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Moreover, in the wake of the Shanghai massacre, the more radical idea that Chinese communism should actually pursue its own independent path began to take root. For example, while Mao continued to favor the creation of soviets (councils) and the land redistribution policy, he began to militarize the dialogue by highlighting the need to arm the masses and accelerate the process of change through the creation of a wave-like or tidal revolutionary movement throughout China.
With his vision of a combined victory over Chiang and the Japanese firmly in place, Mao turned to a resolution of the land question to win the Chinese people to his side. His goal was to introduce the class struggle into the countryside and elevate the revolutionary consciousness of the masses by depicting the landlord class [as] the principal enemy of the revolution. The goal was to mobilize the peasants in the countryside, lend them…… [Read More]
This was mostly carried out as an attempt to further instill fear within the Party, and to remove anyone that Mao considered to be a potential rival. Mao used the ed Army as his tool for the 'Cultural evolution' relying on the ideologies of the young members to drive them on (ogaski, 2007).
Through 'The Cultural evolution', members of the ed Army were given the permission to create chaos and lawlessness across the country. In effect this created a similar situation to that which had been the case with governments under the Qing Dynasty, which brought China around full-circle. In the end it can be seen, therefore that Mao did not succeed in removing the corruption which he had aimed to rid the country of, but in fact created huge losses of life in his attempts to do so.
During 'The Cultural evolution' Mao elevated himself to the status of…… [Read More]
Often, he was proven correct in his decisions despite opposition, but his tactics were questionable at the least.
The first decade or so of Mao Zedong's rule, as neatly overviewed in the first essay of MacFarquhar's book, paints a picture of Mao that in large measure incorporates both of the extreme visions tat persist about him today. There is the brilliance and wisdom with which many of his decisions are made, tempered by the violence and unilateral nature of many of these same decisions. There is some truth in the belief that such smart and charismatic leadership must have come from a spirit and mind tat at least glimpsed nobility even if it did not possess it; surely, Mao's intention was not pure self-aggrandizement but the further growth of his native country and its people. The excessive zeal with which he pursued this end became the real issue that cast…… [Read More]
Active defense is a real defense and passive defense is a spurious defense by Mao Zedong
Active defense can be simply explained as a defense launched with an objective of counter attacking the enemy.
Passive defense can be defined as defending for the sake of it.
Mao Zedong, in explaining active defense, referred it to as offensive defense, or defending through resolute engagements (Mao, 1965). In referring to passive defense Mao (1965) referred to it as pure defense or defensive defense. Mao (1965) noted that passive defense is a spurious or an inauthentic type of defense. According to Mao Zedong the only real defense was active defense. Active defense according to Zedong was defending with the intention of launching a counter attack and taking on the offensive. The difference between active and passive defense is in the reaction (Mao, 1965).
Mao contrasted passive defense with…… [Read More]
Wild Swans: Three Daughters of China
Wild Swans is the story of three generations of women in China in the 20th century. The author is Jung Chang: her autobiography comprises the last third section of the book; the first two sections are devoted to telling the story of her grandmother Yu-Fang and her mother Bao Qin. Instead of writing a straight autobiography, Chang chose to begin her story two generations back—the purpose being to provide not only personal historical context but also a sense of the cultural historical context in which her family came into being. By beginning the book with the statement that her grandmother “became the concubine of a warlord general” at the age of fifteen, Chang immediately gives her story a sweeping, grand epic backdrop: she is no mere commoner of humble origins but rather a figure whose family was right in the heart or thick of…… [Read More]
During his first few months in Paris, Marx became a communist and put forth his views in a plethora of writings known as the Economic and philosophical Manuscripts, that remained unpublished until the 1930s. It was also in Paris that Marx developed his life long association with Friedrich Engels. (Karl Marx, 1818-1883)
At the end of 1844 Marx was debarred from Paris and with Engels migrated to Brussels. In the initiation of 1848, Marx moved back to Paris when a revolution first emerged and onto Germany where he instituted again in Cologne, the Neue heinishce Zeitung. In later periods Marx settled in London, and was optimistic about the imminence of a new revolutionary emergence in Europe. He re-entered the Communist League and wrote two prolonged pamphlets on the 1848 revolution in France and its repercussions, the Class Struggles in France and the 18th Brumaire of Louis Bonaparte. He had a…… [Read More]
The withdrawal was supposed to aid the Communists in controlling the areas vacated by the Japanese, who had succeeded in controlling vast portions of Manchuria.
Stalin's efforts were aimed at forcing "the GMD [Guomindang or Chinese Nationalist Party] to make economic concessions, to prevent a united China from allying with the United States, and to placate Washington on the international arena by giving in to American demands for withdrawal," but in actuality he not only laid the groundwork for the Communists' eventual victory, but also opened up a window for the possibility of a U.S.-Communist alliance that would have destabilized the Soviet Union's power; as will be seen, the United States failed to capitalize on this opportunity, but the fact remains that Stalin's withdrawal seems to have backfired.
Stalin's withdrawal was not directly aimed at ensuring a Communist victory, but rather was an attempt to destabilize the country so…… [Read More]
Ho Chi Minh was for a long time of the most controversial dictators of the world. In this sense, "for westerners Ho Chi Minh has been a figure of some mystery for many years. His death on September 3, 1969 did not end the fascination he holds for people who have found his life enigmatic and his political position unclear." Therefore, it is fair to say that to this day, there are people who more or less worship him and the system he created as a result of his desire for power and supremacy. The power of Ho Chi Minh was his response to the Western world. As he was incarcerated Ho Chi Minh defied the Western world by defending himself and supporting the idea of him being a nationalist. As stated before, the idea of the adherence to a country has always been a successful one because people will…… [Read More]
Before leaving China, Chang began to seriously question Mao and his methods, and after she left, she realized just how repressive the government was, and that she would not return to China to live. Today, long after Mao's death, China has made it into the 21st century, but it is still a repressive and controlling dictatorship, essentially, and this book helps put the country and its leadership in perspective. The Chinese are proud people, and they seem to accept power and control as a way of life. It would not be hard to imagine another revolution in the country, as western ideas and attitudes make their way into this emerging giant. It would be interesting to see what this author has to say about that, in the future.
In conclusion, Chang's book is a close look into 20th century history and development in China. It shows how the…… [Read More]
Maoist China and Post-War East Asia
To Live and the oral interviews of Chinese citizens who suffered under the Maoist regimes should be on the list of essential reading material for any individual compiling an encyclopedia entry on the life of Mao Zedong. While reading Mao's actual biography by a credible author would be important, the impact of Mao's life upon the populace is equally significant. The biographical text would be used for the basic information about Mao's life -- the circumstances under which he was born, what moved him to adopt communism, and his struggle against the Chinese nationalists that ultimately cumulated in his ascendency to leadership in China.
However, these 'driver's license' facts only scratch the surface of how Mao is remembered by the Chinese people. Interviews such as "A foot of mud and a pile of shit" show the suffering of people forced to toil the land…… [Read More]
14). As the U.S. plays with one hand tied behind its back, the terrorists do not.
He led the People's Republic of China for almost 30 years and created the set of communist policies now known as Maoism (Lynch, p. 126). He was a creative, shrewd politician and a masterful military strategist. He destroyed U.S.-backed Nationalist China's 4-million strong armies in a long line of huge battles, and forced them to escape to Taiwan .
Today, in both Iraq and Afghanistan, the United States faces terrorist enemies and insurgents that are fully utilizing versions of Maoist military strategy. Mao called for careful and capable organization, patience in military commanders, and intelligent and astute political operatives.
Mao has been called the "consummate Clausewitzian strategist" (Grant).
Maoist strategy for war comes in three phases. Revolutionaries, like the Taliban in Afghanistan, begin as relatively weak and desperate, and end up eventually,…… [Read More]
arxist or Neo-arxist Research
Critique of Theory
According to ax Weber the state is a special entity that possesses a monopoly on the legitimate use of violence. Weber believes politics is a required activity of government used in order to influence and control the relative distribution of force and power in the country.
Weber wrote of three main types of authority and political leadership domination that is present in society. These three types are charismatic, traditional and legal domination.
Weber also developed a theory of stratification where he explained and used such ideas as class, status, and party. According to his theory class is determined by an individual's economic situation. The notion of status is similar to prestige and honor. And the main purpose of parties is to gain domination in certain spheres of life. Like Weber, arx saw society as the struggle for class…… [Read More]
built between the U.S.S.. And China following World War Two. The writer focuses on the issue of Nuclear technology and the tensions between the two because of it. Stalin, Mao and broken promises are examined and put together in a story of history. There were eight sources used to complete this paper.
Currently the world is focused on disarming itself from a nuclear standpoint. America has invaded Iraq on the pretext of forcing the nation to stop nuclear technological advancement and while this is going on North Korea is gearing up its formerly defunct nuclear program. It seems that the world is working to reverse a technology that for many years was the race of success. Two of the largest areas in the world spent years competing with each other for power, and they believed that power was going to be found in nuclear technology. China and the former USS…… [Read More]
("ed Guards," n.d.) (Chong, 2002)
However, over the course of time is when the ed Guards became more of a paramilitary unit. This is because they were considered to be reserves of the Chinese People Liberation Army. Any activities they were directly involved in, gave the army certain amounts of flexibility in achieving different objectives. As a result, the tactics that were utilized became so extreme that abuses began to occur. This led to changes in the attitudes and ideas of society. When this happened, select segments became more radicalized by these practices. ("ed Guards," n.d.) (Chong, 2002)
The ed Guards Lasting Impact on China
The ed Guards lasting impact on China was to serve as the final symbol of Mao's 1949 communist revolution. This is when there was a focus on going after those remnants from society who were still embracing the ideologies of the past. However, during this…… [Read More]
East Asian Civilizations
(1) Unequal Treaties
(2) sino-japanese war 3
(3) MARCH 1ST MOVEMENT
(1) CHINA IN DECLINE
(1) CHINA's CIVIL WAR 7
(1) UNEQUAL TREATIES
The growing demand for Chinese tea, silk and ceramics by ritish had created severe trade imbalance for ritain. The ritish were also losing their silver reserves in exchange for Chinese goods. In late 1930's government of Great ritain found "opium" as a solution for resolving trade imbalance. Opium, which is more addictive than tea, was being supplied to China by ritish merchants. As demand for opium increased in China, ritain's imports increased and in this way silver bullion was flowing out of the China into ritain.
However Chinese government (Qing government) took serious steps to stop the trade of opium. Lin Zexu, which was appointed as an Imperial Commissioner for the Destruction of Opium, started an anti-opium campaign. During the campaign, opium stores were…… [Read More]
history of China's importance to the U.S., from Nixon's visit to China in 1972 to the present, which contributed to the implementation of Obama's 'U.S. Pivot to Asia Strategy'?
The Cold War represented one of the most important periods in the history of the world. It did not only changed the way in which the political world was configured following the end of the Second World War, but, at the same time, it marked a change in the perspective of the way in which relations among states and international actors are perceived. From this point-of-view, the end of this period marked the beginning of an era in which the political coordinates for international relations were uncertain and lacked a particular direction. The demise of the Soviet Union left the United States as the overall winner in the bipolar struggle. However, the entire state system was thrown into a state of…… [Read More]
The following quotation provides an indication of the changes that an emerging China represents. "We are now witnessing an historic change, which though still relatively in its infancy, is destined to transform the word. The developed world...is rapidly being overhauled in economic size by the developing world. (Jacques, 2009, p. 2) This view is also supported by other predications such as the projections by Goldman Sachs that "…the three largest economies in the world by 2050 will be China, followed by a closely matched America and India some way behind…" (Jacques, 2009, p. 3)
In the final analysis, an ideological impetus and the struggle for power were the main reasons for the inception of the Cultural evolution. This revolution brought about many dramatic changes in the society that had mainly negative social and economic consequences. However, it is also possible that the excesses and failures of the Cultural evolution have…… [Read More]
All good things must come to an end, and at no time is this fact truer than in China in 1911, when the Xinhai Revolution resulted in the fall of the Qing Dynasty. This led to a period of unrest, as the world's powers engaged in orld ar I. Even though China had participated in the war on the side of the Allies, China was betrayed during the negotiations at the Treaty of Versailles. Instead of being given autonomy over a controlled sphere of interest in the Shandong district of China, the Treaty of Versailles instead gave this territory over to Japan. China's May 4th Movement ended up being an anti-est, anti-imperialist cultural shift that grew out of student demonstrations in 1919.
The weak response of the Chinese government to reclaim the Shandong province for itself in self-defense led to accusations of corruption. hether or not the government was…… [Read More]
The most recent trajectory for China's economy has been notable for its absence of emphasis on heavy industry. Mao's original plans focused on heavy industry the major driver of Chinese economic growth. Deng, too, had wanted to build out China's capacity in steel and heavy manufacturing industries. In recent years, service industries and light manufacturing have taken a more prominent role in the Chinese economy. The sense is that during the first years of the reforms, it was essential for China to build out its industrial capacity. Having done that, the only role left is to leverage the heavy industry infrastructure in order to help build out the fledgling service industry.
It was the heavy industry that facilitated productivity growth in China in the past couple of decades. Productivity has contributed 13.5% of China's economic growth since the early 1930s (u, 2003). Substantial improvements in infrastructure and technology were able…… [Read More]
The Interaction of Capitalism and Industrialization
Capitalism is one of the oldest economic systems in the world today and is founded on the concept of private ownership: what’s mine is mine and what’s yours is yours. It is also founded on the private ownership of all aspects of production, such as investment capital, land, and labor that is employed to create profits. Many scholars view capitalism as being synonymous with the free market system. Some have argued that capitalism is the protection of individual rights and property rights.[footnoteRef:1] Industrialization is a term very closely connected with the industrial revolution. Industrialization refers to the journey/procedure via which a region or local economy metamorphosizes from one founded on the dependence of agrarian pillars (such as farming) to one that is founded on the manufacture of goods. Via industrialization, manual labor on the small scale is replaced by mass production through mechanized means,…… [Read More]
The problem was intensified by the fact that greater mobilization of Chinese workforce required greater amounts of food. While there were many factors, in a micro and macro level, that caused and intensified famines, the major cause was the "shock therapy" of the Leap initiated by Mao. Chinese population, the largest in the world, could not quickly adapt to drastic changes. The havoc wrecked by the Leap continued until Chinese leaders realized the seriousness of the problem and reversed some of the recent changes.
China entered a period of slow recovery in the years 1961-64, when moderation and gradualism largely became the rule, but the Chinese state moved back and forth between radicalism and moderation until the end of the Maoist era. The years 1964-66 were characterized by launching of the Third Front, a Maoist program of envisioning a massive provincial construction. As Naughton (2007) chronicles the economic development in…… [Read More]
scholars understand the quality and prospects of "democracy" in China?
Many people have different views concerning the exact nature of democracy. Scholars believe that democracy entails the act of the society choosing its own leaders to implement decisions, held responsible through elections, for the public. Others emphasize that democracy entails the rule by the people, in which the will of the people lies with the supernatural being. Nevertheless, while democracy may have varied meanings depending on every individual's definition, it is with certainty that if democracy shall prevail, ideas must flow, both from the majority and the minority. In absence of free flow of ideas, there will be absence of democratic ideal of governance by people if people are unaware of the occurrences. In the republic of China, some people knew this.
China reforms are developing very fast. Her exceptional political growth model is not only divergent from the…… [Read More]
Min enthusiastically goes to the Red Fire Farm in order to prove her willingness as a city girl to do the hard work of the proletariat. (52). While there, she meets a similarly zealous and ambitious woman, Comrade Lu, who continually shows off her knowledge of the Party and her own Party credentials. (60-65).
In contrast to deputy commander Lu, commander Yan is not only a model comrade, but a strong, selfless, and compassionate leader. A tall, handsome, "conqueror"-like woman, Yan never tried to prove her credentials as a party comrade. Min remembers, with affection, how Yan would trek alone to the well and carry back two 80 lb buckets of water on a pole, balancing it on her broad shoulders. (117). Yan's presence was so great that she did not even need to tell the other comrades to get back to work.
In a sense, Min looked at Yan…… [Read More]
In the course of the Cultural Revolution, the communist leader Mao Zedong proclaimed particular cultural requirements for both art and writings in China. This was a period that was filled with violence and harsh realisms for the people within the society. Authors such as Bei Dao, Gu Cheng and Yu Hua can be considered to be misty poets, whose works endeavored to shift from an inactive response to active formation. The aforementioned individuals are renowned authors, writers and poets celebrated for their influential literal works and their impact during the course of the Cultural Revolution in China. Through their short stories and poems, these authors strove to create a cultural force with the purpose of educating the public and offering them revolutionary principles and ideals. The art and literature that was delineated by these authors played a significant role in the sociopolitical realm and the demise of the Cultural Revolution…… [Read More]
Political Ideologies on the Peasant Farmers in China
Many historians view the May Fourth Movement as the birth of Communism in the Peoples Republic of China. The demonstrations and their suppression in 1919 turned increasingly political influencing Chen Duxiu and Li Dazhao, the founders of the Communist Party of China, to align themselves to leftist ideologies. According to Cultural China, this movement was a protest against the imperial power in China. It greatly influenced the Chinese working class as they took the political center stage as the main force in the movement. More than 20 provinces participated in the movement; it had a wider foundation than the 1911 revolution. The greatest impact of the movement was influencing of people's consciousness. It helped spread Marxism in China and lay foundation for ideologies that established communism in China.
The May Fourth Movement revolutionized people's minds; many Chinese were disengaged from democracy as…… [Read More]
Development is a general concept that includes many different aspects. The definition of development is improvement in human welfare, quality of life, social well-being, and satisfying the population's needs and wants. There are many different measurements for development, such as GDP, GNI, Human Development Index, Gender Inequality Index, Gini coefficient, and etc. Since each nation has its own culture, history, tradition, religion, and etc., the measurement of a successful development varies for different countries. As a result, although the general development concepts apply to all countries, each country needs to find their own specific way to develop. China has led the world its development among many various measures; especially economic growth. This analysis will consider some of the factors that are associated with China's exception development trajectory and what option it may hold in the future.
China's History of Development in the Twentieth Century
To understand China's rapid…… [Read More]
In this probably lies the greatest risk of doing business in China as it is difficult to collect full payment in time. The greatest threat to companies with successful products or brand name is from intellectual property pirates. Any organization planning to do business in China is well advised to take adequate safeguards to protect their intellectual property rights. (Look Before You Leap: Essential Advice for Doing Business in China)
The business environment in China is very attractive and there are many organizations that have already made use of the opportunities offered there and many others are queing up to enter the business market of China. It is very important for these organizations to understand the cultural and business practices that are prevalent in China to avoid any kind of misunderstanding due to the major differences in the underluing cultural practices between the Chinese and Western cultures. These…… [Read More]
China's Taiwan Policy
China -- the most populous country in the world -- has exhibited remarkably high levels of sustained economic growth in the two decades since it reformed its economy following the death of Mao Zedong in 1976. According to some analysts, the country is poised to become the number one economy in the world sometime in the mid-twenty first century. There are, however, certain political issues that may affect China's rightful role in the future world affairs. One of them is the 'Taiwan affair' -- a problem that has defied a satisfactory resolution ever since the Communist forces defeated the Kuomintang (KMT) in the Chinese Civil ar in 1949 and Chiang Kai-Shek
retreated to Taiwan along with 2 million of his supporters from the Mainland China. The political status of Taiwan (or the state of Republic of China) has, since that time, been a source of concern for…… [Read More]
The past is not something that stays in the past. It reaches out and extends forward into the present; it shapes and instructs us, warns and interests us. Sometimes we return to it in order to judge it anew or attempt to reconstruct it in a way that allows it to make more sense. Sometimes new information is uncovered from the past that puts a new perspective on things. Sometimes the past can be impactful on the course of events still occurring in the present. In short, there is no wall or barrier between the present and the past. The two mix and mingle and inform one another. Therefore, everything about the past is relevant in 2016. This paper will examine 8 articles that deal with specific incidences in the past that I find to be particularly meaningful today.
History teaches us to pay attention -- to be…… [Read More]
China's Economy And Foreign Policy
There have been radical changes in the internal political and economic scenario of China during the last two decades. (Lampton, 2001) The growing economic stability and control has increased the status of china to a great extent among its trading counterparts. Further, it has become obligatory on the part of the Chinese Government to make it certain that the economic development to restructure the political discipline whose ideology had a severe jolt with the fall of Soviet Union. (Part Two - Chinese Foreign Policy) Ever since the inception of economic reforms in China during 1978 there is a considerable enhancement in the Gross Domestic Product to the tune of 9.5% per annum on average. It is pertinent to probe on the factors responsible for such a great success. The success is attributed to the adoption of institutions and policies by the Chinese Government that could…… [Read More]
Deng Xiaoping and Modernization
During the Cultural Revolution, Mao Zedong led a tremendously aggressive and transformative movement within mainland China that would forever change the face of his country and the people within its borders. Since the beginnings of Mao's communist China, there existed a powerful will amongst his supporters to remove the liberal bourgeois from Chinese society; the Cultural Revolution took this agenda to further, far more frightening extremes, in order to achieve that goal. During Mao's iron grip on China, he led the country into a nightmarish world of flawed policies, persecution, and utter destruction of the economy. Originally intending to industrialize and develop the nation by means of a proletariat movement, Mao sought to lift the lower class out of their poverty, calling on farmers, small-time laborers, and other low-income citizens to band together in order to oust undesirable members of society. At many points throughout his…… [Read More]
China and the Korean War
The fall of China to Communism in 1949 came about because of many different reasons. One, Mao Zedong was popular with the people, and this helped him overpower Jiang Jieshi and his government. Mao also had territory and Japanese military items left over from World War II, which Jiang did not. Mao had more military might, and he was simply more popular than Jiang with the Chinese people. China fell to Communism because of Mao's popularity more than his power. He was a farmer like most of the population of China, and he spoke to their needs and wants. The Chinese civil war did not result from the National Security Council's Memorandum 68; it had been going on for years before and after World War II.
However, NSC-68 did have far-reaching consequences in American foreign policy with China and the Soviet Union and regarding the…… [Read More]
Then in 1949, China was liberated and the state controlled by Mao Zedong, took over all music and artistic activities. Mao made great efforts to change musical traditions which he had associated with the older, defeated Chinese society. Promoted revolutionary songs and "Yangko Plays," (Yu un 1991). He moved the traditional away from professionalism, and towards exploring the life of the proletariat, the common people. Mao then allowed ussian influences to permeate into Chinese cultural traditions based on the nature of communism in the Soviet Union. Communism forced music like you would force production. Mao basically destroyed creative expression, all music other than state approved works were banned Popular musical developments were still occurring in British held Hong Kong, where the 1950s saw movements of Chinese ock and oll based on its Western influences (Wong 2000). Yet, it is clear that the music being handed down by the generations in…… [Read More]
Japanese political history from the Meiji Restoration to Following the ousting of the Tokugawa shogun, the emperor embarked on his role as the "enlightened ruler" of Japan. From this point, known as the "Meiji Restoration," Japan began a transformation from an agriculturally based, feudalistic society to a nation that, by the 1912 death of the emperor, had a centralized government, developed infrastructure, well-educated general population, fast growing industrial sector, as well as a very powerful military.
Of course, one of the most striking developments of the period was Japan's "shaking off" of foreign influence in its trade and legal affairs, leading it to a full and independent standing in the world community. Arguably this transformation was only possible due to the nation's ability to transform itself from a fragmented nation, ruled by class distinction and feudalistic division, to a unified state -- represented by one national army and economic authority…… [Read More]
This also shows how women became more active in the national political process, no matter their stance or beliefs. While the more traditional facts about communist China under Mao Zedong are explicated, there are some less horrific details about communist life of which the average American may not be aware. Sexual equality did grow. Food was distributed fairly. These are not the typical details of communist China we learn about in America.
Chang herself has several occupations as the story focuses upon her life and her struggles. She is a member of ed Guard at the age of 14. She works as a steelworker and an electrician. These kinds of positions are still considered unusual for women in American culture as well as in many other cultures around the world. During the Cultural evolution, there arose opportunities for women to progress socially and politically. This rings true for the Civil…… [Read More]
China and the Cold War
The term "cold war" is used for explaining the shifting efforts of the Western powers and the Communist bloc from the ending of World War II until 1989 in order to attain supremacy influence and esteem on a global level. If seen from a worldwide magnitude, the conflict can be understood as an ideological clash between communism and capitalist democracy ("cold war," 2012). China occupied an exceptional place in the Cold War for the reason that it was the point of both the affection and aggression of the two main world powers i.e. The United States of America and Soviet Union (Bernstein, 2003, p. 91).
Cold War -- China's ole
The West and the Soviet Union had a long history of joint mistrust and this resistance was every now and then apparent in the Grand Alliance during World War II. After the end of the…… [Read More]
The twentieth century had been tumultuous, particularly during the former half, the world witnessing two major world wars, many revolutions and nationalist struggles, each holding a significant bearing on the other. The major events being discussed are -- Chinese Revolution, Russian Revolution, India's independence, World War I and Treaty of Versailles and World War II. Though the events do not chronologically fall in order, each spanning over a few too many years, the developments and undercurrents of one has greatly influenced the other.
Revolution in China began in 1911 with the National Party of China -- Kuo Min Tang -- playing the major role initially. The prime motive of Revolution was to solve the political and economic problems that plagued the Chinese society during the turn of the century --feudalism and semi-feudal patterns of relations in agricultural production, introducing agrarian reforms with modern methods of production,…… [Read More]
(Ibid.) As a result, life expectancy in pre-1950 Tibet was thirty-six years; 95% of Tibetans were illiterate and a similar percentage of the population was hereditary serfs and slaves owned by monasteries and nobles. (Hessler, 1999)
In such a back drop, Mao's Communism, which promised the emancipation and rule of the poorest peasants, ought to have been embraced with open arms by the Tibetan peasants. The fact that it took almost a decade, after the initial foray of the Communists into Tibet in 1951, to do so was mainly due to two reasons. The first was the recognition of the special status of Tibet by the Chinese Communist leadership and its slow introduction of social and economic reforms in the region leaving the ruling elite intact; the second was the deep rooted deference for religion among the Tibetans combined with a complete absence of the tradition of class revolt in…… [Read More]
But the cool tone of the images in arhol's works is one reason why a viewer might be tempted to read a kind of backhanded affection for advertising and consumption in arhol's series, as well as satirical parody. hat Hughes calls this affectlessness, a fascinated and yet indifferent take on the object, arhol does not obviously express a point-of-view, rather he simply deploys sameness in different contexts -- advertising in an art gallery, movie stars tinted with flat paints. hether he does this with love as well as humor might be possible, but because there is such a visual parallel between the parody or the art and the real, it is hard to assign a definitive tone, other than coolness, to arhol.
For instance, a viewer might ask, is there, in the repetition of stars' faces such as Elizabeth Taylor, Jackie O. And of course Marilyn, as well as Marlon…… [Read More]
S. air force. However, the first attack on the U.S. military by the Chinese was made on November 1 in North Korea. A large army of Chinese soldiers attacked the U.S. 8th Cavalry Regiment from the north, northwest, and west. This forced the retreat of UN forces.
General Matthew Ridgway took over after General Walker's death on December 22. The former was the commander of the 82nd Airborne Division in Wold War II. Ridgway received command of all the forces serving in Korea, along with relative freedom to act as he saw fit. Although his initial aim was to undertake an offensive in Korea, he soon realized that the army was not in sufficient shape to accomplish this. Instead, General Ridgway undertook to rebuild the army. After a successful Chinese attack on New Year's Day, the Allied forces had to withdraw to the "D line," extending from Pyongtaek to…… [Read More]
Therefore, for the international scene to actually consider that change is taking place in Cuba none of Fidel Castro's men should be part of the government or the administration.
In trying to establish an ascendant trend for the Cuban national and international image, Raul Castro must also deal with the issue of totalitarian rule and that of the state authoritarian leadership in a different manner that one which destroys his authority as state ruler. However, any such measures must include a combination of the implementation of slow democratic measures, and the maintenance of a certain authority especially from the perspective of any political forces that may rise against the system. This is part of the model implemented in China, whose aim was precisely that of controlling the political power while being committed to opening up to foreign investments and western influence.
The international reaction to the rise of Raul Castro…… [Read More]
The reason why, is because China is reliant on the economic relationship with countries such as the U.S. This is due to the fact that the U.S. has higher levels of personal income and household wealth. Evidence of this can be seen by comparing personal income statistics in the two countries (which is in the below table). (Allard, 2011)
Table 3: Personal Income in the U.S. versus China
("China," 2011) ("United States," 2011)
These figures are significant, because they are showing how the U.S. has higher levels of personal income. This means that China is dependent upon selling their products in the U.S. markets. If there was a rapid disruption in trade, this could have an adverse impact on China's personal income levels. As a result, these facts must be used to show to China how…… [Read More]
Yalta Convention marked the beginning of the Cold ar. Franklin Roosevelt inston Churchill, and Joseph Stalin met at the former palace of Czar Nicholas between February 4th and 11th, 1945. Before the end of orld ar II, the three world leaders had carved up the world. Germany and Poland were divided. The U.S. agreed to withdraw troops within two years, and Stalin agreed to hold free elections. Russia got land in Outer Mongolia and agreed to enter the Asian ar. Korea was split at the 38th Parallel.
Three months later, victory is declared in Europe and three months after that, Japan surrendered. Stalin declared war on Japan two days after the first nuclear bomb was dropped on Hiroshima and seven days before VJ Day. The Allies split Indochina into two zones, north and south of the 16th Parallel with the Chinese occupying the north and the British controlling the south.…… [Read More]
At this precise time, a young communist named Mao Zedong popularized the idea of land reforms and focused his attention on the issue of poverty among peasant class. He convinced his fellow communists that the only solution to all problems lied in strengthening the agricultural sector by introducing land reforms. He worked ceaselessly for the peasants but his party was driven to remote corners of North China during the Long March. This action, taken by Chiang government, was a clear indication of the paranoia and insecurity that were building in nationalist forces (Peoples: Rise). Mao continued to fight government's oppressive rule even while in exile and this lasted till 1937 at which point, Japan invaded China and the nationalist-communist conflict came to an end.
In 1920s, Malraux was present in China and observed the political dynamics of the country. The oppression and communist popularity affected his deeply and 1927 revolution…… [Read More]
Managing Organisational Culture
The values and behaviors that contribute to the unique social and psychological environment of an organization make up the organizations culture. Organizational culture is the summation total of an organization's past and current suppositions, incidents, viewpoint, and values that hold it together, and is articulated in its self-image, inner workings, connections with the outside world, and future prospects.
In dealing with the management of organisational culture, it is firstly essential to recognize as fully as possible the characteristics of the existing or new target culture to include the myths, symbols, rituals, values and assumptions that strengthen the culture. Organisational culture is not something that can be viewed very easily it is consequently quite hard to replace it. Usually when certain leaders form a company, their values are converted into the actions of the members of that organisation. When other leaders take over, it may not…… [Read More]
Perceptions of Che Guevera
PERCEPTIONS OF CHE GUEVARA
Che Guevara was born as Ernesto Guevara de la Serna in 1928 to a middle-class family (Castaneda 1998, 3). He was Argentinean by birth but was later awarded with an honorary Cuban citizenship in recognition of his contribution towards the armed struggle in the Cuban revolution. Studying to become a doctor, Guevara became influenced by Marxist ideals and teachings upon a motorbike trip across South America at the age of twenty-four where he observed the exploitation and deprivation of the poor people under capitalism (Castaneda 1998, 50). He became a champion of the class struggle against capitalism on an international level. He joined Fidel Castro in 1955 in overthrowing the Cuban government of atista. Subsequently, he became an important figure in Cuban diplomacy and a vocal critic of the United States and the Soviet Union. Later on he helped revolutionary groups…… [Read More]
How does one describe the nature of comedy? Comedy is both simple and complicated. How comedy works is simple, but what is funny is complicated. Comedy describes the nature of the universe in universal terms. Every culture has a sense of humor. Every culture across the global and across time values humor. There are figures in literature and culture such as "the fool," and "the jester." These kinds of figures in literature and history and culture are valuable. The voice of comedy is often one that is able to cross social boundaries/construction, class, institutions, etc. The Shakespearean fool gets to speak the truth when often many other characters cannot. As Shakespeare wrote in "Hamlet," "Much truth is said in jest." Comedy as a psychological expression or function is also very interesting. The ways people use comedy say a lot about who they are and what they think. Comedic…… [Read More]
Korean War, just like most other wars in history did not occur in a vacuum. It started because of the North Korean attack on the South Koreans with the belief that they would be able to win the war and communize the whole Korean peninsula (Chang, 2010). The confidence of North Koreans in their ability to win the fight against the South was not based on hope, but on the intense confidence that it will be an easy victory for the North Korean forces in the war (Chang, 2010). As a matter of fact, the North Korean forces were far more superior to the forces of the South in every category of the fighting abilities and capabilities (Chang, 2010). They were well armed with very heavy weapons and equipment the Soviet Union supplied, adequately trained by the cautious guidance of Soviet military education and training personnel, vastly reinforced with the…… [Read More]
In examining the pros and cons of the outsourcing of products and the impact they have will be covered using as much information as possible to give a clear presentation of the facts. One pro-can be seen in the cost savings to the United States citizens in regards to the costs of Chinese imported products. The cons can be seen in the risks of doing business with the companies. Kathie Canning states in the Private Label uyer 2008 article, "Risky business: U.S. retailers and manufacturers need to weigh the pros and cons carefully before doing business with China," "In 2007, Chinese exporters of animal ingredients deliberately laced their products with melamine. Scores of U.S. pets became ill or even died after ingesting tainted food products. The ingredient turned up in both private label and national brand offerings across the country." This unfortunately is not the end of the story. Toys…… [Read More]
And maybe too there is a "tiny flame" being planted, a flame of hope, a flame of inspiration, and a flame of recovery? e know from his biography (http://www.artandculture.com) that Li-Young Lee's father was imprisoned by the Sukarno regime in Jakarta, Indonesia, during the time Li-Young Lee was an infant. The Sukarno fascist regime hated Chinese, and Li-Young Lee's father (who had been a personal physician to Mao Zedong) got caught up in that vicious hateful moment of jailing Chinese people in Indonesia. That time in his dad's life might have also been a time for reflection, a time when he re-dedicated himself to being the best father he could be. The tiny flame could be a flame of freedom for the reader, no matter what his father's motives were, no matter what the poem was really supposed to mean. In the book American Poets Since orld ar II, Fourth…… [Read More]
Hence, all of these festivals, occasions and other rituals that indigenous Taiwanese celebrated prove that the Indigenous Taiwanese were full of life and were true cultural people who celebrated all their occasions with enthusiasm and ebullience.
Languages: Official language of Taiwan is Mandarin though other local languages were also spoken in originally indifferent tribes. Mandarin is the language that is used for everyday communication in Taiwan but the origin of Mandarin started from Ching dynasty. Mandarin and other languages that were spoken in Taiwan were basically derived from Chinese language families. Indigenous people had their own languages which have survived to date. "From Taiwan to New Zealand and Madagascar to Easter Island, the Austronesian language family is made up of more than a thousand languages and dialects. (Estimates vary from 900-1200 according to how dialects are distinguished from languages)" (Austronesian Expansion).
Other languages that were spoken in Taiwan included Halo…… [Read More]
The Asian gangs are becoming dominant in many areas of illegal activities, including drug and human trafficking.
The Big Circle Gang
The Big Circle Gang has rapidly become one of the most notorious and successful Chinese gangs in the world. The origins of the group go back to China's ed Guard, and the group has units-based throughout the world, including the U.S. And Canada. The ed Guards carried out Mao Zedong's harassment of China's middle class during his rule in China. After his death in 1976, the ed Guard was dissolved, "many ed Guards were sent to re-education prison camps around the city of Canton -- represented on maps by a big circle, hence the name -- where they were tortured and starved. Having been through this degradation and having military training, they have a fearsome reputation" (Hall, 2005). Many escaped China and relocated to Hong Kong, and then immigrated…… [Read More]
uring the Kuomingtang era, women's role in society expanded substantially. Jung explains that her mother worked within the communist underground and married a young communist who eventually became an official in Chengdu. The role of women in this era was expanded to the greater liberties permitted under Kuomingtang governance. They shared in the burdens of their husbands and had greater control over their lives, and their relationships. However, they were still severely limited especially in relation to the workplace.
Finally, during the era of communism, women were elevated to an much more equalitarian position within society. They were able to be employed within government and enjoyed many of the same rights as men. espite embedded social prejudice against women, the government recognized them as equals and it allowed Jung to able to have the freedom to explore relationships, employment opportunities and ultimately the liberty to control her…… [Read More]
com. 2007. February 26, 2007. http://www.answers.com/topic/open-door-policy-1
Stueck, illiam hitney. The Road to Confrontation: American Policy toward China and Korea, 1947-1950. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1981.
Tsou, Tang. America's Failure in China, 1941-50. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1963.
The facility of most-favored-nation was later extended by the Chinese to other foreign powers as well.
Although most countries did not formally agree with the "Open Door Policy," John Hay went on to unilaterally declare that they had endorsed the policy.
This consisted of an oil embargo and freezing of Japanese assets in the months preceding the Pearl Harbor attacks
The Americans had also misjudged the ideological commitment of the Chinese communists and over-estimated the pro-American among the Chinese masses, believing that any Chinese government (even a Communist one) would remain friendly with the Americans. Such misplaced optimism continues to be the Achilles heel of the U.S. foreign office:…… [Read More]
It is noteworthy that most recently the government started soliciting opinions from legal academies, interested groups and the general public when drafting a major piece of legislation, to achieve democratic lawmaking and advance further compliance with the law (Lo, V.I., 2007).
The most important economic event at this stage or in the years following the 1978 economic reform in China is undoubtedly its accession to WTO at the end of 2001. Following 15 years of numerous negotiations and adjustments of policies, China eventually entered the mainstream world economy and started enjoying the benefits and facing the challenges of WTO.
In response to WTO requirements, China underwent a "make-over" in many aspects. A brief summary of China's WTO promises is shown in Figure 9A. According to the WTO agreement, China is subject to reviews by the WTO in the 8 years following its accession. The most recent one was announced in…… [Read More]
More recently two schools of military history have developed that attempt to consider its object from a more eclectic, objective perspective, dubbed the "New Military History" and "War and Society" history. New Military History "refers to a partial turning away from the great captains, and from weapons, tactics, and operations as the main concerns of the historical study of war," and instead focusing on "the interaction of war with society, economics, politics, and culture."
New Military History is a relatively broad category, and its perspective can be evinced both on the level of a particular methodology and ideology.
Along with the "War and Society" school of thought, New Military History seeks to uncover the multifarious factors driving and influencing military conflict, with a particular view towards the interaction between these factors and the actual practice of war. That is to say, these schools of thought do no entirely abandon any…… [Read More]
The impact of Marx's theories was not as significant during his lifetime as in the 20th century after his death. Nevertheless, his ideas about class struggle were considered so dangerous by the governments dominated by the elite class that he was repeatedly prosecuted and exiled from major European countries such as France and Germany for propagating revolution. Besides his writings, he formed the Communist League and the First International to promote working class revolutions in the industrial countries, putting his own belief that "there is no point in gaining a deeper insight into the world unless it is a means of changing the world." ("Karl Marx: Man of Millenium.") After his death, however, with the growth of the labor movement in Europe, Marx's theories began to take on greater significance.
Various socialist movements around the world took up his analysis of capitalist economy, his theory of historical materialism,…… [Read More]
Its heavy industrial development occurred under absolute state control of the economy during the Maoist period, but by the late 1970s, Maoism had become an economic disaster, leading to a fundamental change in strategy under Deng Xiaoping. For most of the 1980s, Deng's reforms focused on internal marketization, however a major reorientation in strategy occurred in 1988, when Beijing decided to emulate the export booms of other Asian countries by producing labor-intensive goods for markets in advanced industrial societies (Jung)."
This resulted in a relaxation of regulations by China regarding "joint ventures with foreign firms and discouraging low-tech investments (Jung)." The increased capital from other countries, particularly those with companies who could no longer pay its employees low wages to produce products, rose significantly and resulted in a "rapid rise in export, with light industrial goods and products by multinational corporations prominent in this export surge (Jung)."
For years,…… [Read More]
Peace Agreements and International Intervention
A peace treaty is an agreement between two hostile parties, usually countries or governments, which formally ends a war or armed conflict. Treaties are often ratified in territories deemed neutral in the previous conflict and delegates from these neutral territories act as witnesses to the signatories. In the case of large conflicts between numerous parties there may be one global treaty covering all issues or separate treaties signed between each party. In more modern times, certain intractable conflict situations, especially those involving terrorism, may first be brought to cease-fire and are then dealt with via a peace process where a number of discrete steps are taken on each side to eventually reach the mutually desired goal of peace and the signing of a treaty. Some ceasefires, such as the one following the American Revolution, may last a number of years and follow a tortuous process.…… [Read More]
("Chiang Kai-Shek," The orld at ar, 2006) He thus expended much of his might and energy fighting internal forces, rather than directing his energies against the immediate invaders. After Chiang used most of his troops to prepare for war with the Communists he lost more ground to the Japanese. Only when massive American aid and reinforcements were sent to Chiang, Chiang was finally able to push the Japanese out of China. ("Chiang Kai-Shek," The orld at ar, 2006)
Always, "Chiang's skill lay in the political arena" as he created a cult of personality amongst the foreign media and leaders. ("Chiang Kai-Shek, The orld at ar, 2006) But after four years of civil war against the peasants he had spurned, Chiang and his nationalist warlords were forced to flee to the island of Taiwan. There he established a government-in-exile and dreamed of retaking the mainland. His government was no more democratic,…… [Read More]