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Cuban Missile Crisis
Words: 2970 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 46885298
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Cuban Missile Crisis: Why we need more balance of power in the world.

Cuban Missile crisis in 1960s may raise a serious political question in retrospect i.e. should America be allowed to exist as the sole superpower and what could be the repercussions of such an existence? Now fifty years or so later, we are in a much better position to answer this question. United States or any other nation for that matter must not work as the sole superpower because it can cause many political upheaval as we recently witnessed. We will discuss the Cuban Missile crisis in detail but first we must establish that American history is fraught with events and wars that were fought on the false belief of America's superiority which made it an imperial power. Examples of these events include the Mexican-American War, the Spanish-American War and not to mention the current conflict with Iraq.…

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Rothernberg. R.S. "Crisis Time." USA Today 130.2676 (2001)

Meagher. MR."In an Atmosphere of National Peril': The Development of John F. Kennedy's World View." Presidential Studies Quarterly 27.3 (1997):

Krenn ML. "Robert Weisbrot. Maximum Danger: Kennedy, the Missiles, and the Crisis of American Confidence." International Social Science Review (2002):

Nigro Jr. LJ. "High Noon in the Cold War: Kennedy, Khrushchev, and the Cuban Missile Crisis." Parameters 35.3 (2005)

Deportation of Cubans Immigrants Seeking
Words: 1979 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 22289027
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The absolute deprivation of basic human liberties makes it abundantly clear that all people in Cuba are potential political prisoners, because they are either virtually imprisoned by the country's restrictive laws, or face the threat of real imprisonment by acting out against the country. Moreover, to encourage Cubans to evade U.S. military and police forces in order to gain access to U.S. political asylum only encourages human trafficking and other dangerous practices. Instead of deporting Cubans or forcing them to seek asylum in a third country, which may have more restrictive definitions of what it considers a refugee, the United States should grant asylum to Cubans fleeing political persecution.

Works eferenced

Amnesty International. "Six Years in Prison in Cuba for 57 Activists: Supporters Face Ongoing

Harassment." Amnesty.org. 2009. Amnesty International. 23 Jun. 2009 .

Buckley, Cara. "Anti-Castro Pilots' Kin Meet." Cubanet.org. 2004. Cubanet. 23 Jun. 2009

.

Cubana. "Cuba Detains…

Referenced

Amnesty International. "Six Years in Prison in Cuba for 57 Activists: Supporters Face Ongoing

Harassment." Amnesty.org. 2009. Amnesty International. 23 Jun. 2009 .

Buckley, Cara. "Anti-Castro Pilots' Kin Meet." Cubanet.org. 2004. Cubanet. 23 Jun. 2009

.

Comparing Tyack and Cuban With Dewey on Social Change
Words: 3919 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 55242728
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Tyack and Cuban with Dewey on Social Change

David Tyack and Larry Cuban do share similar views to John Dewey about the nature of the traditional education system in the United States as well as its origins. Public education as it exists today is a product of the 19th Century industrialization and urbanization process, which created schools that resembled factories, timetables and schedules, and teachers who acted like bosses on a factory floor. Dewey of course abhorred this system and criticized it unmercifully for decades, both in the way it was structured and the type of information it imparted to students. In the history of American education, there has never been a more vocal, prominent and outspoken critic of the traditional system than Dewey, and none has been the subject of greater wrath from conservatives and traditionalists, even decades after his death. Tyack and Cuban are well aware of the…

References

Dewey, J. (1938, 1998). Education and Experience: The 60th Anniversary Edition. Indianapolis, IN: Kappa Delta Pi Society.

Tyack, D. And L. Cuban (1995). Tinkering Toward Utopia: A Century of Public School Reform. Harvard University Press.

Book Rush to Judgment by Mark Lane
Words: 1483 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 22837708
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alarm clock will break and so you'll oversleep. When you do wake up, you will burn your lips, tongue and liver on your coffee. Your car will refuse to start, and when it does you will discover that one of your tires is flat. While changing your flat tire you will be bitten by a black-widow spider. Just as you arrive at the emergency room, the nurses will go out on strike. A small earthquake will then strike, crushing your car in the hospital garage. You will develop gangrene after you leave the hospital without being treated - but not before a bicyclist runs into you as you walk home, knocking you down and breaking your glasses.

Okay, maybe we haven't all had days that were exactly this bad, but sometimes they come close - which is no doubt one reason that many people are so attracted to conspiracy theories.…

J C Penney News Is Bigger Than Lawsuit
Words: 2795 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 68718686
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J.C. Penney News Is Bigger Than Lawsuit Decisions, evenue Losses, and esignations - Mark Cuban's Stock Purchase Is Better Than Money for J.C. Penney's ecovery (JCP, MSO)

Organizational context: J.C. Penney

J.C. Penney is one of the most famous and renowned of the major U.S. department stores. It is well-known for its image of Americana and its reasonable prices. However, within this particular market segment, J.C. Penney is facing increasingly stiff competition from major retailers such as Wal-Mart and Target. Wal-Mart boasts that it has considerably cheaper prices than all of its competitors, including Penney; Target has managed, despite its bargain-basement image to cultivate a more sophisticated aura than J.C. Penney. J.C. Penney is struggling to eke out a future for itself, despite a host of challenges that are partially environmental and partly of its own making.

History

The J.C. Penney Company was first incorporated in 1913. It expanded rapidly,…

References

About us. (2013). J.C. Penney. Retrieved:

 http://ir.jcpenney.com/phoenix.zhtml?c=70528&p=irol-homeprofile 

Corporate social responsibility. (2013). J.C. Penney. Retrieved:

 http://ir.jcpenney.com/phoenix.zhtml?c=70528&p=irol-govCSR

Internet the First Decade of
Words: 2936 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 27093157
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The market was not ready for wireless even five years ago, but that has definitely changed. When Levi's launched its latest 501s marketing campaign earlier this year, a wireless site was a central part of its digital strategy. Now there are nearly 30,000 public wireless "hot spots" in the United States. Advertisers believe that now that wireless has finally become a medium with which consumers are comfortable, the next stage is its exploitation by brands. Many feel that the wireless sites will increasingly become a part of marketing campaigns.

The semi-technical arena is seeing the rise of numerous new search engines, especially since ones such as Google have become so successful. Increasing numbers of Web surfers are going to alternative search engines that specialize in finding certain kinds of information or offering additional capabilities to well-known search sites (Kharif). AOL launched a test version of its new travel search site,…

References

Clendenning, a. (March 11, 2005). Are specialty search engines a future trend?

America's Intelligence Wire. [electronic version]

E-Commerce Trends. Website retrieved July 12, 2005.  http://www.ecommercetimes.com/story/16967.html 

Frenzel, L.E. (2005). The Internet's next evolution beckons. Electronic Design.

Why Social Workers Should Push Back Against Racism
Words: 1385 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Creative Writing Paper #: 46101132
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Racism

There have been several well-publicized incidents of blatant racism in the news lately, including the bigoted remarks by the owner of the Los Angeles Clippers, Donald Sterling, and the racist rant (suggesting that blacks were better off as slaves) by Nevada rancher, Cliven Bundy. Meanwhile other nationally known figures have also made statements about racism, including billionaire Mark Cuban, owner of the Dallas Mavericks NBA team, who claimed he, too, is bigoted against African-Americans (especially when he sees a black youth in a "hoody"). These remarks -- and the media's coverage of the verbally expressed racism -- have piqued my interest in the subject. So I have in this paper referenced the position of the National Association of Social Workers (NASW) on racism, and have also presented some of my own views as well.

Section One: What is your person opinion on racism and what led you to this…

Women in the Revolution
Words: 1322 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86461736
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Cuban Gender oles

Concurrent evolutions in Cuba

Describe your understanding of gender norms and ideals in pre-revolutionary Cuba -- for both men and women. In what ways did the Cuban evolution and the revolutionary government of Fidel Castro include women and/or women's concerns in the revolution? What were the strengths and weaknesses of these measures? Be sure to discuss "feminine, not feminist" ideas: Did they support or undermine women's equality? Why or why not? Use specific examples to support your answers.

The Cuban evolution was a tumultuous time in which many fundamental shifts occurred in the society. The primary shift occurred due to the use of force to overthrow a dictatorship in order to implement a government with a communist despite. Despite many objections to the use of force to obtain these changes, or possibly to the communist ideals in general, there were many egalitarian ideals upon which the movement…

References

Brown, V. (2011, February). Cuban socialism and women's liberation -- two revolutions entwined. Retrieved from Direct Action:  http://directaction.org.au/issue29/cuban_socialism_and_womens_liberation_two_revolutions_entwined 

CDA. (2013). Womens Work. Retrieved from Center for Democracy in the Americas: http://democracyinamericas.org/pdfs/CDA_Womens_Work.pdf

Machado, Y. (2012, July 30). Feminists in Cuba: Is It Time to Take Steps Together? Retrieved from Havana Times:  http://www.havanatimes.org/?p=75424 

Murray, N. (1979). Socialism and Feminism: Women and the Cuban Revolution. Feminist Review, 99-108.

Olmec Although Scientists Found Artifacts and Art
Words: 5404 Length: 16 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 63467824
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Olmec

Although scientists found artifacts and art objects of the Olmecs; until this century they did not know about the existence of the Olmecs. Most of the objects which were made by this community were associated with other civilizations, such as Mayan, Toltec or Chichimecan. The Olmec lived between 1600 B.C. And 1400 B.C. In South Mexico. The name of this tribe comes from an Aztec word "ollin" which means "land of rubber."

At first they ate fish and they later start to farm, and that made it possible for them to "develop the first major civilization in Mesoamerica." (The Olmec Civilization) Thanks to the steady food supplies the Olmec population grew and some came to have other occupations. "Some became potters or weavers. Others became priests or teachers." (Ibidem) Once the population grew, so did their farming villages which developed into cities. The present-day city of San Lorenzo was…

References:

1. The Olmec Civilization, Retrieved December 14, 2012, from the Pleasant Valley School website:  http://www.pvsd.k12.ca.us/180120521134440680/lib/180120521134440680/11-2_SG_7th.pdf 

2. Villeacas, Daniel, Mother Culture of Mexico: The Olmecs, Denver Public Schools, 2005, Retrieved December 14, 2012, from the Denver Public Schools website:  http://etls.dpsk12.org/documents/Alma/units/MotherCultureMexicoOlmecs.pdf 

3. Olmec -- Masterworks of Ancient Mexico, Retrieved December 14, 2012, from the Los Angeles County Museum of Art website:  http://www.lacma.org/eduprograms/EvesforEds/OlmecEssay.pdf 

4. Hansen, Valerie, Curtis Kenneth, Curtis, Kenneth R., Voyages in World History: To 1600, Volume 1, Cengage Learning, December 30, 2008

Cold War Leadership Study in Contrasts
Words: 853 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63125388
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Kennedy and Khruschev

The Cuban Missile Crisis of October 1962 is widely considered to be the moment when the Cold ar between the U.S.A. And the U.S.S.R. came closest to outright hostility and indeed nuclear war. hat is most interesting about the Cuban Missile Crisis in retrospect is its strategic handling by the two national leaders involved, Nikita Khrushchev and John F. Kennedy. I hope by an examination of the correspondence exchanged by these two leaders during the period to demonstrate that Kennedy's handling of the crisis, while marked by some errors, was more responsible than Khrushchev's. In some sense, the Cuban Missile Crisis began as an irresponsible gamble by Khrushchev: if he exhibited some clever statesmanship during the crisis, this does not erase the fact that it was begun by him as an attempt to take advantage of a perceived weakness on Kennedy's part that was not ultimately there.…

Works Cited

Kennedy, John F. And Khrushchev, Nikita. "Kennedy-Khrushchev Exchanges." Loyola University. Web. Accessed 25 April 2014 at:  http://www.loyola.edu/departments/academics/political-science/strategic-intelligence/intel/FRUS-6.html

U S Foreign Affairs Since 1898
Words: 3090 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 8617183
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President Johnson became even more fearful of a communist take-over.

In 1964, when two American ships were attacked by the North Vietnamese in the Gulf of Tonkin "the American Senate gave Johnson the power to give armed support to assist any country requesting help in defense of its freedom," effectively beginning the Vietnam War without a formal declaration of war (BBC 2009). The wide-scale bombing of the North in 'Operation olling Thunder' began in February 1965. By March 1965, the first American ground troops had landed in South Vietnam and by December 1965, there were 150,000 servicemen stationed in the country (BBC 2009).

ichard Nixon was elected to the presidency in 1968, promising a policy of Vietnamization or the taking-over of the war against the North by native Vietnamese troops. However, it would be four more years before substantial withdrawals of American servicemen occurred. Nixon also supported dictators in Laos…

References

An overview of the crisis. (1997). The Cuban Missile Crisis. Crisis Center. Thinkquest.

Retrieved January 1, 2009 at http://library.thinkquest.org/11046/days/index.html

The Berlin Airlift. (2010). Cold War Museum. Retrieved January 1, 2009 at  http://www.coldwar.org/articles/40s/berlin_airlift.asp 

Chang, Laurence & Peter Kornbluh. (1998). A national security archive documents reader.

World War Turning Point Europe Significant Change
Words: 2238 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90985032
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World War Turning Point Europe, Significant Change Occurred Emergence Legitimate evolutionary egimes

Self-Determination in Cuba

There are few who would dispute the fact that following the conclusion of World War II and prior to its revolution (which began in 1953 and concluded on January 1 of 1959) Cuba was a prosperous region of the world that was certainly worth fighting for. The country's leader prior to the ascendancy of Fidel Castro, Fulgencio Batista, had cleverly manipulated the assistance of a number of external forces, primarily that of the United States, to assist the country in achieving a degree of economic gain and modernity the likes of which were comparable to, if not surpassing, those of other parts of the world.

Its economic prowess may be demonstrated from the following quotation. "Cuba in 1958, prior to the government of the Communist Fidel Castro, paid its employees an average of $3.00 per…

References

Epperson, R.A. (1985). The Unseen Hand. Arizona: Publius.

Guevara, C. (2005). Cuba: Historical Exception or Vanguard in the Colonial Struggle? Retrieved from  http://www.marxists.org/archive/guevara/1961/04/09.htm 

Kapur, T., Smith, A. (2002). "Housing Policy In Castro's Cuba." Retrieved from  http://www.jchs.harvard.edu/education/oustanding_student_papers/kapur_smith_cuba_02.pdf 

Jones, L. (1966). Home. New York: William Morrow and Co.

Sitcom Running Water Main Characters
Words: 1158 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 22691275
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What kind of neighborhood is it in?

Lower middle class apartment complex

What is its structure?

Constantly bustling, full of many cultures and ethnicities, although Cuban-Americans predominate.

What does it look like?

Clean, functional, but very impersonal-looking apartment blocks.

What does it contain?

Mainly recent Cuban immigrants

What is its aesthetic?

The aesthetic is very functional, since the area is mainly dominated by recent immigrants coming from underdeveloped countries to the United States.

What does it say about the characters who inhabit that space?

The characters are very new to the United States and are unfamiliar with its social expectations.

Target Demographic: Hispanic-Americans

Gender: As with most relationship-driven sitcoms, more female than male.

Geographic Location: Residents of Latin American-dominated neighborhoods in Miami, New York, and Los Angeles

Age Range: 20 something and older

Education: high school to some college

Ethnicity: Latino, with heavily skewed towards Cubans

Conservative/Liberal Status: Cubans tend…

U S Foreign Affairs Since 1898
Words: 1847 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 81460756
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S. officials and other entities were very well informed), but rather on indecisiveness and incapacity to react with direct, concrete means in these situations.

5. The major issues of American foreign policy during the 1950s were generally circumscribed to the Cold War between the U.S. And the Soviet Union and the relations between these two countries, ranging form mutual containment to escalation (towards the end of the decade).

The first issue emerging from this policy was the Korean War. The Korean War, characterized by the initial invasion of South Korea by North Korean troops and the subsequent implication of American and Chinese troops, was a direct consequence of the post-WWII conditions when each superpower attempted to promote and spread its own military and ideological system.

With the American army first pushed back all the way to Pusan and then following General Macarthur's landing at Inchon behind enemy troops and the…

Bibliography

1. Howard Jones. 2001. Crucible of Power: A History of American Foreign Relations from 1897, Wilmington, DE: Scholarly Resources.

2. Robert Kennedy. 1999. Thirteen Days: A Memoir of the Cuban Missile Crisis, New York: Norton

3. Samantha Power, a Problem From Hell: American in the Age of Genocide

Remarketing Obsolete Products -- the Case of
Words: 1967 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9556844
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emarketing Obsolete Products -- the Case of Telephone Handsets

Profiting from Obsolescence

Finding New Markets for Handset Telephones

Analysis of the American Telephone Handset Market

Telephone handsets, once a symbol of upward mobility and continued affluence in the United States have been replaced by the cell phone and smart phone where today they are more seen with nostalgia. The cannibalization of the handset market has gained momentum as the adoption of cell phones and smart phones have accelerated in the most affluent customer segments first followed by broader, larger and more middle-income market segments (U.S. Census Bureau, 2009). What continues to be the catalyst of growth for cell phone and smartphone growth is the ability to complete multiple functions on a mobile device including texting, web browsing and taking and sending pictures (U.S. Census Bureau, 2009). The multifunctional nature of the cell phones and smartphones has led to the quick…

References

Apple, Investor Relations (2013). Investor Relations. Retrieved January 31, 2013, from Apple Investor Relations and Filings with the SEC Web site:  http://www.apple.com/investor/ 

Josh Bernoff, Charlene Li. (2008). Harnessing the Power of the Oh-So-Social Web. MIT Sloan Management Review, 49(3), 36-42.

Cuban daily looks at growing mobile phone use in Cuba. (2009, Feb 10). BBC Monitoring Americas.

Programme summary of Cuban radio news 11007 Dec 11. (2011, Dec 28). BBC Monitoring Americas.

Predominantly Latino Gangs Mara Salvatrucha
Words: 17380 Length: 40 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 44825476
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Government

Since gang-related crimes fall within the jurisdiction of state, this research will give an insight on the need to find solutions that increasingly include all levels of government. Congress needs to pass legislation that will change immigration enforcement laws and make more aliens deportable. In addition, the federal government should take a more active participation in helping local and state jurisdictions develop anti-gang responses. The local, state and federal governments must take a stand, and combine forces to combat the immigration problem that continue to plague this country into the next generation.

Importance of the Study

The die has been cast, there is no turning the clock back now and the Mara Salvatrucha and 18th Street Gang have established themselves in the United States and far beyond. The origins of the current situation with MS-13 and the 18th Street Gang date back to the late 1980s and early 1990s…

References

Armstrong, W. (2009, February 16). 'Sanctuary cities' protect murderous illegal aliens. Human Events, 64(37), 8.

Bansal, M. (2006) Chertoff: Street Gangs a Threat to National. Retrieved November 12,

2006 from  http://www.CNSNews.com .

Barber, B. (1996). Jihad vs. McWorld: How Globalism and Tribalism are Reshaping the World. New York: Ballantine Book.

Kennedy and Brinkley President John Fitzgerald Kennedy
Words: 1469 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2897500
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Kennedy and Brinkley

President John Fitzgerald Kennedy is an important figure in American history and was instrumental in shaping the American identity in the second half of the twentieth century. His personality and optimism, as well as his heroism in the Second orld ar helped the country to formulate a hope that the 1960s could be a time of renewal and rebirth in the United States of America. In recent years, the more scandalous aspects of his life have overtaken his historical significance, something that should be remedied and his importance restored. Most importantly, his actions during the Cold ar between the United States and the U.S.S.R. are credited with saving the world from descending into nuclear war. In Alan Brinkley's 2012 book John F. Kenney, the author attempts to explain the man in terms of his place in history and how his personal abilities and charisma were able to…

Works Cited:

Brinkley, A. (2012). John F. Kennedy: The American Presidents Series: The 35th President,

1961-1963. Times: New York, NY.

Kennedy, J. (1961). Inaugural address. American Rhetoric.com

Kennedy, J. (1963). American University commencement address. American Rhetoric.com

Bartolom De Las Casas Human Rights Activist
Words: 4008 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 99474498
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Bartoleme De Las Casas

An Analysis of the Activism of Bartoleme De Las Casas

Often characterized by modern historians as the "Defender and the apostle to the Indians," Bartolome de Las Casas is known for exposing and condemning as well as exaggerating and misrepresenting the violent practices of Spanish colonizers of the New orld against Native Americans. Marked by emotional polemic and often embellished statistics, Las Casas' voluminous works brought him both support and opposition in his own time. hile being harshly criticized as a threat to Spanish rule in America, De Las Casas was also continually financially supported by the Crown and offered high offices by the Church (Benzoni 48). Though more than four hundred years have passed since his death, the works of this controversial Dominican friar continue to elicit strong reactions from both detractors and defenders -- from both those who condemn him and those who praise…

Works Cited

Adorno, Rolena. "Discourses on Colonialism: Bernal Diaz, Las Casas, and the Twentieth-Century Reader." MLN, vol. 103, no. 2 (Mar., 1988), pp. 239-258. Print.

Alker, Hayward. "The Humanistic Moment in International Studies: Reflections on Machiavelli and Las Casas." International Studies Quarterly, vol. 36, no. 4 (Dec., 1992), pp. 347-371. Print.

Bandelier, Adolph Francis. "Bartoleme de las Casas." The Catholic Encyclopedia, vol.

3. NY: Robert Appleton Company, 1908. Print.

Education Throughout the World There
Words: 5288 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 18246393
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Nearly all failing schools fit this description (Six Secrets of School Success 2000)." If a country is to overcome educational problems, they must take into account the mentality that poverty creates and how that mentality deteriorates the wherewithal to do well in school.

Although poverty is the issue that affects most underachieving schools, the idea of the super head was conceived as the answer to poorly performing schools. According to Marshall (2001), recruiting exceptional headmasters to improve schools was begun with what was once known as the Hammersmith County School (Marshall, 2001). The local authority school was located in the London Borough of Hammersmith and Fulham (Marshall, 2001). The neighboring schools were grant maintained and church schools (Marshall, 2001). The Hammersmith School was being closed because of poor results and OFSTED reports (Marshall, 2001). However, instead of closing the school the administration decided to reopen it and called it the…

References

Education. 2004. Official Site of the Labor Party. retrieved January 15, 2005 from;

 http://www.labour.org.uk/education04/ 

Mixed feelings from 'super heads'. retrieved January 15, 2005 from;  http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/education/2132516.stm 

Superheads' call for £120k a year, (2000). retrieved January 15, 2005 from;  http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/education/914516.stm

Technology the Introduction of New
Words: 2422 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 5816443
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Teachers at all levels need to be able to expand their understanding and use through professional development and grant opportunities, as well as be given time to attend trainings and conferences. They need to be encouraged to assume a leadership role and be asked to share their ideas about instruction with their peers at educational meetings and state conferences. When teachers have a positive attitude and believe technology is useful, are personally interested, and offered support and training, they get excited and, as a result, motivate their students, and use technology successfully to promote learning and achievement.

Active involvement in technology-supported innovations was a source of inspiration and professional renewal for these teachers. This points to the need for active training within all the school systems on a continual basis.

Similarly, Fleming, Motamedi, and May (2007) found that pre-service teachers who had experience with technology in college would more likely…

References

Angers, J., and Machtmes, K. (2005) an Ethnographic-Case Study of Beliefs, Context Factors, and Practices of Teachers Integrating Technology. The Qualitative Report 10(4), 771-794

Barron, a.E., Kemker, K., Harmes, C., & Kalaydjian, K. (2003). Large-scale research study on technology in K-12 schools: Technology integration as it relates to the National Technology Standards. Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 35,489-507.

Bower, B.L. (1998). Instructional computer use in the community college: A discussion of the research and its implications. Journal of Applied Research in the Community College, 6(1), 59-66.

Cuban, L., Kirkpatrick, H., & Peck, C. (2001). High access and low use of technologies in high school classrooms: Explaining an apparent paradox. American Educational Research Journal, 38, 813-834.

History of Communication
Words: 6119 Length: 14 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 37691919
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History Of Communication Timeline

TIMELINE: HITORY OF COMMUNICATION

(with special reference to the development of the motorcycle)

35,000 BCE.

First paleolithing "petroglyphs" and written symbols. This is important in the history of communication because it marks the first time humans left a recorded form of communication. Also, these written symbols became the ultimate source of later alphabets.

Wikipedia, "Petroglyph."

12,600 BCE.

Cave paintings at Lascaux show early representational art. This is important in the history of communication because the caves depict over 2000 figures, including abstract symbols. More recent research suggests these may record astronomical information.

OURCE: Wikipedia, "Lascaux."

3400 BCE.

First surviving umerian pictograms demonstrate a primitive form of record keeping. This is important in the history of communication because pictograms, together with ideograms, represent a primitive form of writing, in which a symbol either means what it looks like, or represents a single idea.

OURCE: Wikipedia, "Pictogram."

3300…

St. Hubbins, David and Tufnel, Nigel. "Stonehenge." London: Polymer, 1984.

Thompson, Hunter S. Hell's Angels. New York: Modern Library,1966.

Wikipedia.org

Structural Inequality & Diversity Root
Words: 5575 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 73975506
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" (Dafler, 2005) Dafler relates that for more than thirty years children who were 'half-caste' "were forcibly removed from their families, often grabbed straight from their mother's arms, and transported directly to government and church missions." (Dafler, 2005) This process was termed to be one of assimilation' or 'absorption' towards the end of breeding out of Aboriginal blood in the population. At the time all of this was occurring Dafler relates that: "Many white Australians were convinced that any such hardship was better than the alternative of growing up as a member of an 'inferior' race and culture." (2005) it is plainly stated in a government document thus:

The destiny of the natives of Aboriginal origin, but not of the full blood, lies in their ultimate absorption by the people of the Commonwealth, and [the commission] therefore recommends that all efforts be directed towards this end." (eresford and Omaji, Our…

Bibliography

Dafler, Jeffrey (2005) Social Darwinism and the Language of Racial Oppression: Australia's Stolen Generations ETC.: A Review of General Semantics, Vol. 62, 2005.

Erich Fromm Foreword to a.S. Neill SummerHill (New York, 1960).

Hawkins, Social Darwinism; Shibutani, Tamotsu and Kwan, Kian M. Ethnic Stratification: A Comparative Approach. New York: The Macmillan Company (1965).

Jacques Ellul, the Technological Society (New York, 1967), 436.

Divorce in Minority Families Divorce
Words: 2846 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 95317753
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(Coleman et al., 2006) there are more significant differences between race and ethnic groups in beliefs about intergenerational assistance than are expected by chance the differences are not large. As expected, White European-Americans perceive that less help should be given to older adults than is true of African-Americans and Asian-Americans. Unexpectedly, European-Americans and Latinos rarely differ in their beliefs about intergenerational assistance. When differences exist among the three minority groups, it is typically because African-Americans and Asian-Americans perceive that more help should be given to older family members than Latinos. The family plays a unique role in forming and sustaining intimate relationships; however, there have been notable changes in the family in the past 50 years. As marriages are being delayed, birth rates are decreasing, and maternal employment, divorce, cohabitation, and births to single mothers are increasing, the course of intimate relationships is becoming more diverse and less stable and…

References

Bean, R.A., Crane, D.R., & Lewis, T.L. (2002). Basic research and implications for practice in family science: A content analysis and status report for U.S. ethnic groups. Family Relations, 51, 15-21.

Bramlett, M.D., & Mosher, W.D. (2001). First marriage dissolution, divorce, and remarriage: United Stales (Advanced Data from Vital and Health Statistics No. 323). Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics.

Chadiha, L.A., Veroff, J., & Leber, D. (1998). Newlywed's narrative themes: Meaning in the first year of marriage for African-American and White couples. Journal of Comparative Family Studies, 29, 115-130.

Coleman, M., Ganong, L.H., & Rothrauff, T.C. (2006, December). Racial and Ethnic Similarities and Differences in Beliefs about Intergenerational Assistance to Older Adults After Divorce and Remarriage. Family Relations, 55(5), pp. 576-587.

U S Foreign Affairs the Causes
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Perhaps that more timely international cooperation could do better to save innocent people.

Stephanie Power covers a period from 1915 to 2001 with the increasing capacity of U.S. response to genocide. While in 1915, nothing could be done about the urkish genocide in Armenia, the U.S. role increased constantly to the ones played at the end of the 20th century in Yugoslavia and with the role in Saddam's Iraq. Perhaps such examples can help develop preemptive action towards genocide that can be acted upon in the future.

4. Between 1939 and 1941, Germany had started the war in Europe with its attack on Poland, on September 1, 1939, preceded by a series of aggressive actions such as the remilitarization of the Rhineland and the annexation of Austria and Czechoslovakia. With Great Britain and France declaring war on Germany, armed conflict proceeded in Europe with the rapid German victories over Poland,…

The Treaty of Versailles saw the creation of the League of Nations as the organization that would attempt to guarantee world peace. Wilson, however, could not convince the U.S. Senate to join the League of Nation, mainly because the Senate saw this as a limitation of U.S. right to declare war on other countries. Lack of support and U.S. non-adherence to the organization are possibly some of the low points of Wilson's foreign policy.

On the other hand, Wilson was also active in his attempts to establish solid democracies in Latin America and towards stabilizing these countries. U.S. interventions in Mexico, Nicaragua, Haiti or Panama marked the period of WWI as well.

Cushing, Lincoln. 1997. 1898-1998 Centennial of the Spanish - American War. On the Internet at http://www.zpub.com/cpp/saw.html.Last retrieved on August 16, 2007

U S Relations President Roosevelt Gave
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However, the speech is rather vague and filled with generalities and idealistic views. Precisely because it is not clear and directed against a named aggressor it does not have the strength to create a major change in our foreign policy. The speech should rather be analyzed as a sign of where our security policy is headed than as a clear statement of foreign policy. Perhaps the President's speech could have had a bigger impact if the aggressors were named. It is clear that Japan, Italy and Germany can be portrayed as aggressors, but the Chicago speech does not identify any country. From this it is simple to draw the conclusion that this is the first step towards taking measures against aggressors.

The quarantine of the aggressor nations represents an alternative for America's current foreign policy and the president showed support for forming alliances against aggressive nations. The Chicago speech marks…

Bibliography

Roosevelt, Franklin D., Quarantine the Aggressor, October 5, 1937, available at  http://www.presidentialrhetoric.com/historicspeeches/roosevelt_franklin/quarantine.html ;

Quarantine Speech, available at  http://www.answers.com/topic/quarantine-speech ;

Reactions to Roosevelt, October 18, 1937, available at  http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,758266-1,00.html .

U S Foreign Policy Was Deeply
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It is hard to determine what was the foreign policy used by the George . Bush administration in the Iraq ar. The U.S. foreign policy was shaped by outside factors up to the 9/11 events. The presidential administrations preceding George . Bush's were aware that they had to adapt their foreign policies on account of their interests and of the interests of the international public. Surprisingly, at the apex of the Iraq ar, a large number of Democrats in Congress conveyed ambiguous criticism. Moreover, through their criticism, Republicans proved that they were in fact supportive of the war (Forsythe, 2004, p. 79).

Throughout his first term, George . Bush managed to generate positive feedbacks from the American public. "Culturally conservative voters and especially white evangelical Christians" appeared to have become fond of him and thus turned most of their votes toward choosing him to complete a second term. One of…

Works cited:

1. Baumgartner, J.C. & Francia, P.L. & Morris, J.S. A Clash of Civilizations? The Influence of Religion on Public Opinion of U.s. Foreign Policy in the Middle East. Political Research Quarterly 61.2 (2008).

2. Farer, T.J. (2004). The Interplay of Domestic Politics, Human Rights, and U.S. Foreign Policy Wars on Terrorism and Iraq: Human Rights, Unilateralism, and U.S. Foreign Policy. ed. Thomas G. Weiss, Margaret E. Crahan, and John Goering (New York: Routledge.

3. Klinkner, P.A. Mr. Bush's War: Foreign Policy in the 2004 Election. Presidential Studies Quarterly 36.2 (2006).

School & Community the Use
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, 2007).

The use of the Cognitive Tutor not only enriches students' experience at the academic task-level but also impacts the teachers' instructional practices and relationship with her students (Level 3) A district-wide survey of high school teachers using the program reveals that the Cognitive Tutor allows them more time to provide individual assistance to students; gives them the opportunity to adjust their instructional practices as a result of students progressing in problem solving; and makes Algebra more interesting and relevant to students (Schneyderman, 2001). These views imply that the use of the program makes teaching less burdensome in the sense that the teacher acts as facilitator of learning rather than instructor, which is one of the arguments for educational technology in general.

Due perhaps to the wide acceptance of the use of Cognitive Tutor and other instructional software in American classrooms, the "No Child Left Behind" Act called for…

Research evidence on implementation factors may suggest some explanations for the above findings. First, there are teacher-related issues. Technology products places demands on teachers' time and skills as they have to prepare the product, transfer the students to computer labs, maintain the technology, and monitor and help students as they use the software (Dynarski et al., 2007). Many teachers also feel that they have a significant need for professional development on how to manage classroom activities that integrate computer technology (Adelman et al. 2002 in Dynarski et al., 2007). In the ED study, although teachers underwent training and were confident at the end to use the products in their classes, their confidence dropped to some degree after they began using the products in the classroom (Dynarski et al., 2007). This may have been due in part to technical difficulties, which is another implementation factor issue. For instance, computer access may be limited, hardware can be unreliable, computer networks unstable, and technical support inadequate (Cuban, 2000 and Culp et al., 2003, in Dynarski et al., 2007). In the ED study, however, technical difficulties were considered "minor" as they were easily corrected or worked around (Dynarski et al., 2007).

These observations show how the other levels of school organization may affect the success of novel learning tasks and instructional design. Specifically, the teacher's belief about her efficacy and classroom management practices (Level 3) can send implicit and explicit messages to her students, that in turn may influence their academic performance (Eccles and Roeser, 1998). Hence, one of the recommendations of the ED study is to evaluate a second batch of students with the same teachers' implementing the products in their classroom. They hope to see the effect of teachers having prior experience and improved skills in using the products on students' performance (Dynarski et al., 2007). School resources (Level 5) in terms of adequate materials and technical capacity are also thought to be important for children's learning (Eccles and Roeser, 1998). Hence, it would be worthwhile to include recommending the upgrade of school computer networks and labs for Phase 2 of the ED study.

In summary, computer software such as the Cognitive Tutor can be beneficial for middle school and older students to improve their academic outcomes in challenging subjects like Math. For younger students such as those in grade school, the effectiveness of some computer software seems to be influenced by teacher and school factors. Although there is conclusive evidence from an ED study that reading and mathematics software don't significantly impact the performance of grade school and some middle school students, it could be worth addressing these contextual factors in a sequel study to re-evaluate the findings.

Movement the Cold War of the Communist
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Movement

The Cold War of the communist and the capitalist countries gay way to spying worldwide, together with the political and military meddling in the inside matters of the poor countries. Some of these developments led to a negative consequence which called for much of the distrust and uncertainty towards the government that came after the cold war. Examples of these outcomes are the serious reaction of the Soviet Union towards the famous uprising against communism, which included the Hungarian evolution of 1965, also the invasion in 1961 of the Cuban Bay of Pigs by the U.S. And the Czechoslovakia's Prague Spring in 1968. The lie of Dwight D. Eisenhower, president of the U.S. In 1960, about the extent of the U2 episode led to an even greater distrust amongst the public against the government (Eisenstadt, 1956).

The establishment in the U.S. was disintegrated into political and military framework after…

References

Bellah, Robert. "New Religious Consciousness and the Crisis of Modernity." In The New Religious Consciousness, edited by Charles dock and Robert Wuthnow, 1976.

Braungart, Margaret M. And Richard C. Braungart. "The Life-Course Development of Left- and Right-Wing Youth Activist Leaders from the 1960s." Political Psychology, 1990, 11:243-82.

DeMartini, Joseph R. "Social Movement Participation, Political Socialization, Generational Consciousness, and Lasting Effects." 1983, Youth atul Society 15:195-223.

Dunham, Charlotte Chorn, and Vern L. Bengtson, "The Long-Term Effects of Political. Activism on Intergenerational Relations." Youth and Society, 1992, 24:31-51.

Barcardi a Strategic Overview of
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Given the scale and global penetration of the Bacardi brand and its product line, it is appropriate that Bacardi should possess a visible and meaningful presence in the discussion on underage drinking and alcohol abuse. Certainly, this would be considered an appropriate measure for an organization boasting Bacardi's proliferation. According to Yahoo! Finance (2010), "the company's portfolio consists of more than 200 brands and labels, including Bombay Sapphire Gin, Martini Vermouth, Dewar's Scotch hisky, B&B and Benedictine liqueurs, and Grey Goose Vodka. Other types of spirits in its portfolio include tequila, vermouth, cognac, and sparkling wine. Serving more than 100 countries, the company operates 27 production sites around the world." (Yahoo! Finance, 1)

This accounts for the company's greatest strength, which is its enormity of scale. Though Bacardi has been in operation for well over a century, the growth potential at this scale has only really been realized in the…

Works Cited:

Bacardi & Company Limited. (2010). Bacardi Limited. Bacardilimited.com.

Gjelten, T. (2008). Bacardi and the Long Fight for Cuba: The Biography of a Cause. Viking Adult.

Hambrick, D.C. & Fredrickson, J.W. (2001). Are you sure you have a strategy? The Academy of Management Executive, 15(4), 48-59.

Mizrahi, A. (2009). Historic Bacardi Building. Urban City Architecture.

Down These Mean Streets
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Down These Mean Streets believe that every child is born a poet, and every poet is a child. Poetry to me was always a very sacred form of expression. (qtd. In Fisher 2003)

Introduction / Background History

Born Juan Pedro Tomas, of Puerto Rican and Cuban parents in New York City's Spanish Harlem in 1928, Piri Thomas began his struggle for survival, identity, and recognition at an early age. The vicious street environment of poverty, racism, and street crime took its toll and he served seven years of nightmarish incarceration at hard labor. But, with the knowledge that he had not been born a criminal, he rose above his violent background of drugs and gang warfare, and he vowed to use his street and prison know-how to reach hard-core youth and turn them away from a life of crime.

Thirty years ago Piri Thomas made literary history with this lacerating,…

Works Cited

Anonymous. "Piri Thomas" (2000). 09 December 2003. http://www.peacehost.com

Coeyman, M. "In a Largely Minority School, Literature Helps Students Confront Complex

Issues of Race and Culture" (2002). The Christian Science Monitor. 10 December 2003.  http://www.csmonitor.com 

Fisher, S. "Mean Streets Author Launches Latino Month" (2003). 10 December 2003. http://www.advance.uconn.edu/htm

Ethnic Dining Experience Miami Has
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There was a conspicuous lack of cigars, however, perhaps a nod to modern American views on smoking in restaurants.

To finish the meal, it is an essential part of the experience that one has Cuban coffee. This can be obtained at your table, but Versailles also has a coffee counter outside, which is a more authentic experience. The coffee counter is a take-out window at which Cuban coffee can be ordered. The intent is that it is consumed on the spot. If one watches the locals, there is an entire system and lingo for ordering Cuban coffee at Versailles that can be difficult to penetrate without a strong working knowledge of Spanish. However, a simple shot can be ordered. The cost is absurdly cheap compared with espresso in most coffee shops, but the coffee counter at Versailles has very low overhead and high turnover. The coffee is thick and very…

Hispanic Community in the United States Hispanic-American's
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Hispanic community in the United States. Hispanic-American's have influenced many aspects of today's American culture such as art, religion, and education since the early 1600's. It will outline the influx of the Spanish explorers and the defense of the border between the United States and Mexico. The paper will also examine the influence of the food, colorful clothing, art, and the educational reform that has come about to meet the needs of the Hispanic children in the school system. This culture has made such a lasting impact in America that is deserves to be studied and researched more in-depth to gain more appreciation and insight to its lasting contribution.

Hispanic-American Cultural Diversity

Hispanic-American's have influenced many aspects of today's American culture such as art, religion, and education since the early 1600's. The borders of Mexico have long been the subject of territorial disputes and have many people have died to…

Works Cited

Baker-White, Tracy.

Folk Art: The Spanish Tradition." USA Today, March 1999:

Firmat, Gustavo. "Cuban Americans," Microsoft Encarta 98 Encyclopedia. 1993

1997 Microsoft Corporation.

Classifying Latin American Immigrants in the US Docioeconomic Disparities and Forces
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Latin Americans in the United States

Labor Immigrants

Labor immigrants formed the bulk of foreign workers in search of menial and low paying jobs. Mexicans occurred as the dominant Latin group in this category. The level of the minimum wage, approximately $4.25, about six times higher than that in Mexico lured most of the laborers from their native lands (Portes and Rumbaut 20). Demand for foreign laborers, especially those from Mexico depicts the desired attributes of the laborers that include motivation, reliability, diligence, and willingness to work for low pay. The higher wages in the U.S. enables immigrants to plow back in various investments, and the support of families left back at home. 'Yield' obtained through wages also goes to consumption and upgrade of the social status of the immigrants. After accumulation of enough savings, most of the immigrants return home to gain a position of social respectability.

Professional laborers…

Works Cited

Logan, John. How Race Counts for Hispanic-Americans. pp 471-484

Portes, Alejandro and Rumbaut, Ruben. Chapter 1 "Who they are and why they come" in Legacies: The Story of the Immigrant Second Generation. California: University of California Press, 2001: 1-27

Hispanic-American Diversity An Overview Soy
Words: 1331 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84577545
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As with other Hispanic groups, there may be a greater reluctance to seek professional help in dealing with psychological issues because of a belief that the church, rather than Western psychological medicine, should address such problems. The greater economic security of middle-class Cuban immigrants and their children thus has not meant an entirely uncomplicated relationship with the new American homeland.

Puerto ican-Americans

Although it is a small island, the history of Puerto ico has been marked by many influences, spanning from Africa to Spain to Latin America. "There is an essential dichotomy [in] Puerto ico's relationship with the United States. Within American jurisdiction, as reflected by common citizenship, flag, currency and numerous applicable Federal laws, Puerto ico might seem in everything but name a State of the Union. But on the other side you will find a culture and society profoundly different from that in the mainland. It is a…

References

Bachay, Judith & Rafael Montes. (2010). Article 14: The Cuban-American grieving process

Counseling.org. Retrieved September 17, 2010 at  http://www.counseling.org/Resources/Library/VISTAS/vistas04/14.pdf 

The declining economic status of Puerto Ricans. Health Affairs. Retrieved September 17,

2010 at  http://www.irp.wisc.edu/publications/focus/pdfs/foc102d.pdf

Celia Cruz Is One of
Words: 1577 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 51648983
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ENGAGE Learning). Her voice was generous with her, allowing her to end her carrier only once her life ended. Beside, her indisputable talent, elia ruz had the qualities destined to take an artist to the highest level. She was passionate and able to transmit that passion to any audience, she loved people and she had a great sense of humor. She was a god performer, she could act well and the best role she played was when she was on stage.

The record label that definitively set her among the greatest salsa players and launched her albums between the 1960s and the 1980s, during the pick of her carrier, was Fania. "The artists who signed with the Fania label proved that New York had forged a new Latin sound that was unique and that spoke to people in other Latin American cities, making salsa a Latin American musical movement as…

Celia Cruz. Hispanic Heritage. GALE CENGAGE Learning. Retrieved: Nov. 04, 2008. Available at  http://www.gale.cengage.com/free_resources/chh/bio/cruz_c.htm 

Ruiz, Vicki. Korrol, Virginia Sanchez. Latinas in the United States: A Historical Encyclopedia. Indiana University Press, 2006.

Celia Cruz Biography. Retrieved: Nov. 04, 2008. Available at  http://www.musicianguide.com/biographies/1608000285/Celia-Cruz.html

Health Maintenance Organization Impact on
Words: 13949 Length: 50 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 80930377
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" (AAF, nd)

The Health Maintenance Organization further should "…negotiate with both public and private payers for adequate reimbursement or direct payment to cover the expenses of interpreter services so that they can establish services without burdening physicians…" and the private industry should be "…engaged by medical organizations, including the AAF, and patient advocacy groups to consider innovative ways to provide interpreter services to both employees and the medically underserved." (AAF, nd)

One example of the community healthcare organization is the CCO model is reported as a community cancer screening center model and is stated to be an effective mechanism for facilitating the linkage of investigators and their institutions with the clinical trials network. It is reported that the minority-based CCO was approved initially by the NCI, Division of Cancer revention Board of Scientific Counselors in January 1989. The implementation began in the fall of 1990 and the program was…

Principles for Improving Cultural Proficiency and Care to Minority and Medically-Underserved Communities (Position Paper) (2008) AAFP -- American Academy of Family Physicians  http://www.aafp.org/online/en/home/policy/policies/p/princcultuproficcare.html 

Volpp, Kevin G.M. (2004) The Effect of Increases in HMO Penetration and Changes in Payer Mix on In-Hospital Mortality and Treatment Patterns for Acute Myocardial Infarction" The American Journal of Managed Care. 30 June 2004. Issue 10 Number 7 Part 2. Onlineavaialble at:  http://www.ajmc.com/issue/managed-care/2004/2004-07-vol10-n7Pt2/Jul04-1816p505-512 

Darby, Roland B. (2008) Managed Care: Sacruificing Your Health Care for Insurance Industry Profits: Questions You must ask before joning an HMO. Online available at: http://www.rolanddarby.com/br_managedhealth.html

America and the Bay of
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One of the best points is brought forth by Higgins, who writes that an estimated force of 1500 men were sent to take on no less than 25,000 Cubans (Higgins 1987). "In the end, of approximately 1300 men who actually landed on the beaches from the Brigade, almost 1200 were captured and about 100 killed in combat (Higgins 149). The Brigade, if they failed, were expected to escape into the protected areas that connected to the Bay of Pigs; when in fact those areas, the conditions of the terrain, the poor training and preparation of the Brigade, made such escape impossible (Higgins 149).

Years later, declassified papers and tapes from the hite House would lend insight into the fiasco, but not clarity. One thing that was evidenced from the hite House tapes is that the Bay of Pigs continued to be a source of humiliation and annoyance to President Kennedy…

Works Cited www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=105514152

Blight, James G. And Peter Kornbluh, eds. 1999. Politics of Illusion: The Bay of Pigs Invasion Reexamined. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner.  http://www.questia.com /PM.qst?a=o&d=105514456' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>

U S Foreign Affairs Since 1898
Words: 3511 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 23289174
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S. government chose not only to ignore the great humanitarian tragedy but even refused to condemn the killing. The American inaction on the wandan genocide places a big question mark on any subsequent action of its government overseas for humanitarian reasons.

Besides being accused of using "humanitarianism" as a smokescreen for pursuing its own narrow national interests, the United States is also accused of undermining the United Nations and International Law in following a policy of unilateralism and pre-emption. The results of pre-emptive action by the United States for purportedly humanitarian reasons in recent times have been far from satisfactory. For example, when the NATO forces started its bombing campaign in Kosovo in 1999, there was a mass exodus of about 200,000 Serbs and other non-Albanian minorities as refugees from the province; there was an increase in the Serbs' attacks on ethnic Kosovan Albanians and their ethnic cleansing: as a…

References

Arima, Y. (2003). "The Way to Pearl Harbor: U.S. Vs. Japan." ICE Case Studies:

Number 118, December, 2003. Retrieved on September 9, 2006 at  http://www.american.edu/TED/ice/japan-oil.htm 

Introduction: The World of 1898." (1998). The Spanish American War-Hispanic Division: Library of Congress. Retrieved on September 9, 2006 at  http://www.loc.gov/rr/hispanic/1898/intro.html 

Parmet, H.S. (1993) "The History of American Foreign Policy: Thematic Essay." Encarta Yearbook, 1993: Microsoft Encarta Encyclopedia, 2005, CD ROM Version

Kennedy's Presidency
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JFK's Leadership

As that of any successful leader, Kennedy's leadership style is a complex combination of different qualities and characteristics. This paper will analyze several of them, as well as the leadership profile overall, with the purpose of understanding what made Kennedy an effective leader and whether this was indeed the case.

Hald-Mortensen (2007) looks at three different areas where Kennedy excelled and that contributed to making Kennedy an effective leader: vision, decision making and delegation. He points out, first of all, that Kennedy had vision, something essential for an effective leader. In practical terms, vision meant that he knew where the U.S. should end up in the future and molded his policy accordingly.

One such example of a clear vision for Kennedy was the space program and the Moon Project. The space program involved not only the vision that competition for the outer space would be the next area…

Bibliography

1. Barnes, John A. (2005). John F. Kennedy on Leadership: The Lessons and Legacy of a President. AMACOM

2. Hald-Mortensen, Christian, (2007). John F. Kennedy -- Leadership Qualities That Moved A Nation. Graduate Faculty of Graduate School of Public and International Affairs.

3. Sabato, Larry, (2013). Lead like John F. Kennedy. The Washington Post.

Peace and Revolution in Chile
Words: 1562 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63113889
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Salvador Allende

In what ways was Salvador Allende's "democratic road to socialism" in Chile distinct from Mexican and Cuban revolutionary movements? In what ways was it similar? Does it seem as though a democratic alternative to political coup d'etat is a workable and useful one? hy or why not?

Salvador Guillermo Allende Gossens, or just Salador Allende for short, was the first of the South American leader to institute a Marxist form of socialism, who came to power through a democratic election. Although the election that brought Allende to power was virtually a three-way tie, the Chilean Congress eventually named him as president through a run-off process. This victory was substantial for Allende's life and he had tried on three previous occasions to win the presidency. At the time, the Chilean government had several left-leaning government factions, with some more radical than others. This movement mirrored many other movements found…

Works Cited

Gale Group. (N.d.). Salvador Allende Gossens Facts. Retrieved from Your Dictionary:  http://biography.yourdictionary.com/salvador-allende-gossens 

Guevara, C. (2005 (Originally Printed in 1965)). Socialism and man in Cuba. The Che Reader.

Harris, R. (1999). A Tale of Two Chileans: Pinochet and Allende. Chilean Supporters Abroad.

Sweig, J. (2009). Inside the Cuban Revolution: Fidel Castro and the Urban Underground. Boston: Harvard University Press.

Santeria Origin of and Introduction
Words: 2767 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51585817
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The power of the Orisha guides the santero. Alex told me that the attitude of the priests is very humble, because they don't believe that they are doing anything. All their actions are guided by the Orisha and all the credit belongs with the Orisha too.

I asked Alex to expand on two aspects of Santeria that I was particularly interested in because of their uniqueness. First, I asked about spirit possession. Alex told me that spirit possession is a very important concept because it helps the individual communicate directly with the Orishas. An object as well as a person can become imbued with the spirit of an Orisha. When a person becomes possessed by the Orisha, he or she temporarily acts and even looks like that spirit.

Second, I asked about sacrifices. Alex admitted that animal sacrifices do take place but much less often than they used to because…

References

De La Torre, M.A. (2004). Santeria: The Beliefs and Rituals of a Growing Religion in America. Grand Rapids: Eerdman's.

Leonidas, C. (nd). Introduction to Santeria. Exploring the Culture of Little Havana. Retrieved online: http://www.education.miami.edu/ep/littlehavana/Santeria/Leonidas_1/leonidas_1.html

Leonidas, C. (nd). Santeria and South Florida. Exploring the Culture of Little Havana. Retrieved online: http://www.education.miami.edu/ep/littlehavana/Santeria/Leonidas_1/Leonidas_2/leonidas_2.html

Robinson, B.A. (2009). Christian meta-groups: The Pentecostal group of denominations. Religious Tolerance.org. Retrieved online:  http://www.religioustolerance.org/chr_pent.htm

Strategic Value of Nuclear Weapons
Words: 2365 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 16285953
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Nuclear weapons became a tool of American policy that goes far beyond protection of national interests, for American national interests depend on the propagation of American ideals. The United States is, in the words of Harold Lasswell, a "garrison state;" a crusading nation that seeks to combat all enemies real and imagined and to remake the world in its own image. (Flint 86-87) Under the new doctrine, nuclear strategy becomes a means of enforcing an ideology - all dissent, or supposed dissent, is rooted out through the threat of ultimate and complete destruction. Terrorism is made the defining characteristic of immorality. States that support terrorism become the ultimate evildoers. The Bush Administration redefined international relations in terms of an axis of good led by the United States and its allies, and an axis of evil consisting preeminently of Iraq, Iran, and North Korea and their terrorist associates. Alone among these…

References

Botti, Timothy J. Ace in the Hole: Why the United States Did Not Use Nuclear Weapons in the Cold War, 1945 to 1965. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1996.

Flint, Colin, ed. The Geography of War and Peace: From Death Camps to Diplomats. New York: Oxford University Press, 2005.

Hilsman, Roger. From Nuclear Military Strategy to a World without War: A History and a Proposal. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers, 1999.

Hirschbein, Ron. Massing the Tropes: The Metaphorical Construction of American Nuclear Strategy. Westport, CT: Praeger Security International, 2005.

U S Foreign Policy Pre and
Words: 4171 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 95331019
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A long passage is quoted here by way of showing what all these various writers are concerned about: (Kane, 2003)May 2002 brought the odd spectacle of ex-President Jimmy Carter standing shoulder to shoulder in Havana with one of the U.S. government's oldest enemies, Cuban president Fidel Castro. Carter, on a mission to convey a message of friendship to the Cuban people and to seek some common ground between Cuba and the United States, made a point of meeting and encouraging local democratic, religious, and human rights activists. In a televised address, he endorsed the rights of dissidents and urged democracy on the island nation (Sullivan 2002). He also advocated an end to the U.S. embargo on Cuba (a call immediately echoed at home by 20 Democratic and 20 epublican representatives in Congress).

President George W. Bush's administration responded angrily to Carter's latest adventure as international arbiter. A senior state department…

References

 http://www.questia.com /PM.qst?a=o&d=5000729437' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>

Effects of Social Promotion
Words: 3204 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 19605836
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Social Promotion

There are concerns that schools are performing an injustice by passing students onto the next grade level although they fail the basic requirements for the current grade level. Underachieving middle school students are being promoted with little regard as to how it may impact their future success in education. It sets the precedence for some students who believe that they do not have to make any effort and they will still move to the next grade without suffering any consequences. This gives the message that accountability in middle schools is unimportant.

The purpose of this research study is to identify and evaluate the effects of social promotion amongst middle school students.

ationale

Teachers have encountered many cases in which students should have been retained in the same grade as a result of poor attendance, limited ability, and lack of effort. However, school administrators have granted social promotion to…

References

The balanced view: social promotion & retention.

Westchester Institute for Human Services Research, http://www.sharingsuccess.org/code/bv/socprom.html

Christie, K. (2001). The middle level: more than treading water. Phi Delta Kappan, 82(9), 1-3.

Darling-Hammond, L. (1998). Avoiding both grade retention and social promotion. Education Digest, 64(3), 48-53.

How Was the Cold War Represented in Cinema
Words: 5793 Length: 17 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 9347766
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Cold War and Film

Generally speaking, the Cold War has been depicted as an era of spy games and paranoia in popular films from the 1960s to the present day, but the reality of the era was much more complex. The Cold War was a period of military and political tension from 1947 to 1991, or from the end of WW2 to the collapse of the Soviet Union, in which the "politics of war" masked the business and social agendas of multinationals and ideologues. The era was marked by myriad issues: East-West mistrust, proxy wars, espionage, the threat of nuclear war, domestic and foreign propaganda, the rise of the military-industrial complex and multinational corporations, assassinations, detente, de-colonization, new nationalism, neo-colonialism, the vying for control of resources, alliances (NATO, Warsaw Pact), and an inculcation of the "deep state." [footnoteRef:1] It can be divided into five basic periods: 1947-53, 1953-62, 1962-79, 1979-85,…

Bibliography

Dominik, Andrew, dir. Killing Them Softly. NY: Weinstein Company, 2012. Film.

Eliot, T.S. "Burnt Norton." The Four Quartets. Web. 10 May 2015.



Frankenheimer, John, dir. Seven Days in May DVD Commentary. LA: Warner Home

Neustadt's Statement on Presidential Continuity
Words: 892 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 13027648
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The domino theory which presumed that the fall of a nation such as Vietnam would cause an entire region to topple to communist influence would underscore Cold War foreign policy for generations, with presidents culturally required to affirm a commitment to the goals of protecting American interests and opposing Russian aims that appeared to be contrary to these interests. Regarding Kennedy, "from his Vienna interview with Khrushchev, through the Berlin crisis during 1961, to the Cuban missile crisis and therafter -- this commitment evidently deepened with experience as Kennedy responded to events." (Neustadt, 170) This is to note that regardless of the perspective which he took into office with him, his increased exposure to the insights and knowledge of the presidency would drive him to view Cold War policy refinement as the highest of priorities.

Accordingly, this mounting knowledge that would show Kennedy to be as much shaped by the…

Cold War Begin The Beginning
Words: 2033 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 36620482
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Nuclear confrontation between the two superpowers was profoundly frightening, not just for those who would have borne the full brunt of any nuclear exchange... But for the international community as a whole. Quite literally, the prospect of nuclear war constituted a threat of truly global dimensions. (O'Neil A. 2004)

There are many other important aspects that mark the beginning of the Cold War Era. One was the formation of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization or NATO in 1949. NATO as a joint military group was created to "... defend against Soviet forces in Europe." (Cold War) The first members of NATO were Belgium, Britain, Canada, Denmark, France, Iceland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Portugal, and the United States. (Cold War) A similar organization was formed by the Soviet Union and its east European allies known as the Warsaw Pact. This also serves to emphasize the entrenchment of the Cold War into…

References

Cold War. Retrieved June 3, 2006, at  http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/ops/cold_war.htm 

Harry S, Truman and the War Scare of 1948. Retrieved June 3, 2006, at http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/USAtrumanD.htm

McGowan M. (2005) American society is in dire need of a wake-up call: Award Would Honor Veterans Who Fought for Freedom against Iron Curtain. Retrieved June 3, 2006, at  http://www.globalsecurity.org/org/news/2005/050713-veteran-award.htm 

O'Neil A. (2004) Keeping the contemporary threat environment in perspective. Retrieved June 4, 2006, at  http://www.australianreview.net/digest/2004/05/oneil.html

Language as Gloria Anzaldua States in How
Words: 896 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45400028
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Language

As Gloria Anzaldua states in "How to Tame a ild Tongue" from Borderlands/La Frontera: The New Mestiza, "Chicano Spanish sprang out of Chicanos' need to identify ourselves as a distinct people," (447). Chicano Spanish is a "secret language" of cultural bonding and binding. This is true for the many "forked tongues" that have sprung up in communities of opposition: patios tongues that become crucial to identity formation and preservation (Anzaldua 447). The dominant culture finds "wild tongues" to be inherently frightening, evil, and subversive (Anzaldua 446). The dominant culture does all it can to stamp out, suppress, and "cut out" the wild tongues that threaten social hierarchy and preserve patterns of oppression in non-white, non-Anglo, communities (Anzaldua 446). Suppressing language is a means of oppressing people. Therefore, clinging to language diversity is a political move. hen Anzaldua corrected her teacher's pronunciation of her name, and was sent to the…

Works Cited

All readings from: Augenbraum, Harold and Olmos, Margarite Fernandez. The Latino Reader.. New York: Houghton Mifflin, 1997.

Thomas, Piri. Down these Mean Streets. Vintage, 1997.

Contemporary Spain Politics Compared to US Politics
Words: 1801 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Dissertation or Thesis complete Paper #: 26057747
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Spanish and American Democracy

The United States of America and Spain are both now industrialized nations and modern democracies, but their paths to democracy and global influence were quite distinct. The United States of America was formally founded in 1776 by a group of early American politicians who envisioned the young nation as an alternative in democratic governance in contrast and opposition to the monarchies still in ruling power throughout Europe. Spain was one of these European countries under monarchial rule in the 18th century and remained a monarchy for 201 years after the official adoption of the democratic Constitution in the United States of America. Spain's transition to democratic rule is largely considered to have begun in 1975 when the Spanish dictator Francisco Franco passed away, although there are other dates in the 1970s that are also said to mark the transition as well.

The philosophical foundations of the…

Resources

Conversi, Daniele. (2002) 'The smooth transition: Spain's 1978 Constitution and the nationalities question', National Identities, vol. 4, no 3, pp. 223 -- 244

Crapol, Edward P. (1992). "Coming to Terms with Empire: The Historiography of Late-Nineteenth-Century American Foreign Relations," Diplomatic History 16: 573 -- 97

Fry, Joseph A. (1996) "From Open Door to World Systems: Economic Interpretations of Late-Nineteenth-Century American Foreign Relations," Pacific Historical Review 65:277 -- 303.

Higginbotham, Don. (1983) The War of American Independence: Military Attitudes, Policies, and Practice, 1763 -- 1789.

Cold War and Its Aftermath
Words: 3171 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 70876456
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That intervention considered, it is fair to say that on the one hand, the fact that the U.S. came out as the winner of the Cold War was obvious, and on the other hand that a certain change had occurred in terms of the rule of the international law.

The following years saw an increase in the intrastate violence, taking into account the Somalia crisis, the situations in South Africa, the genocide in Rwanda, or the war in the former Yugoslavia. All these elements of the international political scene were signs of the power vacuum that was created as a result of the fall of the higher authority in the communist world, the U.S.S.R. More precisely, although the cases in Africa were in fact reminiscences of post colonial revolts, the situations worsened as there was no authority to report to in terms of international situations. However, a certain modification did…

Bibliography

Buzan, Barry et al. European security order recast: scenarios for the post-cold war era. London; Pinter, 1990.

Calvocoressi, Peter. World politics since 1945. New York: Longman, 1987.

Graebner, Norman a. "Cold War Origins and the Continuing Debate." The Journal of Conflict Resolution, Vol. 13, No. 1., 1969, pp. 123-132.

Guzzini, Stefano. Realism in international relations and international political economy: the continuing story of a death foretold. London: Routledge, 1998.

Harlem 1920-1960 Culture of the
Words: 9936 Length: 30 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 29403060
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Their main arguments are based on historical assumptions and on facts which have represented turning points for the evolution of the African-American society throughout the decades, and especially during the evolutionary War and the Civil War. In this regard, the Old Negro, and the one considered to be the traditional presence in the Harlem, is the result of history, and not of recent or contemporary events.

From the point-of-view of historical preconceptions and stereotypes, it would unwise to consider Harlem as being indeed a cancer in the heart of a city, taking into account the fact that there is no objective comparison being made. Locke points out the fact that the Negro of today be seen through other than the dusty spectacles of past controversy. The day of "aunties," "uncles" and "mammies" is equally gone. Uncle Tom and Sambo have passed on, and even the "Colonel" and "George" play barnstorm…

References

Anderson, Karen Tucker. "Last Hired, First Fired: Black Women Workers during World War II" in the Journal of American History, Vol. 69, No. 1. (Jun., 1982), pp. 82-97.

Barnes, Albert C. Negro Art and America. (accessed 2 December 2007)  http://etext.virginia.edu/harlem/BarNegrF.html 

Brown, Claude. Manchild in the Promised Land. New York: Touchstone, 1999.

Charles S. Johnson. Black Workers and the City. (accessed 2 December 2007)  http://etext.virginia.edu/harlem/JohWorkF.html

Aid President George W Bush in Policy
Words: 5641 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 99905017
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aid President George W. ush in policy formulation. It is an all-inclusive paper dealing with a wide range of issues such as the American economy in general- discussing issues such as budget deficits, tax cuts, medical assistance and benefits for retired people, the weakening American dollar, allocations for the military, intelligence and homeland security, job growth and the regime and policies of free trade. With regards to security, it features the recent American initiate on the war on terrorism. The issue of Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD) and nuclear proliferation are discussed quite at length.

Another aspect listed in the paper is the 'future', as it was viewed from the era of the Vietnam War. The relevance of the cold war is also outlined as a great American victory. Compelling issues such as the role of oil, OPEC, the Middle East and the socio-political and economic situation after the incidents…

Bibliography

Bush's tax cut' Retrieved from;

http://amateurpundit.hypermart.net/features107_bushtaxing.htm Accessed on March 5, 2004

Economy: Job Creation' Retrieved from;

 http://ipsnews.net/africa/interna.asp?idnews=22469  Accessed on March 5, 2004

Graduate and the New Left
Words: 3275 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 54244050
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Graduate and the New Left

In the United States in the 1960s, the nation was going through a change both in the psychological and sociological makeup of the population. Everything about the country was changing quickly, right down to the very moral code which makes up the identity of a culture. The American Dream and the belief that everyone could become successful if they were willing to work hard and if they lived in America was proving to be a fallacy in the wake of oppression, disenfranchisement, and racially-biased or gender-based prejudices. A group emerged who not only wished to be entirely different from their parents, but they also desired to completely upset if not outright eradicate the status quo and change what it meant to be an American citizen with an American identity. One of the components of this movement was a decidedly liberal perspective and agenda. This group…

Works Cited:

Bapis, Elaine M. Camera and Action: American Film as Agent of Social Change, 1965-1975.

Jefferson, NC: McFarland, 2008. Print.

Casper, Drew. Hollywood Film 1963-1976: Years of Revolution and Reaction. Chichester, West

Sussex: Wiley-Blackwell, 2011. Print.

Economic Social and Moral Changes in America
Words: 4537 Length: 17 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 38458864
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economic, social, and moral changes in America since the end of World War II

Since the end of World War II, the American people have seen an extraordinary change in the economic, social and moral priorities of the nation and its people. Three generations have grown up since the war, each positively and negatively influenced by their parents and social change.

Who They Are

The WWII generation represents the most affluent elderly generation that the United States will see in a long time. This generation benefited from an expanding economy and skyrocketing real estate prices. Its members were the beneficiaries of generous government programs, from the GI ill to government aid in buying their first home. (Wilkinson) high school education was sufficient to get well paying, secure jobs in their adult years. The lower level of education is one reason why members of this generation tend to see things differently…

Bibliography

Wilkinson, Ron. Boomers vs. Gen X Cooperation Clash. BCFM Human Resources Committee, 2002.

Chicowitz, Hershel. Defining G-X'ers. BBHQ, 2002.

Peppard, Nancy. Ties that Blind: Social Disconnects And The Shifting Generational Profiles That Cause Them.College of Law Practice Management, 2001.

International Association of Baby Boomers

Siege Is a 1972 Film
Words: 1878 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 58371275
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" (Langguth, 309)

Conclusion: Costa Gavras' film "State of Siege," therefore, despite being criticized for being biased against the Americans, is largely an accurate portrayal of events that took place in Uruguay during 1970. The film helped to highlight the unsavory practices being committed by the CIA in collaboration with the Office of Public Safety (OPS), and led to the official closure of the OPS in 1974. The Tupamaros, however, never achieved their stated goal of "liberating Uruguay" and were brutally crushed by the Uruguayan military in 1972, after President Bordaberry suspended all individual liberties in the country and placed it under virtual martial law. (einstein, 41)

orks Cited

Blum, illiam. Killing Hope. Maine: Common Courage Press, 2003

Cocks, Jay. "Spurious Suspense." Time Magazine. April 23, 1973. April 11, 2007. http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,945253,00.html?promoid=googlep

Langguth, a.J. Hidden Terrors. New York: Pantheon Books, 1978

Rius. The Tupamaros: Comic Book Adapted from text of "Los…

Works Cited

Blum, William. Killing Hope. Maine: Common Courage Press, 2003

Cocks, Jay. "Spurious Suspense." Time Magazine. April 23, 1973. April 11, 2007.  http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,945253,00.html?promoid=googlep 

Langguth, a.J. Hidden Terrors. New York: Pantheon Books, 1978

Rius. The Tupamaros: Comic Book Adapted from text of "Los Agachodos" by Rius. Berkley, California: NACLA

John F Kennedy and the
Words: 4722 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 70132838
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" he spectacular effect achieved by the Russians therefore had a significant effect upon the minds of citizens around the globe (Dick, March 24).

he financial and political implications of the Apollo program became significant once the president made the decision to commit the United States to a Lunar landing. It was important to the president to set a goal that his country had a good chance of achieving before the Soviet Union. After a definite decision for the launch of the project was made, further important issues of politics and financing became deciding factors in the growth and development of the program.

he decision proved to be sound if the reaction of the nation could be used as a measure of effectiveness. he American imagination was captured, and they lent overwhelming support for Kennedy's decision to sponsor the moon landing. In the eyes of the nation, difficulty, expense and…

Transcript of Presidential Meeting in the Cabinet Room of the White House. Topic: Supplemental appropriations for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), 21 November 1962.

Webb, James E. Letter to President Kennedy. October 29, 1962. NASA History

 http://history.nasa.gov/JFK-Webbconv/pages/james-letter.pdf .

American Primacy Good for America
Words: 1769 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 59838589
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The quest for primacy is likely to lead to the formation of adversarial alliances and greater distrust of American intentions, endangering international stability and peace. In the domestic sphere, quest for primacy will lead to greater abuse of power and the expansion of the military, threatening the health of American democracy. Democracy may be eroded and the U.S. economy may be drained before advocates of American primacy may achieve their dream of American primacy.

orks Cited

Allison, Graham and Philip Zelikow. Essence of Decision: Explaining Cuban Missile Crisis. New York: Longman, 1999.

Bacevich, Andrew. The New American Militarism: How Americans Are Seduced by ar. New York: Oxford University Press, 2005.

Blainey, Geoffrey. The Causes of ar. New York: Free Press, 1973.

Jervis, Robert. "Cooperation Under the Security Dilemma," orld Politics 30.2 (1978): 167-214. JSTOR. eb 14 Oct. 2011.

Jervis, Robert. System Effects: Complexity in Political and Social Life. Princeton, NJ:…

Works Cited

Allison, Graham and Philip Zelikow. Essence of Decision: Explaining Cuban Missile Crisis. New York: Longman, 1999.

Bacevich, Andrew. The New American Militarism: How Americans Are Seduced by War. New York: Oxford University Press, 2005.

Blainey, Geoffrey. The Causes of War. New York: Free Press, 1973.

Jervis, Robert. "Cooperation Under the Security Dilemma," World Politics 30.2 (1978): 167-214. JSTOR. Web 14 Oct. 2011.

Terrorism Is Defined by Some
Words: 1797 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 57764387
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As we know from the evolution of modern history, the Soviet Union and the countries of the Eastern block generally backed up the Arab countries, mainly because their actions were directed towards the Untied States and Israel, natural enemies for the Soviets.

However, strangely enough, international politics meant that the United States often found themselves backing Iraq, at least during the 80s and the war with Iran. This happened because of U.S.'s relations with Iran, after Khomeini had gained power here, in 1979. So, somewhat in an absurd manner, we find both superpowers, the U.S. And the Soviet Union, tacitly backing Iraq, at least in part of its actions.

This is not the case after the Persian Gulf War, in 1990. The impact from now on is mostly economically driven. Indeed, under international pressure and economic embargo, the Iraqi government and Saddam Hussein's regime is forced to abide by many…

Bibliography

1. Wikipedia. On the Internet at  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/State_terrorism#Cuba 

Wikipedia. On the Internet at

Twain's To the Person Sitting
Words: 601 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 26837199
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They are so shrouded in mental and spiritual darkness, say the oppressors that they require outside assistance in the form of religious missionaries and military personnel. Christianity and the armies that propagate it are here to help the "Persons Sitting in Darkness," to save them from themselves. Thus, Twain uses the printed word to demonstrate how American foreign policy is founded on principles of social Darwinism and thinly concealed racism.

Throughout "To the Person Sitting in Darkness," Twain concentrates on lambasting the notion that America stands for freedom, liberty, and Civilization. According to Twain, these concepts are "only for Export." Moreover, they are costly. Twain makes sure to bring up the financial motives for American political maneuvers: "The Actual Thing that the Customer Sitting in Darkness buys with his blood and tears and land and liberty." The word "Customer" drives home the point that money, not concern for the well…