Marx and Engels
Marx, Engels, and Industrialization
It is widely known that the philosophies of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels influentially spurred forth the creation of The Communist Manifesto, a manuscript solely detailing the purposes of communist thought and the problems of capitalistic society. Marx and Engels discuss the problems of society that hinges on class, and predicts a more potentially positive outcome in a classless world. Yet their arguments toward the negative aspects of industrialization can be used, in a sense, to argue for capitalism as well.
The Communist Manifesto is the collaborated idea between two philosophers arguing against what they call the "bourgeoisie," a society responsible for putting the huge divide between its high-class organization and the working-class proletariat (Marx and Engels). In the manuscript, the authors call for the abolition of the social class and the creation of one organization -- namely the State -- in order…… [Read More]
" (Marx & Engles, "The Communist Manifesto," Chapter 2) the little pin-maker is long sense dead, suggestted the authors of the "Manifesto." The little peasant or artisan has been replaced by the pin factory owner, and there is no nobility to the wage slavery of the worker to the factory.
Later on, in Captial, rather than the more vehement rhetoric of the politically agitating "Manifesto," Marx was to more cautiously suggest a controlled, rather than completely communal marketplace where the surplus-value "realized by the sale of a certain commodity appears to the capitalist as an excess of its selling price over its value," should be contained and better allocated to the worker rather than through pure privatization. (Marx, Capital, Volume III, Part 1, Chapter 1) but the more politically incendiary words of Marx and Engels regarding communal ownership are what are remembered best by history, much like Adam Smith's notion…… [Read More]
Voice, however, is usually political and confrontational.
In communist societies, it is impossible to get all people to conform to an ideal without using some type of force. People view freedom as the ability to do what they want with their time and control their resources. If the state forces you to work only for its benefit and the benefit of the community, individual freedom will always be limited. This problem was seen in the Soviet Union, North Korea, and China, which were repressive nations that used force to support its theories.
It is important to consider that "exit" is not always physical. It can be mental or emotional, as well. If communist theories were in motion, citizens would not have the ability to exit the system if they decided they did not like it. Physically, it is likely that they would lack the resources to move to another country.…… [Read More]
. . ' Their authority may only be of the order and breadth determined by the Idea of the whole; they may only 'originate from its might'. That things should be so lies in the Idea of the organism. But in that case it would be necessary to show how all this might be achieved. For conscious reality must hold sway within the state." (Marx, 77)
This suggests that independence is a pathway to authoritarian tyranny, whereas the 'might' of the state is accorded only by a collective population supporting this right. this resonates most closely with my own personal perspective, denoting something of a universal order in which central authority is necessary to retain civility but in which collectivism is elevated over materialism as a way of empowering such leadership.
The spread of capitalism as both a chief ideology and an aggressive response to the mores of socialism…… [Read More]
Marx Historical Context
Classical sociological and economic theories like those of Karl Marx emerged in Western Europe when it was experiencing the Enlightenment, the emergence of scientific method, a growing sense of individual autonomy over one's life conditions, the emergence of private property, urban growth, and a total shattering of the social balance of relations among peoples that had been in place for centuries if not millennia. Christianity and other traditional religions were being undermined by the new developments in science and technology, while urban, industrial capitalism was breaking up the old feudal-agrarian order in Europe and the Americas. All the founders of modern sociology had to deal with this radically new society, and attempted to describe its historical origins, the new social and economic problems of industrial capitalism, and how governments and societies should deal with them. Karl Marx received his PhD in economics in Germany during the dawn…… [Read More]
Marx's Evolving Theory Of Exploitation
As the author of the definitive Communist Manifesto, Marx was arguably one of the most influential of 19th century economists, and certainly one of the most influential of the revolutionaries of the era. ecause of the overwhelming influence which he had on the political and philosophical history of the world, it is understandable that he has a great and even fundamentalist following. However, there remains a great deal of debate about what, precisely, constitutes "Marx's Marxism," as Kliman (1997) would call it. One of the difficulties in pinpointing authentic Marxism is the fact that Marx was hardly consistent in his writings throughout his lifetime, but continued to think and evolve as time progressed. (Kliman, 1997; Howard, 1990) If one were to compare Marx's "Alienated Labor" (1994) and Capital (1961/1967), for example, one would see a definite change in his perspective on the way in which…… [Read More]
45). ith the ideology of the ownership class necessarily becoming the dominant ideology throughout the world not simply through the spread of industry and capitalism but through dramatic changes in international trade and economies brought about by capitalist/industrialist changes in single countries, the bourgeoisie acquires (or acquired) dramatic power to shape global events and politics through their shaping of the thoughts that can be had and the modes by which they can be expressed -- through their control over rhetorical interpretations and expression, in other words.
Implications of Marx's Rhetorical Theory
Using a Marxist approach to rhetorical theory has a variety of benefits and drawbacks to theorists and critics working from many different perspectives. The benefits to such a perspective are clear, if somewhat ominous -- they give concrete and measurable ways in which to develop an understanding of thought itself, and of how thoughts are created and expressed (and…… [Read More]
Marx on Labor
Heilbroner's honesty at the onset of his writing on Karl Marx reveals the flaws and distortion contained within the often complex, if not mystical tone of Marx's philosophy. The admitted sheer immensity of work produced by Marx and his partner Engels cannot be completely understood. The author confessed " the collected works compromise forty volumes, each 700-1000 pages in length. I have no room for many documents of great historical importance." This dismissal is proof of the limited value of Marx and his theory. Cherry picking this and that from any collection suggests an inconsistency, if not cloaking, of the true essence of Marx's art.
Regardless of the irrationality behind the author's analysis, there are still worthwhile ideas contained within the writing. The alignment of Marx and Adam Smith's appreciation for the value of labor and the corresponding explanations of each demonstrated a quality of humanity in…… [Read More]
In other words, he changes, and for Marx, the capitalist cannot change until forced to do so, specifically by the revolution he and Engels call for in the Communist Manifesto. Marx sees the economic development of history as a matter of class struggle, following the dialectic of Hegel as opposing forces fight and through that revolution produce a synthesis, or a new social order. Dickens sees change as possible more simply by showing people the error of their ways and so getting them to change to a different way of behaving. Marx sees the need for a revolution to force any change into existence.
Again, the England described by Dickens was the England that helped produce Karl Marx and that contributed to his social theory. Both Marx and Dickens see the social ills of the time and ascribe these to the greed and single-minded pursuit of money on the part…… [Read More]
eber and Marx on Labor
In the 19th century, leading social theorists such as Karl Marx and Max eber believed that because its many inherent contradictions, the capitalist system would inevitably fall into a decline.
More than a century later, however, the capitalist system is far from dead. Rather, it appears to be further entrenched, encircling the world in the stranglehold of globalization.
Despite the continued growth of capitalism, however, this paper argues that both Marx and eber's writings remain relevant to explaining many aspects of advanced industrial capitalism. In this paper, the Marx and eber's writings on estranged labor are explored in detail, to examine if the labor theories both men used to analyze capitalism and the plight of workers in the 19th century can also be applied to 21st century capitalism.
The first part of this paper discusses Marx's theory of estranged labor, as written in The Economic…… [Read More]
Karl Marx, Max Weber, Antonio Gramsci and Pierre Bourdieu all conceptualize culture power in different ways. Each identifies the agent (the specific social group) which acquires and makes use of cultural power as well as the means by which the agents acquire and maintain cultural power.
As Marx and Engels observe in The German Ideology, "The class which has the means of material production at its disposal, has control at the same time over the means of mental production, so that thereby, generally speaking, the ideas of those who lack the means of mental production are subject to it" (64). Thus, for Marx, laborers were the specific group that needed to acquire power from the elites (capitalists), owners of the means of production. The means of production were, of course, the laborers. Communism was the ideology that would free the laborers from subservience to the owners of capital.…… [Read More]
Legacies of Marx and Engels
The publication of The Communist Manifesto in 1848 by Karl Marx and Frederick Engels formed the basis for a variety of ideologies. Some of these ideas have been modified and adapted by both communists and capitalists in the ensuing years. However, a number of Marx's ideas can be shown to be erroneous and/or outdated in light of events which have taken place since the time Marx and Engels wrote.
Marx believed that human history unfolds in distinct stages, and that these stages follow a distinct order, with one unfolding to reveal the next. According to Marx, scientific laws, which can be discovered by man using his innate powers of reason, govern the progression of these stages, and thus the progression of history can be foretold. This basic idea has often been applied by modern political and economic theorists as they make predictions of how events…… [Read More]
Monticello, the mansion that Thomas Jefferson designed in the hills of Virginia near the State University that he founded, has three portraits that are to be found on the wall of President Jefferson's study that have remained there for 200 years. These portraits are of three writers Francis Bacon, Isaac Newton and John Locke. Jefferson, who wrote the Declaration of Independence and acquired the Louisiana Purchase form the French, refers to these three as "the greatest men who ever lived." e see Lockean reasoning reflected in the Declaration where Jefferson says that we hold life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness to be self-evident truths. A similar reverence was afforded Karl Marx in the Soviet Union, where many streets and several smaller cities were named after Marx and his fellow communist Frederick Engels. One could argue that the primary ideologies of the 20th-century were those of Locke and Marx, as…… [Read More]
There is no distinction between products that are exchanged to fill actual needs and those created to fulfill desires. This disregard for the true dynamic of capitalism creates the false perception that no crises can result. Marx however holds that the apologetics are vocal only in times of prosperity, while they are conspicuously silent during times when crises do ensue.
The most prominent related debate around globalization today revolves around the benefits (or lack thereof) of free market principles. Many hold that the free market system is beneficial for all participants, while others believe that the system perpetuates the poverty of third-world countries attempting to participate in the world market. At the same time, the richest countries become ever richer as a result.
The type of denial of the possibility of increasing poverty is reminiscent of the apologetic denial of crisis. Poverty is increased in poor countries by denying them…… [Read More]
Karl Marx is highly regarded as one of the foremost authorities in economics and social structure. It is through his beliefs that the thought process of Marxism was created. Although very controversial in this thoughts and beliefs, Marx outlined, what he believed to be, a social framework for society. According to Marx, society often begins a series of transformations directly related to the primary flow of labor and production (Singer, 200). Through division of labor each organizational structure has a central conflict. According to Marx, each organizational structure is characterized with conflict among different parts of society with particular emphasis on economic status. Marx focused a disproportionate amount of his research on the social relationships between the economic classes prevailing in society (Marx, 1990). Marx tended to focus on the relationships between entry level workers and those of their immediate supervisor. Marx identified historical epochs from the beginning of…… [Read More]
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Wacquant, L. (2009). Punishing the poor; the neoliberal government of social insecurity… [Read More]
Wheen (1999), in his biography of Marx's life, argued that Engels had greater knowledge and understanding of capitalism and its dynamics than Marx, thereby making the very concept of alienation as an idea that originated from and was put forth by Engels, and was only expounded upon theoretically by Marx (75):
Though he had already decided that abstract idealism was so much hot air, and that the engine of history was driven by economic and social forces, Marx's practical knowledge of capitalism was nil. He had been so engaged by his dialectical tussle with German philosophers that the condition of England -- the first industrialised country, the birthplace of the proletariat -- had escaped his notice. Engels, from his vantage point in the cotton mills of Lancashire, was well placed to enlighten him.
In the preceding passage, Wheen brought into light how, despite Marx's authority on the issues of oppression…… [Read More]
But to say that Marx had a conservative agenda on hand would also be wrong. hat Marx was propagating for a more socially equal and respectful environment for women where they could work out of their own free will and did not have to resort to prostitution and other evils to support themselves. But I must agree that Marx's sarcastic way of advancing his argument in the manifesto is certainly offensive in tone. It shows disregard for women and levies some unsolicited and unsupported charges against capitalism.
Another important and rather controversial remark is found later in the manifesto when Marx argues: "But you Communists would introduce community of women, screams the bourgeoisie in chorus. The bourgeois sees his wife a mere instrument of production. He hears that the instruments of production are to be exploited in common, and, naturally, can come to no other conclusion that the lot of…… [Read More]
This does not suggest that one assimilate the ideas of another without having first contemplated those ideas at length, rounded them with individual ideas, expectations, experiences and theories before adopting those ideas and holding the originator of the ideas as a source of ideological guidance.
Engels is described by social researcher Dudley Knowles (2002) as a "Hegelian (20)." As mentioned earlier, Engels took a position in favor of Hegel when the philosopher was coming under fire from the university philosophy professor where Engels attended university. As has been previously mentioned, again, and from the positions Engels took and his manner of expressing his positions that were counter authority and anti-authority in nature, it leaves open to speculation Engels' motivation in backing Hegel; was it sincere agreement in philosophy, or his tendency to follow his young and somewhat immature tendencies to thwart the sitting authority? Given that Engels took a journalistic…… [Read More]
Geology was one of the sources of Marx's views about social system and it's structure (the idea of formation). Among the biological discoveries that influenced on Marx's sociological views were the discovery of cell, cell theory of the organism's structure and the most important was evolutionary teaching of Darwin that was stated in work "The origins of species." Marx saw biological analogue of his theories in Darwin's work and it was a stimulus for further work as well.
The basic question of sociology is a question about interaction of material and spiritual values in the life of society.
Marx introduced a new and independent variable in this process, which plays a key role in the relations that exist in society and it was a mode of material production. Besides he supported the views about the initial role of being in relation to society's consciousness, but not in the sense of…… [Read More]
Mark and Rawls
Karl Marx: Capitalist Society is Exploitative and Alienating
The Communist Manifesto characterizes capitalism as exploitative and alienating by pointing to three primary features. The Manifesto identifies the role of industrialization and technological advances, the commodification of the individual laborer, and the profit derived by some members of society not from their own labor but that of others. (Marx, 68-72) Capitalist society's tendency to produces classes of people who are either members of the bourgeoisie or proletariat, and the remnants of the aristocracy is itself seen as problematic. In Marx's attack of the bourgeoisie, he links the capitalist process itself to their own downfall. He writes "what the bourgeoisie therefore produces above all is their own grave diggers." (Marx, 79). This overly dramatic sentence and indeed the chapter can be viewed as a bit of propaganda or an act of psychological warfare against Marx's critics, but what it…… [Read More]
Friedrich Engels, 1820-1895, was a nineteenth century German political philosopher, who together with his partner Karl Marx, developed communist theory and wrote the Communist Manifesto, 1848 (Friedrich pp).
Shocked by the widespread poverty in Manchester England, Engels wrote an account called Condition of the orking Class in 1844 that was published in 1945 (Friedrich pp). He then began contributing to a journal called the Franco-German Annals, which was edited and published by Karl Marx in Paris (Friedrich pp). hen Marx and Engels met they realized that they shared the same views on capitalism and when Marx was deported from France in 1845, they moved to Belgium and in 1846 set up the Communist Correspondence Committee in Brussels (Friedrich pp). The intent was to unite socialist leaders from all over Europe, and in fact, the Communist League in London was formed due to the influence of Engels and Marx (Friedrich pp).…… [Read More]
Karl Marx, the founder of modern socialism and communism and son of a lawyer was born on 5 May 1818 in Trier, and received his classical education. He studied jurisprudence at Bonn and later in Berlin, his obsession with philosophy turned him away from law. However, after spending five years in the "metropolis of intellectuals," he returned to Bonn aiming to habilitate in 1841 (The Life and ork of Karl Marx).
At the end of 1842 he took over the editorship and was received the honor of sending a censor ilhelm Saint-Paul from Berlin particularly to take care of the Rheinische Zeitung. However, this proved of no benefit since either the paper was made to undergo dual censorship, or additionally to the common procedure, every issue was subjected to a second stage of censorship by the office of Cologne's Regierungspr sident (The Life and ork of Karl Marx).
However, this…… [Read More]
Mill talked of ethical freedom in terms of all areas wherein individual and society interacts and become involved with each other; Marx utilized the same viewpoint, although specified it in terms of proletarian-bourgeoisie relations.
For Marx, ethical freedom is self-realization within the individual, and primary in this realization was the acknowledgment that one needs to be economically independent in order for modern individuals, and society in general, to function progressively. Ethical freedom is said to have been achieved if there will develop a new social order, identified as the "industrial proletariat," described to be the modern individuals, belonging to the previously identified proletariat class, who embodies "fresh moral and political idea, but one rooted in the world of material reality" (Morgan, 2005:392). In concrete Marxian terms, self-realization is an event that will occur only once the following elements have been abolished, as cited in "The Communist Manifesto": "representative government, bourgeois…… [Read More]
One of these leaders of nations who had subsisted to the promise of Communism is Vladimir Lenin, Revolutionary leader who became the first leader of Soviet Russia, and eventually, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR). Under Lenin's leadership, he began realizing Marx's vision of a Communist society, where there is no private property and no class stratification. However, Lenin did not subscribe to Marx' belief that it should be the working class who will induce social reform and revolutionize to build a Communist society, in opposition against capitalism. In "What is to be done?," Lenin argues that revolution under a broad organization of revolutionaries made up of "hardened workers" is not feasible, simply because this organization is "loose," making the revolutionaries of workers more susceptible to outside intervention. These interventions, he states, are the police and gendarmes; hence, a broad organization of workers are not ideal, for it…… [Read More]
Marx's theory explains poverty far better than those of the individualistic theorists. Many studies have shown that most of the working class poor are willing to work, and in fact, do work. Their wages are low, which results in the inability to attain their own source of income, so they continue to have to work for minimal wages. Without a higher income, they are unable to attain capital, or attend college to gain the knowledge for a higher position. Spencer and the other individualists' theories are illogical, in that those theorists blame the poor as a whole for their plight, without seeking outside sources of their poverty.
The Marxist theory of poverty is well documented throughout history. Even as far back as the middle ages, those who worked for the aristocracy, or the capitalist, found themselves with no way to gain property. They were often barred from owning land, subjected…… [Read More]
Marx's impact can only be compared with that of religious figures like Jesus or Muhammad. Nearly four out of every ten people alive today live under governments which consider themselves Marxist" (Singer, 1). Many people may consider that account to be an overstatement of Marx's historical importance, nevertheless he was undoubtedly the greatest thinker and philosopher of his, and recent, times. His theories on life, and on the social and economic structure of nations, have revolutionized the way in which people think (McLellan, 8). His life contributed to the way people think today, and because of him people are more open to suggestion and are quicker to create ideas on political, economic, and social issues.
Karl Marx was born on May 5, 1818, in the Prussian town of Trier. His parents, Heinrich and Henrietta were comfortably off, but by no means wealthy, and held liberal, but not radical,…… [Read More]
He contrasted the work done in factories with such tasks as lace making, stocking knitting and rural work and felt that factory work was easier by comparison and less tedious or monotonous in nature. The arguments of Marx and Ure are as dissimilar as two could possibly be. While Marx believed that history of technology since 1830 could be described as one of 'weapons against the revolts of the working-class', Andrew Ure felt that machine system was just so perfect that it could destroy any labor unions that ever came into existence. Writing about the dressing machine, he said:
It affords an instructive warning to workmen to beware of strikes, by proving how surely science, at the call of capital, will defeat every unjustifiable union, which labourers may form.
Thomas Carlyle was another important figure of the time. He can be described as the man whose views ran somewhere in…… [Read More]
One of the most pragmatic applications of Marxist labor theory would be strong state regulations on capitalist enterprise: requiring, for example, mandatory profit sharing or a means to include all workers in the process of management and in rights to the means of production.
By the early 20th century, the Russian economy was rapidly industrializing, which dramatically altered social structures and institutions. The Czarist regime was showing signs of wear as a burgeoning bourgeoisie was amassing considerable wealth and corresponding political clout. At the same time, factories demanded a larger labor force and recruited from rural regions. Workers who migrated either permanently or temporarily to urban centers and to centers of industry experienced a significant breakdown in traditional social structures and family life. The first stage of the Russian Revolution occurred when the Czar was overthrown to form an aristocratic government, which was soon overtaken by the Bolshevik communists. Lenin…… [Read More]
Karl Marx begins as an interpreter of the prior philosophy of Hegel, extremely popular in Marx's youth. Hegel espoused a philosophy known as "absolute idealism," which entails a complicated re-interpretation of Kant in order to arrive at a process which Hegel refers to as dialectic. The Hegelian dialectic proposes an original idea, thought or condition which Hegel calls the "thesis," this conjures its own opposite "antithesis," and the struggle between these two contraries eventually resolves itself in "synthesis." The result of the synthesis eventually emerges as a new thesis, and thus Hegel proposes a forward-moving philosophy of history, which Hegel saw as "unfolding the Absolute Idea of God."
Marx's philosophy is usually known as "dialectical materialism," which indicates his debt to the Hegelian dialectic. Hegel had after all proposed that the driving force of this unfolding historical process was essentially the "spirit of the age" (a sort of mystical atmospheric…… [Read More]
The impact of Marx's theories was not as significant during his lifetime as in the 20th century after his death. Nevertheless, his ideas about class struggle were considered so dangerous by the governments dominated by the elite class that he was repeatedly prosecuted and exiled from major European countries such as France and Germany for propagating revolution. Besides his writings, he formed the Communist League and the First International to promote working class revolutions in the industrial countries, putting his own belief that "there is no point in gaining a deeper insight into the world unless it is a means of changing the world." ("Karl Marx: Man of Millenium.") After his death, however, with the growth of the labor movement in Europe, Marx's theories began to take on greater significance.
Various socialist movements around the world took up his analysis of capitalist economy, his theory of historical materialism,…… [Read More]
Comparing Madison's ideas against Karl Marx's proposition of a new form of government (or aptly, a new social order) through Communism, salient differences emerge that highlight how Madison's democracy and Marx's Communism can be found in the opposite poles on the spectrum that is the political school of thoughts. Marx's The Communist Manifesto reflected human history's transition from a traditional to a capitalist society, and eventually, to a Communist society. This transition was a result of a history-long struggle of the "oppressed," who Marx referred to as the "proletariat," the social class that will eventually elevate the status quo of society from an oppressive to an egalitarian one -- that is, through Communism. Marx argues that transitions throughout history prior to the establishment of a Communist societydid not offer any the "class antagonisms" that existed in society:
The history of all past society has consisted in the development of class…… [Read More]
He also created his own vocabulary, and proposed a model that was radically different. He branded his views as being from an entirely different school of economics from "classical" economics. Before Marx, there was essentially only one view of economics, with thought progressing in a relatively straight line. Marx introduced the notion of entirely new ideology. The result is that since then economics is no longer viewed as a singular line of study, but a discipline comprised of competing models and thought.
Marx' models of socialism, capitalism and communism exist today, and with roughly his definitions. His work on the nature of workers, their outputs, and their relationship to value has also contributed to our modern economic model. His work occurred during an era when workers lived in poverty and had no rights. By the time he died, those workers were gaining rights, and realized wage increases, in part due…… [Read More]
Oddly enough, this passage paints a brighter picture of Nietzsche than popular thought attributes to him. Nietzsche here presents a direct path -- unlike Rousseau -- out of the swamps of nothingness: the path is not necessarily religion, nor is it secularism. Rather, it is a lack of contradiction.
Nietzsche urges each man to evaluate just what he believes and desires and understand for himself whether he wishes to credit God or himself. In other words, Nietzsche calls upon man to answer the age old question: fate or control?
If mankind avoids contradiction here, he is able to pick himself up by the bootstraps and re-instill into his life some of the soul and passion that Rousseau bleakly believes is missing.
In fact, Nietzsche had a great argument with Rousseau's thinking: this hostility derives from Nietzsche's conviction that the autonomous subject of Enlightened political discourse is hopelessly inadequate. Nietzsche…… [Read More]
Anomie and Alienation
Lost, With No Possibility of Being Found
Running through the literature of classical late nineteenth-century and early twentieth-century sociology are themes of isolation, of the poverty of life lived in isolated cells, of the fragility of a life in which we can almost never make authentic connections with other people, in which we are lost even to ourselves. We have -- and this "we" includes the entire population of the industrialized world, or at least most of it -- have raised the act of rationalism to an art form, but along the way we have lost so much of our humanity that we can no longer form or maintain a community. Four of the major social critics of the twentieth century took up these themes for essentially the same reason: To argue that while ailing human society could be transformed in ways that would give it meaning…… [Read More]
Many different views abound on the origins of modern capitalism, causalities that range from economic to political, from religious to cultural, or for some, an amalgamation of societies need to expand and the resources necessary to fuel that expansion. Max Weber's the Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism is a study of the relationship between the ethics of ascetic Protestantism and the emergence of the spirit of modern capitalism. An ascetic Protestant is one who practices self-denial and self-discipline. Weber argues that the religious ideas of groups such as the Calvinists played a role in creating the capitalistic spirit. Calvinism focused on predestination and God's infinite power, a hierarchical system that transcended religion and moved into economic and social activities.
This is true not only in cases where the difference in religion coincides with one of nationality, and thus of cultural development . . . . The same thing…… [Read More]
Engels went as far to claim that the only way marriage could ever be established as an institution that was inclusive of equality was to destroy all capitalist elements in society. The following is his statement:
Full freedom of marriage can therefore only be generally established when the abolition of capitalist production and of the property relations created by it has removed all the accompanying economic considerations which still exert such a powerful influence on the choice of a marriage partner. For then there is no other motive left except mutual inclination."
Thus is the claim of Engels but in reality the human nature would be inclined to classify itself in other ways that economical and it is most likely that another system of class distinction would arise in the place of the economical concessions that were the deciding factor as to marriages during that time period.
In another work…… [Read More]
During his first few months in Paris, Marx became a communist and put forth his views in a plethora of writings known as the Economic and philosophical Manuscripts, that remained unpublished until the 1930s. It was also in Paris that Marx developed his life long association with Friedrich Engels. (Karl Marx, 1818-1883)
At the end of 1844 Marx was debarred from Paris and with Engels migrated to Brussels. In the initiation of 1848, Marx moved back to Paris when a revolution first emerged and onto Germany where he instituted again in Cologne, the Neue heinishce Zeitung. In later periods Marx settled in London, and was optimistic about the imminence of a new revolutionary emergence in Europe. He re-entered the Communist League and wrote two prolonged pamphlets on the 1848 revolution in France and its repercussions, the Class Struggles in France and the 18th Brumaire of Louis Bonaparte. He had a…… [Read More]
Human Society -- Economic or State Power
Background (State Power and Economic Power) -- The political and sociological aspect of power is the ability for an organization to control its own environment, including the behavior of other entities with which it reacts. Authority is seen as the perception of legitimate power by the social structure of dominant culture. Power can be, of course, seen as good or evil, but the exercise of power is both endemic and necessary for the modern state as we know it. Certainly within the paradigm of political and economic power there are various permutations that surround sources of power, the balance of power, and theories of power (Kuusisto).
Balances of power are necessary within any reciprocal arrangement in order for statecraft to even exist: what are the relative strengths, weaknesses, and dimensions to a stable relationship? Given that power is never innate, and one must…… [Read More]
Philosophical and Literary epresentation of Capitalism
Progress & Technology in Capitalism
John Steinbeck wrote the social The Grapes of Wrath during the interwar years, just after the Great Depression harrowingly illustrated the power of unchecked capitalism. His novel takes the position that revolutionary change is needed, is inevitable, and that a just and non-exploitive society can only come about when capitalism is eliminated. Steinbeck is reported to have made clear his intentions as he prepared to write The Grapes of Wrath. In his words, "I want to put a tag of shame on the greedy bastards who are responsible for this" [the Great Depression and its widely destructive effects]." Steinbeck's collectivist-leaning voice at the time of his writing The Grapes of Wrath would become so altered over the course of three decades that it hardly seemed to belong to this writer who created on the very edge of moral fervor.…… [Read More]
in "Piaf," Pam Gems provides a view into the life of the great French singer and arguably the greatest singer of her generation -- Edith Piaf. (Fildier and Primack, 1981), the slices that the playwright provides, more than adequately trace her life. Edith was born a waif on the streets of Paris (literally under a lamp-post). Abandoned by her parents -- a drunken street singer for a mother and a circus acrobat father -- Edith learns to fend for herself from the very beginning. As a natural consequence of her surroundings, she makes the acquaintance of several ne'er do wells. She rises above the lifestyles of the girls she grows up with who prostitute themselves for a living in the hope that they will eventually meet a benefactor with whom they can settle. Edith has a talent for singing and she indulges this interest by singing loudly in the streets.…… [Read More]
The organization emphasized strong ties among third world countries and neutrality in relations with the U.S. And the Soviet Union. ("Josip Broz Tito," n.d.) Domestically, Tito introduced a system of decentralized economy, which encouraged workers' self-management. He tackled the strong nationalistic fissures in the country by creating a system of "symmetrical federalism" that ensured 'equality' among the six Yugoslav republics and the two autonomous provinces.
In the end, it is difficult to speculate how different the world would have been if the man called Tito had never lived. It is true that his country of disparate nationalities, which Tito had held together with sheer will and the force of his personality for 35 years, unraveled quickly after his death. But to hold him responsible for the break-up of his beloved country and the tragic events which occurred during the ethnic strife in the Balkans would be doing injustice to the…… [Read More]
Review of Related Literature
This chapter provides a review of the literature concerning hypnosis, Eastern Meditation, Chi Kung, and Nei Kung and how these methods are used to treat various ailments and improve physical and mental functioning. A summary of the review concludes the chapter.
In his study, "Cognitive Hypnotherapy in the Management of Pain," Dowd (2001) reports that, "Several theories have een proposed to account for the effect of hypnosis. State theories assume that the hypnotic trance is qualitatively different from all other human experiences. From this perspective, trance capacity is supposedly a fairly stale trait that exhiits sustantial individual differences. Nonstate theories, often referred to as social learning, social psychological or cognitive-ehavioral theories of hypnosis propose that hypnotic phenomena are related to social and psychological characteristics such as hope, motivation, expectancy, elief in the therapist, desire to please the therapist, a positive initial…… [Read More]
Since this simplifies and organizes our experience of the world, it is wiser to accept the value of truth of this belief.
If Russell questioned the existence of matter, Aristotle was concerned with its nature. According to him, all the things which come into existence must come from a substratum (which is the very nature of matter). Nevertheless, should this underlying matter of the universe come from another, already-existing underlying matter, this judgement results self-contradictory. On the other hand, nothing can be generated ex-nihilo, therefore, it can only be concluded that in order to exist, matter needs to be possible. However, possibility can not exist in itself, but must be conceived as residing in something else. And here one could bring Spinoza's conceptions into discussion. In his opinion things can exist or in themselves or in something else. Since God is the only one who can exist through himself and…… [Read More]
Netflix employees "tear, slap, and clack" through a day's work can be easily understood within a classic sociological framework, using either a Marxist or a Durkheim lens. Both Marx and Durkheim would have noted that the Netflix model represents quintessential division of labor. The employees perform one task with maximum efficiency. hile Durkheim would focus primarily on the social contracts and organization of the employees within the Netflix organization, Marx would critique the means by which the Netflix associates are distanced from the owners of the means of production, their labor artificially devalued and exploited, especially given the employees come from developing countries in Africa and Asia. However, the way Sheehan describes the Netflix operation shows that Durkheim's concepts of social solidarity, specialization, and interdependence are indeed requisite to human survival and are inescapable, as the sociologists affirms in his dissertation on the function of the division of labor.
hereas…… [Read More]
Jean Jacques Rousseau and Karl Marx are famous political philosophers, whose ideas in many ways had influenced the development of social formation in modern times, and what is most interesting is that ideas of both were realized in certain ways on practice. Jean Jacques Rousseau prophesied modern democratic institutions that laid into the fundamental of many modern nations; his ideas of "social contract" are the main principles of modern democracy, parliamentary political systems and relations between nation and state. On the other hand the ideas of Karl Marx, who explained an "unavoidable crash" of society with capitalist relations, into a new formation governed by the "dictatorship of proletariat" or a state with no private property, failed to be effective instrument of political and social regulation and did not meet the expectations, probably because the societies where those ideas were tested were not ready at all for radical changes. As both…… [Read More]
This is a natural development, and is part of a general process of change. This process can be seen in historical context, just as the modern world built in and changes the ideas of the period known as the enlightenment, which in turn built in the period known as the renaissance.
In the past there has been the creation of ideas on the way that people should view and interpret the world. The post modernist approach is different, arguing that reality will be subjective. In other words, there is no single correct model reality; it will vary between different people and reality will always be subjective. There are many post modern philosophers that put forward the idea that the universe is not seen in the same way by everyone, these philosophers include Jacques Derrida, Michel Foucault and ichard orty.
In the past, especially following the enlightenment, it was assumed that…… [Read More]
economic crisis that hit the international community and the world economies has determined, since 2008, a slow, almost invisible shift in the doctrinal preferences of more and more people in terms of deciding on the right economic approach to be followed in order to avoid such crises from taking place in the future. Although there have been numerous attempts to convince on the benefits of capitalism, the economic crises that have taken place since the 70s on a cyclical basis have been used as counterarguments for the efficiency of capitalism and free market economies as we know it today. In this sense, more and more people, scholars, professors, and even politicians, advocate a more moderate approach to capitalism to include several aspects of apparently long-forgotten economic doctrines such as Marxism. However, Marxism in its purest form is not the solution; yet, it offers the justifications for what is now seen…… [Read More]
While this does not seem ethically questionable on the surface, it is certainly questionable when one considers that the only way for a capitalist to keep being a capitalist is to keep acquiring capital, and the only way to acquire capital is to exploit labor for profit. This means that the bourgeoisie must oppress the proletariat in order to continue to exist, and that the proletariat must struggle to survive.
Some may say that this is not an ethical problem -- merely the brutal nature of the world. Even if this were so, it becomes an ethical problem when considered politically, and, as Marx and Engel assert, "every class struggle is a political struggle" (p. 46). In a country that binds itself morally to the concept of inalienable political rights, the decision of the highest court in the land to grant enormous political "voice" to entities whose necessary economic purpose…… [Read More]
Such events must be political in nature. The author alludes to the utilitarian aspect of monumental history with this quotation.
Of what use, then, is the monumentalistic conception of the past, engagement with the classic and rare of earlier times, to the man of the present? He learns from it that the greatness that once existed was in any event once possible and may thus be possible again; he goes his way with more cheerful step, for the doubt that once assailed him…has now been banished.
The practical use of history, then, is to serve as the inspiration and even in certain instances, the impetus for present action. Such history is "monumentalistic" when it details the lofty achievements of those before. Even if those particular achievements were not political in nature, although a great many of them were, the application of them within contemporary society would virtually have to have…… [Read More]
history of human civilization, the Scientific evolution emerged during the 17th century, which happened right after the enaissance Period. The Scientific evolution is the period in history wherein scientific methods and results where arrived at using experimentation and the use of scientific instruments such as the telescope, microscope, and thermometer (Microsoft Encarta 2002). The Scientific evolution is attributed to Galileo Galilei, who proposed that the universe and its elements can be explained mathematically, while subsisting to the fact the Sun is the center of the solar system. During the enaissance Period, Nicolaus Copernicus had declared that the Sun is the center of the solar system, but his declaration is only descriptive, while Galileo's declaration is verified through experimentation and the scientific method. This important distinction is the main reason why Galileo's time was considered the Scientific evolution, primarily because it uses the scientific method of research and experimentation.
Studies and…… [Read More]
ith the implementation of technology allowing these works to be mass produced mechanically, they are fully engrained within the popular culture of a society as well as the idea of high Culture, (51). Therefore, millions of people believe that these pieces, which they will never be able to obtain in real life, still represent a part of the larger culture which dominants their life.
This strange structure of the cultural hierarchy of estern Culture represents the idea that our society will never stray to far from its roots of class domination based on controlling the society through controlling the means of production. Rather than control the general population through sheer force, estern societies have instead chosen a route of hegemony, in which they control the mind of the individuals within the society. This control ensures the survival of the underlying class divisions and conflicts, while still presenting a united front…… [Read More]
Law and justice across the ages of artistic representation -- a fair system of justice means nothing when ice water, corruption, and evil run through the hearts of those appointed to enforce the system
The 1980's crime novel Gorky Park, Shakespeare's 'problem' play "Measure for Measure," Marx and Engels political manifesto "The Communist Manifesto," and the orld ar II arner Brothers motion picture "Casablanca" all fundamentally ask, at their respective narrative and philosophical hearts the fundamental human question: what is justice? All grapple with the issue of how best to create a truly rather than a superficially just society. Do just men and women, or a just system of laws, produce fair and equitable societies? hat is more important, a fair code of laws, or good people attempting to do what is right within any particular moral context? Despite having been produced during different times and for different purposes, these…… [Read More]
The novel opens seven years after Gabo's mother, Ximena, was murdered by coyotes -- or paid traffickers -- during an attempt to cross the border. Her mutilated body was found, her organs gone -- sold most likely. Because of the fear surrounding this border town and the lure of the other side, all of the characters become consumed with finding afa. These people are neglected and abused. Like other fiction works on this topic (such as Cisneros's The House on Mango Street), The Guardians (2008) is rich in symbolism and flavored with Mexican aphorisms. The novel also shows the reader how complex and perilous border life is when you're living in between the United States and Mexico.
The book is important when attempting to understand the challenge of the border town life and it is, at the same time, a testament to faith, family bonds, cultural pride, and the human…… [Read More]
) and towards the more practical needs for Aryan survival.
c. hy did a growing number of Germans support Hitler and the Nazi Party in the years leading up to his appointment as chancellor?
There are many arguments to this question, but one that surfaces more often than others focuses on economics and self-preservation. The German people were humiliated by the Treaty of Versailles -- their military and economic system had been stripped away, their debt unbearable, and their economy was being controlled by other countries. The ideas of National Socialism were attractive to many: unification of the German Volk, reestablishing the German lands as a country dedicated to certain ideals, focusing on ethnic and linguistic similarities, the overthrow of Versailles, the idea of German self-determination, lebensraum (room for Germans to live, grow and prosper), and an improvement over the crippling inflation and economic woes of the eimar Government, seen…… [Read More]
In the 20th century, both of these tactics were utilized to successfully gain independence for a number of countries. (Conrad 83 -- 149) (Hochschild 101 -- 164) (Gainty)
However, Africans also helped European efforts. This was accomplished by many individuals becoming actively involved in: the political, economic and military structure. Over the course of time, these activities divided entire nations against one another. Once this took place, is when the European powers were able to exercise greater amounts of control over its colonies. (Conrad 83 -- 149) (Hochschild 101 -- 164) (Gainty)
hat was the impact of European colonialism (overseas acquisition up to approximately the mid-1700s) and imperialism (overseas acquisition from the mid-1700s) in Africa?
The impact European colonialism was to exercise direct control over entire regions. This was a part of an effort to increase their access to natural resources. Moreover, many of these colonies were established based upon…… [Read More]
Locke vs. Marx
The principles of the Enlightenment have come down to the modern world through the governments which are in currently in place. Any representative form of government, throughout the world, can trace it's roots back to John Locke and the Enlightenment principles he espoused in his Two Treatises of Government. In this book, first published in 1690, Locke spelled out his ideas on government; how it derived it's powers from the consent of the governed, how their was a contract between the government and the governed, and what restrictions and obligations each had to each other, and to the rest of society. Locke sought to establish the rules for a civilized society, based upon what he viewed as the "laws of nature," in order to create a stable and prosperous society in line with the natural state of mankind. A century and a half later, Karl Marx espoused…… [Read More]
In the car Nick sees him look sideways as though lying and thinks "And with this doubt, his whole statement fell to pieces, and I wondered if there wasn't something a little sinister about him, after all" (65, Chapter 4). Nick's middle class ideology leads him to scorn those who would strive to get ahead. It is the traditional view of the underclass toward upstarts from within. In the end, he loses "love" (Jordan). The text does not validate his character as an ideal.
The relationship of Tom and Gatsby clearly reinforces the class system. Tom articulates a power-oriented racist vision, saying "It's up to us, who are the dominant race, to watch out or these other races will have control of things" (13, Chapter 1). This Nordic racism is symbolic of a biased class consciousness out of which Tom operates. He wants to retain his class power. It creates…… [Read More]
Great Britain has always possessed a rigid class structure with few chances for upward mobility. However, in modern times, class structure has received a new face-lift. Instead of the traditional three tiered social class structure, instead is in place a seven tiered class structure that has various ways to measure class that include social, cultural, and economical. Therefore, class within British society, is not just categorized through how much money a person has, but also how socially and culturally active they are. Still, there is some debate to whether or not class plays an important role in British society as much as it did in the past. Evidence suggest it does and the more money and influence a person has in society, the more likely they will do well and receive more opportunities, therefore removing the notion that class does not have much of an impact on a person's future.…… [Read More]
politics is and what it is not. Some definitions of politics are examined. The applications of politics in society are explored. The paper also looks at some of the things that are not politics, and examines why these things are not politics. The role of politics is distinguished from the role of government, and the reasons for this are looked at more closely.
This is a paper written in Harvard style that is actually three five page essays in one. These three essays all answer specific questions about politics, particularly the theories of elitism and pluralism.
What is Politics?
Many people believe that politics is simply the workings of the government, the ins and outs of the daily process of making, enforcing, and interpreting the laws. This is certainly one aspect of politics. However, politics encompasses so much more than just this. Politics also takes into account the structures of…… [Read More]