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Marine Life Pollution
Pollution can be defined in different prospective including economics. The economics definition of pollution denotes pollutions as loss of environ quality. Furthermore it defines the cost of pollution as the cost of environmental loss (Goodstein, 2011). However the literary meanings of pollution are defined as the contamination of environment that can cause harmful effects on the inhabitants.
These effects are particular with the environment and a number of pollutions are present including air, water, industrial, carbon, and marine pollutions. All these pollutions have a varying degree of effects in their particular environments. The essay is focused to investigate causes of marine pollution and its effects on the sea life. The solutions are also provided to mitigate the effects of marine pollution.
Marine pollution is the represented as the contamination of sea environment through various activities either taking place on earth or within the sea. Most…
Bergmann, M., & Klages, M. (2012). Increase of litter at the Arctic deep-sea observatory Hausgarten. Marine pollution bulletin.
Burke, LM, Reytar, K, Spalding, M & Perry, A 2011, Reefs at risk revisited (p. 130). Washington, World Resources Institute, USA.
Charles, A. (2012). People, oceans and scale: governance, livelihoods and climate change adaptation in marine social -- ecological systems. Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability.
Goodstein, ES 2011, Economics and the Environment, Wiley, USA.
Conservation of ocean or marine life has attracted significant attention in recent years given the devastating impacts of human activities on these ecosystems. This paper examines a study conducted to promote conservation of marine or ocean life across the globe. The review demonstrates the significance of combining policy interventions and management interventions to achieve this.
Ocean or marine areas cover approximately 71% of the Earth’s surface. Even though the depths of these areas are yet to be fully explored or exploited, they are habitats for a huge portion of the world’s biodiversity and essential in global climate change (Addis, p.5). Ocean or marine biodiversity is recognized across the globe as an essential component of life not only in the oceans, but also on Earth. The Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development states that ocean or marine areas are key components of the Earth’s ecosystem to an extent that…
Speed, Intensity, Success
There are many things that a Marine needs to incorporate into his character and his action if he is going to be an effective member of his team and successfully achieve goals. Speed and intensity are two of the most important qualities for Marines to possess, for a variety of reasons. It is through these qualities that the Marine Corps has developed and maintained its reputation as an elite, effective, and highly efficient military force, and it is only through these qualities that this same reputation and the success rate upon which it is built can be maintained. The following paragraphs will detail the importance of speed and integrity to the members of the U.S. Marine Corps, demonstrating their necessity for continued success.
Speed carries obvious benefits, including becoming a more difficult target and achieving a greater element of surprise. The faster a task or…
Dolphins commonly bear one calf at a time. Reproduction occurs every 2 to 3 years and as many as 8 times within their life span (each-Net Online).
Fishes are the typical foods of dolphins. Calves (young dolphins) start to eat fish at 3 to 4 months. Adult dolphins can eat up to 14 pounds of fish in a day (each-Net Online).
Dolphins' predators are the sharks. Sometimes, killer whales also feed on dolphins.
Are dolphins endangered?
Dolphins are endangered. Their population is not yet known however because different types of dolphins can be found in different parts of water around the globe. Following is a list of the endangered species of dolphins.
American Cetacean Society. http://www.acsonline.org/factpack/common.htm
Dolphins: The Facts of Life. http://www.beach-net.com/dolphins/biology.html
Even as I speak however, I know that we cannot hold out indefinitely, without reinforcement from France, there is little we can do but attempt to survive as long as we can. I still have hope that we may weather this British storm.
To Whom It May Concern:
The siege has gone against us, the battle is slowly turning. The British have attempted to break down our city, but little has been accomplished. However, it is not the British but hunger and disease that are wreaking the most havoc among us. Our stores are already depleted as we look for any means of survival. Although we have tried in earnest in this siege to preserve our French fortress it appears that the inevitable will occur and that we will ultimately fail our task. I take solace in that my actions were brave and that we will make…
The concept of Marine insurance is something that has been developing at a fast rate of late. (Marine Insurance: Barlow, Lyde and Gilbert) What exactly is insurance and how long has the concept been recognized? Insurance can be defined as a form of provision of a safety net for the distribution of risks. This is generally made in the form of a financial provision that is meant to protect against losses that may occur due to certain unavoidable reasons. Insurance works like this: a person who wishes to insure an object or possession or belonging of his will pay a certain amount of money that has already been fixed by the insurance agent in order to offer the security of the money to distribute the risks when the insurer happens, by misfortune, to lose his possession or damage it because of an unavoidable reason. The insurer, by the…
Admiralty Law.com" Retrieved at http://www.admiraltylaw.com/papers/2000.htm. Accessed on 19 September, 2004
Averagium" Retrieved at http://harvey-ashby.co.uk/Averagium%20-%20Winter%202002.pdf. Accessed on 19 September, 2004
Commercial Hull" (2004) Retrieved at http://www.veromarine.co.nz/dirvz/marine/marine.nsf/content/ProductsHullCommercialHullAccessed on 19 September, 2004
English Marine Insurance Act 1906" Retrieved at http://www.solarnavigator.net/english_marine_insurance_act_1906.htm . Accessed on 19 September, 2004
In Indonesia, this shoreline litter covers about 90% of the upper shore.
How plastic debris affect marine life
There are two major ways in which detrimental effects to marine life occur. One is when these marine animals become snarled up in the marine debris and the other way is when they ingest the plastic wastes. Some of the materials which can cause the snarl up are pieces of fish lines or nets and rings which are used to bind six-pack beverages. These materials can cause the marine animals to drown or suffocate thus killing them. Death can also be an effect of the materials strangling the animals or starvation when the animal is trapped and unable to reach any food. These materials can also cause severe injuries to the animals. Entanglement is especially important to sea lions and seals. These animals are known to have a curious nature like that…
Allsopp, Michelle, et al. Plastic Debris in the World's Oceans. Amsterdam: Greenpeace International, 2006. Print.
Arthur, Courtney. Plastic Marine Debris: An in-Depth Look2010. Print.
Dong-Oh, Cho. "The Incentive Program for Fishermen to Collect Marine Debris in Korea." Marine Pollution Bulletin 58.3 (2009): 415-17. Print.
Jose G.B, Derraik. "The Pollution of the Marine Environment by Plastic Debris: A Review." Marine Pollution Bulletin 44.9 (2002): 842-52. Print.
" (Science Daily, 2006) Scientists state that they suspect temperature as playing a critical role in dispersal of larvae because "metabolic processes in larvae are sensitive to temperature and similar among species." (Science Daily, 2006)
Certainly, the importance of knowledge gained in this area of science has never been so critical as the life in the world's ocean is faced with change after change due to the climate changes occurring. Furthermore the understanding garnered in this study is of critical importance when considering the temperature changes that are occurring and are due to occur as the ice shelves melt and drift into the ocean current and begin cooling down the presently ocean waters that are presently experiencing higher than usual temperatures. The future of marine life is critically important in the commercial fishery industry and as well is just as important in the food-supply of those living on earth.…
Ocean Temperature Predicts Spread of Marine Species (2006) Science Daily. 30 Dec 2006. Online available at http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2006/12/061226095426.htm .
.. provide nourishment for the small organisms on which jellyfish feed. In waters where there is eutrophication, low oxygen levels often result, favoring jellyfish as they thrive in less oxygen-rich water than fish can tolerate. The fact is that jellyfish are increasing is a symptom of something happening in the ecosystem."
Researchers have been the ones that have as well contended that in some arias, such as the Gulf of Mexico or the Adriatic Sea, jellyfish have taken the role of fish, the former animals' number being far greater than the one of the latter's, and this can be as well put on the intensity with which the human intervene in the nature's life. Moreover, it has been observed that in the above-mentioned areas jellyfish have formed a sort of "gelatinous cover" of the water. In my opinion, this might be the reason for which during many years, Jelly researchers…
Pieribone, V. And D.F. Gruber, Aglow in the Dark: The Revolutionary Science of Biofluorescence. Harvard University Press, 2006, 288p;
Jacobson, Morris, Wonders of Jellyfish. New York: Dodd Mead, 1978
Jellyfish - Sea Science Series, at http://www.dnr.sc.gov/marine/pub/seascience/jellyfi.html
Kyle McGilligan Bentin, "Jellyfish up close," at http://danenet.wicip.org/mmsd-it/jellyfish.html
Fred is also affected with an issue of not fully supporting as well as, providing his wife with enough money for the lifestyle she used to, finding himself in a marriage that declines.
The second victim of the Second World War is Al Stephenson. Of the three men characters, Al is the only man who is married with two children. However, he is very happy when he joins his family back in the society; unfortunately it becomes so awkward for him finding it hard to communicate with them. He gets a hard time to socialize with the children hence immediately turns to taking alcohol. This is seen when he gets home and realizes how little he can talk to his children on the very first night and, instead start seeking the company of his fellow soldiers in the bar. This affects his whole family given that he heavily drinks all…
Lives is a 1946 film by director William Wyler. The story traces the lives of three soldiers who return home after the end of World War Two. The soldiers' names are Fred Derry (played by Dana Andrews), Homer Parrish (Harold ussell), and Al Stephenson (Fredric March). One of the main themes of The Best Years of Our Lives is how difficult it can be for an individual to adjust to a "normal" life after living a life consumed by combat. The title of the movie refers to the fact that soldiers often lose the best years of their lives to war.
War has the potential to tear apart families. For example, Al is married to Milly, and has two children: Peggy and ob. Although his life seems normal on the surface, it is apparent that like his fellow G.I.s, Al has post-traumatic stress disorder. He drinks more than he should…
Wyler, William. The Best Years of Our Lives. Feature film. 1946.
General George S. Patton:
General George Smith Patton who was born in November 11, 1885 is arguably one of the most sophisticated military men in history. General Patton is renowned for possessing pistols with handles made of ivory and for his immoderate manner. His success and popularity is attributed to his tendency to constantly strive in ensuring that his troops obtain training to the highest possible standard of excellence. As a result, his life is an example to many military men in the United States and across the globe because of his dedication and commitment to excellence. Patton's work and success in the military field can be traced back to his childhood when he decided that his main goal in life is to become a hero. Generally, Patton is one of the most brilliant soldiers in the United States who was inspiring, audacious, and unconventional. He is credited for leading…
Bio: True Story. "George Patton Biography." A+E Television Networks, LLC, September 21,
On This Day. "Patton's Career A Brilliant One." The New York Times Company, September 21,
Environmentalism -- Marine Snow
"Marine snow" is material sinking from at or near the top to the bottom of a water body. It contains many forms of animate and inanimate matter and is important as food and a measure of the health of a water body. Modern scientists are particularly interested in marine snow due to the data it contributes for determining pollution and climate change.
"Marine snow" is a cascade of organic and inorganic material sinking from higher levels of water to lower levels of water in a body of water. Marine snow includes living and nonliving materials and matter, such as: algae (Grossart, Czub and Simon), nanophytoplankton, bacteria (Romero-Ibarra and Silverberg), plants, animals, feces, sand, soot and dust (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration). As plants and animals on or close to the surface of a body of water die and deteriorate, they sink toward the floor of the…
Grossart, Hans-Peter, Gertje Czub and Meinhard Simon. "Alga-bacteria interactions and their effects on aggregation and organic matter flux in the sea." Environmental Microbiology, 8(6) (2006): 1074-1084. Print.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. What is marine snow? 2015. Web. 26 May 2016.
News Reporter Staff - NewsRx. "Climate Change; Study Results from University of Massachusetts Broaden Understanding of Climate Change (Zooplankton fecal pellets, marine snow, phytodetritus and the ocean's biological pump)." Ecology, Environment & Conservation 13 March 2015: 1335. Print.
Romero-Ibarra, Nancy and Norman Silverberg. "The contribution of various types of settling particles to the flux of organic carbon in the Gulf of St. Lawrence." Continental Shelf Research, 31(16) (2011): 1761-1776. Print.
He also developed into a masterful fighter pilot who was able to transfer his skills to others efficiently and in detail. His contributions in Korea and Vietnam were immediate and final. He killed over 100 North Korean troops in one single mission, and the Bolo sweep was the most successful MiG attack in Vietnam. He saved countless other pilots and soldiers lives by his actions, and he helped develop maintenance and flight techniques that worked in dogfight situations.
His long-term impact is still being felt. His son entered the Air Force in 1968 and became the first black Director of the Air National Guard, and he served 38 years, retiring in 2006. He is still remembered as a strong, tactical fighter who could maneuver his planes with skill and alertness, and who was fiercely loyal to his men and their mission. He developed tactics in Korea that helped provide close…
Editors. "Black Wings: Contributions of African-Americans to Air Force History. http://www.nationalmuseum.af.mil/shared/media/document/AFD-070319-145.pdf
Phelps, J. Alfred. Chappie: America's First Black Four-Star General: The Life and Times of Daniel James, Jr. Novato, CA: Presidio Press, 1992.
Dennis ader (BTK Killer)
Dennis ader who is commonly as the BTK killer was born in Kansas in 1945 and was the first born of four siblings born to William and Dorothea ader. He is renowned as an American serial killer who carried out the murder of 10 individuals in Sedgwick County between 1974 and 1991 around Wichita, Kansas. Dennis ader's nickname as BTK killer or BTK strangler is derived from the method he used in killing his victims. In essence, ader used bind, torture and kill to execute his serial murders, which resulted in his nickname as BTK killer. Dennis ader derived great joy and pleasure from killing to an extent that he wanted his nickname on the list of the worst serial killers across the globe. Similar to most depraved serial killers, the BTK killer or BTK strangler covered his demon behind an ordinary human's facade.
Anderson, P. (2014, October 7). Dennis Rader -- aka the 'BTK Killer' -- Wanted His Nickname
on the List of the World's Worst Serial Killers. Herald Sun. Retrieved December 5, 2014, from http://www.heraldsun.com.au/news/law-order/dennis-rader-aka-the-btk-killer-wanted-his-nickname-on-the-list-of-the-worlds-worst-serial-killers/story-fni0ffnk-1227082442236?nk=3951385106e690efb9c641a717d17e8a
Blanco, J.I. (n.d.). Dennis Lynn Rader. Retrieved December 5, 2014, from http://murderpedia.org/male.R/r/rader-dennis.htm
"Dennis Rader Biography." (n.d.). Biography. Retrieved December 5, 2014, from http://www.biography.com/people/dennis-rader-241487#synopsis
Another case study, this one by Cole (2011) examines the cultural and community impacts of tourism, both sustainable and unsustainable, on specific cultures in Indonesia. Cole concludes as well that in order to help keep the cultural and community influences and positive attitudes intact, it is important to consider the local community as a major stakeholder in the sustainability of a tourist destination. Cole states in her article, "ourism has the potential to empower communities and the sustainable tourism agenda needs to focus on how to bring this about. As the case study illustrates, understanding tourists and tourism processes is the first stage to empowering the local community to make informed and appropriate decisions about their tourism development. Considerable investments are required in communication and trust building between the actors in tourism. his paper examines how action research, focus groups and the creation of a tourism forum can be concrete,…
These are the questions which are very difficult to answer, but in order to have a maintained tourism system they plays an important role.
Moreover, the use of term "itself" is confusing for a sustainable tourism. Alternative tourism, 'soft' tourism, ecotourism, and 'green' tourism are the types of tourism which can be used with sustainable tourism which is a high class branch of tourism. The story behind tourism in 1919, about 664 million tourists were present, and those who were known as mass tourism were approximately 80%. Development of sustainable tourism is affected by the differences in between mass tourism and sustainable tourism (Berno and Bricker, 2001).
If one can make a difference between 'good' tourism (best known as the alternative forms of tourism) and 'bad' tourism (particularly mass tourism) then sustainable tourism can appear as disruptive force in the society (Swarbrooke, 1999). To confuse ecotourism with sustainable tourism can give a bad result because all sustainable tourism does not take place at natural area and not all types of ecotourism are sustainable. According to Wall (1997), as the mass tourists might not prefer to visit threatened remote areas, their demand may be lesser than that of
Their joy persisted for over a decade, but in 1958 de Gaulle again managed to climb to the top of the French government through his involvement in the Algerian Crisis (Spartacus Education). De Gaulle managed to negotiate an unpopular but necessary piece by granting freedom to all thirteen African colonies still under French possession, though the war in Algiers itself did not end until 1962 (Notable Biographies). His prominence during the height and resolution of the crisis allowed him to be propelled to the new office of the Presidency, and in fact de Gaulle was instrumental in drafting a new French constitution and establishing the Fifth French Republic (de Gaulle & Macridis; Crawley). During his time in the presidency, de gaulle was fairly successful in what has come to be seen as his main objective, namely to navigate French foreign policy freely and to establish a Europe that was not…
Crawely, Aidan. De Gaulle: A Biography. London: Collins, 1969.
De Gaulle, Charles and Roy Macridis. De Gaulle: Implacable Ally. New York: Harper & Row, 1966.
Ledwidge, Bernard. De Gaulle. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1982.
Mahoney, Daniel. De Gaulle: Statesmanship, Grandeur, and Modern Democracy. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers, 2000.
Women Participation in Marine Industry
The Relation Ship between the Participation of Woman in Maritime Sectors and Various Policy Organizations
Women represent a considerable portion of the world's labor force. However they face the hurdles of wage discrimination, harassment, and occupational segregation which ultimately limit their economic advancement. Historically, marine industry does not tend to be a successful career path for women. However, with the passage of time women have penetrated quite deeply in this marine industry. This essay highlights the participation of women in marine industry and the role played by policy making organizations like International Transport Federation (ITF), Seafarers International Research Center (SIRC), International Labor Organization (ILO), and International Maritime Organization (IMO). It explains the extent to which these various marine bodies are addressing the issue of gender.
The Relation Ship between the Participation of Woman in Maritime Sectors and Various Policy Organizations
Traditionally marine industry has been…
Belcher, P. Sampson, H., Thomas, M., Veiga, J. & Zhao, M. (2003). Women Seafarers: Global
Employment Practices and Policies, Geneva: International Labor Organization.
Dcomm (2003). Women seafarers: Fighting against the tide? As on land, so by sea: Women join
the ranks of seafarers, World of Work Magazine, 49, Retrieved September 29, 2012, from http://www.ilo.org/global/publications/magazines-and-journals/world-of-work-magazine/articles/WCMS_081322/lang -- en/index.htm
In this regard, Getches (2004) emphasizes that, "ater supplies are finite and erratic. Rivers in the est range wildly in the amount of water they produce. Indeed, there is evidence that average supplies are becoming less reliable than in the past" (2).
The research showed that chemical fertilizers represent a dual-edged sword for the sustainability of the world's population. On the one hand, their use has allowed farmers in industrialized nations and - increasingly - farmers in developing nations to achieve greater crop yield through more intensive agriculture processes. On the other hand, the continuing use of chemical fertilizers is threatening the world's finite water systems through a wide range of chemical interactions, many of which threaten human and animal life. hile many Americans are worried about the rising price of fuel, the research also made it clear that water is more valuable than oil and action needs to…
Backer, L.C., Baden, D.G. And L.E. Fleming. 2005. "Overview of Aerosolized Florida Red Tide Toxins: Exposures and Effects." Environmental Health Perspectives, 113(5):618.
Coming to Terms with Sustainability." 1999. Forum for Applied Research and Public Policy 14(4):6.
Fertilizer." Encyclopedia Britannica. 2006. Encyclopedia Britannica Online [premium service]. 8 Dec. 2006 http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9034126 .
Getches, David. 2004. "Water Wrongs: Why Can't We Get It Right the First Time?" Environmental Law 34(1):1-2.
I would include a DVD with a clip from the first debate between President Barak Obama and Senator John McCain, in which McCain told a story of how a woman with a son serving in Iraq begged him to keep American troops in that land, so her son would not die in vain. Obama responded that he also wore a bracelet given to him by a woman whose child had died in the fight, a woman who begged him to bring the troops home so no other mother would have to suffer as she had suffered. The quality of this level of debate about a questionable military enterprise would stand as testimony to our democracy.
Finally, I would include a biography of Colin Powell, a man who has served his nation proudly in combat, and most recently as Secretary of State, despite the prejudice he faced in…
From the beginning of the play until the end, Nora and her family are victims of fate. They are stuck in a rut and the sea, their enemy, is personified through their suffering. Fate insists that fighting against the sea is futile. Nora knows this and she tries to convince Bartley before the sea takes his life. From this perspective, we see how mankind has no control over his destiny; he lives at the mercy of the universe.
The theme of death and the failure to overcome fate establish this play as one with a naturalist perspective. The characters in this play cannot overcome the elements of their environment. In fact, each one is picked off in a similar fashion and regardless of how these men think they can outsmart the sea, they fail. Bartley is hopeful when tells his mother and sister, "I'll ride down on the red mare,…
Synge, John. Riders to the Sea.
Primary Source Critique
Tacitus: "Life of Cnaeus Julius Agricola"
Unlike our own period of time, the ancient Romans experienced very little angst about the prospect of colonizing a geographically and ethnically distinct people for the enrichment of their own country. As is evident in Tacitus' "Life of Cnaeus Julius Agricola," the British resistance to Roman colonization is viewed as evidence of the British people's barbarity, not praiseworthy British fortitude against foreign domination. However, the Roman Tacitus also used the example of Britain not simply to praise his father-in-law Cnaeus Julius Agricola, but also to praise what he considered the true Roman values of freedom, austerity and military valor, in contrast to licentiousness and laziness, which he felt, was characteristic of contemporary Roman morality. This primary source text thus is less a fair portrayal of Britain of the era as it is an introduction to what Romans of Tacitus' class considered…
These worms play an integral part of the community. They do not have any digestive capacities, as they lack mouths and digestive systems. ather, they absorb the nutrient-rich waste products of the bacteria through their epidermal layers. They use hemoglobin produced inside their bodies to combine hydrogen sulfide, which is a necessity of many of the bacteria living in and around the vents. The worms transfer this hydrogen sulfide to the bacteria upon contact, and in return, the absorb the nutrients being produced by the bacteria. Additionally, one study examining vents off the coast of South Africa also found the presence of a new species of nematode, known as Halicephalobus mephisto (Borgonie et al., 2011). There are also a number of annelids as well as typical crustaceans, like snails, crabs, and shrimp are often common (Edmonds et al., 2003). There are also species of fish and octopi that form some…
Borgonie, G., Garcia-Moyano, a., Litthauer, D., Bester, a., van Heerden, E., Moller, C., Erasmus, M., & Onstott, T.C. (2011).Nematoda from the terrestrial deep subsurface of South Africa. Nature, 474(June). 79-88. Doi: 10.1038/nature09974
Ericsson, Magnus. (2008). Seabed deposits generate a new wave of interest in offshore mineral recovery. Offshore Mining (September).
Edmonds, H.N., Michael, P.J., Baker, E.T., Connelly, D.P., Snow, J.E., Langmuir, C.H., Dick, H.J.B., Muhe, R., German, C.R., & Graham, D.W. (2003). Discovery of abundant hydrothermal venting on the ultraslow-spreading Gakkel ridge in the Arctice Ocean. Nature, 421(16).
Lemonick, Michael D. & Dorfman, Andrea. (2002). Microbes at the extremes may tell us how life began. Time Europe, 160(6), 34-38. http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=f5h&an=7091367&site=ehost-live
Marine Biology & Drones
Drones are being used with increasing frequency in the study of marine life, including for population counts, and behavioral studies. The news media has offered up dramatic images of studies underway, for example of orca populations off the coast of British Columbia, but there are many studies around the world that are using drones. The advantage of drones is that they can fly above marine environments, providing an overhead view of those environments. This can be valuable in terms of counting animal populations for example, because with drones animals typically do not change their behaviors (Schiffman, 2014). Drones have become a popular tool for field biologists in part because drone technology is improving and the cost of these devices is falling (Schiffman, 2014).
In some fields, such as the observation of marine life in Antarctic sea ice, it has been noted that the normal observation is…
Gremillet, D., Puech, W., Garcon, V., Boulinier, T. & Maho, Y. (2012). Robots in ecology: Welcome to the machine. Open Journal of Ecology. Vol. 2 (2) 49-57.
Kelly, N., Murase, H., Kitakado, T., Kock, K., Williams, R., Herr, H. & Walloe, L. (2012). Appraisal of methods and data used to estimate abundance of Antarctic minke whales within sea ice covered areas of the Southern Ocean. CSIRO/Australian Marine Mammal Centre. Retrieved November 1, 2015 from http://www.marinemammals.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0003/135615/SC-64-IA10.pdf
Schiffman, R. (2014). Drones flying high as new tool for field biologists. Nature. Vol. 344 (6183) 459
Vas, E., Lescroel, A., Duriez, O., Boguszewski, G. & Gremillet, D. (2015). Approaching birds with drones: First experiments and ethical guidelines. Biology Letters. Vol. 11, 1-4.
role fire has played throughout my life. Perhaps that should not be too surprising that fire should be my frame of reference. After all, I have made my living in the field of firefighting.
Fire itself is a study in contrasts. The substance that can cause searing burns also brings pleasant warmth. Its forms range from flickering candlelight to blazing infernos.
Its power to destroy and consume is matched only by its power to nurture and support life.
Even before I entered firefighting, I believe that the dual qualities of fire can be seen as a metaphor for my life. Like most young boys, I was confident but unfocused, like a flame spread in all directions. With the supreme confidence of one who thought he knew it all, I dropped out of school at ninth grade. Back then, I though that school had nothing left to teach me.
(FAQ: How did Marilyn die?)
Whatever may be reason death occurred at her age of thirty six. Some opined she left a legacy of beauty while to some she left a legacy of sadness. However, even after forty two years of her death she is considered to be the most recognized women in the world. The legend of Marilyn acclaimed several images all of which are divergent and distinguishable. In the words of Andy Warhol, Marilyn was 'star for all ages'. (Marilyn Monroe: The Exhibit)
Classic Movie Star's Marilyn Monroe Tribute" etrieved at http://www.angelfire.com/ri2/rebeccastjames/Monroe.html. Accessed on 18 February, 2005
FAQ: How did Marilyn die?" etrieved at http://www.marilyncollector.com/legend/faq.html. Accessed on 18 February, 2005
Hollywood's Leading Sex Symbol" Court Tv's Crime Library. etrieved at http://www.crimelibrary.com/notorious_murders/celebrity/marilyn_monroe/4.html?sect=26. Accessed on 18 February, 2005
Marilyn Monroe biography: A short biography of world famous movie star, Marilyn
Monroe" (2002) Page Wise. etrieved at http://mtmt.essortment.com/marilynmonroeb_rrot.htm. Accessed on…
Classic Movie Star's Marilyn Monroe Tribute" Retrieved at http://www.angelfire.com/ri2/rebeccastjames/Monroe.html. Accessed on 18 February, 2005
FAQ: How did Marilyn die?" Retrieved at http://www.marilyncollector.com/legend/faq.html . Accessed on 18 February, 2005
Hollywood's Leading Sex Symbol" Court Tv's Crime Library. Retrieved at http://www.crimelibrary.com/notorious_murders/celebrity/marilyn_monroe/4.html?sect=26. Accessed on 18 February, 2005
Marilyn Monroe biography: A short biography of world famous movie star, Marilyn
Marketing and Increasing Profits / Marketing Plan: Vet Life Apparel
Sales and Profits
Vet Life Apparel
Vet Life Apparel, based in the Wilmington NC is owned and run by two Marine veterans Corey and Kevin, who after completing their active duty service and having participated in a number of combats decided to venture into the private sector. Vet Life is creative and full of purpose. This is why it will always give you something to wear and give the veterans community something to be proud of. Vet-Life raises awareness about PTSD, helps the homeless veterans get off the street, and helps the disabled have access to living conditions through nonprofit charities (Vet Life 2016).
The objective of this report is to discuss a marketing plan that can help the company increase its overall sales.
Glass door. (2015). Companies in Wilimgton, NC, U.S.. Retrieved from https://www.glassdoor.co.in/Reviews/wilmington-reviews-RCH_IL.0,10_IM932.htm?&countryRedirect=true on 6th January, 2016
Howard, J. (2015). Top 5 Trends in Apparel Retail for 2015. Digital marketing Magazine. Retrieved from http://digitalmarketingmagazine.co.uk/digital-marketing-lead-generation/top-5-trends-in-apparel-retail-for-2015/1610 on 6th January, 2016.
Inc. (2012). Top Retail Companies on the 2011 Inc. 5000. Retrieved from http://www.inc.com/inc5000/list/2011/industry/retail / on 6th January, 2016.
MBASkool. (2015). Zodiac Clothing SWOT Analysis, USP & Competitors. Retrieved from http://www.mbaskool.com/brandguide/lifestyle-and-retail/2425-zodiac-clothing.html on 6th January, 2015.
Working for an organization known as Water for People has been one of the most rewarding experiences in life. The position of international communications representative has provided varied chances to interact at international level with authorities and communities. The program proposed herein is based on the rural population of Honduras and in particular in Tela village as the starting point that will also act as a pilot project under this wider program that is meant to cover majority of the Honduras rural areas.
The vision of Water for People is "a world where every person has access to reliable and safe drinking water and sanitation" and it is in line with this vision that the water for rural Honduras program comes in to be essential and applicable for the local people. The program is meant to introduce and efficient and cheap way of providing water to the villages in Honduras…
Blue Spring Corporation, (2011). Well Water Purification System. Retrieved April 28, 2016 from http://www.bluspr.com/well_water_purifier.html
National Climatic Data Center, (2009). Mitch: The Deadliest Atlantic Hurricane Since 1780.
Retrieved April 28, 2016 from http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/oa/reports/mitch/mitch.html
USAID (2003). Honduras. Retrieved April 28, 2016 from http://www.usaid.gov/pubs/cbj2002/lac/hn/
The Delta is also a habitat for many species of fish, birds, mammals, and plants, and it supports agricultural and recreational activities while also being the focal point for water distribution throughout the State.
The development of the Delta as it exists today started in late 1850 when the Swamp and Overflow Land Act transferred ownership of all swamp and overflow land, including Delta marshes, from the federal government to the State of California. In 1861, the State Legislature created the Board of Swamp and Overflowed Land Commissioners to manage reclamation projects, and in 1866, the authority of the Board was transferred to county boards of supervisors. The Delta now covers 738,000 acres interlaced with hundreds of miles of waterways, with much of the land below sea level, relying on more than 1,000 miles of levees for protection against flooding. 20
White sturgeon is one of the most spectacular native…
1. Northridge, S.P. An updated world review of interactions between marine mammals and fisheries. FAO Fisheries Technical Paper. No. 251, Suppl. 1. Rome,
FAO. 1991. 58p.
2. DeMaster, Douglas P., Fowler, Charles W., Perry, Simona L. And Richlen,
Michael F. Predation and Competition: The Impact of Fisheries on Marine-Mammal
Oceans & Waters
Surface runoff is the water that makes its way to water collection sites, streams, rivers, lakes and ultimately to the oceans when the ground itself is beyond the capacity to hold it. If this water works its way through places where many people live, it can pick up various chemical, materials and pollutants, which is what is often referred to as well as urban runoff. Surveys suggest that the public believes industry is mostly responsible for the damaging effects of this process, when in fact it is individual activities that make up the greatest concern (CA EPA 2001).
CONTOL OF PET WASTE: People tend to be misinformed about where the water goes that enters street drains. It does not go to treatment facilities, but usually gets diverted to local water holdings or into ground waters (CA EPA 2001). In waste plants, the waters are cleaned and given…
Bulkheads and Seawalls. Unattributed web posting. No date. .
California EPA. Urban runoff and water pollution. California Environmental Protection Agency, Regional Water Control Agency, Santa Ana Region 8. July 2001. < http://www.waterboards.ca.gov/rwqcb8/water_issues/programs/nps/docs/urbanrunoff.pdf >.
LKBlog. Global warming now threatening marine food chain. Mendo Coast Current. July 28, 2010. < http://mendocoastcurrent.wordpress.com/2010/07/28/global-warming-now-threatening-marine-food-chain/ >.
Puget Sound Shorelines. Bulkheads can change the beach. Department of Ecology. .
It should not be a difficult question to answer: we must begin reducing ocean pollution and taking steps to prohibit overfishing of our ocean shallows.
The plan that is formulated to address the overfishing and man-made pollutants in the coral reefs must be conducted by authorities in marine and ecological sciences. It must be conducted on two levels: the fishing industry associated with the catches on the coral reefs; and the pollutants that are introduced into the coral reefs through contact with man. This can be done by monitoring commercial tourism and diving industries, which claim there is no residual effect on the coral reefs (Carrier, James, and McLeod, Donald, 2005, p. 315).
The Plan for Preserving the Coral eefs
Action Items in the correct order)
esearch and identify the effects of overfishing of species found in coral reefs.
eview fishing data as it pertains to catches,…
BBC/Discovery Channel (2006). Planet Earth: Shallow Seas, documentary film,
Discovery Channel, 12 October 2008. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5009915994
Carrier, J.G., & Macleod, D.V. (2005). Bursting the Bubble: The Socio-Cultural Context of Ecotourism. Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute, 11(2), 315+. Retrieved October 26, 2008, from Questia database:
brevis blooms are not a new phenomenon, and fish kills that result from red tides caused by K. brevis in the Gulf of Mexico have been described in the scientific literature since 1960 or so and have been reported anecdotally for more than two centuries (Naar et al. 2002). In this regard, Backer and her associates (2005) emphasize that, "The human health effects from consuming shellfish with high concentrations of brevetoxins in their tissues have been well documented. However, there is very little information describing human health effects from environmental exposures. It is ironic that we know the least about the aspects of the Florida red tide problem that poses the greatest public health hazard in terms of number of people affected" (645). Today, K. brevis blooms are monitored closely in order to mitigate the foregoing health hazards that are related to the consumption of shellfish and shellfish harvesting is…
Aguirre, A. Alonso, Richard S. Ostfeld, Gary M. Tabor, Carol House and Mary C. Pearl.
Conservation Medicine: Ecological Health in Practice. New York: Oxford University
Backer, Lorraine C., Barbara Kirkpatrick, Lora E. Fleming, Yung Sung Cheng, Richard Pierce,
Speed here is of essence and spices like flying fish are able to jump out of water to escape predators. Others that lack like jellies are transparent. Turtles will have a shell to protect them. Gills enable animals to manage different water pressures like the sharks while whales have the capability of holding their breaths for longer periods. On the other hand, since the benthic zone does not allow sunlight to reach it due to its depth (beyond 600 feet), some fish and crustaceans, at this level do not see, in fact half of the species at this level are blind. In this sense, the organisms have adapted to produce their own lights from their specialized parts in their bodies known as photophores. In addition, since there is lack of phytoplacton to start the food chain, life is limited and fish have adapted to fulfill their needs. For instance, some…
Crouse, R. (n.d.). Waves: Tsunamis/Seismic sea waves. Water encyclopedia. Retrieved from http://www.waterencyclopedia.com/Tw-Z/Waves.html
Gardiner, L. (2010, January 8). Surface ocean currents. windows.ucar.edu. Retrieved from http://www.windows.ucar.edu/tour/link=/earth/Water/ocean_currents.html
Lee, H.J., and Normark, W.R. (2009). Earth science in urban ocean: The Southern California continental borderland. New York, U.S.: Geological Society of America.
Makai. (n.d). Threats to marine ecosystems. Waianae ecological characteristics. Retrieved from http://hawaii.gov/dbedt/czm/initiative/wec/html/sea/marine/threats.htm
In the article titled: "Plastic garbage in oceans: Understanding marine pollution from microplastic particles," discussion starts with the danger posed by microplastic particles to numerous marine life that inhabit the oceans and seas. These "large quantities of globally produced plastics end up in the oceans where they represent a growing risk." The smallest objects within the range of particles that make up the pollution are microplastic particles which not only pose the greatest risk in harming marine wildlife, but also remain the least investigated pollutant. The article wishes to show how efforts are being undertaken to establish standardized guidelines to help record and characterize microplastic particles in the sea for analysis and measurement of its impact on marine wildlife.
When observing the source of these microplastic particles, the investigators note the water bottles in and around the shorelines and the pieces of plastic floating in the water creating the…
The same thing with our super-modern companies and school: although they have found sophisticated ways to conceal their garbage from people's eyes, the garbage still exists and is contaminating to the atmosphere. As is known, despite their tremendous care taken to avoid lethal gas emission, the landfill may still produce emission of methane gas that is produced by the decaying waste material and modern garbage, concealed thoguh it is by our institutions, produces the same results.
Recycling is still our only option. It has a superior effect on reducing lethal emissions since it reduces the amount of energy used by the industry most of which produces fossil fuels like gasoline, diesel and coals that transform themselves into carbon dioxide, methane, and other toxic greenhouse effects. In this way, recycling acts as preventative rather than as implementation after matter (Morris, 1996). Incinerators and landfills used in recycling projects also produce reduced…
Pennsylvania. Department of environmental protection. Recycling saves our environment.
Rogers H (2002) Gone Tomorrow: The Hidden Life of Garbage USA: New Press
San Luis Obispo County (2004) Comparison of environmental burdens. San Luis Obispo County Integrated Waste Management Authority San Luis Obispo, California
Honor the Warrior, The United States Marine Corps in Vietnam written by William L. Myers an ex-United States Marine. The book follows the experiences of the young men of the third corps of the third battalion U.S. Marine Corps, known as the 3-3 discussing the medals and honors the unit won during the campaign and also how they felt during the battles.
The Way of the Warrior: A veterans U.S. Marines View of the Experiences of the Soldiers of the Vietnam War
They every warriors nightmare is to remember the battles and deaths of his friends yet there are many war heroes who enjoy the rapid rise to fame as they produce their memoirs of battles they have fought in and their experiences on the parade ground and the jungle or desert.
However William L. Myers, himself a four-year veteran of the Marine Corps, has taken a step away from…
" (SD, 1)
McClintock goes on to connect this to pointedly negative consequences for marine life, arguing that many invertebrates are distinctly vulnerable because their protective shells require many of the nutrients naturally available in their surrounding water to maintain hardness or to develop at all. This is a concern which is also raised in the article by Monroe (2009), where the results of an experiment designed to confirm this effect were as expected. Accordingly, "[Victoria] Fabry, a biological oceanographer and visiting researcher at Scripps Institution of Oceanography at UC San Diego, studies the effects of ocean acidification on the mollusks known as pteropods. In one experiment, only 48 hours of exposure to slightly corrosive seawater caused normally smooth shells to become frayed at the edges on their way to eventual dissolution, severely diminishing their owners' chances of survival." (Monroe, 1)
This demonstrates that the increased acidification of the ocean's…
ANI. (2010). CO2 Negatively Affecting Environment of World's Oceans. Thaindian News.
Monroe, R. (2009). Carbonated Oceans. Explorations: Scripps Institution of Oceanography.
Pechenik, J. (2004). Biology of the Invertebrates. McGraw-Hill Science/Engineering/Math.
Pinet, P.R. (2009). Invitation to Oceanography. Jones & Bartlett Learning.
e. By salving the ship and cargo) (IMO, 1989). This was to acknowledge the need to treat environmental degradation as a global problem and to encourage sustainable practices on the part of all contractual parties involved international shipping.
Damage to the environment is defined as "substantial physical damage to human health or to marine life" and under the Convention the awarded "compensation consists of the salvor's expenses, plus up to 30% of these expenses if, thanks to the efforts of the salvor, environmental damage has been minimized or prevented (SCOPIC, 2007). The salvor's expenses and financial distress are defined as "out-of-pocket expenses reasonably incurred by the salvor in the salvage operation and a fair rate for equipment and personnel actually and reasonably used" (SCOPIC, 2007). The tribunal or arbitrator between the two parties alleging a breach of contract "may even reward 100% of the agreed upon sum, in light of…
"Chapter 5: Fundamental breach, deviation, quasi-deviation, and rupture of the contract."
July 8, 2009.
"International Convention on Salvage, 1989." International Maritime organization (IMO).
BP Oil Spill
Strategy and Corporate Governance
The bp oil spill of 2010
British Petroleum (BP) is one of the largest oil exploring companies in the world. It is recognized for its efficient practices. In recent years it has positioned itself as an environmentally responsible company by stressing its commitment to undertaking exploration activities by causing minimum harm to the natural environment. It has also invested in technologies to make drilling under the seabed more secure so that oil spills do not occur. However, these claims were brought into question on April 20, 2012 when a massive explosion and oil spill took place on the Deepwater Horizon oil rig over the Macondo oil well in the U.S. Gulf. There was huge damage to the marine environment and to the livelihood of people living in the coastal communities in Louisiana and other coastal states. The poor response of the company was…
ABC News. (2010, July 27). BP CEO Tony Hayward Gets Golden Parachute. Is $18 Million Too Much? ABC News. Retrieved May 1, 2012, from http://www.abcnews.go.com/WN/bp-ceo-tony-hayward-receive-compensation-world-news/story?id=1257978
Alleyne, R. (2010, July 30). BP Oil Spill: Was Tony Hayward Right After All? The Telegraph. Retrieved May 1, 2012, from http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/northamerica/usa/7918000/BP-oil-spill-Was-Tony-Hayward-right-after-all.html
Arnott, S. (2010, July 28). BP CEO Tony Hayward: In His Own Words. Bloomberg Business Week. Retrieved May 1, 2012, from http://www.businessweek.com/globalbiz/content/jul2010/gb20100728_556093.htm
BBC. (2010, June 1). BP's Shares Fall 13% after Plan to Stop Oil Leak Fails. BBC. Retrieved May 1, 2012, from http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/10202162
Sea around Us
Rachel Carson was a scientist and author who took a topic which had hitherto been only of interest to fellow scientists and opened it up to the masses. During her lifetime, she took up many causes in support of wildlife and the protection of species and protecting the natural landscape from potential molestation from developers and others who would destroy indigenous habitats. Among her many missions was to make people aware of the hazards of certain chemicals on the environment, such as pesticides on vegetation. In Rachel Carson's book The Sea around Us, the author strives to explain the mysteries of the sea. She begins with a discussion of the world of water from before recorded history, all the way up to the book's present which was the early 1950s. Her essential thesis of the piece is that although science has allowed the people of the world…
Cafaro, Philip. "Thoreau, Leopold, and Carson: Toward an Environmental Virtue Ethics." 22.
2001. 3-17. Print.
Carson, Rachel. The Sea Around Us. New York, NY: Oxford UP, 1991. Print.
Pauly, Daniel. "The Sea Around Us Project: Documenting and Communicating Global Fisheries
Near the middle of the sea in what is now Kansas sediments were deposited at a fast rate creating about an inch of compacted chalk each 700 years. Some of the worlds finest fossils have been discovered here. The crinoid Uintacrinus and fish Ichthyodectes are two examples. (Fossilmuseum.net NP)
hen other regions have such finds they are news, while the shelf and chalk deposit areas of the estern Interior Seaway boast finds nearly every digging season, by both hobbyists and professional scholars. hile other scholars are quick to point out that marine fossils are abundant the vertebrate fossil record is relatively barren, this is likely due to the significantly fossil bearing conditions of the silt sea bottom and its storm driven record keeping system, where large silt deposits moved rapidly over large areas in short periods of time and created a relative recording of the living and dead creatures in…
Baldridge, W.S. (2004). Geology of the American Southwest: a journey through two billion years of plate-tectonic history. Cambridge UK: Cambridge University Press.
Brigham, a.P. (1905). A Textbook of Geology. New York, NY: D. Appleton and Co.
Everhart, M. (2010). Oceans of Kansas Paleontology. Retrieved November 17, 2010, from Oceans of Kansas: http://www.oceansofkansas.com/
Everhart, M. (2007). Seamonsters: Prehistoric Creatures of theDeedp . Washington, DC: National Geographic Press.
.." For example, during the Vietnam War the United States "sprayed 3640 km2 of South Vietnam's cropland with herbicides, using a total estimated amount of 55 million kg. The stated rationale was to deny the enemy sources of food and means of cover. This widespread use of chemicals to destroy farmland, forest and water sources is unprecedented, and the environmental consequences are still relatively unexplored. International teams have been granted access for field assessments only in the last few years." (Learning, 2000)
The work of Lindon, Jernelov, and Egerup (2004) entitled: "The Environmental Impacts of the Gulf War 1991" relates that the oil fires in Kuwait" emitted pollutants that potentially could affect the health and well-being of the people in the region. Most of the substances emitted from the burning wells can potentially cause adverse effects, which vary according to concentration and duration of exposure." In fact the concentrations of…
Lessons from the Last Gulf War (2003) Greenpeace Briefing Feb. 2003. Online available at http://www.greenpeace.org/raw/content/international/press/reports/lessons-from-the-gulf-war-the.pdf
Learning, Jennifer (2000) Environment and Health: Impact of War. CMAJ • OCT. 31, 2000; 163 (9). Online available at http://www.cmaj.ca/cgi/reprint/163/9/1157.pdf
Amirahmadi, Hoosang (1992) Iranian Recovery From Industrial Devastation During War with Iraq. United Nations. 1992. Online available at http://www.unu.edu/unupress/unupbooks/uu21le/uu21le0e.htm#environmental%20damage
Lindon, O., Jernelov, a., and Egerup, J. (2004) the Environmental Impacts of the Gulf War 1991. Interim Report. International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis Schlossplatz 1
Island nations may be beautiful, but their isolation makes them vulnerable to outside forces that increasingly threaten their survival. Rising sea levels linked to global warming could submerge some altogether. Tuvalu, a est Pacific nation whose peak height rises just 5 meters over sea level, could be uninhabitable within 50 years, some experts say. A similar fate could also doom the Maldives, the Marshall Islands, Kiribati, and Tokelau. Of all the threats facing island nations, the rise in sea level could be the most catastrophic....in the early 1990s, satellites began generating more comprehensive profiles of global sea level. Thanks to these orbiting systems, scientists now know that the average global rate of sea level rise has increased 50% during the last 12 years -- up to 3 millimeters per year from a 50-year annual average of 2 millimeters,...NASA..
hen we discuss this issue we often slide back to…
Mastny, Lisa. "More Evidence of Antarctic Melting Reported." World Watch July-Aug. 2005: 9.
Pitois, Sophie, Michael H. Jackson, and Brian J.B. Wood. "Sources of the Eutrophication Problems Associated with Toxic Algae: An Overview." Journal of Environmental Health 64.5 (2001): 25.
Schmidt, Charles W. "Keeping Afloat: A Strategy for Small Island Nations." Environmental Health Perspectives 113.9 (2005): 606.
Schwartz, Brian S., Cindy Parker, Thomas a. Glass, and Howard Hu. "Global Environmental Change: What Can Health Care Providers and the Environmental Health Community Do about it Now?." Environmental Health Perspectives 114.12 (2006): 1807.
Apart from this, further developments will be made in the fields of physics, medicine and engineering. Sensors will be seen everywhere and people will be able to go towards the space with the elevator and this will be made possible by just clicking on a single button. All these developments are in process are will come into view in the future (Kaku, pg. 45).
As it is mentioned above that the all the drawbacks of technology are not negligible and many people are now fully aware that how techn ology is harming the society as well as the environement in which we all survive. but, in spite of being aware about this fact, a number of organizations, nations and individuals are using technology in every moment of their life. The reason behind is that people are only thinking of their personal motives and well-being . They completely ignore the benefit…
Chiang, Jong-Tsong. "High-technology targeting: its modes' strategies and paradigms." Technology in Society (1998): 1-23.
Kaku, Michio. Physics of the Future: How Science Will Shape Human Destiny and Our Daily Lives by 2100. NY: Knopf Doubleday., 2011.
McKibben, Bill. Staying Human in our Engineered Age. Henry Holt & Co., Inc., 2004.
Teich, Albert H. Technology and the Future. NY: St. Martins Press, 2008.
This is very important because it proves how the company has achieved organizational effectiveness through very simple, yet very effective motivational tools, such as the constant promotion of organic and healthy foods in a variety of forms and from a variety of companies.
Of course, with specific respect to its employees the company also utilizes tools such as benefits and rewards or recognition. One of the benefits of working at Whole Foods is that a person will be trained from the beginning of his or her career. Due to the environment of the store, all people are friendly, and it is truly a joy to go there, as it is bright, well-organized, and pleasant. On a more technical aspect, however, the company provides employee benefits as well.
The company provides a full page on its website (detailed below), as to what it does exactly to make its employees happy. f…
In order to do this, it is imperative for one to go to the store and observe the interactions. Often times, the management is not present for example, and employees have no guidance. One must note such instances, as well as instances when the customer was being helped properly or otherwise. Furthermore, studies upon this topic must also be conducted, especially due to the fact that Whole Foods is such a great entity. It is imperative to see whether its products are truly organic and safe for consumers to buy and whether Whole Foods could benefit from more oversight. These are all ideas for future studies.
List taken from: Whole Foods Market: Company History (2011). Retrieved from: http://www.wholefoodsmarket.com/company/history.php
Whole Foods Market: Whole Foods Market Benefits (2011). Retrieved from: http://www.wholefoodsmarket.com/careers/benefits_us.php
Aguirre, Alonso et al. “Infectious Disease Monitoring of the Endangered Hawaiian Monk Seal.” Journal of Wildlife Diseases. 40.2 (2007): 229-241.
This article seeks to monitor infectious diseases afflicting endangered Hawaiian monk seals. It should be noted that a study of this nature is not only relevant from a conservation point of view, but also a valid tool for assessing some of the prominent threats to the long-term survival of endangered Hawaiian monk seals. Two of the most prominent causes of mortality in this case have been identified as mitotoxin and ciguatoxin. The authors are of the opinion that the relevance of continued surveillance cannot be overstated as an approach to the early detection of various infectious diseases. Coupled with other conservation strategies, this is an approach that could immensely help in future conservation efforts. The fact that the authors in this case make use of an appropriate sample size further…
These gunboats would devastate wildlife area and other immense and indefinite environmental impact. These tankers would carry liquefied natural gas or LNG in cruising through Head Harbor Passage. It would take at least 90 minutes for each tanker, the size of Queen Mary, to cross the passage of whale and porpoise feeding areas, breeding grounds and nurseries as well as aquaculture sites and fishing grounds (Figart).
The Passamaquoddy people and their ancestors have, for thousands of years, lived, fished, hunted and cultivated land in the Quoddy region (Harvey, 2004). They have thrived on marine species for survival. ut over 200 years of permanent European settlement in the region since the late 18th century introduced environmental predators and developers. With the passing of the years, they increased and became more and more efficient (Harvey). In response to the situation, the United Nations Environment developed the Global Programme of Action…
Akagi, H.M. (2002). Appeal to the UN. NGO Committee of the United Nations
International Decade of World's Indigenous Peoples: Sipayik.com. Retrieved on December 19, 2009 from http://www.sipayik.com/akagi's_appeal_to_the_un.htm
CEC (1998). Impact of contaminants on the resources of the Gulf of Maine. A Global
Programme of Action Coalition for the Gulf of Maine. Commission for Environmental Cooperation: Horsley & Witten, Inc. Retrieved on December 20,
Environmental Biology: The Effects of Pollution in the Ocean
The oceans are being contaminated by pollution caused by oil spills, tanker discharges, untreated municipal wastes and agrochemical residues. Pollution is known to have destabilized many coastal ecosystems and is believed to be responsible for the decline in phytoplankton and consumable shellfish which usually thrive further out to sea. Medical wastes, beach visitors' garbage, waterfront businesses account for most of the toxic and most dangerous pollutants that lurk below the surface of the ocean. Oil spills and medical wastes only play a small part in ocean pollution (Energy Intelligence Group, 2002). Plants and factories spew over thirty-two billion gallons of poisonous chemicals and sewage into the sea every day. The Commerce Department's National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (2000) states that eighty percent of pollution to the marine environment comes from land-based sources, such as runoff pollution. Runoff pollution includes many small…
Adler, T. (1996, Feb.). The expiration of respiration; oxygen - the missing ingredient in many bodies of water. Science News, (149) 88.
Boukhari, S. (1998, July-Aug.). Marine blues. UNESCO Courier, (2) 47.
Conformer." Glossary of Marine Biology. Retrieved November, 7, 2002 from: http://life.bio.sunysb.edu/marinebio/glossary.c.html .
Energy Intelligence Group. (2002, May). Oil spills play small role in ocean pollution.
This increase in seed size probably results from the continuous use of water through irrigation.
The Moche pottery also provides insights into the agriculture of the inland valleys. Nineteen races of maize are found on Moche jars. Nine of these include the Peruvian races Confite Iqueiio, Confite, Morocho, Kculli, Enano, Perla, Mochero, Pagaladroga, Huancavelicano, and Perlilla, which had evolved by a.D. 800. Ten races identified are found today only outside Peru from Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, and Venezuela. This dispersal suggests that the prehistoric ranges of these races were wider than is known in present times. In fact, the Moche pottery shows that most maize forms had a wider geographical distribution prehistorically than they have today. Ceramic maize replicas on Moche jars demonstrate evidence that the north coast of Peru was a major center for cultural exchange and connected the distant areas of South America perhaps extending as far as Central…
1996. The Moche, New York: Blackwell Press..
Billman, Brian R.
2002. Irrigation and the Origins of the Southern Moche State on the North Coast of Peru Latin American Antiquity 13(4), 371-400
Coral reefs began declining when more and more large fish, turtles and seals were killed, species which in the past had frequented coral reef systems. The "reduced visits" have led to a reduced number of herbivorous fish and "added nutrients from pollution" all of which result in seaweed overgrowth and destruction of the reef (Houlder, 2003).
Methods for Addressing Over fishing
The government has encouraged many fisheries and local agents to develop strategic plans for combating the problem of deep sea over fishing. In particular much attention has been spent on an 'ecosystem' approach to fishery management which is adaptive, geographically specified and works to balance diverse objectives (Shotton, 2003). An ecosystem approach aims at "conserving the structure and function of marine ecosystems and the fishery resource" (Shotton, 2003).
Longlines can be weighted so that bait sinks faster, and hooks can be set at night, thus reducing the impacts on…
Clarke, T. (September, 2003). "North sea fish have shrunk." Nature Science - European
Cetacean Bycatch Campaign. 1, December 2004: http://www.eurocbc.org/northsea_number_small_fish_increased_due_to_overfishing_25sept2003page1290.html
CSI. "Destructive Fishing Practices." Conservation Science Institute. 1, December, 2004 from: http://www.conservationinstitute.org/destructivefishingpractices.htm
Dayton, P.K., Thrush, S.F., Agardy, M.T., & Hofman, R.J. (1995). "Environmental effects of marine fishing." Aquatic Conservation 5: 205-32
International egulation of Tourism in Antarctica
Since the mid-1980s, Antarctica has been an increasingly popular tourist destination, despite the relative danger of visiting the largest, least explored -- and arguably least understood -- continent on earth. Beginning with the 1959 treaty establishing Antarctica as an international zone free of claims of sovereignty by nation's that had been instrumental in establishing research stations there, there has been almost constant negotiation about how to administer regulations pertaining to the preservation of life forms on the continent, what those regulations should be, and what sanctions should be applied and by whom.
To understand the depths of the negotiations, and the potential for discord, it is necessary to understand what the continent offer the 65% of global nations that are party to the 1959 and all subsequent treaties. To understand the possible future of Antarctica, it is necessary to outline treaty attempts to minimize…
Antarctica. Siyabona Africa Web site. Retrieved September 28, 2004 at http://balule.krugerpark.co.za/africa_antarctica.html
Chile Web site. Retrieved September 17, 2004 at http://www.visit-chile.org/antartica/antartica.phtml
Australia urges regulation as tourism to Antarctica escalates. (2004, March 24) Agence France Presse English. Retrieved September 14, 2004 at http://www.highbeam.com .
Bulgaria in Antarctica. Retrieved September 15, 2004 at http://www.bluelink.net/antarctic/ant_en/BGant.htm
The Leblanc alkali production processes were especially pernicious, but they followed along the lines of previous industrial processes. In other words, the first British environmental legislation was a response not so much to a qualitative change in industrial processes and their environmental impact but more to a quantitative increase in sources of pollution that had up to that point been (if only barely) tolerable.
Legislation Arising From Public Anger
At the center of the first British environmental legislation was the Leblanc process, an industrial process that produced of soda ash (which is chemically sodium carbonate) that came into use in the first decades of the 19th century. Named after its inventor, Nicolas Leblanc, it replaced an older process in which soda ash had been produced from wood ash. However, as the availability of wood ash declined (because of deforestation, a process that was occuring both in Great Britain and across…
Resources Act (WRA) of 1991. This act "establishes the duties of the Environment Agency (EA) on flood defence and other areas relating to water management and quality."
"The EA has discretionary powers to improve and maintain river conditions. This means that the EA is not obliged to construct or maintain such works. In practice, the EA will only proceed with schemes that are not only beneficial but cost-effective.
"The Act also grants the EA powers to issue flood warnings and regulate what can be discharged into rivers, estuaries, coastal waters, lakes and groundwaters."
Canadian law on flooding is similarly divided between common law and statutory law.
law help protect the environment and what steps can citizens take to ensure that the law accomplishes this goal?
Protection of the environment is important for our health, but humans affect the system through various means such as through polluting water and atmosphere with toxic gasses, with oil, with car fuels, and with debris that is plunked into the waters as well as depleting the fisheries and filling the air with smog and the earth with pollution.
It is for this reason that legislation is put into effect to curb our destruction and to teach us how to look after the environment in better ways. The state employs its own regulations, but it needs a synthesis of both state, business and citizen involvement to safeguard the environment, and motivation from both business and citizen is not always forthcoming. The following essay discusses policies that have been implemented to help protect…
Amos, W. (2011) Development of Canadian Arctic Offshore Oil and Gas Drilling: Lessons from the Gulf of Mexico RECIEL 20 (1)
British Columbia v. Canadian Forest Products Ltd.,  2 S.C.R. 74, 2004 SCC 38
Bruce, JP (2011) Protecting Groundwater: The Invisible but Vital Resource C.D. Howe Institute
DeMarco, Jerry V;Valiante, Marcia;Bowden, Marie-Ann (2005) Opening the Door for Common Law Environmental Protection in Canada Journal of Environmental Law and Practice 15, 2
Eggleston, W. (1961). The Queen's Choice. Ottawa, Ontario: The National Capital Commission.
The city of St. John's can also borrow a leaf from the City of Ottawa's Greenbelt that was put in place to avoid urban sprawl and provide open space for future development of natural areas. According to Eggleston (1961), the Greenbelt currently covers forests, wetland, and fields used for recreation conservation, farming, research, and forestry. The greenbelt has a variety of wildlife that fall under the category of mammals, birds, insects, reptiles and amphibians. Wildlife is a source of revenue especially when tourists come to watch them. The revenue earned from such activities can be used in bettering service delivery to the city residents. This is an economic benefit that the authorities of the City of St. John's stand to benefit from if they put in place nature and wildlife reserves within the city's vicinity. The…
Bolduc, M., Guha, M., Laurendeau, E., & Satienpoch, M. (2003). WPI -- London Borough of Merton Local Nature Reserves: An Interactive Qualifying Project Report. Worcester Polytechnic Institute.
Collier, a., & Brocx, B. (2004). Tourism Industry Management. Auckland: Pearson Educational,
Eggleston, W., (1961). The Queen's Choice. Ottawa, Ontario: The National Capital Commission
Gubbay, S. (1995). Marine Protected Areas-past, present and future. Conservation Biology
The role of the current in trajectory movements is significant, particularly in species such as the leatherback turtle, as it provides at times unexpected information regarding the animal's sense of direction and purpose in terms of its environment. In the conservation effort, it is therefore very important to consider the influence of current upon animal movement.
Conservation can only be effectively applied when behavior and movement are interpreted to the highest degree of accuracy. The study reveals the importance of current influence on marine life movement. Although larger and faster marine animals will not be as influenced by the current as the leatherback turtle, there will certainly be an impact. While important to study the movements of marine life, the influence of currents on the study of foraging behavior is even more important. This will determine the focus of conservation on specific foraging areas in order to ensure sustainability…
It is common knowledge that the human body consists of about 65% water. People cannot live any longer than five days without H20. Individuals of all ages love to sail the oceans, swim in the sea and soar under or speed across the waves. It comes as no surprise, then, that some part of the human psyche remembers millions and millions of years ago before animals came on shore. What is still questionable is how or why these animals made the move from water to land. The journal articles discussed below give some of the latest findings on this topic.
Early in the Devonian Era, close to 400 million years ago, all the continents were grouped closely together and surrounded by the seas. The climate ranged from dry weather to torrential rains as some tropical areas do today. Even flowers had not yet evolved on land, let alone vertebrates.…
Clack, J.A. "An Early Tetrapod from Romer's Gap." Nature (2002) 418: 72-76. [electronic version]
Clack, J.A. "From Fins to Fingers." Science 304.5667 (2004): 57-59. [electronic version]
Coates, M.I, and J.A. Clack. "Polydactyly in the Earliest Known Tetrapod Limbs"
Nature. (1990) 347: 66-69. [electronic version]
Environmental Hazards as a Consequence of Crude Oil/Natural Gas Exploration, Transportation, Refining and Storage
Ever since crude oil was first successfully drilled in the U.S. In Titusville, Pennsylvania, in 1859, the demand for oil has only been increasing over the years in countries all over the world. (Camden, 1883) Crude oil, from which various petroleum products are obtained, is a naturally occurring hydrocarbon component found trapped in rocks below the earth. The word "petroleum" means "rock oil" or "oil from the earth." Natural gas is another form of hydrocarbon that is also found in nature. oth crude oil and natural gas have excellent combustibility and are good sources of energy. Crude oil is not used in the extracted form; but it is refined to obtained products such as gasoline, liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), naphtha, kerosene, gas-oil and fuel oil. Secondary products during the purification of crude oil are obtained are…
Associated-Press, and Reuters. World's Biggest Oil Rig Sinks. 2001. CNN. Available:
http://www.cnn.com/2001/WORLD/americas/03/20/brazil.rig.02/.August 2, 2004.
AWMA. Oil Spills - a Fact Sheet. 2000. Air & Waste Management Association. Available:
http://www.awma.org/education/oilspills.htm . August 1, 2004.
While on one hand, the Nile gets the highest discharge from rainfall on the highlands of Ethiopia and upland plateau of East Africa, located well outside the Middle East region; on the other hand, discharge points of the other two rivers, Euphrates and Tigris, are positioned well within the Middle East region, prevailing mostly in Turkey, Syria along with Iraq. In other areas, recurrent river systems are restricted to the more northern upland areas of Iran and Turkey, in common with the coastline of Levant (Peter eaumont, Gerald H. lake, J. And Malcolm Wagstaff, 1988).
The conflict in the Future
It is widely believed by many experts that those who control the waters in the Middle East; control the Middle East; and those who control the Middle East; control the oil supply of the world (David M. Hummel, 1995). From the above mentioned facts it is clear that the water…
Anthony H. Cordesman. Peace is Not Enough: The Arab-Israeli Economic and Demographic Crises. Part Two. Population Growth, Fertility and Population Doubling Rates, Regional Trends, National Trends, and the "Youth Explosion" Center for Strategic and International Studies, 1998.
Adel Darwish. Troubled waters in rivers of blood. Water Issues. 3 December 1992. http://www.mideastnews.com/water004.html
Adel Darwish. Inadequacy of international law. Taken at http://www.mideastnews.com/WaterWars.htm
Ashok Swain. A new challenge: water scarcity in the Arab world. Arab Studies Quarterly (ASQ). January, 1998.
" (Ware, 35) The PHB is a high weight polymer that is used for energy storage and carbon storage by a large number of microorganisms. PHB is synthesized and degraded by a lot of organisms and is said to be the most economic alternative to petrochemical plastics. The commercial production of PHB is on and in the brand name Bipol. The attractive feature is that the polymer degrades into carbon dioxide and water without harmful residues. PHAs are biosynthesized polyesters and are thermoplastics thus can be melted and molded and ideal for consumer products. There are over ninety varieties of hydroxyalkanotic acids that are the constituent of the monomer constituents of biosynthetic PHA. (Ware, 35)
Plastic waste is a problem of great magnitude. ecycling the waste is found to be the better solution. In the actual consideration we have to divide the plastic waste into many categories and decide…
Azapagic, Adisa; Emsley, Alan; Hamerton, Ian. Polymers: the environment and sustainable development. John Wiley and Sons, 2003.
Mantia, Francesco Paolo La. Recycling of PVC and mixed plastic waste.
ChemTec Publishing, 1996.
Martin, L. Plastic bags evil? Think again, some scientists say.
Regulating Oil and Gas Drilling and Transport
The American economy runs on energy produced from oil, coal, natural gas, hydroelectric power, nuclear power and renewable sources like solar and wind energies. In fact according to a report in the Congressional Research Service, oil provides the United States with 40% of its total energy needs. It is used in myriad ways, providing "…fuel for the transportation, industrial, and residential sectors" (Ramseur, 2012). Because of the great need for energy to fuel the American economy, oil in "vast quantities" enters the country and moves through the country by ships and by pipelines, Ramseur explains in the Congressional Research Service. Hence, it is inevitable that some spills will occur, and they certainly do occur, notwithstanding the attempts by the industry to conduct its business safely.
The U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) reports that the U.S. consumed 6.87 billion barrels (about 18.83 million barrels…
American Petroleum Institute. (2012). Energy Security. Retrieved February 15, 2013, from http://www.api.org.
Barkham, Patrick. (2010).Oil spills: Legacy of the Torrey Canyon. The Guardian. Retrieved February 14, 2013, from http://www.guardian.co.uk .
Griffin, Catherine. (2013). European Satellite Confirms Arctic Ocean is on Thin Ice, Global
Warming Strikes Again. Science World Report. Retrieved February 15, 2013, from http://www.scienceworldreport.com .