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Marine Pollution Law
Although the problem of international liability and compensation for pollution caused by oil spills is specifically adressed by the 1969 International Convention on Civil Liability for Oil Pollution Damage and the 1971 International Convention on the Establishment of an International Fund for Compensation for Oil Pollution Damage, the issue of pollution is also the object of other international treaties and conventions, such as the MARPOL 73/78 Convention, Intervention Convention, the London Convention and others. efore taking a thorough look at the 1969 and 1971 International Conventions, a brief description of other acts should create a clearer image of the whole situation.
International Maritime Organization (IMO) MARPOL: The International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Shipping (MARPOL 73/78) is the main international convention covering prevention of pollution of the marine environment by ships from operational or accidental causes. It is a combination of two treaties adopted in…
1. The International Regime On Liability And Compensation For Oil Pollution Damage: Recent Developments" by Jose Maura Barandiaran http://europa.eu.int/comm/environment/civil/marin/prestige_catania/prestige_workshop_catania/session6/presentation_maura.pdf
2. "Global Marine Pollution International Gateway " http://oils.gpa.unep.org/framework/global-next.htm#liabilityconv
3. "The Law of the Sea" by RR Churchill and AV Lowe 1999 3rd edition
4. Unesco: Laws For The Ocean" http://www.unesco.org/courier/1998_08/uk/dossier/txt31.htm
S. has jurisdiction. The dumping specifically of biodegradable plastics into the sea in these navigable waters and in offshore areas less than 25 nautical miles from the nearest land is strictly forbidden. Metals, bottles, crockery and similar garbage cannot be disposed of into the sea within 12 nautical miles from the closest land (U.S. Congress).
Food waste, paper, rags, glass and similar wastes cannot be thrown into navigable waters or those offshore and within three nautical miles from the nearest land, except in the emergency cases of separate garbage of fixed or floating platforms within 500 meters of these units. In addition, all manned, commercial and oceangoing U.S. flag ships measuring 12.2 meters or more in length and subject to U.S. jurisdiction must keep record of garbage discharges (U.S. Congress).
The Secretary of State is empowered and required to administer and enforce the MARPOL Protocol and his authority includes issuing…
1. Boukhari, Sophie. 20,000 Worlds Under the Sea: Ocean Pollution. UNESCO Courier: United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, 1998
2. Earle, Sylvia. Sea Change: a Message of the Oceans. Perspectives on Marine Environmental Quality Today, 1998-Year of the Ocean. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, 1995. http://www.yoto98.noaa.gov/yoto/meeting/mar_env_316.html
3. Glausiusz, Josie. Dead Zones - Pollution Killing Off Ocean Life. Discover, 2000
4. Mulvaney, Kieran. A Sea of Troubles: in the International Year of the Ocean, Are We Reaching the Limits? E: the Environmental Magazine: Earth Action Network, Inc., 1998
Bioluminescence can be discovered across an extensive selection of some of the key categories of organisms. This includes classifications such as bacteria and protists and also squid as well as ?she's, with numerous phyla amid them. In many of these organisms, luminescence is made by these organisms themselves and never by bacterial symbionts. A few organisms in this category that are not considered to be self-illuminescents are (1) terrestrial vertebrates, such as birds, mammals and amphibians (2) ?owering plants. Luminescence is usually higher in deep-living species along with planktonic ones than in shallow organisms (Haddock et al., 2010).
A summary of known luminous organisms had been documented by Herring (1987). However, since that time there have been a number of new discoveries of luminous organisms. In some instances, it is very difficult to determine that the species are nonluminous. Amid ?lter-feeding species, luminescence is very difficult to inspect.…
Bush SL, Robison BH, Caldwell RL. 2009. Behaving in the dark: locomotor, chromatic, postural, and biolu- minescent behaviors of the deep-sea squid Octopoteuthis deletron Young 1972. Biol. Bull. 216:7 -- 22
Carnevale G. 2008. Miniature deep-sea hatchet-sh (Teleostei: Stomiiformes) from the Miocene of Italy. Geol. Mag. 145:73
Fleisher KJ, Case JF. 1995. Cephalopod predation facilitated by dino-agellate luminescence. Biol. Bull. 189:263 -- 71
Fristrup KM, Harbison G. 2002. How do sperm whales catch squids? Mar. Mammal Sci. 18:42 -- 54
The concept of Marine insurance is something that has been developing at a fast rate of late. (Marine Insurance: Barlow, Lyde and Gilbert) What exactly is insurance and how long has the concept been recognized? Insurance can be defined as a form of provision of a safety net for the distribution of risks. This is generally made in the form of a financial provision that is meant to protect against losses that may occur due to certain unavoidable reasons. Insurance works like this: a person who wishes to insure an object or possession or belonging of his will pay a certain amount of money that has already been fixed by the insurance agent in order to offer the security of the money to distribute the risks when the insurer happens, by misfortune, to lose his possession or damage it because of an unavoidable reason. The insurer, by the…
Admiralty Law.com" Retrieved at http://www.admiraltylaw.com/papers/2000.htm. Accessed on 19 September, 2004
Averagium" Retrieved at http://harvey-ashby.co.uk/Averagium%20-%20Winter%202002.pdf. Accessed on 19 September, 2004
Commercial Hull" (2004) Retrieved at http://www.veromarine.co.nz/dirvz/marine/marine.nsf/content/ProductsHullCommercialHullAccessed on 19 September, 2004
English Marine Insurance Act 1906" Retrieved at http://www.solarnavigator.net/english_marine_insurance_act_1906.htm . Accessed on 19 September, 2004
In Indonesia, this shoreline litter covers about 90% of the upper shore.
How plastic debris affect marine life
There are two major ways in which detrimental effects to marine life occur. One is when these marine animals become snarled up in the marine debris and the other way is when they ingest the plastic wastes. Some of the materials which can cause the snarl up are pieces of fish lines or nets and rings which are used to bind six-pack beverages. These materials can cause the marine animals to drown or suffocate thus killing them. Death can also be an effect of the materials strangling the animals or starvation when the animal is trapped and unable to reach any food. These materials can also cause severe injuries to the animals. Entanglement is especially important to sea lions and seals. These animals are known to have a curious nature like that…
Allsopp, Michelle, et al. Plastic Debris in the World's Oceans. Amsterdam: Greenpeace International, 2006. Print.
Arthur, Courtney. Plastic Marine Debris: An in-Depth Look2010. Print.
Dong-Oh, Cho. "The Incentive Program for Fishermen to Collect Marine Debris in Korea." Marine Pollution Bulletin 58.3 (2009): 415-17. Print.
Jose G.B, Derraik. "The Pollution of the Marine Environment by Plastic Debris: A Review." Marine Pollution Bulletin 44.9 (2002): 842-52. Print.
In the article titled: "Plastic garbage in oceans: Understanding marine pollution from microplastic particles," discussion starts with the danger posed by microplastic particles to numerous marine life that inhabit the oceans and seas. These "large quantities of globally produced plastics end up in the oceans where they represent a growing risk." The smallest objects within the range of particles that make up the pollution are microplastic particles which not only pose the greatest risk in harming marine wildlife, but also remain the least investigated pollutant. The article wishes to show how efforts are being undertaken to establish standardized guidelines to help record and characterize microplastic particles in the sea for analysis and measurement of its impact on marine wildlife.
When observing the source of these microplastic particles, the investigators note the water bottles in and around the shorelines and the pieces of plastic floating in the water creating the…
9% of the turtles" -- and "plastics" dominated the debris found (Katsanevakis, p. 75). The list of plastic trash found in those turtles is too long to include in this research.
Seabirds (especially pelicans, gannets and gulls) often fall prey to "monofilament line"; albatrosses, petrels, penguins and grebes are not found entangled in plastic fishing line or other plastic debris as often as pelicans and gulls (Katsanevakis, 2008, p. 69). hat is particularly insidious about plastic is when it is ingested by marine animals is releases "toxic chemicals" due to the chemical additives that are added to the plastic during the manufacturing process. Once in the abdomen of the animal the toxic materials can block the digestive tract and block "gastric enzyme ingestion, diminished feeding stimulus, nutrient dilution, reduced growth rates, lowered steroid hormone levels, delayed ovulation and reproductive failure," Katsanevakis asserts (p. 71).
There is lethal danger for small…
Hill, Marquita K., 2010, Understanding Environmental Pollution, Cambridge University
Press, New York City, 585
Katsanevakis, Stelios, 2008, Marine Debris, A Growing Problem: Sources, Distribution, Composition, and Impacts, in Hofer, T.N., ed., Marine Pollution: New Research, Nova Publishers, Hauppauge, New York, p. 54-75.
Moore, Charles, 2003, Trashed: Across the Pacific Ocean, Plastics, Plastics, Everywhere,
Environmentalism -- Marine Snow
"Marine snow" is material sinking from at or near the top to the bottom of a water body. It contains many forms of animate and inanimate matter and is important as food and a measure of the health of a water body. Modern scientists are particularly interested in marine snow due to the data it contributes for determining pollution and climate change.
"Marine snow" is a cascade of organic and inorganic material sinking from higher levels of water to lower levels of water in a body of water. Marine snow includes living and nonliving materials and matter, such as: algae (Grossart, Czub and Simon), nanophytoplankton, bacteria (Romero-Ibarra and Silverberg), plants, animals, feces, sand, soot and dust (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration). As plants and animals on or close to the surface of a body of water die and deteriorate, they sink toward the floor of the…
Grossart, Hans-Peter, Gertje Czub and Meinhard Simon. "Alga-bacteria interactions and their effects on aggregation and organic matter flux in the sea." Environmental Microbiology, 8(6) (2006): 1074-1084. Print.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. What is marine snow? 2015. Web. 26 May 2016.
News Reporter Staff - NewsRx. "Climate Change; Study Results from University of Massachusetts Broaden Understanding of Climate Change (Zooplankton fecal pellets, marine snow, phytodetritus and the ocean's biological pump)." Ecology, Environment & Conservation 13 March 2015: 1335. Print.
Romero-Ibarra, Nancy and Norman Silverberg. "The contribution of various types of settling particles to the flux of organic carbon in the Gulf of St. Lawrence." Continental Shelf Research, 31(16) (2011): 1761-1776. Print.
.." For example, during the Vietnam War the United States "sprayed 3640 km2 of South Vietnam's cropland with herbicides, using a total estimated amount of 55 million kg. The stated rationale was to deny the enemy sources of food and means of cover. This widespread use of chemicals to destroy farmland, forest and water sources is unprecedented, and the environmental consequences are still relatively unexplored. International teams have been granted access for field assessments only in the last few years." (Learning, 2000)
The work of Lindon, Jernelov, and Egerup (2004) entitled: "The Environmental Impacts of the Gulf War 1991" relates that the oil fires in Kuwait" emitted pollutants that potentially could affect the health and well-being of the people in the region. Most of the substances emitted from the burning wells can potentially cause adverse effects, which vary according to concentration and duration of exposure." In fact the concentrations of…
Lessons from the Last Gulf War (2003) Greenpeace Briefing Feb. 2003. Online available at http://www.greenpeace.org/raw/content/international/press/reports/lessons-from-the-gulf-war-the.pdf
Learning, Jennifer (2000) Environment and Health: Impact of War. CMAJ • OCT. 31, 2000; 163 (9). Online available at http://www.cmaj.ca/cgi/reprint/163/9/1157.pdf
Amirahmadi, Hoosang (1992) Iranian Recovery From Industrial Devastation During War with Iraq. United Nations. 1992. Online available at http://www.unu.edu/unupress/unupbooks/uu21le/uu21le0e.htm#environmental%20damage
Lindon, O., Jernelov, a., and Egerup, J. (2004) the Environmental Impacts of the Gulf War 1991. Interim Report. International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis Schlossplatz 1
Conservation of ocean or marine life has attracted significant attention in recent years given the devastating impacts of human activities on these ecosystems. This paper examines a study conducted to promote conservation of marine or ocean life across the globe. The review demonstrates the significance of combining policy interventions and management interventions to achieve this.
Ocean or marine areas cover approximately 71% of the Earth’s surface. Even though the depths of these areas are yet to be fully explored or exploited, they are habitats for a huge portion of the world’s biodiversity and essential in global climate change (Addis, p.5). Ocean or marine biodiversity is recognized across the globe as an essential component of life not only in the oceans, but also on Earth. The Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development states that ocean or marine areas are key components of the Earth’s ecosystem to an extent that…
This method makes effective use of ability of metals to float on surfaces of leachates on their own. Due to the high proven efficiency of this method, it is widely used for removal of heavy metals such as iron and humic acid from leachates in many parts of the world.
emoval of Plastic from Municipal Waste
Plastic is a non-biodegradable waste that has low recycling margin. Unfortunately, plastic is widely used in everyday products is heavily present in the municipal waste. The environmental threat posed by the presence of plastic in municipal waste is another major issue. Major plastic types that are commonly found in UK municipal waste include PET, high density polyethylene, polyvinyl chloride, low density polyethylene, polypropylene, polystyrene, and other plastics such as melamine. Major source of these types of plastic are fizzy drink bottles, bottles of detergents and washing liquids, plastic plates cups and spoons, bin bags,…
Colls, J 2002, Air Pollution, Spon Press, London.
Friends of Earth 2009, Briefing Pyrolysis, Gasification and Plasma, Friends of Earth Limited Company, viewed 25 January 2011, < http://www.foe.co.uk/resource/briefings/gasification_pyrolysis.pdf >.
Hill, T 2010, Pyrolysis and Gasification briefing, UK without incineration, viewed 25 January 2011, <
Computers are being used in applications that gauge the pollution in the air and water and other areas of the earth environment. These applications are useful in determining the source of the pollution and in assisting in informing researchers what might be done to reduce such pollution.
Air Pollution Emission
One such application in computing pollution is described in the work of Emad, Sayed, and Kassem (nd)[footnoteef:1] who report that smoke is one common source of air pollution. Specifically stated is that the "rising process of smoke depends on atmospheric ambient, meteorological conditions, emission parameters, such as the atmospheric stratification, initial emission momentum and temperature, wind direction and speed as well as turbulent behaviors, and so on." (Emad, Sayed, and Kassem, nd, p.1) The smoke dilution process and scope are of great interest to environmentalists since regional air quality is affected critically by dispersion of pollutants. eported as…
Emad, AA., Sayed, M.E., and Kassem K.O. (nd) Computer Simulation for Dispersion of Air Pollution Released from a Line Source According to Gaussian Model. Canadian Journal on Computing in Mathematics, Natural Sciences, Engineering & Medicine Vol. 1, No. 3, April 2010. Online available at: http://ampublisher.com/April%202010/CMNSEM-1004-013.pdf.
Hemann, J. And Granger, B. (nd ) Parallel Computing with IPython: An Application to Air Pollution Modeling. Available online at: http://conference.scipy.org/scipy2010/slides/josh_hemann_airpollution_acrobat.pdf
Maringanti, Chetan and Chaubey, Indrajeet (nd ) High Performance Computing Application to Address Non-Point Source Pollution at a Watershed Level. Agricultural and Biological Engineering. Purdue University. Online available at: https://engineering.purdue.edu/ecohydrology/Chetan/ASABE2009.pdf
Swarms of Tiny Robots to Monitor Water Pollution (2002) Daily University Science News. UNISCI online available at: http://www.unisci.com/stories/20021/0114026.htm
Behavior of Concrete in ivers and Marine Areas
The marine atmosphere and also the river atmosphere are infamously harsh on man-made structures; furthermore, the materials employed for construction are seriously examined through these elements and how they would impact each other. Strengthened concrete is among the materials frequently employed for near shoreline, as well as off the shore, structures. These structures, whether submerged in or suspended within the marine or river area are susceptible to high amounts of chlorides, sulphates and magnesium -- all of which are hazardous to the surrounding environment. Furthermore, they are also exposed to high velocity of waves, the potentially harmful results of that are well recorded. This paper will indicate whether another method of strengthened concrete design, inside the limits from the codes, for marine as well as river structures may be more beneficial in the perspectives of engineering, construction, sturdiness and financial aspects. This…
Castro P., Rincon O.T. de and Pazini E.J., (2001), Interpretation of chloride profiles from concrete exposed to tropical marine environments, Cement and Concrete Research, 31, 529 -- 537. Taken from: Overbeek, J and Van Der Horst. (2006). Revaluation of Concrete Design in Marine Engineering. Delta Marine Consultants.
Choong K.Y. (2003), Durability performance of fifties years old concrete jetties in tropical marine environment, International Conference on Port and Maritime R&D and Technology, 97 -- 103, Singapore. Taken from: Overbeek, J and Van Der Horst. (2006). Revaluation of Concrete Design in Marine Engineering. Delta Marine Consultants
Costa A. And Appleton J. (2002), Case studies of concrete deterioration in marine environment in Portugal, Cement & Concrete Composites, 24, 169 -- 179.
Dehwah, H.A.F., Maslehuddin, M., and Austin, S.A. (2002). Effect of Cement Alkalinity on Pore Solution Chemistry and Chloride-Induced Reinforcement Corrosion, ACI Materials Journal, V.99, No.3, pp. 227-233. Taken from: Islam, M., Islam, S., Mondal, B.C. And Islam, M.R. (2010). Strength behavior of concrete using slag with cement in sea water environment. Journal of Civil Engineering (IEB), 38 (2): 129-140.
Systems Thinking Applied to Sustainability Challenges
"SYSTEMS THINKING IS CRITICAL IN DEVELOPING SOLUTIONS TO SUSTAINAILITY CHALLENGES"
POLLUTION IN THE OCEANS
"Systems Thinking is Critical in Developing Solutions to Sustainability Challenges"
Pollution in the Oceans
Ocean pollution is an issue for both society and individuals. Such complex issues exhibit some commonality, including being nonlinear, being heterogeneous, interdependent and self organized. It follows, therefore, that the issues require well thought-out and equally complex solutions. Venturing on pursuing causes without structured frameworks is a waste of time.
'Systems thinking' provide a new model for solving complex problems that afflict society; including pollution issues. In the system, biology interacts with social, cultural and manmade environmental elements in permutations and combinations that continue to evolve, discontinuously. The causes of pollution (Anon., n.d.) arise at various levels. They also interact at these varying levels. Organizations and individual entities are important at any given level. There is…
Anon., n.d. [Online]
Available at: http://www.enesco.org/new/fileadmin/MULTIMEDIA/HQ/SC/pdf/interagency_blue_paper_ocean_rioPlus20.pdf
Anonson R., B. B. J. F. P. W. e. a., 2003. Causes of Corol ref degradation.. [Online].
Business Dictionary, n.d. [Online]
International Safety Management
ISM safety code
Acting as a mandatory regulation, ISM Code usually lays down standards of shipowner's responsibility for safe management of ships and pollution prevention accepted internationally. The obligation of the shipment owner is to establish, maintain as well as implement a Safety Management System that is to meet the ISM Code's requirements.
The aspects of civil liability's impact is to be focused on the impact on liability of shipowner for cargo loss or damage, in addition to shipowner's legal right to limit his liability for claims. Some of the concepts such as seaworthiness, actual fault and privity, crew's negligence, the role of the designated person and recklessness with knowledge are to be considered. There has already been a change in the conditions in terms of policies that meet the requirement of the ISM Code through Hull and Machinery (H & M) underwrites and protection…
Gold, E (1996). 'Lessons in Corporate Responsibility: Learn From Disaster?' The
ISM Code Implementation in Practice- Corporate Risk: BIMCO Shipping Courses
Copenhagen, Denmark). BIMCO. Copenhagen: BIMCO, pg 15-18.
Levy, H (1996). 'The P & I Club -- How do the clubs evaluate the ISM Code'. The ISM Code Implementation in Practice -Corporate Risk: BIMCO Shipping Courses: Copenhagen, Denmark). BIMCO. Copenhagen: BIMCO, 15-18).
At the time, the industry sought to examine both oil pollution in general and ocean dumping as well as land-based sources of ocean pollution. According to ang, "More significant was the rapid technological development in the design of large-sized oil tankers which required constant rule changes. By 1973 it was evident that the 1954 convention provisions were inadequate or outdated, and by then the likelihood of the 1954 convention coming into force was rather doubtful" (334).
The new protocol ultimately entered into force in January 1978. The 1973 version of MARPOL was comprised of 20 articles concerning general obligations under the convention (e.g., prohibition of violation of requirements, rules for ship inspection, enforcement, reporting on incidents involving harmful substances, and most importantly, five technical annexes or regulations on 1) oil pollution; 2) control of noxious liquid substances in bulk; 3) harmful substances carried by sea in package forms or in…
Advice on Impact of Reduction in Sulfur Content of Marine Fuels Marketed in the EU." (2002, January 1). European Commission Study C.1/01/2002.
Brewer, Stuart. (2005, March 15). "Marpol Annex VI sets sulphur test." DNV Germany. [Online]. Available: http://www.dnv.de/Publikationen/classification_news/class_news_1_2005/MarpolAnnexVIsetssulphurtest.asp.
Chasek, Pamela S. Earth Negotiations: Analyzing Thirty Years of Environmental Diplomacy. New York: United Nations University Press, 2001.
Consultation Paper regarding the European Commission's proposal for a Directive amending Directive 1999/32/EC as regards the sulphur content of marine fuels. (2003, July). European Parliament.
While on one hand, the Nile gets the highest discharge from rainfall on the highlands of Ethiopia and upland plateau of East Africa, located well outside the Middle East region; on the other hand, discharge points of the other two rivers, Euphrates and Tigris, are positioned well within the Middle East region, prevailing mostly in Turkey, Syria along with Iraq. In other areas, recurrent river systems are restricted to the more northern upland areas of Iran and Turkey, in common with the coastline of Levant (Peter eaumont, Gerald H. lake, J. And Malcolm Wagstaff, 1988).
The conflict in the Future
It is widely believed by many experts that those who control the waters in the Middle East; control the Middle East; and those who control the Middle East; control the oil supply of the world (David M. Hummel, 1995). From the above mentioned facts it is clear that the water…
Anthony H. Cordesman. Peace is Not Enough: The Arab-Israeli Economic and Demographic Crises. Part Two. Population Growth, Fertility and Population Doubling Rates, Regional Trends, National Trends, and the "Youth Explosion" Center for Strategic and International Studies, 1998.
Adel Darwish. Troubled waters in rivers of blood. Water Issues. 3 December 1992. http://www.mideastnews.com/water004.html
Adel Darwish. Inadequacy of international law. Taken at http://www.mideastnews.com/WaterWars.htm
Ashok Swain. A new challenge: water scarcity in the Arab world. Arab Studies Quarterly (ASQ). January, 1998.
For example, due to prevailing oceanic currents and environmental issues, a significant amount of marine debris is both generated and deposited in Korean Coastal waterways. The Korean government has removed almost 100 tons of debris in the past decade, but realizes the problem is ongoing. To reduce their own costs and improve efficiency, the Korean government incents fishermen to collect marine debris during fishing. This idea, certainly applicable to any nation with coastal waters, bot improves the efficiency of governmental collection programs, and in the long run, helps educate and compensate local fishermen (Cho, 2008).
These, and other management programs, continue to develop among the world's fishing nations. Agencies are focused on three major goals: educate young people in all countries that the world is interdependent and the oceans must be maintained for the health of the planet; educate the public, private, tourist, and fishing populations to their individual…
"South Korean divers combat marine debris and raise funds for underwater conservation on Earth Day." Project Aware. Cited in:
See the treaty, resources, and commentary in "Oceans and Law of the Sea," Cited in: http://www.un.org/los/ .
law help protect the environment and what steps can citizens take to ensure that the law accomplishes this goal?
Protection of the environment is important for our health, but humans affect the system through various means such as through polluting water and atmosphere with toxic gasses, with oil, with car fuels, and with debris that is plunked into the waters as well as depleting the fisheries and filling the air with smog and the earth with pollution.
It is for this reason that legislation is put into effect to curb our destruction and to teach us how to look after the environment in better ways. The state employs its own regulations, but it needs a synthesis of both state, business and citizen involvement to safeguard the environment, and motivation from both business and citizen is not always forthcoming. The following essay discusses policies that have been implemented to help protect…
Amos, W. (2011) Development of Canadian Arctic Offshore Oil and Gas Drilling: Lessons from the Gulf of Mexico RECIEL 20 (1)
British Columbia v. Canadian Forest Products Ltd.,  2 S.C.R. 74, 2004 SCC 38
Bruce, JP (2011) Protecting Groundwater: The Invisible but Vital Resource C.D. Howe Institute
DeMarco, Jerry V;Valiante, Marcia;Bowden, Marie-Ann (2005) Opening the Door for Common Law Environmental Protection in Canada Journal of Environmental Law and Practice 15, 2
5 billion pounds is up 2.3% from December 2006. Angier lists all the plastic-based materials around her desk at the Times and in her personal life, including her computer keyboard, credit card, telephones, her motorcycle helmet, luggage, earrings, for starters. Plastics also pad mattresses, "elasticize our comfort-fit jeans, suture our wounds, plug our dental cavities, encapsulate our pills, replace our lost limbs, lighten our cars and jets" and much more (Angier).
The city of San Francisco banned "traditional plastic bags" in November 2007, according to an article in the San Francisco Chronicle (Buchanan, 2007). "People are used to getting free bags and thinking there is no real consequence to them," said Jack Macy, recycling coordinator for San Francisco's Department of the Environment. "But there is a cost," Macy went on. Part of the cost to city of San Francisco -- where about 180 million plastic bags were handed out annually…
ABC News. "Plastic bag ban begins." Retrieved May 5, 2009, from http://www.abc.net.au . (4 May 2009).
Angier, Natalie. "Adored, Deplored and Ubiquitous." The New York Times, 15 April,
2008 F1. Retrieved May 6, 2009, from http://Proquest.umi.com .
Buchanan, Wyatt. "Starting Tuesday, plastic bags illegal at big S.F. grocery stores."
Environmental Hazards as a Consequence of Crude Oil/Natural Gas Exploration, Transportation, Refining and Storage
Ever since crude oil was first successfully drilled in the U.S. In Titusville, Pennsylvania, in 1859, the demand for oil has only been increasing over the years in countries all over the world. (Camden, 1883) Crude oil, from which various petroleum products are obtained, is a naturally occurring hydrocarbon component found trapped in rocks below the earth. The word "petroleum" means "rock oil" or "oil from the earth." Natural gas is another form of hydrocarbon that is also found in nature. oth crude oil and natural gas have excellent combustibility and are good sources of energy. Crude oil is not used in the extracted form; but it is refined to obtained products such as gasoline, liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), naphtha, kerosene, gas-oil and fuel oil. Secondary products during the purification of crude oil are obtained are…
Associated-Press, and Reuters. World's Biggest Oil Rig Sinks. 2001. CNN. Available:
http://www.cnn.com/2001/WORLD/americas/03/20/brazil.rig.02/.August 2, 2004.
AWMA. Oil Spills - a Fact Sheet. 2000. Air & Waste Management Association. Available:
http://www.awma.org/education/oilspills.htm . August 1, 2004.
Sea Shipping Services in Europe
The study aims to identify the impact, benefits, and drawback of implementing a short sea shipping policy within Greece. Within the paper, arguments have been made for supporting the adoption of the policy, and there have been clear facts presented. The paper also attempts to make comparisons between the different modes of transport available with an aim to show how cost effective and environmentally friendly short sea shipping is to a country. The results presented are backed by previous research that has shown the impact of marine transportation and made comparisons with road or rail transportation.
Short Sea Shipping is defined as the movement of passengers and cargo by sea, between ports that have a shared coastline without crossing an ocean. Short seas shipping has been at the forefront of the European Union's transport policy mainly because it offers the potential to reduce road congestion…
Therefore, strong educational campaigns are absolutely essential in the successful execution of urban ecological advocacy programs. One of the most fundamental efforts that come from NOAA funding is that of educational campaigns. Along with sponsoring coastal cleanups, NOAA is a prime example of a government agency focusing on recycling education campaigns within Miami-Dade's most populated areas, like the area surrounding Brickell Ave. Educating the public in terms of recycling has been one of NOAA and it's affiliates' most powerful tools in implementing successful urban conservation programs. With such a large population so close to natural wonders, the Brickell Ave area needs effective educational campaigns to curb littering on beaches and in parks, as well as lightening the impact of the local trash supply in the city's landfills. NOAA allocates federal funds for this very purpose within a localized sphere, once again proving the synergetic collaboration between local advocacy groups and…
City of Miami. (2010). City of Miami tree master plan. Miami Green Commission. Retrieved February 18, 2010 from http://miami-dade.ifas.ufl.edu/pdfs/disaster/Hurricane%20Preparation%20files/City%20of%20Miami%20Master%20Plan.pdf
Devuyst, Dimitri. (2001). Introduction to sustainability assessment at the local level: a human ecological perspective. How Green is the City? Sustainability Assessment and the Management of Urban Environments. New York: Columbia University Press. 1-36.
Gonzalez, George a. (2005). Urban sprawl, global warming and the limits of ecological modernization. Environmental Politics. 14(3):344-362.
Hold the Line. (2010). Supporters. UBD Line. Retrieved February 18, 2010 from http://www.udbline.com/organizations.htm
The NATUNA SEA sinking incident occurred on October 3, 2000 on the rock-strewn outcrop of Batu Berhanti in Indonesia when it was headed to Jinzhou, China. The grounding of the NATUNA SEA took place approximately 6NM from the tanker’s manager’s office (Ferguson, 2002). This incident had devastating effects because of the oil spill into the sea, which was nearly 3 years after the EVOIKOS oil spill. Since the occurrence of this incident, the shipping industries in Singapore and Indonesia have embarked on several initiatives to prevent future accidents and their subsequent oil spills. These industries have also been keen in ensuring oil pollution from such incidents are avoided or mitigated. However, there is need for more initiatives to be undertaken by the shipping industry in order to prevent and deal with such incidents in an effective manner.
Brief Description of the Ship
NATUNA SEA was a Panamanian tanker that was…
As scientist come up with new technology for the welfare of mankind in this world they end up producing luxuries. The attitude of the people towards the environment is changing due to the fact that they need more and more luxuries and this makes them destroy the environment, and this make environment to be polluted in different forms.
In the act of mankind living luxuriously, they sometime use instruments such as air conditioners, fridges and others that do release C.F.Cs in the environment leading to deplete of the ozone layer, Paul Kennard (2006). According to researches the depletion of ozone layer during 19th century when there was no much use of such things, is compared with for 20th century, it has been found that there is 50% increase of the depletion. Deforestation uncontrollable for the purpose of building with the aim of accommodation tends to raise the content of…
Reference and Education: Science
Tania Branigan (25 November 2008). "One-third of China's Yellow river 'unfit for drinking or agriculture' Factory waste and sewage from growing cities has severely polluted major waterway, according to Chinese research." London: guardian.co.uk. Retrieved 2009-03-14.
The study will be delving into: What ASEAN constitutes and what remains beyond its scope? The aim of this study will be handing out a wide-ranging presentation of the present stance of ASEAN and its accomplishments till date, along with its challenges. The paper is intended as a suggestion for a master-plan that can be employed as a future pathway where ASEAN political-security support must be going towards in the forthcoming years.
To start with let us have a brief introduction of the organization. The creators of the Association of South East Asian Nations - ASEAN, visualized it as ultimately assembling all the nations of the region and managing them to lend a hand in assuring the peace, permanence and growth of the area. While the area was in a state of turmoil, a lot of nations were under pressure for the existence of the nation or autonomy. First…
ADBI (2002) "Did East Asian Developing Countries lose Export Competitiveness in the pre- Crisis 1990's?" ADBI Research Paper 34; Tokyo.
Altbach, Eric. (1999) "Growing Pains: ASEAN at 30" Japan Economic Institute Report. No. 23; June 19
Author Unkown. (1999) "Weathering the Storm: Hong Kong and the Asian Financial Crisis" Conference sponsored by the Far Eastern Economic Review. Hong Kong. 11 June.
Baietti Aldo. (2001) "Private Infrastructure in East Asia: Lessons Learned in the Aftermath of the Crisis." Washington, D.C. World Bank.
Dubai should be thinking about sustainability, since the seaport expansion and modernization has been damaging to the environment over the past decade. AS more and more ships begin to use the Dubai port, and as commerce and economic activity return after the global economic recession, the environmental challenges surrounding the port will likely increase as well.
Bagaeen, Samer. (2007). "Brand Dubai: The Instant City; or the Instantly ecognizable
City." International Planning Studies. Vol. 12, No. 2. Pp. 173-197.
Balakrishnan, Melodena Stephens. (2008). "Dubai -- a star in the east: A case study in strategic destination branding." Journal of Place Management and Development. Vol. 1, No. 1. Pp. 62-91.
Betriebswirt; Dipl. And Noack, Sascha MBA. (2007). Doing Business in Dubai and the UAE. GIN Verlag: Berlin.
Burt, J; Bartholomew, A.; Usseglio, P; Bauman, A. And P.F. Sale. (2009). "Are artificial reefs surrogates of natural habitats for corals and fish in…
Bagaeen, Samer. (2007). "Brand Dubai: The Instant City; or the Instantly Recognizable
City." International Planning Studies. Vol. 12, No. 2. Pp. 173-197.
Balakrishnan, Melodena Stephens. (2008). "Dubai -- a star in the east: A case study in strategic destination branding." Journal of Place Management and Development. Vol. 1, No. 1. Pp. 62-91.
Betriebswirt; Dipl. And Noack, Sascha MBA. (2007). Doing Business in Dubai and the UAE. GRIN Verlag: Berlin.
The workforce should be clear about the implementation of technologies for protecting natural resources, through formulating strategies.
atification of the International Maritime Organization (IMO) 1984 Protocols
Domestic legislation on compensation and liability is needed to implement two IMO protocols related to compensation and liability. The United States should ratify the 1984 Protocols to the 1969 Civil Liability and the 1971 Fund Conventions. Expeditious ratification is essential to ensure international agreement on responsibilities associated with oil spills around the world' (A eport to the President: Executive Summary).
Introduction of Safeguards
It is imperative to establish such environmental safeguards so as to minimize the possibility of oil spillage, by improving transportation, production, storing facilities. 'The infrequency of major oil spills in recent years contributed to the complacency that exacerbated the effect of the Exxon Valdez spill' (CNN: Exxon found guilty).
Legislation on liability and compensation is needed
The Exxon Valdez incident has…
Michael Baffrey, Contracting Officer's, Technical Representative U.S. Department of the Interior Minerals Management Service Environmental Studies Section., Exxon Valdez Oil Spill, Cleanup, and Litigation: A Collection of Social-Impacts Information and Analysis.
Science and Transportation United States. Congress Senate Committee on Commerce, United States Congress, Exxon Oil Spill: Hearing Before the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation.
Phillip Margulies., The EXXON Valdez Oil Spill.
Peter G. Wells., EXXON Valdez Oil Spill: fate and effects in Alaskan waters.
Evidence of this can be seen with the company being slow to provide information, on the total amounts of oil that are leaking into the ocean and the various restrictions that they have placed on media coverage. (Lack of Transparency Afflicts Oil Spill Response 2010) This problematic, because when there are restrictions and the company is slow to release information, it appears as if they have something to hide. At which point, the public will become furious with the company, from their perceived unwillingness to cooperate. This could have negative political fallout, as various Congressional Committees and regulators will demand all documents relating to the spill. Once this take place, it sets the stage for an ugly showdown with Congress and the White House. Where, they could seek to force the company to disclose more documents and engage in criminal investigations, as these actions give the appearance that executives are…
'Boards of Directors Need to Oversee Corporate Sustainability more Effectively', 2010, PR Newswire, Available from Proquest. [19 June 2010] http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?index=0&did=2054701491&SrchMode=2&sid=4&Fmt=3&VInst=PROD&VType=PQD&RQT=309&VName=PQD&TS=1276983049&clientId=45065
'BP Engineer Called Deepwater Horizon Nightmare Well Days Before Blast', 2010, Huffington Post, Available from: [21 June 2010].
'BP Establishes a $20 Billion Claims Fund', 2010, BP, Available from: . [21 June 2010].
'Estimating Cleanup Costs for Oil Spills', 1999, Cutter Information Corporation, Available from: . [19 June 2010].
Features of the Ocean Floor
As one travels away from the continents, water depths increase in a systematic manner.
Closest to the continents are continental shelves with water depth typically less than 1000 m. Continental shelves were formed as rivers carried tons of particles of sand and soil from the land out to sea. This sand and soil then settled as layers of sediments, or layers of particles of rock and animal remains.
Commonly at the distal edge of the continental shelves, there is a marked continental slope where water depths increase quickly. The continental slope separates the continental shelf from the ocean floor.
The continental rises, located at the base of the continental slopes, mark the beginning of the deep ocean basins.
Submarine canyons commonly occur along continental margins and transport sediment from the margins down into the deep ocean basins.
B. Mid Ocean idges
Loomis, Jennifer. "Observe the origins of some ocean floor sediments. " Exploring Earth.
Exploring Earth. 18 Mar. 2005 < http://www.classzone.com/books/earth_science/terc/content/visualizations/es2305/es2305page01.cfm?chapter_no=visualization>.
"Unit 7: The Ocean Floor." Pass.leon.k12.fl.us. Pass.leon.k12.fl.us. 18 Mar. 2005 <
Speed here is of essence and spices like flying fish are able to jump out of water to escape predators. Others that lack like jellies are transparent. Turtles will have a shell to protect them. Gills enable animals to manage different water pressures like the sharks while whales have the capability of holding their breaths for longer periods. On the other hand, since the benthic zone does not allow sunlight to reach it due to its depth (beyond 600 feet), some fish and crustaceans, at this level do not see, in fact half of the species at this level are blind. In this sense, the organisms have adapted to produce their own lights from their specialized parts in their bodies known as photophores. In addition, since there is lack of phytoplacton to start the food chain, life is limited and fish have adapted to fulfill their needs. For instance, some…
Crouse, R. (n.d.). Waves: Tsunamis/Seismic sea waves. Water encyclopedia. Retrieved from http://www.waterencyclopedia.com/Tw-Z/Waves.html
Gardiner, L. (2010, January 8). Surface ocean currents. windows.ucar.edu. Retrieved from http://www.windows.ucar.edu/tour/link=/earth/Water/ocean_currents.html
Lee, H.J., and Normark, W.R. (2009). Earth science in urban ocean: The Southern California continental borderland. New York, U.S.: Geological Society of America.
Makai. (n.d). Threats to marine ecosystems. Waianae ecological characteristics. Retrieved from http://hawaii.gov/dbedt/czm/initiative/wec/html/sea/marine/threats.htm
It should not be a difficult question to answer: we must begin reducing ocean pollution and taking steps to prohibit overfishing of our ocean shallows.
The plan that is formulated to address the overfishing and man-made pollutants in the coral reefs must be conducted by authorities in marine and ecological sciences. It must be conducted on two levels: the fishing industry associated with the catches on the coral reefs; and the pollutants that are introduced into the coral reefs through contact with man. This can be done by monitoring commercial tourism and diving industries, which claim there is no residual effect on the coral reefs (Carrier, James, and McLeod, Donald, 2005, p. 315).
The Plan for Preserving the Coral eefs
Action Items in the correct order)
esearch and identify the effects of overfishing of species found in coral reefs.
eview fishing data as it pertains to catches,…
BBC/Discovery Channel (2006). Planet Earth: Shallow Seas, documentary film,
Discovery Channel, 12 October 2008. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5009915994
Carrier, J.G., & Macleod, D.V. (2005). Bursting the Bubble: The Socio-Cultural Context of Ecotourism. Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute, 11(2), 315+. Retrieved October 26, 2008, from Questia database:
Flags of Convenience as they pertain to maritime oil pollution. The writer explores UN and MARPOL mandates and discusses the Flags of Convenience. The writer then ties them into maritime oil pollution and presents recommendations for how this might be solved. There were 15 sources used to complete this paper.
As the world populations continues to grow and live longer than ever before it has become apparent that natural resources must be guarded with the utmost care and protection. It is those natural resources allow mankind to survive therefore their preservation is paramount to the success of the future. One of the biggest threats to the eco-system today is the threat of oil pollution. Through spills, dumping and other accidents the oil pollution in the world has threatened significant areas of the eco-system that are depended on. In recent decades there have been measurements taken to prevent oil pollution from…
Water is the most precious environmental asset and natural resource on earth. Approximately seventy percent of the earth's surface is covered by water and it affects every facet of life and ecology. However, despite this obvious and crucial fact, many rivers, lakes and oceans are becoming increasingly more polluted, creating a serious ecological and environmental problem. Not only is pollution the cause of the death of many organisms essential to ecological balance, but human drinking water has also been affected. This is particularly relevant with regard to the spread of disease. " Estimates suggest that nearly 1.5 billion people lack safe drinking water and that at least 5 million deaths per year can be attributed to waterborne diseases." (Krantz D. And Kifferstein, . )
The waterways and oceans of the world have been seen as an easy dumping ground for refuse and waste. This includes pollution from raw…
Krantz D. And Kifferstein, B. WATER POLLUTION AND SOCIETY. May 22, 2005. http://www.umich.edu/~gs265/society/waterpollution.htm
Mercury in Fish and Shellfish. May 22, 2005. http://www.oceansalive.org/eat.cfm?subnav=mercury
Rubin K. Sources of Water Pollution. May 21, 2005. http://www.soest.hawaii.edu/GG/ASK/waterpol3.html
The Exxon Valdez Oil Spill. May 21, 2005. http://response.restoration.noaa.gov/spotlight/spotlight.html
brevis blooms are not a new phenomenon, and fish kills that result from red tides caused by K. brevis in the Gulf of Mexico have been described in the scientific literature since 1960 or so and have been reported anecdotally for more than two centuries (Naar et al. 2002). In this regard, Backer and her associates (2005) emphasize that, "The human health effects from consuming shellfish with high concentrations of brevetoxins in their tissues have been well documented. However, there is very little information describing human health effects from environmental exposures. It is ironic that we know the least about the aspects of the Florida red tide problem that poses the greatest public health hazard in terms of number of people affected" (645). Today, K. brevis blooms are monitored closely in order to mitigate the foregoing health hazards that are related to the consumption of shellfish and shellfish harvesting is…
Aguirre, A. Alonso, Richard S. Ostfeld, Gary M. Tabor, Carol House and Mary C. Pearl.
Conservation Medicine: Ecological Health in Practice. New York: Oxford University
Backer, Lorraine C., Barbara Kirkpatrick, Lora E. Fleming, Yung Sung Cheng, Richard Pierce,
ole of Omega-3 Fatty Acids on Endothelial Functions
ole of fatty acid on endothelial functions
Antioxidants and Marine N-3 Fatty Acids Improves Endothelial Function in Hypercholesterolemic People
The hypercholesterolemic people refer to the individuals who suffer from the high concentration of cholesterol in their bodies. These hypercholesterolemic people normally needs the improvement of their endothelial functions in order accommodate the high levels of cholesterol in their bodies. The individuals normally witness a change in their aortic consequently altering their endothelial functions. Hypercholesterolemia is responsible for alteration of dilatation function of the endothelium in the small blood vessels. Further, the alteration of the aortic functioning also makes the patients be susceptible to higher blood pressure. Studies show that the patients normally witness abnormality in the endothelium-dependent dilator function in the human circulation (Goodfellow et al., 2002). The extent of impairment (endothelium-dependent dilator) depends on the level of hypercholesterolemia. From this, it…
Kris-Etherton, M., Harris, S., & Appel, J. (2002). Fish Consumption, Fish Oil, Omega-3 Fatty
Acids, and Cardiovascular Disease. American Heart Association, Inc. Circulation
106:2747 -- 2757, DOI: 10.1161/01.ATV.0000038493.65177.94
Goodfellow, J., Bellamy, M. Ramsey, M. & Jones, C, (2000). Dietary supplementation with marine omega-3 fatty acids improve systemic large artery endothelial function in subjects with hypercholesterolemia. Volume 35, Issue 2, February 2000, Pages 265 -- 270,
The First Nuclear Test
Of course, the first nuclear test occurred before the 1950s and was part of the United States' effort to develop an atomic weapon during World War II. This test occurred at 5:30 A.M. On July 16, 1945, at a missile range outside of Alamogordo, New Mexico. Even that test was enough to convince a large group of scientists that the atomic weapon was a dangerous and powerful weapon. "The Franck Report," a petition issued by Leo Szilard and 68 other scientists urged President Truman to first demonstrate the capabilities of the atomic bomb before using it as a weapon against the Japanese, because of the mass destruction that came with the bomb.
This test, known as the Trinity Test, was a tremendous success. "The energy developed in the test was several times greater than that expected by scientific group. The cloud column mass and top reached…
Adams, Cecil. 1984. "Did John Wayne die of cancer caused by a radioactive movie set?" The Straight Dope. http://www.straightdope.com/classics/a2_016.html (Accessed August 19, 2008).
American Cancer Society. 2006. "Radiation exposure and cancer." Cancer.org. http://www.cancer.org/docroot/PED/content/PED_1_3X_Radiation_Exposure_and_Cancer.asp?sitearea=PED (Accessed August 19, 2008).
Ball, Howard. 1996. "Downwind from the bomb." The New York Times. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9A0DEED61438F93AA35751C0A960948260&sec=health&spon=&pagewanted=1 (Accessed August 19, 2008).
Brodersen, Tom. 2002. "Compensation available to fallout cancer victims." Sharlot Hall
Oceans & Waters
Surface runoff is the water that makes its way to water collection sites, streams, rivers, lakes and ultimately to the oceans when the ground itself is beyond the capacity to hold it. If this water works its way through places where many people live, it can pick up various chemical, materials and pollutants, which is what is often referred to as well as urban runoff. Surveys suggest that the public believes industry is mostly responsible for the damaging effects of this process, when in fact it is individual activities that make up the greatest concern (CA EPA 2001).
CONTOL OF PET WASTE: People tend to be misinformed about where the water goes that enters street drains. It does not go to treatment facilities, but usually gets diverted to local water holdings or into ground waters (CA EPA 2001). In waste plants, the waters are cleaned and given…
Bulkheads and Seawalls. Unattributed web posting. No date. .
California EPA. Urban runoff and water pollution. California Environmental Protection Agency, Regional Water Control Agency, Santa Ana Region 8. July 2001. < http://www.waterboards.ca.gov/rwqcb8/water_issues/programs/nps/docs/urbanrunoff.pdf >.
LKBlog. Global warming now threatening marine food chain. Mendo Coast Current. July 28, 2010. < http://mendocoastcurrent.wordpress.com/2010/07/28/global-warming-now-threatening-marine-food-chain/ >.
Puget Sound Shorelines. Bulkheads can change the beach. Department of Ecology. .
Measurements were obtained both in the presence of and the absence of whale watching boats. It was observed that a period of intense boating activity caused the killer whales to adjust their call duration levels to compensate for the background noise. This clearly indicates that anthropogenic noise levels directly interfere with the routine life of the killer whales, which are dependent on vocal communication for successful hunting and survival. [Andrew et.al. 2004]
It is well-known that anthropogenic sounds can even have fatal consequences as evidenced by the recent mass strandings of beaked whales that coincided with the mid frequency sonar exercises by the navy. A recent research by (Holt et.al, 2009) focused on the effects of anthropogenic sounds on the vocal behavior of killer whales. The resident killer whales of the waters of the Puget Sound, Seattle, were the subjects of this study. The southern resident killer whales in three…
Whale Songs, 'Killer Whale', Accessed 15th March 2009, available at http://www.whalesongs.org/cetacean/killer_whale/home.html
SeaWorld, ' Killer Whales: Communication and Echo Location," Accessed 15th March 2009, available at http://www.seaworld.org/animal-info/info-books/killer-whale/communication.htm
Wilfredo Santiago Benitez, 'Echolocation and strategy used by Southern resident Killer Whales (Orcinus orca) during foraging', 2005, Accessed 15th March 2009, available at http://beamreach.org/051/papers/wilfredo.pdf
Volcker B. Deecke, John KB Ford & Peter JB Slater, 'The Vocal Behavior of Mammal eating killer Whales: Communicating with Costly Calls ' Animal Behavior, 2005, 69, 395-405, http://www.behaecol.amu.edu.pl/files/the_vocal_behav_of_mammal-eating_killer_whales.pdf
From the point-of-view of the variation and flexibility of the species such cultivated woody crops rank as no more than cornfields. While the tree farms are conveniently be stretched on the private lands, national forests those are considered priceless reservoirs of most of the biological diversity of the nation cannot expand so easily. The commercial logging is considered as the greatest danger for survival of the national forest system. The timber sales are growingly concealed beneath the post fire recovery and fire prevention missions, forest health initiatives and restoration programs. (Endangered Forests: Endangered Freedoms)
Declining wetlands and reservoir construction are having spectacular influences on a global scale. (the Importance of Wetlands and the Impacts of eservoir Development) the data of USF & WS reveals that the United States added 2.3 million acres in ponds and inland mudflats during the period of mid 1950s and mid1970s. The country added…
Acid Rain -- a Contemporary World Problem. Retrieved at http://www.geocities.com/narilily/acidrain.html. Accessed on 3 February, 2005
Acid Rain: Do you need to start wearing a rain hat? Retrieved at http://ga.water.usgs.gov/edu/acidrain.html . Accessed on 3 February, 2005
Barney, Gerald O. The Whole World in Our Hands. SF Chronicle. 31 December, 2000. Retrieved at http://www.mindfully.org/Sustainability/in-Our-Hands.htm. Accessed on 3 February, 2005
Bryant, Peter J. Biodiversity and Conservation: A Hypertext Book. Retrieved at http://darwin.bio.uci.edu/~sustain/bio65/lec05/b65lec05.htm. Accessed on 3 February, 2005
The fact is that numerous rooted macrophyte structures are not full of naturally strong and healthy particles and sediments and nutrients. It is because of the restriction or absence of these particles, sediments and nutrients that the study of these systems has not been as extensive and thorough as the concentration on the terrestrial structures when understanding the fate, sources and sinks of Co2 levels in the ecosystems and the plants structures (e.g., Drake and Leadley 1991). Researchers assert that "rooted macrophyte systems can be sources of CO2, Chapter 4 and other gases through microbial processing of organic matter in the sediments and direct emission from leaves" (Delaune et al. 1990).
Table 1. Total net primary production (NPP) from world systems (Modified from Valiela, 1984)
% of Total
% of Total
gC m-2 y-1
Abel K.M. (1984) Inorganic Carbon Source for Photosynthesis in the Seagrass Thalassia hemprichii (Ehrenb.) Aschers. Plant Physiology 76, 776-781.
Adam, P. 1990. Saltmarsh ecology. Cambridge Univ. Press. Cambridge. 461p.
Agren, G., R.E. McMurtrie, W.J. Parton, J. Pastor and H.H. Shugart. 1991. State-of-the-art of models of production-decomposition linkages in conifer and grassland ecosystems. Ecological Applications. 1:118-138.
Anderson, J.M. 1991. The effects of climate change on decomposition processes in grassland and coniferous forests. Ecological Applications 1:326-347.
Jones Act, VISA, and commercial military sealift
The impact of the following on transportation and logistics in the U.S.
The Jones Act
The Jones Act has gained much relevance to the U.S. domestic and national transportation and logistics than before. A close diagnosis of the industry reveals that the Act has served the interest of Americans because it provided set of sealift vessels, a knowledgeable and experienced workforce, and a base of shipbuilding industry, which is being used to protect the security of U.S. economy and military. Since its implementation, the U.S. navy has experienced a persistent shrink as it suffers from increased tear and wear leading to an increase in financial pressures as cheap foreign labor remains a challenge to the workforce. Therefore, it is evident that the Jones Act has made significant contributions to the U.S. national security (McCullough, 2010).
Cargo Preference Act of 1904
Since the Cargo…
McCullough, D.G. (2010). The path between the seas: The creation of the Panama Canal 1870-1914. New York.
Truver, S.C. & United States. (2007). Lifeline of the nation: The U.S. Merchant Marine in the 21st century. Greenbelt, Maryland: Gryphon Technologies and Bluewater Agency, Ltd.
United States (2009). MARAD: The annual report of the Maritime Administration for fiscal year. Washington, D.C: U.S. Dept. Of Commerce, Maritime Administration.
The plan would be the result of the scientific method, through which the impacts and causes of the current environmental problems would be addressed. Additionally, the scientific method would sit at the basis of the future actions to be taken. These would traditionally include:
The search for alternative sources of energy
The search for renewable sources of energy
The creation of an infrastructure which allowed the propagation and populous use of alternative energies
The education of the population to reduce their levels of consumerism to life necessities
The implementation of stricter regulations which punish economic agents who pollute waters or cut the forests in an unsustainable manner
eplant forests, clean waters and support the sustainable life of the endangered species.
At a smaller size and specific level, the alternative and immediate action to be taken is that of reducing the harvesting of krill by commercial fishermen. This would be achieved…
Leonard, A., The story of stuff, http://www.storyofstuff.com / last accessed on October 13, 2010
Naik, A., 2010, Ozone layer and global warming, Buzzle, http://www.buzzle.com/articles/ozone-layer-and-global-warming.html last accessed on October 14, 2010
Antarctic krill conservation project statement of principles and core goals, Antarctic Krill Conservation Project, http://www.krillcount.org/solutions.html last accessed on October 14, 2010
" Because of the ability to reproduce in large amounts in a small amount of time, phytoplankton are considered as the first link in the food chain of nearly all marine animals. Phytoplankton provide food for a large variety of organisms, including the microscopic animals (such as the zooplankton), bivalve molluscan shellfish (like mussels, oysters, scallops, and clams), and small fishes (such as anchovies and sardines). To continue the food chain, these group of animals then provide their own kind of food to other group animals like crabs, starfish, fish, marine birds, marine mammals, and humans (Karl, et al., 2001).
Figure 1. Sample food chain involving phytoplankton
Mortality Rate of Phytoplankton
It was recorded that from 1980's to the present, phytoplankton have been continuously increasing in frequency and distribution worldwide. The reason for such continuing increase in biomass is yet to be determined, but scientists have provided several…
Alvarez Cobelas, M., J.L. Velasco, a. Rubio, and C. Rojo. (1994). The time course of phytoplankton biomass and related limnological factors in shallow and deep lakes: a multivariate approach. Hydrobiologia 275/276:139-151.
Anya, M. (1996). Phytoplankton biodiversity.(Marine Biodiversity) Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution.
Biomass distribution of phytoplankton" (2006). [Available online] www.astro.temple.edu/~sanders1/balance.gif
Carpenter, S.R., J.F. Kitchell, and J.R. Hodgson. (1985). Cascading trophic interactions and lake productivity. BioScience 35:634-639.
A three: 63% of Americans in a recent study believe that "regulations and laws" that are intended to protect our oceans are not strict enough, while 16% say laws are ok;
c) the knowledge most people have about the science related to the ocean and coast is not high.
A one: citizens are unaware of threats to the oceans, though the threats are immediate two: 50% of people recognize that factories are a pollution source, but only 24% recognize that "runoff" is what causes the pollution from factories and oil refineries three: 75% of people in one survey believed trees and forests give off more oxygen than oceans; and 60% of respondents didn't know that there are more plant and animal species on oceans than on land.
A four: about 45% of those polled between that between 11 and 20% of U.S. coastal regions are now in federally protected zones;…
Coyle, Kevin J. "Understanding Ocean and Coastal Literacy: How Public Opinion and Knowledge Research Helps Inform Ocean and Coastal Science Education Programming at NOAA." National Environmental Education and Training Foundation. 2005.
BP Oil Spill
Strategy and Corporate Governance
The bp oil spill of 2010
British Petroleum (BP) is one of the largest oil exploring companies in the world. It is recognized for its efficient practices. In recent years it has positioned itself as an environmentally responsible company by stressing its commitment to undertaking exploration activities by causing minimum harm to the natural environment. It has also invested in technologies to make drilling under the seabed more secure so that oil spills do not occur. However, these claims were brought into question on April 20, 2012 when a massive explosion and oil spill took place on the Deepwater Horizon oil rig over the Macondo oil well in the U.S. Gulf. There was huge damage to the marine environment and to the livelihood of people living in the coastal communities in Louisiana and other coastal states. The poor response of the company was…
ABC News. (2010, July 27). BP CEO Tony Hayward Gets Golden Parachute. Is $18 Million Too Much? ABC News. Retrieved May 1, 2012, from http://www.abcnews.go.com/WN/bp-ceo-tony-hayward-receive-compensation-world-news/story?id=1257978
Alleyne, R. (2010, July 30). BP Oil Spill: Was Tony Hayward Right After All? The Telegraph. Retrieved May 1, 2012, from http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/northamerica/usa/7918000/BP-oil-spill-Was-Tony-Hayward-right-after-all.html
Arnott, S. (2010, July 28). BP CEO Tony Hayward: In His Own Words. Bloomberg Business Week. Retrieved May 1, 2012, from http://www.businessweek.com/globalbiz/content/jul2010/gb20100728_556093.htm
BBC. (2010, June 1). BP's Shares Fall 13% after Plan to Stop Oil Leak Fails. BBC. Retrieved May 1, 2012, from http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/10202162
e. By salving the ship and cargo) (IMO, 1989). This was to acknowledge the need to treat environmental degradation as a global problem and to encourage sustainable practices on the part of all contractual parties involved international shipping.
Damage to the environment is defined as "substantial physical damage to human health or to marine life" and under the Convention the awarded "compensation consists of the salvor's expenses, plus up to 30% of these expenses if, thanks to the efforts of the salvor, environmental damage has been minimized or prevented (SCOPIC, 2007). The salvor's expenses and financial distress are defined as "out-of-pocket expenses reasonably incurred by the salvor in the salvage operation and a fair rate for equipment and personnel actually and reasonably used" (SCOPIC, 2007). The tribunal or arbitrator between the two parties alleging a breach of contract "may even reward 100% of the agreed upon sum, in light of…
"Chapter 5: Fundamental breach, deviation, quasi-deviation, and rupture of the contract."
July 8, 2009.
"International Convention on Salvage, 1989." International Maritime organization (IMO).
The state has really took out half of the $300 million cost that it took to build the Hudson River Park (150 acres land/400 acres open water) with yearly assumptions that are around $20 million to $25 million. 20 years from now it might be a hard challenge keeping this up with the anticipated climate change.
Climate Change: Precipitation
The third reason why climate change will be affecting America in the next 20 years is because of the local precipitation. In addition to impacts on temperature and wind, the urban heat island affects local precipitation patterns. Both comparatively warmer air and higher attentions of particulates over the cities that can cause little more frequent rain events (Ahrens 2006).
About 20 years from now, this will become an issue because the Human-made modifications of the natural environment are affecting the thermal stratification of the atmosphere that is located above a city…
Ahrens, C. David. Meteorology today:an introduction to weather, climate, and the environment. Eighth edition. Florence, Ky: Brooks/Cole., 2006.
Lin, Q., and R. Bornstein. "Urban heat island and summertime convective thunderstorms in Atlanta.." Atmospheric Environment 34.5 (2000): 507-516.
Nowak, David J. The effects of urban trees on air quality. 5 March 1995. 30 April 2011. .
Oke, T.R. Boundary Layer Climates. London: Methuen, 2003.
The 1980s (the period when onald eagan was the U.S. President) witnessed a series of government measures targeting environmental regulations. This resulted in public outrage against the anti-environmental policies of the government leading to a renewed interest in nature clubs and groups and the formation of radical groups who led strong movements to protect the environment. (vii) the post- eagan resurgence (1990s onwards) - President Bush and President Clinton did not take the radical stance of their predecessor. However, President George W. Bush has taken many measures which have weakened the environmental movement instead of strengthening it. This includes opposing curbs on greenhouse emissions via the Kyoto Protocol, supporting oil drilling in the ANW or Arctic National Wildlife ange, weakening clean air standards and lifting the ban on logging in forests.
3) How does economics determine the public's opinion regarding environmental issues? Discuss the values of the dominant social paradigm…
Bocking, Stephen. Nature's Experts: Science, Politics, and the Environment. Rutgers University Press. 2004.
Palmer, Mike. Pathways of Nutrients in the Ecosystem - Pathways of elements in ecosystem. http://www.okstate.edu/artsci/botany/bisc3034/lnotes/nutrient.htm
Redclift, M. R; Woodgate, Graham. The International Handbook of Environmental Sociology. Edward Elgar Publishing, 2000.
Schmidtz, David; Willott, Elizabeth. Environmental Ethics: What Really Matters, what Really Works. Oxford University Press U.S., 2002.
This is true in fresh and well as salt wate, zinc seems to spread more rapidly in sea water, even affecting higher animals (Taban, Cathiene and Burkard, 1982).
esearch Project - The term scientific method refers to a way of investigation or the acquisition of knowledge through the testing of a theory or hypothesis, then working through measurements (observation and empirical notes) to come up with a result, which should prove or disprove the original theory. Thus, the basic method consists of a) formulating a question or hypothesis, b) designing an experiment or means of collecting data, c) observation or experimentation, d) analyzing the results and considering the proof or disproof of the hypotheses, and e) suggestions for future research (Cary, 2003).
In this case, and because invertebrates are relatively easy to access regarding zinc the following is a simple introductory examination on the topic:
Freshwater crayfish, particularly the species…
Canicatti and Grasso. (1988). Biodepressive Effect of Zine on Humoral Effector of the Holothuria Polii Immune Response. Marine Biology, 99(3), 393-96.
Cary, S. (2003). A Beginner's Guide to the Scientific Method. New York: Wadsworth.
Emsley, J. (2001). Nature's Building Blocks. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Fosmire, G. (1990). Zinc Toxicity. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 51(2), 225-37.
4-billion expansion after it was shut down in May by the province's environment ministry due to urine-like smells wafting in to neighbouring communities from the company's new technology." (Stephenson, 2006)
III. ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY REVIEW
In the work of Ross McKitrick entitled: "Towards the Use of Emission Taxes in Canada" a paper presented to the Finance Committee Round Table on Green Taxes in Ottawa, Canada on May 31, 2001, it is stated that in the presentation of the paper covered are:."..three topics: the context (international and domestic) for environmental policy in Canada, the basic principles of pollution tax design, and the priority I would suggest for proceeding with this policy instrument." (McKitrick, 2001)
McKitrick states that "the theory of optimal environmental taxation was worked out by Agnar Sandmo in an article in the Swedish Journal of Economics in 1975. Some points that have emerged from Sandmo's work are the following:
Macdonald, Doug (1995) Green Taxation and Environmental Policies - Presented to the annual meeting of the Environmental Studies Association of Canada, June 4, 1995. Online available at http://www.utoronto.ca/env/papers/macdon/macdon1.htm .
Planning for Sustainability (2000) Global Problems: Local Solutions - Transport Canada; Sustainable Transportation: The Canadian Context. Online available at http://www.tc.gc.ca/programs/environment/sd/monograph/solutions.htm .
Paehlke, Robert (2000) Environmentalism in One Country: Canadian Environmental Policy in an Era of Globalization. Policy Studies Journal, Vol. 29, 2000.
CCME Task Force on Cleaner Vehicles, Engines and Fuels (2005) 1.2 Motor Vehicle Emissions and Air Quality. 21 Apr 2005. Online available at http://www.ec.gc.ca/cleanair-airpur/CAOL/OGEB/fuels/reports/ccme/ccme1_2_e.htm .
Operating/ethical guidelines of International Trade. The objective of this paper is to discuss issues associated with the expansion of international trade related to pollution, worker rights, and product safety/standards and issues associated with property rights/trade secrets when operating in multiple countries.
The expansion of international trade has its pros and cons. On one hand it increases communication between countries on the other hands issues like pollution, worker rights, product safety become extremely important and sometimes need immediate attention. There are a number of organizations, which make sure that there is no exploitation of foreign workers at any time but international trade may promote exploitation of foreign workers and they try hard to eliminate all sweatshops and stop child labor.
Humans have harnessed goods and services from Aquatic Ecosystems for millennia. On the other hand, an extraordinary number of human population and, in particular, certain unsustainable practices are putting pressure on…
Author not available, INTERNATIONAL TRADE STRATEGY NEEDED TO BETTER MONITOR AND ENFORCE TRADE AGREEMENTS., Government Accounting Office Report, 03-14-2000.
Sea around Us
Rachel Carson was a scientist and author who took a topic which had hitherto been only of interest to fellow scientists and opened it up to the masses. During her lifetime, she took up many causes in support of wildlife and the protection of species and protecting the natural landscape from potential molestation from developers and others who would destroy indigenous habitats. Among her many missions was to make people aware of the hazards of certain chemicals on the environment, such as pesticides on vegetation. In Rachel Carson's book The Sea around Us, the author strives to explain the mysteries of the sea. She begins with a discussion of the world of water from before recorded history, all the way up to the book's present which was the early 1950s. Her essential thesis of the piece is that although science has allowed the people of the world…
Cafaro, Philip. "Thoreau, Leopold, and Carson: Toward an Environmental Virtue Ethics." 22.
2001. 3-17. Print.
Carson, Rachel. The Sea Around Us. New York, NY: Oxford UP, 1991. Print.
Pauly, Daniel. "The Sea Around Us Project: Documenting and Communicating Global Fisheries
Scuba dives themselves ae a vey impotant taget fo pactices that can ensue futue sustainability fo Califonia's ocean esouces.
The poblem is howeve that, like geneal pollution fom fo example plastic, many people, and even official in chage of oceanic potection often abuse thei powe by concealing fom the public the tuth about the state of pollution. By doing this, the public, including scuba dives, ae not awae of the tue extent of the poblem, and can theefoe not do anything to mitigate the poblem.
Specifically, accoding to Envionment Califonia (2006), only 30 of the 167 fish populations in the coasts of Califonia ae healthy; the othes being negatively affected by vaious foms of pollution. Accoding to the aticle, this numbe has shown no impovement between 2001 and 2006, the latte being the yea of witing. The blame fo this phenomenon is placed at the doo of govenmental agencies that…
references based on level of development. http://www.nysgextension.org/underwater/underwfiles/scubareport1.html
In international policy, as in the course of daily human life, self-interested actors must carefully weigh competing and often equally valid choices, and make for themselves some compromise between opposed values. It seems that as often as one is able to solve a problem, one notices that the very solution causes problems of its own. An unmitigated good is difficult to find even in one person's individual life, and it is even harder (if not impossible) to discover a national plan of action which will prove beneficial for every citizen and for the world at large. It seems inevitable that any policy which creates significant benefits somewhere along the line must at another spot be creating significant detriments for at least some subsection of the community. (This is even true with crime control, which benefits most citizens and penalizes those whose selves or families depend on illegal…
Andreas, Peter. "The escalation of U.S. immigration control in the post-Nafta era." Political Science Quarterly v113, n4 (Winter 1998):591
Art, Robert and Jervis, Robert. International Politics: Enduring Concepts and Contemporary Issues. New York: Pearson Longman, 2002.
Bush, George H.W. "Address to the Nation Announcing the Deployment of United States Armed Forces to Saudi Arabia," The White House, Washington, D.C., August 8, 1990 and George H.W. Bush "Remarks and an Exchange With Reporters on the Persian Gulf Crisis," Kennebunkport, Maine, August 11, 1990 http:bushlibrary.tamu.eduWeb accessed on 10 April 2003.
Global Warming Information." Global Warming. 2004. http://www.globalwarming.org
The two should know better but their emotions got the best of them. In this case I would myself (or ask another person who knows the two) pull one of the two aside gently but firmly and ask that he take a deep breath and not cause commotion to the point where we all suffer. I would say, "Take a break guy, please cool your jets for a few moments because you are causing all of us to be distracted from what we are supposed to be doing here. You're forcing us to be involved and we aren't part of your problem, so please, quiet down…"
If that wouldn't work, the next step of course is to notify the supervisor or foreman that we need help -- or to follow company policy in whatever form is required in that situation.
Who are my heroes?
I don't have any "heroes" in…
Economic entities can be influenced by the area they are located in, with the entities positioned in the vicinity of economic blocks like NAFTA or the European Union being advantaged and thus more likely to engage in trade. People in North America and those in Western Europe are advantaged because of their position, meaning that the trade business they get involved in is normally more intense in comparison to the trade performed by economic entities that reside further away from economic blocks.
Security has always been a crucial matter when it came to freight transportation. However, this topic has not been given special attention until the 9/11 events, which marked the beginning of great changes in transportation policies. It previously seemed perfectly normal to check freights for illegal substances, undocumented immigrants, and piracy. Even with that, the World Trade Center events brought forward a new set of security concerns. The…
National security is an important concept which has often been mistakenly used to refer to protection against external threats. With people gaining better knowledge of the term security, national security has become a complex term that involves human as well as environmental security. For a nation to feel completely secure, it should not only be protected against external threats and aggression but also against internal problems that might make its citizens feel less safe. National security also includes local or internal security which is often defined separately as if it was not a part of the broader term. We must understand that if a person feel threatened in his own country due to any reason such as racism, religious persecution or environmental problems, then he cannot consider his country secure for himself.
Local insecurity leads to national disturbance which might make a country and its people feel vulnerable. For…
1) UN Human Development Report 1994: http://hdr.undp.org/reports/global/1994/en / (Accessed on 04/30/05)
2) Howard Zinn, The Logic of Withdrawal, January 2004 Issue: (Accessed on 04/30/05) http://www.progressive.org/jan04/zinn0104.html
3) Peter K.B. St. Jean, The Relevance Of National Security To Economic, Political, And Social Development. University of Chicago, Department of Sociology (Accessed on 04/30/05) http://www.da-academy.org/devsecure.html
United Nations is an example of what kind of non-State actor?
The United Nations is an international organization; it is usually referred to as an international governmental organization (IGO), it may also be referred to as an intergovernmental organization. It is an organization that adopts a multilateral approach.
Which type of non-state actor is defined as "sets of actors engaged in voluntary, reciprocal interactions of communication and exchange across national borders"?
Non-state actors that are undertake voluntary work will usually be a non-governmental organization. These are frequently special interest groups that are set up with specific social or environmental concerns. Examples of these include Amnesty International, The Red Cross, and World Wildlife Fund for Nature, Greenpeace.
For which of the following purposes does an NGO organize for?
NGO's are citizen-based groups which are non-profit making, and are organized for specific purposes, such as a humanitarian cause, to support community or…
S. intelligence and military analysts expected, prompting fears that Beijing will attack Taiwan in the next two years, according to entagon officials." However, the Taiwanese spokesman, Chang Jung-kung, says this report is inaccurate, noting that the entagon does not take into account the latest development between Taiwan and China, who have entered a new phase since Chairman Lien Chan's journey of peace to China in 2005. China also responded by reporting that the entagon "viciously exaggerated Chinese military outlay, spreading a 'China threat theory.'"
In conclusion, it appears as if the growing differences in economic and political policies between the United States and China have increased watchfulness and suspicion on the parts of both major countries, leading to the possibility of another "Cold War" between the U.S. And another new, threatening communist country, China.
Clark, Matthew, "China a Security Threat to U.S. " the Christian Science Monitor, 28 Jun…
Phillip Saunders, Chinese Views of Its Military Modernization, Monterey Institute of International Studies, 2000.
Ibid. page 58.
Matthew Clark, "China a Security Threat to U.S. " the Christian Science Monitor, 28 Jun 2005.