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e., by exploiting the working class and appropriating the "surplus value" produced by the working class for himself. (Marx, "The Production of Absolute Surplus-Value") the working class is forced to work for the capitalist since in the "Capitalist" stage of social development all the sources of production are in the hands of the Capitalist who deliberately keeps the wages at low levels by creating unemployment and a ready army of the unemployed. Marx explains that capitalism ultimately leads to decreasing rates of profits, boom and bust cycles, which progressively get worse until the whole system collapses on itself.
Significance of Marx's Contribution to Economics
Even the worst detractors of Karl Marx recognize that he was a masterful economist. His rigorous analysis of capitalism in Das Kapital is considered an unparalleled seminal work which explains in detail how Capitalism works. Marx's labor theory of value, decreasing rates of profit and increasing…
Marx, Karl." Article in Microsoft Encarta Encyclopedia. Online Version. 2004. November 19, 2004. http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761555305/Marx_Karl.html
Karl Marx. Das Kapital. (Capital). The English edition (1887), edited by Frederick Engels ONLINE VERSION Part III: The Production of Absolute Surplus-Value. November 19, 2004. http://www.marxists.org/archive/marx/works/1867-c1/ch07.htm
Kreis, Steven. "Karl Marx, 1818-1883." History Guide. Lectures on Modern European Intellectual History. 2000. November 19, 2004. http://www.historyguide.org/intellect/marx.html
His father, however, had agreed to baptism as a Protestant so that he would not lose his job as a respected lawyer in Trier
Marxist Theory: Dialectical & Historical Materialism, The Economic System, and Class Conflict
Dialectical materialism and historical materialism form the foundation of Marxist philosophy. Grounded in the dialectical process of epistemology, Marxist theory evolved into principled sociology. Yet Marxist sociology rests on the dialectical understanding of the natural world, including that of human nature. Although Marxist philosophy is comprehensive and epistemological, Marx found its pragmatic application in focusing on the function of economic systems and the effect of economic systems on socioeconomic class stratification. Implications of class stratification include class conflict and false consciousness, both of which are exacerbated by capitalist modes of production and the social and political institutions that support them.
Dialectical and Historical Materialism
Building on Hegelian dialectics, Marx and Engels propose an epistemology in which the natural world is interconnected, systemic, pre-determined, and continually changing (Stalin, 1938). Dialectics is a method of reaching a truthful…
Eyerman, R. (1981). False consciousness and ideology in Marxist theory. Acta Sociologica 24(1-2): 43-56.
“Karl Marx and Historical Materialism,” (n.d.). http://www.age-of-the-sage.org/philosophy/history/marx_historical_materialism.html
Little, D. (n.d.). False consciousness. http://www-personal.umd.umich.edu/~delittle/iess%20false%20consciousness%20V2.htm
Lukacs, G. & Lukacs, G. (1971). History and Class Consciousness. Cambridge: MIT Press.
Marx, K. (2015). Capital. Translated: Samuel Moore and Edward Aveling, edited by Frederick Engels. https://www.marxists.org/archive/marx/works/download/pdf/Capital-Volume-I.pdf
Munro, J.H. (n.d.). Some basic principles of Marxian economics. University of Toronto. https://www.economics.utoronto.ca/munro5/MARXECON.htm
Sewell, R. (2002). What is dialectical materialism? In Defense of Marxism. https://www.marxist.com/what-is-dialectical-materialism.htm
Stalin, J.V. (1938). Dialectical and Historical Materialism. https://www.marxists.org/reference/archive/stalin/works/1938/09.htm
feminist theories: Criminology
Critical theories of criminology are associated with the writings of Karl Marx. Marx viewed the entirety of human existence as a class struggle between the haves and the have-nots of the world. Marx viewed crime as a symptom of social injustice. "Crime in capitalist societies is often a rational response to the circumstances in which people find themselves" when they have no other recourse to feed their families (Chapter 6: Critical theories: Marxist, critical, and feminist, n.d., Sage: 94). The archetypical criminal-who-is-not-really-a-criminal in the eyes of such a criminologist might be Jean Valjean: a man whose family is starving to death, so he steals a loaf of bread. Similarly, if members of the underclass believe they have no potential social mobility or access to education, they may resort to selling drugs or petty theft as a way of getting some kind of a part of the 'American…
Chapter 6: Critical theories: Marxist, critical, and feminist. (n.d.). Sage. Retrieved from:
The dominant ideas and morality of bourgeois society serve as a vital defense of the material interests of the ruling class. Without this powerful ideology, the capitalist system just would not last for any length of time.
Marxism suggests three stages or concepts of law and lawlessness:
i) an expose' of rich and powerful and their crimes - this is acceptable but purely moral;
ii) a demonstration of crime and its connections with property - e.g. showing how theft accounts for a small amount of property crime compared with fraud yet theft is policed much more strenuously;
iii) what was intended to be a major concern for the next stage - crime and law. Law is seen as ideology, as a level in capitalism, as tied to the economic relations of capitalism - in a number of unclear methods which were to be cleared up later.
Marxist theory, meanwhile, differs from the first paradigm in that it does not seek reconciliation, but rather, it identifies conflict present within society and takes a radical step towards confronting and putting a stop to this conflict in a radical fashion. Made popular by Karl Marx, Marxist theory stems from his analysis and observation about the inherent nature of capitalist society to induce conflict, specifically between those who are economically affluent and deprived.
What makes Marxist theory an interesting study in social science, particularly in fields concerning social dysfunctions, is that it attempts to show that in every aspect of the individual's life with his or her society, there is an ever-present conflict among people who want to possess power and control over the others (Hagan and Greer, 2002). The truthfulness of the claim that conflict is inevitable, especially in a highly-structured and dynamic economic society, made Marxist theory applicable…
Hagan, J. And S. Greer. (2002). "Making war criminal." Criminology, 40(2).
Robertson, I. (1977). Sociology. NY: Worth Publishers, Inc.
Marx himself asserted that "prostitution is only a specific expression of the general prostitution of the laborer." Prostitution, therefore, can be seen as standing as a symbol of all that is wrong with the world's socio-economic policies. Prostitutes may feel that they are free, but in the larger economic picture, they are actually oppressed workers reinforcing and perpetuating an exploitative capitalistic process.
Marxist feminists also base their arguments on other tenets of Marxism. Some Marxist feminist theories involve challenges to existing class relationships, especially as they create a double oppression for women -- one upon her class position and one upon gender and discriminatory practices within family structures. An Orthodox Marxist feminist would argue that gender-based inequalities are a product of the capitalist period. Thus, when capitalism is overthrown by socialist revolutions, to be followed by communism, women will be liberated to stand as equals in a classless society.
Marxist Perspective for Understanding Society
Although the United States and other Western nations fought a cold war against Communism for a significant part of the twentieth century, Western nations were not immune to the influence of Karl Marx, an intellectual and ideological founder of Communism. Even during the Cold War, Marxism entered disciplines in social sciences in the United States and students of sociology, history, political science, and a few other disciplines can no longer ignore Marxist perspective for understanding society today. Indeed, key components of Marxist perspective -- all of them revolving around the basic premise that societies can be defined by class struggle -- are very helpful in analyzing how a society functions. And Marxism today is not confined to the writings of Marx only but has been enriched by other scholars who helped to make Marxism a very useful and important tool for evaluating complexities of societies.…
Andreou, C. (1998) In Defense of Marx's Account of the Nature of Capitalist Exploitation. Philosophy of Economics. Retrieved on 5 Nov. 2011, from http://www.bu.edu/wcp/Papers/Econ/EconAndr.htm
Bohmer, P. (1998) Marxist Theory of Racism and Racial Inequality. Retrieved on 5 Nov. 2011, from http://academic.evergreen.edu/b/bohmerp/marxracism.htm
Burns, E. (2011) Virtual University: What is Marxism? Capitalism's Imperialist Stage. The Greanville Post. Retrieved on 5 Nov. 2011, from http://www.greanvillepost.com/2011/10/29/what-is-marxism-capitalisms-imperialist-stage-pt-4/
Gimenez, M. (2001). Marxism, and class, gender, and race: Rethinking the trilogy. Race, Gender & Class, 8(2), 23-33. Retrieved on 5 Nov. 2011, from EBSCOhost.
Another fundamental element of liberal theory and ideology is the right for each individual to pursue and hold private property. According to Locke, each individual has the opportunity and the right to work to better oneself through the accumulation and improvement of their own private property, "it is allowed to be his goods who hath bestowed his labor upon it," (Locke, 21).
This is also a crucial feature in the foundations of capitalism as well. It ensures that as long as one works and labors hard enough, he or she will be entitled to a certain amount of private property to compensate for that labor, "As much land as a man tills, plants, improves, cultivates, and can use the product of, so much is his property," (Locke, 22). It is with this idea that many societies have promised their underprivileged or poor the chance to rise above their inherited ranks…
Locke, John. The Second Treatise on Civil Government. Prometheus Books. Amherst,
New York. 1986.
Marx, Karl, Engels, Frederick. The German Ideology. International Publishers. New York. 2004.
In the car Nick sees him look sideways as though lying and thinks "And with this doubt, his whole statement fell to pieces, and I wondered if there wasn't something a little sinister about him, after all" (65, Chapter 4). Nick's middle class ideology leads him to scorn those who would strive to get ahead. It is the traditional view of the underclass toward upstarts from within. In the end, he loses "love" (Jordan). The text does not validate his character as an ideal.
The relationship of Tom and Gatsby clearly reinforces the class system. Tom articulates a power-oriented racist vision, saying "It's up to us, who are the dominant race, to watch out or these other races will have control of things" (13, Chapter 1). This Nordic racism is symbolic of a biased class consciousness out of which Tom operates. He wants to retain his class power. It creates…
In general Marxists tend to focus on the role of the mass media as being concerned with the proliferation of the status quo as opposed to pluralists who focus on the role of the media as one of promoting free speech. Marxists tend to view capitalistic societies as societies of class domination and the media is viewed as the arena where clashing views with the status quo are quashed. Control is increasingly concentrated in capital and the media is one tool used for the maintenance of the situation due to its ability to relay messages/propaganda that foster the interests of the dominant or ruling class. The media has a special type of power to keep things as they are. Yet the academic view of how powerful or how direct the effects of the media's messages on audiences actually are appears to vary depending on the times. McQuail (1987) discusses…
Blumer, H. 1951. Collective behavior. In: Lee, A.M. ed. New outline of the principles of sociology. New York: Barnes & Noble, pp. 167-219.
Chomsky, N. 1989. Necessary illusions: Thought control in democratic societies. Boston: South End Press.
Curran, J., M. Gurevitch, and J.Woollacott. 1982. The study of the media: Theoretical approaches. In Gurevitch, M. et al. eds. Culture, society and the media. London: Routledge, pp. 11-29.
Davis, D.K. And Baron, S.J. 1981. A history of our understanding of mass communication. In: Davis, D.K. And Baron, S.J. (eds.). Mass communication and everyday life: A Perspective on theory and effects. Belmont: Wadsworth Publishing, pp. 19-52.
international relations theory due to their background in agriculture related research and study, including a BSc. degree in agriculture, a master's degree was in agricultural development and a master's degree in sustainable development in agriculture. ith regard to sustainable development this applicant was struck by the number of issues that were purely related to an understanding of the nation state and the crisis that it now faces in the era of neoliberal globalization due to the growth in power and influence of non-state corporate entities that have become more powerful than traditional nation states.
hat is happening to date in globalization challenges all of the areas of international relations theory, whether using the approaches of realism, constructivism, or Marxism and critical theory, feminism, foundationalism, the "English school," functionalism, post-structuralism or post-colonialism. The overall topic of this author's research is ambitious. It will be to fuse the elements of all of…
George, A.L., & Smoke, R. (1974). Deterrence in american foreign policy. New York,
NY: Columbia University Press.
Claude, I.L.Y (1984). Swords into plowshares. New York, NY: Random House.
Allison, G. (1999). Essence of decision. New York, NY:
ole of Theory in Qualitative esearch
Five Approaches and Theory
Compare and contrast the role of theory in the five main qualitative approaches:
Ethnography, case study, narrative, phenomenology, grounded theory
Although all five major approaches to qualitative research embrace theory to some degree or another, not all of them value the use of theory to the same degree. Broadly speaking, some cultural 'theory' is usually demonstrated within an ethnography, either through a comparative approach; an attempt to understand the culture on its own terms; a theory that seeks to understand the multiple layers of meaning within the culture in a symbolic fashion; or even a universalizing construct like feminist or Marxist theory. The extent to which this theoretical approach is emphasized will depend upon the anthropologist conducting the study. Some studies may mainly focus upon observations and detail unique aspects of a foreign culture while other studies might largely subsume…
Ethnography. (2013). Colorado State University Writing Guides. Retrieved:
Grounded theory. (2013). Colorado State University Writing Guides. Retrieved:
Indeed, if one considers newsworthy events, violent revolution as a mode of change appears much more instinctive to human beings than communicative action.
Foucault's Theory of Power
For Habermas, Foucault's theory of power is over generalizing and universalizing. He thus dismisses the latter philosopher's theory as reductionistic and contradictory. Once again Habermas uses philosophical reason rather than mechanical evolution as a basis from which to change the corruptive power held by authorities and institutions. Foucault on the other hand sees power and reason as intertwined with each other. Thus there is no good or bad within power structures themselves, but rather in how they are implemented. Habermas however finds this problematic, and argues that there is then no ground from which to effect the necessary change in of these power structures in order to make them more beneficial for society.
In Foucault's view, there are dangers inherent in holding a…
An important contribution to the market ideology is that the authors recognized the existence of a relationship between employment and the market. This relationship was based on that the employment, the division of labor and the "human material progress had proceed in parallel with the growth of the market." Otherwise put, there existed a direct relationship between the market and the employment, with the market being the feature which set the tone. An increase of the market would generate an increase in employment and vice versa. However, an increase or decrease in employment would not affect the market as the relationship between the two is unilateral.
Engels, Moore and Jones believed that the future successful implementation of the communist policies would see no major use of the market; "in the society of the future, there would be no mediation through the market. Wealth would satisfy needs directly. It would be…
Callinicos, a., 2004, the Revolutionary Ideas of Karl Marx, 3rd Edition, Bookmarks Publication Ltd.
Engels, F., Marx, K., 2006, Socialism: Utopian and Scientific, Mondial
Groenwegen, P.D., 2003, Classics and Moderns in Economics: Essays on Nineteenth and Twentieth Century Economic Thought, Routledge
Marx, K., 2005, the Eighteenth Brumaire of Louis Bonaparte, Mondial
Great Gatsby: As Seen Through Marxist Perspective
A Marxist perspective of F. Scott Fitzgerald's famous novel, The Great Gatsby may be interested in social class representations, together with how characters acquired and retained riches and power. An overall analysis of the novel reveals that it portrays the extremely rich social class that does not work and devotes most of its day to leisure activities primarily. A few less rich minor characters also find mention, along with a smaller share of workers and servants seen at work in the course of the story. In terms of the Marxist theory, the affluent social class denotes the "haves." At the time of the American industrial revolution, capitalists -- the people with capital (i.e., wealth, equipment, or land) -- meant the upper social class. On the other hand, the "have-nots" indicated the lower social class, or workers. In Marx's opinion, a class with economic…
Falth, Sebastian. "Social Class and Status in Fitzgerald's The Great Gatsby." Web.
Fitzgerald, F. Scott. The Great Gatsby. Amersham: Transatlantic Press, 2012
"Marxist Interpretations." -- The Great Gatsby Study Guide from Crossref-it.info. Web. 16 Dec. 2015.
TYSON, LOIS. "Critical Theory Today." Web. 16 Dec. 2015.
Thus, even "victimless" deviant activities are regulated through various methods of formal and informal control. The deviancy ascribed to Brenda's teen pregnancy, for example, stems largely from the way she challenges the norms regarding sexual behavior. Conflict theorists believe that laws and norms do not reflect values of society as a whole, but only of the dominant segment.
Similarly, it could be said that Brenda's drug habit is a victimless crime. If she pursues reasonable precautions, such as avoiding driving and staying in a private place, her drug use does not differ much from smoking or alcohol consumption. However, since drug use is frowned upon by the social elite, Brenda is seen as a criminal.
Similar to conflict and Marxist theories, feminist theorists see much social inequity in society.
This social inequity is one that divides the sexes. Early on in Brenda's life, the loss of job of…
economic crisis that hit the international community and the world economies has determined, since 2008, a slow, almost invisible shift in the doctrinal preferences of more and more people in terms of deciding on the right economic approach to be followed in order to avoid such crises from taking place in the future. Although there have been numerous attempts to convince on the benefits of capitalism, the economic crises that have taken place since the 70s on a cyclical basis have been used as counterarguments for the efficiency of capitalism and free market economies as we know it today. In this sense, more and more people, scholars, professors, and even politicians, advocate a more moderate approach to capitalism to include several aspects of apparently long-forgotten economic doctrines such as Marxism. However, Marxism in its purest form is not the solution; yet, it offers the justifications for what is now seen…
Dunleavy, Patrick, and Brendan O'Leary. Theories of the state. The Politics of Liberal Democracy. London and New York: Macmillan and Meredith, 1987.
Harris, Richard L. "Marxism and the Transition to Socialism in Latin America." Latin American Perspectives, Vol. 15, No. 1, Transition to Socialism. 1988, pp. 7-53.
Jeffries, Stuart. "Why capitalism is on the rise again?." The Guardian. 4th July, 2012, available at http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2012/jul/04/the-return-of-marxism
Marx, Karl and Frederick Engels. "Manifesto of the Communist Party." 1988. Marxism Page. N.d. http://www.anu.edu.au/polsci/marx/classics/manifesto.html
Both Keynes and Kalecki use Marx's theories as a starting point but quickly moved into new ways of thinking, particularly with regard to effective demand being oriented toward the demand-side. Marx had remained rooted in supply-side demand function, rejecting Say's Law only to note that demand did not necessarily meet supply.
Marx, K. (1867). Das kapital: A critique of political economy.
Mandel, E. (1995). Marx's theory of crises. International Viewpoint. Retrieved April 24, 2010 from http://www.internationalviewpoint.org/spip.php?article289
Argitis, G. (2003). Finance, instability and economic crisis: The Marx, Keynes and Minsky problems in contemporary capitalism. University of Crete working paper no. 0307.
Green, F. (1991). Marx, Malthus and wages: A comment on Cotrell and Darity. History of Political Economy. Vol. 23 (1) 95-100.
Magdoff, F. & Magdoff, H. (2004). Disposable workers: Todays' reserve army of labor. CBS Marketwatch. Retrieved April 24, 2010 from http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1132/is_11_55/ai_n6137106/
Sebastiani, M. (1989). Kalecki and Marx…
Marx, K. (1867). Das kapital: A critique of political economy.
Mandel, E. (1995). Marx's theory of crises. International Viewpoint. Retrieved April 24, 2010 from http://www.internationalviewpoint.org/spip.php?article289
Argitis, G. (2003). Finance, instability and economic crisis: The Marx, Keynes and Minsky problems in contemporary capitalism. University of Crete working paper no. 0307.
Green, F. (1991). Marx, Malthus and wages: A comment on Cotrell and Darity. History of Political Economy. Vol. 23 (1) 95-100.
arxist or Neo-arxist Research
Critique of Theory
According to ax Weber the state is a special entity that possesses a monopoly on the legitimate use of violence. Weber believes politics is a required activity of government used in order to influence and control the relative distribution of force and power in the country.
Weber wrote of three main types of authority and political leadership domination that is present in society. These three types are charismatic, traditional and legal domination.
Weber also developed a theory of stratification where he explained and used such ideas as class, status, and party. According to his theory class is determined by an individual's economic situation. The notion of status is similar to prestige and honor. And the main purpose of parties is to gain domination in certain spheres of life. Like Weber, arx saw society as the struggle for class…
Marxism identifies only 2 types of production, Two types of production can be used, human and material. These two aspects have interrelation and they depend on each other. However, Mao tried to prove that such an interrelation is not essential. In his opinion both types of production should be included in the economic plan. He also took care and observed the process of population growth. Initially, China's post-1949 leaders were ideologically disposed to view a large population as an asset. Mao said an army of people is invincible. During Mao's rule, from 1949 to 1976, China's population increased from around 550 to over 900 million people. Mao believed that family planning should be integrated as a part of the overall plan for the development of the national economy, and that people should learn how to manage material production and how to manage themselves.
Phenomenology and Hermeneutics
Aside from positivism or quantitative research paradigm, two other paradigms are considered essential in the conduct of research or simply, knowing and understanding a particular event or phenomenon using a particular 'lens'or paradigm / perspective. These two (2) paradigms are qualitative in nature, namely the interpretive and critical paradigms. Critical paradigm is closely associated with the Marxist, feminist, and psychoanalytic schools of thought, while interpretive or symbolic interactionism paradigm is linked with hermeneutics and phenomenology. The focus of the discussions that follow will be on this second paradigm, interpretive paradigm, particularly exploring the hermeneutic and phenomenological schools of thought (Fossey, 2002, p. 719).
In order to understand these schools of thought, it is important to also understand the tradition from which these ideas emerged. Under the interpretive paradigm, truth is considered subjective and variable. In truth-seeking, the researcher recognizes that there are many "truths," and these…
Fossey, E., C. Harvey, F. McDermott, and L. Davidson. (2002). "Understanding and evaluating qualitative research." Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, Vol. 36.
Laverty, S. (2003). "Hermeneutic phenomenology and phenomenology: a comparison of historical and methodological considerations." International Journal of Qualitative Methods, Vol. 2(3).
The real data from audience ratings comes from the "people meters" that record what the target sample watches, how long the shows are watched, and what is fast-forwarded. In the case of the Nielsen ratings data is sent daily (both live and DV data) and even which family members are watching it. Data is broken down in the demographic age groups and ratings represent what percentage of the nearly 116,000,000 viewers are watching a particular program (a 1.0 rating would mean that one percent or about 1,600,000 viewers were watching a program; Lotz 2007). This is a disadvantage in that samples like this are extremely difficult to make representative of larger target populations.
The reasoning behind audience ratings is that audience ratings are the most obvious indicator of the program's success. However, the actual numbers that networks use to decide if a particular program is a success are not…
Baran, S.J. And Davis, D.K. 2000. Mass communication theory: Foundations, ferment, and future, 2nd Edition. Belmont CA: Wadsworth Publishing.
Barry D. 2008. Rating the ratings: A study of TV audience measurement [Online]. Available at: http://nebuchadnezzarwoollyd.blogspot.com/2008/01/rating-ratings-study-of-tv-audience.html [Accessed 31 December 2012].
Hall S. 1980. Encoding/decoding. In Hall S. et al. eds. Culture, media, language. London: Centre for Contemporary Culture Studies, pp. 128-138.
Kaul A. And Wittink D.R. 1995. Empirical generalizations about the impact of advertising on price sensitivity and price. Marketing Science, 14 (3), pp. 151-160.
The initial modern clarification of crime is known as "classical hypothesis" (Cullen and Agnew 2011). This hypothesis was produced in response to the malefic, irrational, and barbaric frameworks of criminal equity that existed in Europe in the 1700s. The laws were frequently arbitrary; judges were corrupt; penal awards for the same wrongdoing varied broadly; and disciplines were at times very cruel, causative of extreme physical abuse and often resulting in death. Classical Theorists needed to supplant the framework with one that was more viable and just. They contended that individuals are balanced creatures who seek after their own particular pursuits, endeavoring to amplify their pleasure and minimize their unhappiness. Individuals decide to indulge in wrongdoing when they accept that it will bring more joy than agony, As such, the most ideal approach to control wrongdoing is to guarantee that the torment of penal awards exceeds the…
Cullen, F.T., and Agnew, R. (2011). Criminological Theory: Past to Present. Los Angeles: Roxbury. [An overview of the leading theories of crime, with selections from the original works.]
First, he states that teachers can learn, from their students, how to best affect their classes. Through talking with their students, teachers can learn in what those students are interested. Teachers can learn what teaching styles best affect them, what can engage them. This can help them better relate to their students as teachers, portraying their subjects in a way that students can understand. In addition, Corbett argues that teachers can learn from their students by re-learning what it is like to be a beginning learner. They can do this by taking a class themselves or by writing the papers that they assign to their students. Thus, they learn the pain and suffering that many students have to go through in order to learn. Thus, Corbett's major theory is that both students and teachers exist in a symbiotic relationship in which they learn from one another.
At first, many teachers…
Teachers will continue to lead the educational process, but they need to be very sensitive about the issues facing the society as a whole and the children as individuals in this society. Then, education becomes a means of identifying the issues in the life of the students and gaining knowledge and understanding about them. Education in this global society also has to acknowledge that cultural diversity is valued and preserved (Tozer, Violas, & Senese, 2002, p. 190). Teachers have to ensure that their students are taught in ways that respond to cultural groups without bias (Tozer, Violas, & Senese, 2002, p. 420). In education, there is a responsibility for students to gain a respect for other races, religions and gender that are different from their own. This is the only way that a diverse society can successfully survive.
Best, S. And Douglas, K. (1991) Postmodern Theory: Critical Interrogations, New…
Best, S. And Douglas, K. (1991) Postmodern Theory: Critical Interrogations, New York, the Guilford Press.
Byrne, a. (1998). Interpretivism. In Roberto Casati (ed.), European Review of Philosophy. Stanford: CSLI Publications
Dewey, J. (1997). Experience and education. New York: Touchstone Books.
Giroux, H. (1997) 'Crossing the Boundaries of Educational Discourse: Modernism, post-modernism, and Feminism' in a.H. Halsey, H. Lauder, P. Brown and a.S. Wells (eds.) Education: Culture, Economy, and Society, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
In addition, the views presented by sociologists concerning idealistic tradition is based on the significance of the concerned group that is sort to motivate, influence to belief and the subject of interest. In this regard, sociologists will not disassociate from the scientific data but will involve the subject of interest to attempt to understand the environment in its own context, showing how sociologists have subjective explanations and not objective ones (Adams et al. 267).
ith regard to the above, there exists queries on whether the sociological theory is a micro or a macro understood occurrence. Apart from the philosophical aspects of knowledge, the micro and macro aspects of sociological theory are highly debated in there associations. It inquires on how these sociological theories on character, reactions, and interpersonal procedures can associate with other social influences. Just like in sciences where there exists micro-macro differences which even with the advanced technology…
Adams, Bert, et al. Sociological theory. Thousand Oaks, CA: Pine Forge Press. 2001. Print.
Calhoun, Craig, et al. Contemporary sociological theory. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-Blackwell, 2007.
Dunaway, Wilma. Emerging Issues in the 21st Century World-system: New theoretical directions for the 21st century world-system. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood
Marx's Evolving Theory Of Exploitation
As the author of the definitive Communist Manifesto, Marx was arguably one of the most influential of 19th century economists, and certainly one of the most influential of the revolutionaries of the era. ecause of the overwhelming influence which he had on the political and philosophical history of the world, it is understandable that he has a great and even fundamentalist following. However, there remains a great deal of debate about what, precisely, constitutes "Marx's Marxism," as Kliman (1997) would call it. One of the difficulties in pinpointing authentic Marxism is the fact that Marx was hardly consistent in his writings throughout his lifetime, but continued to think and evolve as time progressed. (Kliman, 1997; Howard, 1990) If one were to compare Marx's "Alienated Labor" (1994) and Capital (1961/1967), for example, one would see a definite change in his perspective on the way in which…
Howard, M. & King, J. A History of Marxian Economics: Volume II, 1929-1990. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1990.
Kliman, A. "A Contribution to the Ongoing Inquiry into the Existence of Marx's Marxism"
Submitted for discussion to the International Working Group in Value Theory. Miniconference at the Eastern Economic Association Conference. Washington, D.C.,
Lee, C. "Marx's Labour Theory of Value Revisited." Cambridge Journal of Economics 17, 1993.
Nearing the end of the 1960s, the analytic or language philosophy became the central focus point which led to the isolation of the classroom setting and the problems that came with it (Greene, 2000).
Most of the educational philosophers of the time were inclined towards restricting themselves to the official aspects and problems like the sovereignty of the system without any influence from the society and the surrounding environment and the assessment of the calls and school structure conducted for its growth or for the progression of the epistemology that it embodied (Greene, 2000).
All those setups that seemed to be coming across as invasive or seemed to add a personalized bias where it didn't belong were quickly identified and removed. This was one of the reasons that led to the obsession of the possible consequences that could exist due to the practicality of the philosophical theories. Inflexibility was adeptly…
Aleman, a.M. (1999). Que Culpa Tengo Yo? Performing Identity and College Teaching. Educational Theory 49, no. 1: 37-52;
Arons, S. (1984). Playing Ball with the Rodriguez Court: Three Strikes and You're Out. Educational Theory 34, no. 1: 23-27.
Brameld, T. et al., (1952). Existentialism and Education. Educational Theory 2, no. 2.
Buchmann, M. (1987). Impractical Philosophizing about Teachers' Arguments. Educational Theory 37, no. 4: 361-411.
Russian psychologist ygotsky's Sociocultural Theory, with Input and Interaction Theory. Beginning with a definition of both theories the paper will then note how the two theories differ and where they are similar in their approach as well as how they are applied to everyday issues such as teaching language.
Sociocultural theory was first conceived and developed by Russian psychologist Lev Semyonovich ygotsky's, (1896-1934). His most productive years were at the Institute of Psychology in Moscow (1924-34), where he expanded his ideas on cognitive development, particularly the relationship between language and thinking. His writings emphasized the roles of historical, cultural, and social factors in cognition and argued that language was the most important symbolic tool provided by society. His book, "Thought and Language" is a classic text in psycholinguistics' theoretical contributions to the development of curricula and teaching strategies. (Forman, Minick, Stone 1993)
ygotsky was interested in applying Marxist…
Vygotsky was interested in applying Marxist social theory to individual psychology. The approach he took to cognitive development is sociocultural, working on the assumption that 'action is mediated and cannot be separated from the milieu in which it is carried out' (Wertsch, 1991) He devised the sociocultural theory that subsequently influenced the development of the constructivist movement. (Jaramillo, 1996) Vygotsky's sociocultural theory of learning contends that intelligence in humans has its origins from within our society of culture. Individual cognitive advancement thus occurs first as interaction with one's social environment followed by interaction within oneself, e.g. internalization. (Brown, 1996) These two phases observed in classroom settings shows that the first phase of the cognitive process for students is when students encourage, support and guide each other while learning. This is followed by students forming their own conclusions based on the evidence they have observed and then resolve conflict by articulating their arguments. (Wertsch).
An important concept in Vygotsky's theory is that the potential for cognitive development is limited to a certain time span which he calls the 'zone of proximal development (Kearsley 1994). The zone of proximal development is defined as having four learning stages. These stages range from the lower limit of what the student knows and the upper limits of what the student has the potential of accomplishing. This seems to be very roughly analogous to concepts of intelligent quotients and testing in modern education.
Vygotsky's zone of proximal development is the zone in which students can solve problems collaboratively and learn from one another. Or stated a different way, students may be able to complete some tasks independently; never the less, in order for them to increase their level of potential development, students need to work with others. This collaborative zone stems from the idea that learning is social and happens when speech and activity come together. Knowledge does not originate from within us, according to Vygotsky, but instead we learn from our environment: when a student learns arithmetic or writing, he or she is internalizing external knowledge (Brown).
Karl Marx was one of the most popular and prominent economists the society has ever produced. Born in 1818 in Prussia, Marx would come to activate in fields such as sociology, economy, history or journalism. In his economic activity, he uncovered a series of economic principles regarding the functioning of the society and the economy in the context of capitalism, commonly integrated under the generic umbrella of Marxism. The Marxian theories draw from the Marxist ideology, yet they are considered ideologically independent (oemer, 2002).
The Marxian economic theories oppose the previous theories of Adam Smith, who relied of productivity and wages; Marx, on the other hand, promoted the role of labor to attaining economic gains. Marx contends that the specialization of the labor force leads to a decrease in the wages and that ultimate value of the goods and services is not able to reflect the value of…
Munro, J.H.. Some basic principles of Marxian economics. University of Toronto. http://www.economics.utoronto.ca/munro5/MARXECON.htm accessed on October 1, 2012
Prychitko, D.L. Marxism. Library of Economics and Liberty. http://www.econlib.org/library/Enc/Marxism.html accessed on October 1, 2012
Richards, A. (2002). Development and modes of production in Marxian economics: Harwood fundamentals of applied economics. Routledge Roemer, J.E. (1989). Analytical foundations of Marxian economic theory. Cambridge University Press
(2012). Marxian economics. http://www.investopedia.com/terms/m/marxian-economics.asp#axzz282TzXTAm accessed on October 1, 2012
Marxism and Feminism
Marxism is a theory of economic system while feminism is exclusively connected with relationship between men and women so how do these two could possibly unite. An interesting question- the answer to which lies in understanding the basic structure of Marxism on which feminism is loosely based. Alternatively, we can first understand what feminism is all about and see how it gets its inspiration from Marxism. Feminism is the result of women liberation movement, which began somewhere in the 18th century and gained momentum in late 19th century. During this time women realized that they were not being treated the same way as men and everything was viewed through masculine binoculars. In other worlds, it was found that males were completely dominating every area including 'thinking' and this resulted in women liberation movement, which ultimately led to feminism. Feminism today exists in various forms and is characterized…
1. Cliff, Tony 1984. Class Struggle and Women's Liberation. London: Blackwell.
2. Dunayevskaya, R. Women's liberation and the dialectics of revolution: Reaching for the future. Detroit: Wayne State University Press. 1996
3. Hartmann, Heidi. 1981. "The Unhappy Marriage of Marxism and Feminism: Toward a More Progressive Union." In Lydia Sargent, ed. op. cit., 1981:1-42.
4. Terrell Carver, Department of Politics, University of Bristol, Marxism and Feminism: Living with your 'Ex', PSA Annual Conference 6-8 April 2004
While this does not seem ethically questionable on the surface, it is certainly questionable when one considers that the only way for a capitalist to keep being a capitalist is to keep acquiring capital, and the only way to acquire capital is to exploit labor for profit. This means that the bourgeoisie must oppress the proletariat in order to continue to exist, and that the proletariat must struggle to survive.
Some may say that this is not an ethical problem -- merely the brutal nature of the world. Even if this were so, it becomes an ethical problem when considered politically, and, as Marx and Engel assert, "every class struggle is a political struggle" (p. 46). In a country that binds itself morally to the concept of inalienable political rights, the decision of the highest court in the land to grant enormous political "voice" to entities whose necessary economic purpose…
Marx, K., Engels, F. (1998) The Communist Manifesto. London: Verso.
Marx, K., Engels, F., Levinsky, S. (1996) Das Kapital. Washington, D.C: Regnery Gateway.
Mayer, C. (March 1990) Personalizing the impersonal: corporations and the Bill of Rights. Hastings Law Journal, Vol. 41, No. 3.
Kairys, D. (Jan. 22, 2010) Money isn't speech and corporations aren't people. Slate.com. Retrieved from http://www.slate.com/articles/news_and_politics/
Multicultural Theories of Psychology
Multicultural Theories of Psychotherapy
Diagnosis, treatment and care of patient and their conditions are greatly influenced by cultural considerations. These actors determine beliefs and values related to health. Yet, these widespread claims about the real value of cultural role in healthcare do not come with sufficient research basis. Psychotherapists have, for a long time emphasized the need to provide multicultural psychotherapy so as to manage and reduce the ethnic and racial disparities in dealing with mental health issues. How multicultural competencies relate with other clinical process measures and treatment results has demonstrated heterogeneity it effect, though (Karen W. Tao & Jesse Owen, 2015). A famous quote by Slavoj Zizek on multi-culturalism deserves a mention here. "For the multiculturalist, white Anglo-Saxon Protestants are prohibited, Italians and Irish get a little respect, blacks are good, native Americans are even better. The further away we go, the more they…
FIVE IMPORTANT ASPECTS OF MULTICULTURAL COUNSELING COMPETENCIES. (2014, July 29). Retrieved from Delaware Valley University: http://www.delval.edu/blog/five-important-aspects-of-multicultural-counseling-competencies
Jairo N. Fuertes, Peggy Brady-Amoon, Navneet Thind, & Tiffany Chang. (2015). The Therapy Relationship in Multicultural Psychotherapy. Psychotherapy Bulletin.
Jesse Owen, Mark M. Leach, & Bruce Wampold. (2011). Multicultural Approaches in Psychotherapy: A Rejoinder. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 22-26.
Karen W. Tao, & Jesse Owen. (2015). A Meta-Analysis of Multicultural Competencies and Psychotherapy Process and Outcome. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 337-350.
On March 9th, 2013, two New York City police officers shot and killed a sixteen-year-old Kimani Gray, and claimed afterward that he had brandished a handgun at them after being told to show his hands (Goodman, 2013). More remarkable than the New York Police Department's killing of a young black male, however, was the outpouring of community grief and anger that followed the shooting. The following Monday, March 11th, saw what started as a nighttime vigil turn into a mob, parts of which ended up looting a ite Aid chain store and a local bodega, and by Wednesday night of that week, forty-six people had been arrested, a bricks had been thrown at both a police officer and a police van (Goodman, 2013). The explosion of disorder and discontentment took some in the media and policing community by surprise, but these evens could only be surprising to someone lacking…
Alanezi, F. (2010). Juvenile delinquency in kuwait: Applying social disorganization theory.
Domes, 19(1), 68-81.
Borg, M.J., & Parker, K.F. (2001). Mobilizing law in urban areas: The social structure of homicide clearance rates. Law & Society Review, 35(2), 435-466.
Brisman, A. (2011). Advancing critical criminology through anthropology. Western Criminology
This implies that a lot about us is built via our symbol systems. Burke's asserts that a correlation exists between the nonverbal and the oral. Burke believes that non-verbal language involve signs plus labels that help one to understand things. Burke asserts that when a person speaks the words that come from him are a product of the inspiration that emanate from the animalitic and symbolic nature of man.
Burk further explores language by asserting that the name 'situation' is fundamental in conducting an explanation of the social framework relating literary text. This is possible by stating that a text of literature originates from culturally 'problematic situations'. According to Burke, treating language from the focal point of 'situation' and strategies leads to the notion that literature proposes a progression of traditional art and various communication methods, for example, oral and other forms regarding symbolic expression. Burke further refutes the existence…
During his first few months in Paris, Marx became a communist and put forth his views in a plethora of writings known as the Economic and philosophical Manuscripts, that remained unpublished until the 1930s. It was also in Paris that Marx developed his life long association with Friedrich Engels. (Karl Marx, 1818-1883)
At the end of 1844 Marx was debarred from Paris and with Engels migrated to Brussels. In the initiation of 1848, Marx moved back to Paris when a revolution first emerged and onto Germany where he instituted again in Cologne, the Neue heinishce Zeitung. In later periods Marx settled in London, and was optimistic about the imminence of a new revolutionary emergence in Europe. He re-entered the Communist League and wrote two prolonged pamphlets on the 1848 revolution in France and its repercussions, the Class Struggles in France and the 18th Brumaire of Louis Bonaparte. He had a…
Adams, John. Ideology. Retrieved at http://www2.sunysuffolk.edu/westn/Ideology.html. Accessed on 28 April, 2005
Biography: Mao Zedong. Retrieved at http://il.essortment.com/maozedongbiogr_rkok.htm. Accessed on 28 April, 2005
Bunton, Hedley P. Forty Years of China: Chapter 11 - the thoughts and acts of Mao Tse-tung. 1988. Retrieved at http://www.acay.com.au/~bunton/china40y/chap11.html. Accessed on 28 April, 2005
Karl Marx, 1818-1883. Lectures on Modern European Intellectual History. Retrieved at http://www.historyguide.org/intellect/marx.html . Accessed on 28 April, 2005
ar in Iraq: An Application of Conflict Theory
The recent war with Iraq has been on the minds of people all across the world since well before it started. Many are worried that the United States will be seen as being too controlling, and that it should let the Iraqi people work out their own problems. Others, who are concerned about the threat of terrorist activity in this country and others, stick with the belief that the United States was right in their attempt to remove Saddam Hussein from power.
Regardless of which opinion one holds, there are theorists, both classical and modern, who have strong views on war. This is largely due to conflict theory, which is that life is largely characterized more by conflict that it is by consensus. Those who uphold this theory have different ways of looking at it, and the purpose of this paper is…
Collins, Randall. "Conflict Sociology." New York: Academic Press, 1974. 56-61.
Conflict. 2003. 10 April 2003 http://www.sunflower.com/~syber/sociology/html/conflict.html.
Dugger, William M., & Howard J. Sherman. "Institutional and Marxist theories of evolution." Journal of Economic Issues, 31 (1997): 991-210.
Introduction to sociological theory. 2003. 10 April 2003 http://www.dustbunny.fsnet.co.uk/Soci1.htm .
For example, students raised in highly literate households will be far more likely to excel in literacy skills than students raised in less literate households or in households in which English is not the first language. Educators disempower their students and themselves when they lose interest in questioning the methods they use or the material they teach. Curriculum that fails to address social ills, glossing over problematic areas of history, is profoundly disempowering. Discrimination, of race or gender, is the most obvious source of disempowerment but blatant discrimination is relatively rare in 21st century American schools. Subtle forms of discrimination remain extant, however.
Impoverished schools cannot hope to empower their students and therefore public policy must change to emphasize education far more in the federal budget. Prioritizing education will endow schools with the power they need to change deplorable social realities such as the growing income disparity in the United…
Almeida Moraes, R. (2003). "Antonio Gramsci on Culture." Encyclopedia of Morality and Education. Retrieved Mar 30, 2007 at http://www.vusst.hr/ENCYCLOPAEDIA/main.htm
Aloni, N. (1999). "Humanistic Education." Encyclopedia of Morality and Education. Retrieved Mar 30, 2007 at http://www.vusst.hr/ENCYCLOPAEDIA/main.htm
Giroux, H.A. (1999). "Cultural Studies as Public Pedagogy. Encyclopedia of Morality and Education. Retrieved Mar 30, 2007 at http://www.vusst.hr/ENCYCLOPAEDIA/main.htm
On their way the group picks up a hitchhiker who seems to be visibly sick from the heat and possibly crazy. However, the hitchhiker goes on to torment and violently threaten the group, so they leave him on the side of the road.
Once the group finally reaches the house, Kirk and Pam go and search for an old childhood swimming hole. When they reach the location, they find that its dried up but, hearing the sound of a nearby generator, the two go to a nearby farmhouse to see who is around. Kirk goes inside where he encounters Leatherface and becomes the villains first victim by way of a sledgehammer. Pam goes in to see what is taking Kirk so long and she too is killed by Leatherface by being hung onto a meathook.
Night soon approaches and the remaining friends begin to worry about Pam and Kirk. Jerry…
Hooper, Tobe. Texas Chainsaw Massacre. 1974.
Marx, Carl. Communist Manifesto. New York: Signet Classics, 1998.
Marx, Carl. Das Kapital. New York: Signet Classics, 1999.
FIGHT AGAINST TEOISM
A similar crime was witnessed on September 11, 2001. The United States of America saw the sad death of thousands of innocent people just because some people wanted to acquire their goals. This followed an economic crisis and many innocent civilians faced unnecessary loss of jobs. The political environment has ever since been changing constantly and the United States went into war against Afghanistan. After Afghanistan there was a pre-emptive action on Iraq against the regime of Saddam Hussein who was accused of possessing weapons of mass destruction.
With terrorism becoming more organized, the law enforcement bodies try to formulate more laws to provide security to their citizens. There have been many congressional debates on the Antiterrorism and the Immigration policies of the United States. The immigration laws have been made stricter with a better screening of who comes in and who does not. ecently the citizens…
(1) The History Guide -- Lectures on Modern European Intellectual History [ http://www.historyguide.org/intellect/marx.html ] Accessed on 27/08/2005
(2) Frank Elwell - The Sociology of Karl Marx [ http://www.faculty.rsu.edu/~felwell/Theorists/Marx/#Printable%20Version ] Accessed on 27/08/2005
(3) Conflict Theories [ http://www.sociology.org.uk/p2t3.htm ] Accessed on 27/08/2005
(4) Council on Foreign Relations [ http://cfrterrorism.org/home/ ] Accessed on 27/08/2005
Cambridge; Cambridge, MA: Polity Press
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Schumpeter, J (2010) Capitalism, Socialism and Democracy
Wacquant, L. (2009). Punishing the poor; the neoliberal government of social insecurity
Butler, T. (2007). Understanding social inequality. London; Thousand Oaks, Calif:
Cohen, G. (2009) Why not socialism?:
One of the most pragmatic applications of Marxist labor theory would be strong state regulations on capitalist enterprise: requiring, for example, mandatory profit sharing or a means to include all workers in the process of management and in rights to the means of production.
By the early 20th century, the Russian economy was rapidly industrializing, which dramatically altered social structures and institutions. The Czarist regime was showing signs of wear as a burgeoning bourgeoisie was amassing considerable wealth and corresponding political clout. At the same time, factories demanded a larger labor force and recruited from rural regions. Workers who migrated either permanently or temporarily to urban centers and to centers of industry experienced a significant breakdown in traditional social structures and family life. The first stage of the Russian Revolution occurred when the Czar was overthrown to form an aristocratic government, which was soon overtaken by the Bolshevik communists. Lenin…
trade also has contributed to the economic exploitation of women, as the
textile industry for example, which is predominantly women has seen jobs
lost and wages cut. Women are often forced to be teachers or work in day-
care centres, but not on equal footing with men. Women are victims as are
ethnic minorities, and they are forced into hourly jobs with low salaries,
high unemployment, and little unionization or official organization.
Furthermore, women are dependent on household duties, and through
mechanical technological improvements in household work, women have been
able to work more. This means that women are in fact tied to the family,
and that the family dictates that women's economic needs are of secondary
concern. As the household labourer, traditional duties are a priority, and
this notion of women contributing to the workforce as secondary to
household duties has contributed to women being treated as secondary…
acism in the United States is often seen as the methodical oppression of African-Americans and other people of color and the related ideology of white supremacy and black inferiority. These two aspects of racism have influenced the U.S. society from the early 1600's until the present (Bohmer 1998). It all comes down to everyone being different and people being unable to accept these differences.
I have often found myself when choosing people to date letting the fact of whether these people had any college education or not influence my decision on who to go out with and who not to. After evaluating that way of thinking, I have come to the realization that this is just silly and that this factor should not be something that I take into the equation when deciding who to go out with.
Effective communication occurs mainly at an unconscious level and this…
Bohmer, P., 1998, Marxist Theory of Racism and Racial Inequality, Available at:
Effective Communication Skills, 2009, Available at: http://www.maximumadvantage.com/
Horton, J, 2008, Why Looking Different Upsets Many People: Evolution, Available at:
Modern Political Thought
The transition from a feudal serf economy to a capitalist market economy was one of the fundamental shifts which have produced modernity as we know it. This essay aims to understand how the authors of The Prince and Leviathan, Niccolo Machiavelli and Thomas Hobbes would think about the transition and how these two great minds would relate to the issue of capitalism. Capitalism is a funny game that continually creates a series of boom and bust cycles throughout our modern history. Take the 1926 real estate craze that occurred in Florida. The United States economy was cooking along on all cylinders and good times were everywhere. No one was thinking about the Great Depression that would occur just a few years later. The rich and happy of 1926 figured that all was well as often is the case in Capitalism. Prosperity and growth were infinite --…
Works Cited, continued
Solomon, Jay. (2009). "U.S., India Expand Counterterrorism Cooperation." Wall Street Journal Online. (2009). Retrieved on November 25, 2009 from online.wsj at http://online.wsj.com/article/SB125907299030362349.htmlWallerstein , Immanuel. (1983): "Historical Capitalism." Thetford Press, Limited: Norfolk.
White, Michael (2007). "Machiavelli, A Man Misunderstood." Abacus.
This basically means that the criticism to feminist political theories resembles more the substance of other I theories.
6. First off, we should discuss the differences between system level theories and state level theories. What are the benefits to studying international relations at the state level? What are the drawbacks?
In its most basic formulation, state level theories of international politics refer to those ideas which place the country at the core of political actions and decisions. Examples of this sense include the previously discussed realism and transnationalism schools of thought, which argue that the state places itself based on its particular interests. The relevant example of system level theories refers to the class system theories, and they are characterized by the fact that decisions and actions in international politics are not established based on national interests, but relative to the desires and power of specific groups -- generally those…
Camestaro, N.A., Realism and Transnationalism: Competing Visions International Security, Boston University, Retrieved from http://www.bu.edu/law/central/jd/organizations/journals/international/volume25n1/documents/113-162.pdf on October 5, 2009
Hobson, J.M., the State and International Relations, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0521643910
Kemos, a., the Influence of Thucydides in the Modern World, Hellenic Resources Network, http://www.hri.org/por/thucydides.html last accessed on October 5, 2009
Sayre, B., 2003, Peace Studies' War Against America, Canadian Center for Teaching Peace, http://www.peace.ca/peacestudiescriticism.htm last accessed on October 5, 2009
A b) Consider the articles on behavioral economics at http://myweb.liu.edu/~uroy/eco54/histlist/behav-econ/index.html. Summarizethe main thrust of some of these articles. Based on these articles, what's your opinion of behavioral economics? Do you think behavioral economics represents a return to Veblen's ideas?
In many respects it can be agreed that behavioral economics has much in common with Veblen's theories. Behavioral economists agree with Veblen that in most cases humans act illogically, because they are driven by instincts rather than by pure reason.
Thorstein Veblen stated that economic processes are mainly affected by evolution, social relations, political situation and other factors which are more global than circulation of money and accumulation of wealth. His ideas of social relations domination in economics have much in common with ideas of behavioral economists, who state that economy is much affected by psychological factor, or behavior of social groups.
It's proved by a number of applied researches held…
Backhouse, Roger the ordinary business of life
Krugman, Paul Two cheers for Formalism available at http://web.mit.edu/krugman/www/ formal.html
Whalen, Charles J. Putting a Human Face on Economics Business week online 2001 available at http://myweb.liu.edu/~uroy/eco54/histlist/behav-econ/behav-finance.htm
Diop, Julie Explaining the Irrational Technology Review, November 2002
Tracy is a thirteen-year-old, Caucasian female, who is being raised by her mother, Melanie in Los Angeles. Also living in the home is Tracy's older brother Mason, who is fifteen. Tracy's parents are divorced, with Melanie as custodial parent. Tracy is in regular contact by telephone with her father, Travis, who is now remarried with a new baby. Travis is employed with a decent salary but has suffered periods of unemployment in the past; Melanie is a high-school dropout who receives child support but otherwise makes a basic subsistence income as a hairdresser for children and women, operating out of her own home. She is a recovering alcoholic who attends weekly A.A. meetings, but most of her social circle is from the recovery movement. For example, Melanie's boyfriend Brady, who is about ten years younger than Melanie but still substantially older than the children, also regularly stays at…
Bandura, A. (1994). Self-efficacy. In V.S. Ramachaudran (Ed.), Encyclopedia of human behavior (Vol. 4, pp. 71-81). New York: Academic Press.
Freud, S. (1963). The unconscious. Standard edition Vol. 14. London: Hogarth Press.
Gardner, S. (1991). The unconscious. In Neu, J. (Ed.) The Cambridge companion to Freud. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Greene, R. (2008). General systems theory. In Greene, R. (Ed.) Human behavior theory and social work practice. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers. 165-193.
They goal for globalization is to increase material wealth and the distribution of goods and services through a more international division of labor and then, in turn, a process in which regional cultures integrate through communication, transportation and trade. The overall theory is that if countries are tied together cooperatively economically, they will not have needed to become political enemies (Smith 2007). Notice the continuum here -- globalization, like modernization, is a process, but a process that insists movement from A to B. is not only desirable, but necessary to become part of the Global Club. hile this is primarily an economic determinant, nothing exists in a vacuum. Therefore, economics drive technological, social, cultural, political, and even biological factors. And, with this exchange of paradigms, there is transnational circulation of ideas, languages, popular culture, and communication through acculturation. Typically, we see the movement of globalization moving into the developing world…
Achebe, C 2000, Home and Exile, Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK.
Adams, W 2006, The Future of Sustainability: Re-THinking Environment and Development in the 21st Century, viewed December 2011, http://cmsdata.iucn.org/downloads/iucn_future_of_sustanability.pdf
Aristotle VII, 'Politics', pp. 1339a 29-30.
Bartlovich, C, Mannur, A (eds.) 2001, Marxism, Modernity and Post-Colonial Studies, Cambridge University Press, New York.
One of the most famous crises that was based on misinterpretation and a zero-sum game was the 1960's Cuban Missile Crisis when misperceptions or fake induced information could have led from a crisis to a conflict and a war.
Conflict in the international arena is often lead by perceptions and power politics games that often are not based on realistic evidence. Conflict is nonetheless a measurable phenomena as many conflicts are also based on other issues than misperceptions, power needs or behavioral changes in a country's leadership. These are different economic interests over material goods, like oil or gas, positional goods like political influence or territorial.
More and more, international relations theorists and analyzers have looked within countries and systems to understand the international arena. The internal struggles for power, equilibrium and social welfare are as important in the development of world politics as the aforementioned types of causes. From…
Jacoby, T. (2008) Understanding Conflict and Violence. New York: Routledge
Waltz, K. (2001) Man, the State, and the War. New York: Columbia University Press
Social and cultural capital enable access to educational institutions. Social and cultural capital also offer access to positions of power within organizations. The menial labor jobs that the Lithuanian immigrants do thwart social mobility.
The myth of the American Dream creates the illusion that capitalist social structures are beneficial and immutable. Immigrants like those depicted in the Jungle believe that hard work alone can lead to upward social mobility and a high quality of life. hen Jurgis and Ona arrive in Packingtown they are filled with the idealism that characterizes the American Dream. Their idealism quickly dissolves in the face of social norms and institutions that support a hierarchical, stratified society. For example, the first home they attempt to buy ended up being a scam.
Immigrants in the Packington community end up using deviant behavior to fulfill their needs. hether crime or corruption, deviant behaviors are a product of anomie,…
Sinclair, Upton. The Jungle.
In such situations, it becomes a necessity to have all the fields of learning and engagement to be within the identified fields for the youth. The society is a diverse avenue or entity that needs a clear pathway for understanding (Clinton 72). If the youth and all the people in the world are subjected to religious teachings without making affirmed considerations of the needs of the society, it becomes a hard way for many people to be successful.
The religious teachings must appreciate the importance of its followers interacting with the other members of the secular society. This establishes a fair ground where the young can grow and develop. If the society becomes very restrictive like within a Christian atmosphere, it becomes hard for the available avenues of growth and development to be executed by the available members. The young will not be at a stable avenue of relaying their…
Benton Mark Steven. Adolescent Faith Development as Related to the Influence of Christian School Teachers in Church of Christ K -- 12 Schools. ProQuest, 2008. Print 109
Bowen Kurt. Christians in a Secular World: The Canadian Experience. McGill-Queen's Press - MQUP, 2004. Print 204
Clinton, Tim, and Hawkins Ron. The Popular Encyclopedia of Christian Counseling: An Indispensable Tool for Helping People with Their Problems. Harvest House Publishers, 2011. Print
Cocklin, Sarah, Bruess, Clint and Greenberg, Jerrold; Exploring the dimensions of human sexuality. Sudbury, Mass: Jones and Bartlett, 2011 print.
The novel opens seven years after Gabo's mother, Ximena, was murdered by coyotes -- or paid traffickers -- during an attempt to cross the border. Her mutilated body was found, her organs gone -- sold most likely. Because of the fear surrounding this border town and the lure of the other side, all of the characters become consumed with finding afa. These people are neglected and abused. Like other fiction works on this topic (such as Cisneros's The House on Mango Street), The Guardians (2008) is rich in symbolism and flavored with Mexican aphorisms. The novel also shows the reader how complex and perilous border life is when you're living in between the United States and Mexico.
The book is important when attempting to understand the challenge of the border town life and it is, at the same time, a testament to faith, family bonds, cultural pride, and the human…
Giroux, Henry A. (2001). Theory and resistance in education (Critical studies in education and culture series). Praeger; Rev Exp edition.
San Juan (2002) states that the racism of sex in the U.S. is another element of the unequal political and economic relations that exist between the races in the American democracy. Women of color may even be conceived as constituting "a different kind of racial formation" (2002), although the violence inflicted against them as well as with familial servitude and social inferiority, testifies more sharply to the sedimented structures of class and national oppression embedded in both state and civil society (2002).
San Juan (2002) goes on to explore the articulations between sexuality and nationalism. "What demands scrutiny is more precisely how the categories of patriarchy and ethnonationalism contour the parameters of discourse about citizen identities" (2002). How the idea of nation is sexualized and how sex is nationalized, according to San Juan (2002), are topics that may give clues as to how racial conflicts are circumscribed within the force field of national self-identification.
Sexuality, San Juan (2002) suggests, unlike racial judgment is not a pure self-evident category. He states that it manifests its semantic and ethical potency in the field of racial and gendered politics. In the layering and sedimentation of beliefs about sexual liberty and national belonging in the United States, one will see ambiguities and disjunctions analogous to those between sexuality and freedom as well as the persistence of racist ideology.
Marx's theory explains poverty far better than those of the individualistic theorists. Many studies have shown that most of the working class poor are willing to work, and in fact, do work. Their wages are low, which results in the inability to attain their own source of income, so they continue to have to work for minimal wages. Without a higher income, they are unable to attain capital, or attend college to gain the knowledge for a higher position. Spencer and the other individualists' theories are illogical, in that those theorists blame the poor as a whole for their plight, without seeking outside sources of their poverty.
The Marxist theory of poverty is well documented throughout history. Even as far back as the middle ages, those who worked for the aristocracy, or the capitalist, found themselves with no way to gain property. They were often barred from owning land, subjected…
References ore, Tom. A Dictionary of Marxist Thought.
Cambridge, Harvard University Press, 1983.
Marx, Carl, and Engels, Frederick. The Communist Manifesto. 1848. The Australian National University. 2 Dec 2004. http://www.anu.edu.au/polsci/marx/classics/manifesto.html .
Spencer, Herbert." Microsoft Encarta Online Encyclopedia. 2004. 2 Dec 2004. http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761558093/Herbert_Spencer.html.
in "Piaf," Pam Gems provides a view into the life of the great French singer and arguably the greatest singer of her generation -- Edith Piaf. (Fildier and Primack, 1981), the slices that the playwright provides, more than adequately trace her life. Edith was born a waif on the streets of Paris (literally under a lamp-post). Abandoned by her parents -- a drunken street singer for a mother and a circus acrobat father -- Edith learns to fend for herself from the very beginning. As a natural consequence of her surroundings, she makes the acquaintance of several ne'er do wells. She rises above the lifestyles of the girls she grows up with who prostitute themselves for a living in the hope that they will eventually meet a benefactor with whom they can settle. Edith has a talent for singing and she indulges this interest by singing loudly in the streets.…
Beauvoir, Simone de, and Parshley, H.M. The Second Sex. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1993.pp. lv, 786
Eisenstein, Zillah R. The Radical Future of Liberal Feminism. The Northeastern Series in Feminist Theory. Northeastern University Press ed. Boston: Northeastern University Press, 1986.pp. xi, 260
Engels, Fredrick. "The Development of Utopian Socialism." Trans. Lafargue, Paul. Marx/Engels Selected Works. Revue Socialiste. Ed. Basgen, Brian. Vol. 3. New York: Progress Publishers, 1880. 95-151.
Origins of the Family, Private Property, and the State. 1894. Retrieved April 10, 2003 from. http://csf.colorado.edu/psn/marx/Archive/1884-Family/
Oppression of Class And Gender
Class and gender are two separate but related concepts in the sociological analysis and understanding of inequality and oppression in society. A definition of class is "A group of individuals ranked together as possessing common characteristics; as, the different classes of society; the educated class; the lower classes." (Definition of class)
According to the sociologist Max Weber class is defined in relation to the way that goods and services are distributed or allocated in a society.
All communities are arranged in a manner that goods, tangible and intangible, symbolic and material are distributed. Such a distribution is always unequal and necessarily involves power. "Classes, status groups and parties are phenomena of the distribution of power within a community."
(MAX WEER: asic Terms)
Class therefore refers to the categories in a society of those who have access to wealth and privilege and those who do not.…
"Advertising Images of Girls and Women." 1997 Children Now. Retrieved May 12, 2005. ( http://www.childrennow.org/media/medianow/mnfall1997.html )
Chaffins, S., Forbes, M., Fuqua, H.E., & Cangemi, J.P. 1995. "The Glass Ceiling: Are Women Where They Should Be." Education, 115(3), 380+. Retrieved May 12, 2005, from Questia database. ( http://www.questia.com )
Cohen, C.I. 2002. " Economic Grand Rounds: Social Inequality and Health: Will Psychiatry Assume Center Stage? Retrieved May 11, 2005. ( http://ps.psychiatryonline.org/cgi/content/full/53/8/937
"Changing Ideal Body Types over the Century." 2002. Retrieved May 12, 2005.
Geology was one of the sources of Marx's views about social system and it's structure (the idea of formation). Among the biological discoveries that influenced on Marx's sociological views were the discovery of cell, cell theory of the organism's structure and the most important was evolutionary teaching of Darwin that was stated in work "The origins of species." Marx saw biological analogue of his theories in Darwin's work and it was a stimulus for further work as well.
The basic question of sociology is a question about interaction of material and spiritual values in the life of society.
Marx introduced a new and independent variable in this process, which plays a key role in the relations that exist in society and it was a mode of material production. Besides he supported the views about the initial role of being in relation to society's consciousness, but not in the sense of…
Korsch, Karl Marxism and Philosophy, Article 1923 available on web: http://www.marxists.org/archive/korsch/1923/marxism-philosophy.htm
Marxism, Article available on web: http://www.webref.org/sociology/m/marxism.htm
Cliff Slaughter Marxism and the class struggle, Article 1975 available on web: http://www.marxists.org/reference/subject/philosophy/works/en/slaughte.htm
Blunden, Andy Origins of Marxism Article available on web: http://www.marxists.org/reference/subject/philosophy/help/marxism.htm
US PIVATE PISONS & PISONE LABO
First Theory: Karl Marx
Analysis of the Evidence
Second Theorist: Max Weber
Analysis of Evidence
The event being investigated in this study was published in the New York Times on May 24. 2014. The article is about the very low pay for working prisoners in the U.S. private jails and about allegations about them being exploited. The article is written by Ian Urbina and is titled "Using Jailed Migrants as a Pool of Cheap Labor." The article is available at the following link: http://www.nytimes.com/2014/05/25/us/using-jailed-migrants-as-a-pool-of-cheap-labor.html.
The article describes the plight of illegal immigrants into the U.S. and how the government policy has prevented them from being employed in the U.S. However, when these very illegal immigrants land up in the prisons, especially in the private prisons of the country, they are forced to contribute labor at very low rates or even without pay.…
Bloch, Maurice. Marxist Analyses And Social Anthropology. Print.
Bowles, Paul. Capitalism. Harlow, England: Pearson/Longman, 2007. Print.
Engels, Friedrich. On Historical Materialism. New York: International Publishers, 1940. Print.
Massey, Garth. Readings For Sociology. New York, N.Y.: W.W. Norton & Co., 2009. Print.
reason than his critique of Plato, Popper provides much food for thought about political philosophy, and especially the political philosophies underlying American society and government. So much modern critical theory and political philosophy is rooted in Plato that it is easy to take for granted that much of what is said in The Republic and other texts needs to be scrutinized. Plato was brilliant but not sacrosanct. I appreciate that Popper urges his readers to criticize Plato and cease believing Plato to be a sacred text. Criticizing Plato actually fulfills Plato's very own objective in his writings, which is to stimulate dialogue and discussion, promote open-mindedness, and encourage critical thought rather than blind faith. What else is the cave analogy if not an urging to readers to step outside the shadow world of falsehood and into the light of truth?
Ironically, Popper champions Plato by critiquing his arguments. Popper is…
"And there is, above all, that whole sphere of music whose lifeblood is standardization: popular music, jazz, be it hot, sweet, or hybrid" (Adorno, 2004, p. 212). Taking this definition, then within the line of disdainful art we must place hakespeare, Longfellow, even Hemingway; all of whom used a pattern to their writing, not simply for mass consumption, but as a skeletal structure of being. Within this rubric, then, "it is critical… to distinguish between the motivations for and the actual effects of listening" (Christenson, p. 103). Thus, despite the fact that Cook's "Permanent" follows a poetic pattern, the two major considerations again come forward: the motivation for writing and performing as a tribute to a specific occasion, and the relevance and commonality of reaching out for an emotional connection between humans.
Finally, for Adorno, the "vulgarization and enchantment… dwell together in the arrangements which have colonized large areas of…
Since this type of music is a commodity, and standardization means it follows a pattern that is familiar to audiences, it must have little social value, other than brief entertainment. "And there is, above all, that whole sphere of music whose lifeblood is standardization: popular music, jazz, be it hot, sweet, or hybrid" (Adorno, 2004, p. 212). Taking this definition, then within the line of disdainful art we must place Shakespeare, Longfellow, even Hemingway; all of whom used a pattern to their writing, not simply for mass consumption, but as a skeletal structure of being. Within this rubric, then, "it is critical… to distinguish between the motivations for and the actual effects of listening" (Christenson, p. 103). Thus, despite the fact that Cook's "Permanent" follows a poetic pattern, the two major considerations again come forward: the motivation for writing and performing as a tribute to a specific occasion, and the relevance and commonality of reaching out for an emotional connection between humans.
Finally, for Adorno, the "vulgarization and enchantment… dwell together in the arrangements which have colonized large areas of music" (Adorno, 2001, p. 41). That is to say that the only viable way art may exist is without entertainment value. This has some truth, one would certainly not argue that many of the films of the 1930s, for instance, showing synchronized swimming, lavish set productions of tap dance, and tuneful songs with very little soul, were nothing but grand escapes for the masses from the ravages of the Great Depression.
However, lighting, electronic enhancement, instrumentation,
East Asian Civilizations
(1) Unequal Treaties
(2) sino-japanese war 3
(3) MARCH 1ST MOVEMENT
(1) CHINA IN DECLINE
(1) CHINA's CIVIL WAR 7
(1) UNEQUAL TREATIES
The growing demand for Chinese tea, silk and ceramics by ritish had created severe trade imbalance for ritain. The ritish were also losing their silver reserves in exchange for Chinese goods. In late 1930's government of Great ritain found "opium" as a solution for resolving trade imbalance. Opium, which is more addictive than tea, was being supplied to China by ritish merchants. As demand for opium increased in China, ritain's imports increased and in this way silver bullion was flowing out of the China into ritain.
However Chinese government (Qing government) took serious steps to stop the trade of opium. Lin Zexu, which was appointed as an Imperial Commissioner for the Destruction of Opium, started an anti-opium campaign. During the campaign, opium stores were…
CIIC. "Formation of the Chinese Civilization." 2001. China Internet Information Center. .
Devine, Richard. "Japanese Rule in Korea After the March First Uprising." Monumenta Nipponic 52.4 (1997).
Dyke, Van and Paul Arthur. Tha Canton trade: Life and Enterprise on the China Coast 1700-1845. Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press, 1998.
Liu, Li and Xingcan Chen. The Archaeology of China: From the Late Paleolithic to the Early Bronze Age. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2012.