINE]. Available at: http://www.analytictech.com/mb021/cultural.htm [Accessed 24 August 2012].
Edgar H. Schein's Model of Organizational Culture. 2010. [ONLINE]. Available at: http://www.businessmate.org/Article.php?ArtikelId=36 [Accessed 18 August 2012].
Drucker could "discern trends" twenty years or more before other observers could observe them the author explains, and then goes on to itemize specific programs, concepts, and strategies that management leaders either adopted or embraced to some degree:
In terms of advocating for changes in management, Drucker introduced the idea of "decentralization" in the 1940s, Byrne observes, and decentralization went on to become "a bedrock principle" for "virtually every large organization in the world." Drucker's suggested changes are as follows: a) orkers should be treated as assets, "not as liabilities to be eliminated," Drucker asserted in the 1950s, and was the first to put forth that philosophy; b) Also in the 1950s, Drucker originated the view of the corporation "as a human community" which should be build "on trust and respect for the worker" and not just a "machine" to produce profit; for this idea, Drucker achieved "an almost God-like…
Byrne, John A.; & Gerdes, Lindsey. (2005). THE MAN WHO INVENTED Management:
Why Peter Drucker's ideas still matter. Business Week no. 3961, p. 96.
Hofstede, Geert. (1993). Cultural constraints in management theories. Academy of Management
Executive, 7(1), 81-94.
My Utopia Job: CFO
Being a Chief Financial Officer (CFO) for a major Fortune 500 company would be my dream job. Capitalizing on a core base of competencies in accounting, cash flow management, and risk management, the CFO sits in the C-suite with a greater sense of purpose and a role that is instrumental in guiding the organization’s strategies (“Chief financial officer (CFO) job description,” 2017). An understanding of management concepts, theories, and principles will help me achieve this goal to help me manifest a utopic career. For example, systems theory shows how the CFO fits into the overall organization and its interdependent, multilateral nature. Likewise, the CFO must have mastered the main management concepts like those we have studied in this class including control and coordination. The CFO is role that balances strategy, tactics, vision, ethics, and communication. To be a successful CFO, one must also master essential conceptual,…
A change management plan to implement a new process in the workforce to allow for a business to provide more personalized service is needed in the retail industry (Aloysius, Hoehle, Goodarzi & Venkatesh, 2018). Brick and mortar stores must do something to differentiate themselves from e-commerce businesses, which can provide more convenience to shoppers who prefer not to have to leave their homes. In other words, brick and mortar retailers need to give consumers a reason to come in—and that reason is personalized service. This has been demonstrated successfully by companies like Best Buy, which introduced the Geek Squad to provide a service-oriented approach to consumers so as to get them physically into the store (Meyer, Shankar & Berry, 2018). This paper will discuss the topic of implementing a service-oriented approach to consumers for brick and mortar retailers as a change management plan, using examples such as Best Buy…
The automotive industry segment within the economy of the United States is a fundamental employer as well as a key donor of the American Gross National Product. The automotive industry segment is one that faces intense and comprehensive competition not only locally but also internationally. In recent times, the automotive industry has experienced deterioration in the revenues and profits generated and a decline in the market share as well as a lack of major employment opportunities. Within this similar timespan, the automotive industry has experienced major problems owing to the increases in the level of importation of vehicles and their corresponding parts from Europe and Asia as they have attained a greater market share as well as sales volumes. The purpose of this report to is to examine the different strategies and tactics employed by General Motors and Toyota Motor Corporation. These two companies are some of the biggest…
There is no acknowledgement that leaders may indeed be flexible according to the situation and followers that they are dealing with. Even though women, for example, may favor a more laissez-faire type of leadership style than men (Eagly, Johannesen-chmidt & Van Engen), this does not mean that they will do so in all circumstances, or indeed that all female leaders will have this tendency.
The Path-Goal Theory
The path-goal theory is one of the most flexible and popular models used in the changing business world today. It allows for an integration of various styles, personalities and situations. The components inherent in this theory is the particular path that employees are expected to follow in order to reach a certain desired goal. The position of the leader in this model is to provide followers with desirability in terms of goals and the removal of obstacles along the way towards obtaining the…
Eagly, A.H., Johannesen-Schmidt, M.C., & van Engen, M.L. (2003, July). Transformational, transactional, and laissez-faire leadership styles: A meta-analysis comparing women and men. Psychological Bulletin, 129(4), 569-591.
Hughes, Richard L., Ginnett, Robert C. & Curphy, Gordon J. (2002). Leadership: Enhancing the lessons of experience (4th ed). New York: McGraw Hill.
Kuriger, Craig C. (2006, July/August) Workplace change and worker fears: when new technology enters the workplace. Army Logistician
Parker, Dennis R. (2002, January/February). Create opportunities, not fear, through change. Leadership.
GM Culture Crisis and Organizational Culture
The type of leadership type demonstrated in the case study is the Laissez-faire. With this style, the leader allows his or her team members the freedom to do their work in the way they deem appropriate (Gall, 2011). The team members determine the process and methodology of carrying out their duties and set their deadlines. The leader only provides support and necessary resources to the team. In the case study, the top management at GM was not aware of the problem of the ignition switch because the management was out of touch with the actual process on the shop floor of the company. This demonstrates that the management had given the team freedom to carry out their duties without interference from the leaders. Throughout the case study, the leadership style at General Motors has evolved. The leadership has changed from…
Gall, R. T. (2011). General Motors: Life Inside The Factory: One Blue-Collar Worker's Journey. New York, NY: AuthorHouse
Kuppler, T. (n.d.). The GM Culture Crisis: what leaders must learn from this culture case study. Retrieved online: http://switchandshift.com/the-gm-culture-crisis
Xenikou, A., & Furnham, A. (2013). The Concept of Organizational Culture. Group Dynamics and Organizational Culture, 7(2), 95-121.
Leadership and Organizational Change Potential in the NFL
Organizational Problem or Opportunity
Description of the Problem or Opportunity
Purpose of the Investigation
Summary of Section Highlights
Problem or Opportunity Background
• Current State of the Target Organization
• elevant Organizational Processes or Systems or Functions
• elevant Theory
Lewin's Change Management Model
McKinsey 7-S Model
Kotter's 8 Step Change Model
Corporate Social esponsibility
Investigative Approach and Design Strategies
• Investigative Approach
• Theory Thread Strategies
• Data Collection and Preparation Strategies
Investigation Parameters or Limitations
Findings of the Investigation
Overall Findings: A Synthesis
Interpretation and ecommendations 34
Organizational Implications 34
• Implications for Decision Makers 35
• Future esearch 35
The National Football League (NFL) is currently the most popular sport with American adults, however this position is…
Bass, B. (1985). Leadership and performance beyond expectations. New York: Free Press.
Bass, B. (1999). Two decasdes in research and development in transformational leadership. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 9-32.
Benta, D. (2011). On Best Practices for Risk Management in Complex Projects. Informatica Economica, 142-152.
Business Dictionary. (N.d.). Change Management. Retrieved from Business Dictionary: http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/change-management.html
Health Services Administration
Developing an Action Plan
Imagine that you are the Director of the Admitting Department of a hospital, and your strategy to increase patient satisfaction is to hire additional staff to register patients. Outline the action plan (who, what, and when) that you would use in order to effectively implement your strategy.
The most effective way to implement this strategy is to bring in qualified personnel who can deal with the immediate challenges facing the facility. This is accomplished by working with a staffing service. They will provide people to address the short-term challenges impacting the hospital. (Parkin, 2009) (Suchman, 2011)
In the long-term, there will be an emphasis on hiring staff members to work part time. They will be trained in various procedures and can understand the most important aspects of the department. This strategy is addressing who will be utilized and what kind of approach will…
Parkin, P. (2009). Managing Change in Healthcare. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Suchman, A. (2011). Leading Change in Healthcare. London: Radcliff Publishing.
Change management initiatives of HP, IBM, Kodak, and McDonald's
Although it is said that the only constant in business is change, the need for change has thwarted many potential corporate superstars of the recent past, including Hewlett Packard, IBM, Kodak, and McDonald's. Although these companies were able to deal with the changes demanded by exterior economic circumstances and internal corporate pressures with varying degrees of success, all met with roadblocks on their way to pursuing change. Kotter's model for successful change suggests that all change entails a certain amount of urgency; a period of coalition building during the pre-change process; the need to create a vision for the change; communicating that vision; removing obstacles; creating short-term wins; building on the change; and permanently anchoring that change in the corporation's culture (Kotter's 8-step change model, 2013, Mind Tools).
HP: Three significant errors
However, in the case of HP, critical…
Adamy, J. (2007). For McDonald's, it's a wrap. The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved:
Kotter's 8-step change model. (2013). Mind Tools. Retrieved:
Change Management Plan
Change Management Approach
Definitions of Change
Change Control Board
Roles and Responsibilities
Change Control Process
Change Management is an important part of any project. Changes must be vetted and managed to ensure that they are within the scope of the project and are communicated to all stakeholders if they are approved. The process for submitting, reviewing, and approving changes must also be communicated to all stakeholders in order to properly set expectations. If changes are allowed to be submitted or are implemented in and unorganized way, any project is sure to fail. All projects must include a Change Management Plan as part of the overall Project Plan.
The Change Management Plan was created for the Inventory Services (IS) Project in order to set expectations on how the approach to changes will be managed, what defines a change, the purpose and role of the change control…
sold to law enforcement as a way to implement stringent policing structure while at the same time ensuring that community safety is maintained at minimal cost to the department and without job loss or reductions in force due to economical policing practices. In addition the plan should be sold as a way for the police department to re-build it's reputation among community members, and strengthen its reputation for working in a productive and collaborative manner. The cost savings benefits of building a stronger community with less crime in an efficient manner should also be emphasized as a primary benefit of the program.
There are many opportunities existing that lend support for the plan. For example, the report notes that a number of juvenile gangs are evolving within the community, a problem that is new for a community that had been relatively stable in the past. The police department can gain…
"Stojkovic, S., Kalinich, D. & Klofas, J. (2003). "Radical Approach Plan." Criminal
Justice Organizations, Wadsworth: Thomson.
hat is BP
British Petroleum (BP) is one of the world's largest oil and gas companies in terms of production capacity and revenue; BP explores for oil and natural gas in approximately 30 countries and possesses proved reserves of 18.1 billion barrels of oil equivalent (Hoovers, 2004).
BP owns 16 refineries
BP processes 4 million barrels of crude oil per day
BP markets these products in 80 countries
BP owns a network of 22,400 gas stations
BP's Global Projects (BP, N.d.)
Oil and gas reserves are becoming increasingly hard to come by. Oil companies are now targeting some of the harder to access reserves. This requires a great deal of technological sophistication and drives up extraction prices. It also creates a substantial amount of risk for the organization which has recently manifested in the Gulf of Mexico.
In April 2010 an explosion occurred and a major…
Abrams, L. (2013, December 5). BP's learned nothing: The oil company is pursuing its riskiest strategy yet. Retrieved from Salon: http://www.salon.com/2013/12/05/bps_learned_nothing_the_oil_company_is_pursuing_its_riskiest_strategy_yet/
BP. (N.d.). Global projects organization. Retrieved from BP: http://www.bp.com/en/global/corporate/careers/who-we-are/upstream/gpo.html
BP. (N.d.). We are BP. Retrieved from BP: http://www.bp.com/en/global/corporate/about-bp/company-information/our-values.html
Downing, L. (2014, March 19). BP Scraps Renewable Energy Goal After Investing $8.3 Billion. Retrieved from Bloomberg News: http://www.businessweek.com/news/2014-03-19/bp-scraps-renewable-energy-target-after-investing-8-dot-3-billion
Managing Diversity and Equal Opportunity
With the turn of the 21st century, a dramatic increase is being witnessed in the international flow of labor with repercussion for domestic labor supply and management. The native, racial and emigre mixture of the employees is predominantly important for the workplace. The importance of this domestic cultural multiplicity in the labor force, highlighted by worldwide influences and necessities, has lately encouraged the researchers to focus on the companies' and managers' response to diversity, be it of any form (Watson, Spoonley, & Fitzgerald, 2009).
If the workforce of the present times is compared with the one that was found 20 years ago, it will be easy to observe that there are "more white women, people of color, disabled persons, new and recent immigrants, gays and lesbians, and intergenerational mixes (i.e., baby boomers, Generation Xers, and Generation Nexters)" (iccucci, 2002) today. This situation has given birth…
Hemphills, H., & Hayne, R. (1997). Discrimination, Harassment, and the Failure of Diversity Training: What to Do Now. Westport, CT: Quorum Book. Retrieved December 15, 2012, from http://www.questia.com/read/23366693/discrimination-harassment-and-the-failure-of-diversity
King, A.S. (1995, December). Capacity for Empathy: Confronting Discrimination in Managing Multicultural WorkForce Diversity. Business Communication Quarterly, 58(4), 46+. Retrieved December 14, 2012, from http://www.questia.com/read/1G1-18023663/capacity-for-empathy-confronting-discrimination-in
Ollapally, A., & Bhatnagar, J. The Holistic Approach to Diversity Management: HR Implications. Indian Journal of Industrial Relations, 44(3), 454+. Retrieved December 15, 2012, from http://www.questia.com/read/1G1-210224380/the-holistic-approach-to-diversity-management-hr
Riccucci, N.M. (2002). Managing Diversity in Public Sector Workforces. Boulder, CO: Westview Press. Retrieved December 14, 2012, from http://www.questia.com/read/100875091/managing-diversity-in-public-sector-workforces
Furuholt, (2006) argues that lack of management engagement to the acceptance of information systems has been a barrier to the implementation of information systems. The issues are even common with organizations in the developing countries where management does not give enough priority to the information systems implementation. Importantly, implementation of information systems requires management support since management will need to approve fund that would be used for IS implementation. Generally, younger people are more interested in the it tools than older people. In a situation where number of older working team outnumbers younger working team within an organization, the IS implementation may be cumbersome.
More importantly, lack of knowledge of information systems may serve as barrier to its implementation. In the developed countries, private and public organizations have already aware the importance of information systems to the organizations. Many organizations in developed countries already realize that it tool is a…
Abukhzam, M. & Lee, a. (2010). Factors affecting Bank Staff attitude towards E-banking adoption in Libya. The Electronic Journal on Information Systems in Developing Countries: 42(2): 1-15.
Ali, S.N.A. (2010). E-government services: an exploration of the main factors that contribute to successful implementation in Libya. PhD thesis, University of Portsmouth.
Bartol, K.M. (1982). Managing Information Systems Personnel: A Review of the Literature and Managerial Implications. MIS Quarterly.
Boh, W.F. & Yelling, D. (2007). Using Organizational Architecture Standards in Managing Information Technology. Journal of Management Information Systems. 23 (3): 163 -- 207.