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Masculine in Happy Together
The paper will focus upon the issue of masculinity in Happy Together, a film written and directed by acclaimed director, Wong Kar Wai. "Happy Together" is also the name of a song by The Turtles. It was a popular lovesong about the classic story of boy meets girl and they fall in love. Happy Together is another sort of lovesong, but one more bittersweet about when boy meets boy, and they cannot stop falling in and out of love. The film takes place in the late 1990s in Argentina. Ho Po-Wing and Lai Yu-Fai are young lovers from Hong Kong on holiday in Argentina. They once bought a lamp of a famous waterfall that exists in Argentina. The couple is madly in love with each other, whether they are together or broken up. Over the course of their excursion/road trip in Argentina to the…
Wai, W.K. (1997) Happy Together. 97 minutes.
Zhang, Y. (2004) Chinese National Cinema. Routledge: NY.
Male Expression of Love
Men and women are equal but different. They are vastly different, in particular, with the expression of genuine emotions. If women naturally and openly show or express love, most men are uncomfortable with it. It is, however, not true that men do not have feelings or do not fall in love as comfortably as women do. Some men often refuse to acknowledge that they have fallen in (or out of) love, taking it as a sign of defeat or weakness, but most men, who fall short in the expression, simply do not have the training or orientation for it (Haggerty 1999), And if women perceive love as their very lives, men view it as only a part of theirs.
Men must keep their heads on their work or business on a daily basis, not just to survive but to move on or achieve some pursuits, which…
Askman.com. Men and Love. http://www.askman.com/daing/datingadvice/36_dating_tips.html
Fisher, Antwone. Who Will Cry for the Little Boy?, first edition. William Morrow, 2002
Haggerty, George. Men in Love. Columbia University Press, 1999
James, Larry. Men Have Feelings, Too, (a Discourse in Support of a Safe Place to Express Feelings). CelebrateLove.com, 2003. http://www.celebratelove.com/support.htm
Three ethical virtues that are elicited by a feminist ethical philosophy include caring, empathy, and collaboration. Gilligan (1982) and especially Noddings (2010) traces the evolution of these three virtues to biology, claiming that their maternal instinct predisposes females of any species to exhibit traits that promote the behaviors that sustain families. Caring, empathy, and collaboration promote family cohesion and communitarian lifestyles, which are conducive to child rearing. Contrast these three classically “feminine” virtues with traditionally male ethical ideals like individualism, cunning, and power and it is clear how political, social, and economic institutions come to be presided over by men. If men create the normative culture of the public sphere, then the public sphere will be naturally dominated by men—or at least persons who fit the ideal framework for success in those realms. On the contrary, the private sphere continues to be dominated by women who establish the normative culture…
James ond is presently one of the principal sexual concepts that the film puts across. Daniel Craig's ond is no longer seen as a very effective killing tool, as it shown as an object of admiration.
Craig's physical appearance is no longer a crime deterrent, as it is actually used with the purpose of impressing viewers. This ond is no longer yelling, as he speaks in a gentle voice and some might even be inclined to consider that he has become more sensitive. When considering ond's overall development, it appears that society is becoming more and more obsessed with the masculine body image and less preoccupied with manliness as an intellectual concept.
The masses in the 60s saw masculinity as an idea that needed to be exploited and largely believed that men had to be particularly aggressive in order to truly be appreciated by individuals around them. However, trends changed…
Caunce, Stephen, "Relocating Britishness," (Manchester University Press, 2004).
Lehman, Peter, "Masculinity: Bodies, Movies, Culture," (Routledge, 2001)
Pang, Laikwan and Wong, Day, "Masculinities and Hong Kong Cinema," (Kent State University Press, 2005)
More recently, Miedzian (1991) has studied peer pressure, the socialization process, and military impact that has resulted in violence becoming standard behavior in males, and Thompson (1991) has demonstrated that violent acts are more often performed by males with greater masculine gender orientations.
Another slant on this topic was placed by West and Zimmerman (1987) in "Doing Gender," that looked at gender not in terms of a set of traits that are held by individuals, but rather as something people do together in their social interactions. In this case, gender is basically about social interaction and establishing relationships. It is an integral part of all daily interactions. Where a person's actions in "doing gender" simultaneously produce, reproduce, sustain and legitimate the social meanings accorded to gender. The authors state that gender is a fundamental aspect of all social relationships, in terms that no one can possibly not do gender if…
Carrigan, C., Connell, R.W., & Lee, J. (1985), Toward a new sociology of masculinity, Theory and Society, 14 (5), 551-604.
Cloward, Richard a. And Lloyd E. Ohlin. 1960. Delinquency and Opportunity: a theory of delinquent gangs. Glencoe, IL: Free Press.
Connell, RW. 1985. Masculinities. Cambridge, Polity Press.
Connell, R.W. And Messerschmidt, J. (2005) Hegemonic Masculinity, Rethinking the Concept Gender and Society. Gender & Society, 19(6), 829-859
Women un Fotune 500 companies and men may become 'stay-at-home' dads. Howeve, despite the fact that a woman has made a cedible bid fo the pesidency in ecent memoy, and the geate success of women in pofessional life, it is likely that 'soft-spoken' is still viewed as a moe desiable attibute fo a female. Attibutes such as 'athletic' may have become moe gende-neutal, given the geate pemeation of women in spots and some of the most limiting steeotypes, that women ae moe 'shy' might have deceased to some degee. The list of positive female and male attibutes would likely have moe convegence today, and thus thee would be moe gende-neutal values. Howeve, some taits would likely still be seen as moe desiable fo men and women along the lines of the oiginal list, although to a lesse degee -- leadeship skills might be seen as moe impotant fo males to…
references to different words for assertiveness, presumably because women were discouraged from being assertive in Bem's view, when she first constructed the test. Today, we might be more apt to ask: why is assertiveness seen as the most positive value for men, and for women wishing to assume what are considered more masculine positions in the workforce? What does this say about our culture as well as about gender stereotypes? Being a good listener is equally as important as being a leader, as is intelligence and open-mindedness.
Disorder does not descend from Heaven,
It is the spawn of a woman. 10
Contemporaneous with relocating the capital from Edo to Tokyo was the drawing up of the 'Memorandum on Reform of the Imperial Palace' in which Article 1 states that the emperor would 'deign to hear about all political matters' in the front throne room adding that 'women are to be prohibited from entering the front throne room' 11.
Yoshii Tomozane, enior ecretary for Court Affairs peremptorily dismissed all court ladies, after which a rare few were reselected for appointment. In his dairy, he noted: 'this morning, the court ladies were dismissed in their entirety… the power of women already lasting for centuries has been erased in a single day. My delight knows no bounds." 12.
In this way the power of the 'hens' was removed from the 'Enlightened regime' of Meiji rule and suppressed throughout the country.…
Adler, Philip. World Civilizations. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth / Thomson, 2008
De Vos, George & Wagatsuma, Hiroshi, "Value Attitudes Towards Role Behavior of Women in Two Japanese Villages," American Anthropologist, 63, (1961).
Hastings, S.A. "Gender and Sexuality in Modern Japan" a Companion to Japanese History, Blackwell Pub., 2007
Hendry, Joy, Understanding Japanese Society. London: Routledge, 1991.
234). Culturally, trainers may simply be paying more attention to girls' injuries due to our culture's tendency to protect females more than males (Tierney, et al., 2005, p. 278) and/or boys may simply under-report concussions due to "macho" tendencies to play through pain in order to continue playing (Covassin, et al., 2012, p. 926). Hormones may contribute to the greater incidence of concussions among female high school athletes because researchers have found that estrogen protects male rats from brain trauma but actually makes female rats more vulnerable to brain trauma (Makdissi, et al., 2013, p. 319). Whether caused anatomically, culturally, hormonally or for some other reason, the fact remains that girls are reportedly highly more likely to sustain concussions in sports such as soccer and basketball. Consequently, gender matters in the sports injury of concussion.
Development of a masculine identity is psychologically fundamental for males and particularly for…
Allan, E.J., Gordon, S.P. & Iverson, S.V., Fall 2006. Re/thinking Practices of Power: The Discursive Framing of Leadership in the Chronicle of Higher Education. Review of Higher Education, 30(1), pp. 41-68.
Bourdieu, P., 1978. 'Sport and Social Class,' Social Science Information, 17(6): 819-840. [Online]
Available at: http://ssi.sagepub.com/content/17/6/819.ciatation [Accessed 21 May 2013].
Chesebro, J.W. & Fuse, K., Summer 2001. The Development of a Perceived Masculinity Scale. Communication Quarterly, 49(3), pp. 203-278.
Gender reflection: On identifying with a particular gender
Until I took a class in critical theory, I never gave much thought to my gender. I am sure that some of this is by virtue of being a straight male. I have female friends who have experienced discrimination or harassment in school and at work by virtue of not being male. I do not believe I have experienced such direct prejudice as a result of my gender. Also, physical fitness is a very important part of my life, and many of my female friends and girlfriends have been very passionate about working out, yet unlike me they have been told not to lift weights or box because this would give them 'bulky' and masculine-looking muscles (which is not true). Obviously, I have never faced such discrimination based upon my interests or because I look strong.
I have come to understand that…
"Dude, you're a fag." YouTube. 20 Sept 2011. [8 Apr 2013]
Fogel, Curtis. Review of Kath Woodward, Boxing, Masculinity and Identity: The 'I' of the Tiger.
New York: Routledge, 2007. Gender Forum: An Internet Journal of Gender Studies, 19 (2007): 1-2. [8 Apr 2013] http://www.genderforum.org/issues/illuminating-gender-ii/kath-woodward-boxing-masculinity-and-identity-the-i-of-the-tiger-new-york-routledge-2007/
The ranks of male nurses may be growing, but social perceptions have not. Thus, while much has changed in terms of expanding the ranks of the healthcare profession to nontraditional gender roles in all fields of medicine, perceptions that females are less committed to being physicians remain, and males continue to face social barriers in nursing.
Arnst, Catherine. "Are There Too Many Women Doctors?" usinessweek. April 17, 2008.
Accessed December 1, 2010.
Gorgos, Diana. "Why are there so few male nurses?" Dermatology Nursing. October 2002,
Accessed from FindArticles.com, December 1, 2010.
Nainggolan, Lisa. "Female doctors provide best HF care." The Heart. January 23, 2009.
Accessed December 1, 2010. http://www.theheart.org/article/936839.do
Nye, Robert a. "Medicine and Science as Masculine "Fields of Honor" Women, Gender, and Science: New Directions, 2nd ser., 12 (1997): 60
Westbrook, Mary T., and Lena a. Nordholm. "Characteristics of Women Health Professionals
with Vertical, Lateral, and…
Arnst, Catherine. "Are There Too Many Women Doctors?" Businessweek. April 17, 2008.
Accessed December 1, 2010.
Gorgos, Diana. "Why are there so few male nurses?" Dermatology Nursing. October 2002,
Thus, though she must perform a "masculine" role in order to be successful, she must perform it in a "feminine" way, and thus disrupt the idea of gender.
This also ties in quite nicely with Cullen's assertion that the modern individual is defined by love and connection with their family, rather than by their place in society. The very fact that meg is the one to save Charles allace is a further affirmation of the willingness -- on the part of both Meg and L'Engle -- to buck the societal roles that have been laid out for women and instead to embrace their own identity based on their love for others, and to a greater or lesser degree the love that others bear them. Of course, the romance that is still blossoming between Meg and Calvin still entrenches this novel somewhat in the old mentality of romance and love, but…
Culler, Jonathan. Literary Theory: A Very Short Introduction.
L'Engle, Madeleine. A Wrinkle in Time. New York: Yearling, 1973.
Again, this feminine passivity outshines masculine action in its ability to experience divine and even human love.
As Crashaw continues, the erotic imagery becomes more emboldened and perhaps slightly more ambiguous, not clouding or confounding interpretation but suggesting several alternatives that work towards the same end of demonstrating the purity of passivity in its relation to the divine. After setting up the concept of virginity, love, and an active passivity with the juxtaposition of love with blood, Crashaw either extends or shifts this image further with the lines, "Scarse has she Blood enough to make / a guilty sword blush for her sake" (25-6). There is the clear surface image that juxtaposes the child with the soldier; the child is so small that she would scarcely stain the sword of a soldier that slays her, and already the grotesque nature of this image emerges as a means of shocking the…
Crashaw, Richard. "The Flaming Heart." Accessed 29 May 2012. http://www.bartleby.com/236/29.html
Crashaw, Richard. "A Hymn to the Name and Honor of the Admirable Sainte Teresa." Accessed 29 May 2012. http://www.bartleby.com/236/28.html
Davis, Walter. The Meditative Hymnody of Richard Crashaw. ELH, Vol. 50, No. 1 (Spring, 1983): 107-29.
Gallagher, Lowell. Crashaw and Religious Bias in the Literary Canon. In Early Modern English Poetry, Patrick Cheney et al., eds. New York: Oxford University Press, 2007.
Sociology and Feminist Theories on Gender Studies
Postmodern Feminism in "Cherrie Moraga and Chicana Lesbianism"
In the article entitled, "Cherrie Moraga and Chicana Lesbianism," author Tomas Almaguer analyzes and studies the dynamics behind Moraga's feminist reading of the Chicano culture and society that she originated from. In the article, Almaguer focuses on three elements that influenced Moraga's social reality as she was growing up: the powerful effect of the Chicano culture, patriarchal orientation, and homosexuality that she experienced within the context of her nationality.
Chicano culture centers on race as an indicator of one's cultural orientation, while patriarchy serves as the ideology that is prevalent in Moraga's social reality. Homosexuality, particularly, lesbianism, is Moraga's release from the somewhat repressing role that she perceives women receive in her culture. Thus, lesbianism becomes Moraga's alternative sexual orientation to a heterosexually conservative Chicano culture. Using the following factors concerning the cultural, social, and…
271-272). This section claims that fathers tend to invest more in terms of time and money to their newborn baby boys than girls. When seen in the light of the patriarchal paradigm, I suppose it could be understood that more value is attached to baby boys than girls. Nonetheless, I find it surprising from my own point-of-view, since I would have thought that all children are equally important in their parents' eyes.
Another surprising thing is that women do not ascribe more importance to either baby boys or girls, but give either the same time and attention. Another surprising fact is however that an unmarried mother is more likely to marry the father of the unborn child when it is a boy. This could be connected to the fact that an older male figure in a child's life is seen as more important for boys than for girls. I suppose…
Resources have provided me with friendships and acquaintances across the human spectrum. As result, my best friend, colleagues, and supervisors are homosexuals.
I believe my professional background has contributed a great amount to the fact that I can see human beings for their inner qualities such as integrity and ethics. These are issues that manifest themselves across the human spectrum, regardless of sexual orientation, race, class, or gender. If any person manifests a solid set of values and integrity, I respect them on this basis. Surely this is better than jumping to generalized conclusions as a result of differences in orientation or appearance. I have learned to believe that everyone is truly equal, and entitled to the rights guaranteed by our constitution.
The messages internalized during my growing years steered me somewhat towards a prejudicial view, especially regarding gay people. I received no message regarding homosexuality from my parents, since they never discussed the issue with me.
They did however teach us to respect women. The older children and peers I grew up with furthermore provided only one-sided, stereotypical views of gay people. Gay bashing was a common practice, including name-calling. All my friends, including me, had anti-gay sentiments, and made no secret of this. I grew up in a neighborhood where my friends were mostly male, and I was in strong competition with both my friends and my brothers to show off my masculinity. I played baseball, football and basketball, and enjoyed hunting and fishing. Having grown up in this environment, I maintained my prejudicial perceptions until I attended college.
College life provided me with a new set of peers, friends, and a new perspective regarding gay people. I met people from across the human spectrum, and realized that there was no single "right" way to do or view things. I am therefore proud to say that I am able to change my views when I see that these are no longer necessary.
Communication -- Gender and Communication
The parameters of gender have undergone a dramatic expansion through the efforts of Science and enlightened feminists such as Nancy Mairs. Their contributions allow a multitude of genders and new definitions that account for the richness of human sexuality. As a result, femininity can be defined in the broadest and richest terms as a set of psychological traits unconstrained by classically masculine and feminine boundaries.
"Femininity" is best defined as sensitivity and awareness, a firm set of psychological traits that is not reflected in behavior. Actions are not masculine or feminine, but approaches to them are masculine or feminine. The classically oppressive confinement of "normal" gender to male and female is no longer viable, for humanity exists in a far greater array of sexual characteristics than genitals can distinguish or dictate. Anne Fausto-Sterling offers many examples of Science's growing acceptance of broad gender range, reaching…
Fausto-Sterling, A. (2000). The five sexes: Why male and female are not enough. Retrieved on February 19, 2013 from www.uta.edu Web site: http://www.uta.edu/english/timothyr/Fausto-Sterling.pdf
Mairs, N. (1986). Plaintext essays by Nancy Mairs. Tucson, AZ: University of Airzona Press.
Typical examples include the occupations held by males and females and their recreational interests. Social role theory is particularly important in connection with sexual mores that prescribe very different sexual and courtship roles based on gender.
Connection between concept and article:
The article Gender Is a Relative Term in Politics, Study Finds incorporates the concept of social role theory in the way it describes the extreme rarity of female political candidates facing male candidates in high-level face-to-face debates in connection with political races. In the Unites States, it has been almost a quarter of a century since a male and female candidate for high-level national political office faced each other in a debate.
This is a direct function of the extent to which social expectation influences males and females differently to aspire to political office or achieve other positions of relative social power.
While the article focuses on the issue…
" This temporary lesson actually applies on a wider scale to life. Clothing, in our society, is closely integrated with sexuality and gender definition. Men often determine who they will have a sexual interest in based on the clothing of the person in question. A woman in a housecoat is not generally seen as a sexual target in the same way that a woman in a leather miniskirt is. ecause women are seen as weaker than men and as belonging to them sexually based on the gender roles of our society, men tend to think they have power over people wearing women's clothes, whether that person be a boy or a girl. This is a power they would not assume that they have over boys, and it is the association with femininity and the stereotypes that are perpetrated about females in general that causes this.
A reflection of how gender…
Kortenhaus, Carole. "Gender Role Stereotyping in Children's Literature: An Update." Sex Roles a Journal of Research. February, 1993. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m2294/is_n3-4_v28/ai_13810759
Peters, John. "Gender Socialization of Adolescents in the Home: Research and Discussion." Adolescence. Winter, 1994. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m2248/is_n116_v29/ai_16477249
Witt, Susan. "Parental Influence on Children's Socialization to Gender Roles." Adolescence. Summer, 1997. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m2248/is_n126_v32/ai_19619406
Women should feel as if they have the right to exercise their potential in stereotypically masculine and feminine occupations, to realize their full possibilities as human beings. In fact, one of the possible mistakes of the feminist movement of the 1970s was to stress that for women to work in traditionally male occupations was the only path to liberation. Of course, if a woman wishes to become a lawyer or an engineer, she should be free to do so. ut it is also important, to honor the past history of women's accomplishments in the home, and to allow all women to follow their heart's desire. Traditionally feminine roles must also be celebrated. It is because of sexism that occupations such as teaching and nursing are devalued.
Sexism is the result of a failure of imagination, not a reflection of an innate reality. Despite the common "Leave it to eaver" stereotype…
Because the apparent limits upon feminine achievement are largely cultural, not biological, women should not accept the psychological or sociological limits placed upon their achievement. Despite the sexism present in society, women have still been able to shine. Many years ago, it was said that it was impossible for women to run marathons. Now women run marathons almost as swiftly as males. In 2008, a woman was a viable candidate for the Democratic nomination, while in 1984 the female Vice-Presidential candidate was accused of being too soft and emotional to govern the country. Women have not changed, biologically, in the years since the Second Wave of the feminist movement, instead, culture has changed. And culture must continue to change, and women must continue to take the world by surprise.
This does not mean that women have to be the 'same' as men to prove their worth because female liberation means that both male and feminine values are equally important for society to function. Women should feel as if they have the right to exercise their potential in stereotypically masculine and feminine occupations, to realize their full possibilities as human beings. In fact, one of the possible mistakes of the feminist movement of the 1970s was to stress that for women to work in traditionally male occupations was the only path to liberation. Of course, if a woman wishes to become a lawyer or an engineer, she should be free to do so. But it is also important, to honor the past history of women's accomplishments in the home, and to allow all women to follow their heart's desire. Traditionally feminine roles must also be celebrated. It is because of sexism that occupations such as teaching and nursing are devalued.
Sexism is the result of a failure of imagination, not a reflection of an innate reality. Despite the common "Leave it to Beaver" stereotype of the typical nuclear family that depicts the female of the household as retiring, almost extraneous, women have always worked. Immigrant women worked in factories, women worked as secretaries to support themselves; women worked as teachers and nurses and were poorly paid. Women slaved in backbreaking occupations in the home. But when something is seen as women's work, it is seen as less valuable. Also, women are still not given equal salaries and promotional possibilities because of their gender as men with equal qualifications doing the same job. Recognizing that women are equally capable of achievement is recognizing a long-standing historical reality, not an airy dream. Scrupulous attention to historical fact yields the revelation that women have overcome obstacles in a variety of fields, from the arts to the sciences, from Charlotte Bronte to Marie Curie, to Hillary Clinton. And the vital necessity of the caring professions of nursing, mothering, and teaching calls for society to give this work more financial and social cache.
The fact that a novel in the sentimental and seduction genre attained such heights of popularity is, in the first instance, evidence its impact and effect on the psyche and minds of the female readers of the novel. As one critic cogently notes:
hy a book which barely climbs above the lower limits of literacy, and which handles, without psychological acuteness or dramatic power, a handful of stereotyped characters in a situation already hopelessly banal by 1790, should have had more than two hundred editions and have survived among certain readers for a hundred and fifty years is a question that cannot be ignored.
The initial question that obviously arises therefore is what made this book so popular and in what way does this novel speak to the feelings and aspirations of the readers to make it such a perennial favorite. As Fudge ( 1996) notes,
Barton, Paul. "Narrative Intrusion in Charlotte Temple: A Closet Feminist's Strategy in an American Novel." Women and Language 23.1 (2000): 26. Questia. Web. 10 Dec. 2011.
Fiedler, Leslie A. Love and Death in the American Novel. Rev. ed. New York: Stein and Day, 1966. Questia. Web. 10 Dec. 2011.
Fudge, Keith. "Sisterhood Born from Seduction: Susanna Rowson's Charlotte Temple, and Stephen Crane's Maggie Johnson." Journal of American Culture 19.1 (1996): 43+. Questia. Web. 10 Dec. 2011.
Greeson, Jennifer Rae. "'Ruse It Well": Reading, Power, and the Seduction Plot in the Curse of Caste." African-American Review 40.4 (2006): 769+. Questia. Web. 10 Dec. 2011.
Her society tells her she needs one, and when Milkman enters her life, she invests her entire personality in him. When he leaves her, Hagar lacks the self she needs to survive. Pathetically, she tries to create a self that Milkman will want by buying makeup and clothes, turning her beautiful African hair a horrible orange (Milkman has been dating light-skinned redheads), and generally abasing herself.
Morrison certainly deviates from a sterotypical feminist perspective when she criticizes Hagar's possessiveness as well as Milkman's cruelty. When Hagar and uth argue over Milkman, Pilate points out that a man is not a house to be owned. Finally, when Hagar is trying to kill Milkman (not able to possess him, she does not know what else to do), Guitar tells her how wrong she is to base her value on the possession of a man. How can Milkman love her if she is…
Bakerman, Jane. Failures of Love: Female Initiation in the Novels of Toni Morrison, American Literature 52 ( January 1981), 541.
Cowart, David. Faulkner and Joyce in Morrison's Song of Solomon. American Literature 62.1 (1990): 87-100.
Duvall, John N. Doe. Hunting and Masculinity: Song of Solomon and Go Down, Moses. Arizona Quarterly 47.1 (1991): 95-115.
Marilyn, Atlas. A Woman Both Shiny and Brown: Feminine Strength in Toni Morrison's Song of Solomon. Society for the Study of Midwestern Literature Newsletter 9 (Fall 1979), 1-13.
" The differences in these two lines seem to be only a matter of syntax but in actuality, it also differs in the meaning. The King James Bible version makes it seem like the Lord is making the individual do something, as if by force or obligation, while the Puritan version states that the Lord causes the individual to do something, as if out of their own will. This alone relays the message that faith itself is driving the action, not a perceived obligation.
Another distinction between the two translations can be found with the lines "Surely goodness and mercy shall follow me all the days of my life: / and I will dwell in the house of the Lord forever" (King James Bible) and "Goodness and mercy surely shall / all my days follow me. / and in the Lord's house I shall / dwell so long as days…
Les Diaboliques: Justice Manifested Via the Uncanny
The theme of justice is indeed ambiguous in the short stores Les Diaboliques by Jules Barbey D'Aurevilly. The stories are indeed graphically vivid, which take an unflinching perspective on life, love, sex, honor, lust, beauty and power -- mostly from a masculine point-of-view. It is this masculine perspective which can shackle and disarm the female characters of these stories. But in each story, justice prevails on the fictional reality by allowing the females to consistently have an uncanny sense of beauty or cunning -- a beauty that prevails by giving each female a bewitching or animalistic quality which endures and ends up haunting the male protagonists or disarming other female characters of the narratives. In this sense justice has fallen: while the female protagonists often don't have the same amount of freedom or power that the male characters do, they have a strong…
Pasco, A.H., and P.H. Allan. Allusion: A Literary Graft. Toronto: University of Toronto
Press, 2002. Print.
causes of teen violence, "Missing the Mark" by Jackson Katz and Sur Jhally, and "Stop Blaming Kids and TV" by Mike Males. Katz and Jhally argue that teen violence is a male-centric occurrence caused by socialization that promotes violent masculinity. Males provide a gender-neutral view of teen violence that he believes is caused by parents who engage in domestic violence.
Because of the obvious differences in these theories, it's tempting to try to advocate one premises over the other, but further thought shows that these two theories are complimentary because the family plays such a large part in the male socialization process.
Both articles deal with the subject of teenage violence and avoid placing blame on teens for their troubled behavior. Instead, these articles present the idea of imitation as a cause of teen violence, but they differ on who the kids are imitating. Males states that teens are copying…
Feminism and International elations
Tickner discusses Morgenthau's 'six principles of political realism', refuting the notion that international politics is a realistic, masculine domain. Tickner offers a feminist perspective on Morgenthau's theory. She believes that the fundamental flaw in Morgenthau's article is that it is defined by masculinity. She argues that men are overrepresented in the upper levels of international politics, specifically the realms of the military, diplomacy, and science. Women are making strides but not enough are advancing to the upper echelons. If a woman were to advance high enough, she would find herself in a hostile environment. Tickner (2012)writes on why international politics is dominated by men, she argues that the language is masculinized, women are portrayed as more apt to domestic interests, and that the world of international politics and academia is inhospitable to women.
Tickner (2012) summarizes Morgenthau's six points. The first point is that politics is…
Wendt Alexander. (2012). Anarchy is What States Make of It. In Robert, J. Art & Robert, Jervis (Eds.), International Politics: Enduring concepts and contemporary issues (11th ed., pp. 65-72). Boston: Pearson.
Tickner, Ann. (2012). A Critique of Morgenthau's Principles of Political Realism. In Robert, J. Art & Robert, Jervis (Eds.), International Politics: Enduring concepts and contemporary issues (11th ed., pp. 22-32). Boston: Pearson.
Her comments on her show do not even detract or defame the company directly, and could have led to a stock increase (something that would have hurt her short-sale position on the stock), and thus it would be difficult if not impossible to prove any malicious or profiteering intent in her actions. Furthermore, the major recall of men's clothing that JOSB underwent during the same period and which is being cited as the major reason for the drop in the company's stock price would seem to exonerate DeGeneres for this drop in share price regardless of what her intent (if indeed she had any) was when she made her comments regarding the company. Her frequent trading and her overall loss combined with the lack of direct effect on the share price all indicate that Ellen DeGeneres is not engaging in insider trading activities, and if so she is very bad…
Edwards, L., Edrwads, J. & Wells, P. (2012). Tort Law. Clifton Park, NY: Delmar.
Shepherd, H. & Cole, M. (2008). The Complete Guide to Patents, Copyrights, and Trademarks. Ocala, FL: Atlantic Publishing.
Ramsay's actions and words towards James about this matter are "caustic," and "dashed" his son's aspirations for going to the lighthouse. However, Mrs. Ramsay takes care to inspire the hopes of her son and to protect them, by stating that the following day's weather could actually involve the sun's "shining" and birds "singing," both of which are characteristics of permissible weather. The dichotomy of the perspectives presented by these characters is distinctly in alignment with traditional nurturing roles of mothers and disciplinary roles or those which prepare children for the vicissitudes of life that father's usually have. By presenting such a sharp distinction between the pair, oolf is subtly suggesting that a synthesis of these behaviors would allow for a true consummation of the totality of a person -- which is a concept explored within "A Room of One's Own."
Lastly, although the narration in "To the Lighthouse" is from…
Woolf, Virginia. A Room of One's Own. Ebooks @Adelaide. 1929. Web.
Woolf, Virginia. To the Light House. [email protected] 1927. Web.
Men are expected to put across domination and to affirm their masculinity during a hip hop dance. Hip hop and tango are both designed to put across the feeling that there is a strong connection between the message and the dance, the dance and the dancer, and the dancer and the message.
Tango and hip hop are relatively similar when considering that professional dancers are primarily interested in dancing from the perspective of someone who actually understands why he or she is dancing. These people are not only interested in looking beautiful as they dance, as they are also concerned about having audiences understand their emotions.
All things considered, choreography is one of the most important concepts in the contemporary society and it is very important for the general public to understand that dances are more than movements designed to please the eye. Individuals also dance with the purpose of…
Benshoff, Harry M. And Griffin, Sean "What is Gender?," "What is Sexuality" in America on Film: Representing Race, Class, Gender and Sexuality at the Movies, Blackwell Pub., 2004, pp. 203-206, 293-296.
LaBoskey, Sara "Getting off: Portrayals of Masculinity in Hip Hop Dance in Film," Dance Research Journal, 2001, 33(2), pp. 112-120.
Leigh Foster, Susan, "Choreographies of Gender," Signs, Vol. 24, No. 1 (Autumn, 1998), pp. 1-33.
Manning, Susan, "The Female Dancer and the Male Gaze: Feminist Critiques of Early Modern Dance," Meaning in Motion: New Cultural Studies of Dance, ed. Jane C. Desmond, Duke University Press, 1997, pp: 153-166.
Your answer should be at least five sentences long.
The Legend of Arthur
Lesson 1 Journal Entry # 9 of 16
Journal Exercise 1.7A: Honor and Loyalty
1. Consider how Arthur's actions and personality agree with or challenge your definition of honor. Write a few sentences comparing your definition (from Journal 1.6A) with Arthur's actions and personality.
2. Write a brief paragraph explaining the importance or unimportance of loyalty in being honorable.
Lesson 1 Journal Entry # 10 of 16
Journal Exercise 1.7B: Combining Sentences
Complete the Practice Activity on page 202 of your text. After completing this activity, read over your Essay Assessment or another journal activity you've completed.
* Identify three passages that could be improved by combining two or more sentences with coordinating or subordinating conjunctions. Below the practice activity in your journal, write the original passages and the revised sentences you've created.
* Be sure to…
Through this experience, I realized that these characters could help other to understand themselves and to resolve the internal conflicts that drive young males in their actions. As I began to study the characters in the novel more closely, I began to realize that Valjean and Javert were not the only characters that represented Jungian archetypes. It became apparent that gaining a better understanding of the characters and the archetypes that they represented could provide valuable clues to the psychotherapist who must work with young males where were now going through many of the same challenges that I experienced at that sensitive age. The archetypes found in the novel are prominent and necessary for the development of a healthy, individuated male (James and Gillaland, n.d. p. 13).
eading Les Miserables changed my life. I saw many parallels with the character if Jean Valjean. I was abused by my father and,…
Bischoff, H. (2005). At the Edge of Contemplation. Journal of Evolutionary Psychology. 26
Blix, G. (2007). The Prison-House of Revolutionary Memory: The Politics of Oblivion in Michelet, Hugo, and Dumas. French Forum. 32(3): 39+.
Hugo, V. (1862). Les Miserables -- English Translation. Project Gutenberg. Retrieved June 6,
Vietnamese people are generally polychromic, in particular with respect to privacy and family relations. They are high-context people who value and gather information about their world to be used later to guide behavior in different situations. Vietnam is a high power distance culture, where roles are formally defined and accepted. The have high uncertainly avoidance. For example, when meeting somebody they will first ask that person's age because age guides certain rules of etiquette. It would be awkward for a Vietnamese to not know somebody's age because they would be unsure of how to address that person or of that person's formal authority with respect to their own.
Vietnam is a masculine country as well (Nguyen & Hau, 2007). The people are ambitious, as the explosive growth of their economy indicates. They have clearly defined gender roles as well. Yet, they are a collectivist country. The family remains the strongest…
No author. (2009). Vietnam. CIA World Factbook. Retrieved October 25, 2009 from https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/vm.html
Nguyen, T. & Hau, L. (2007). Preferred appeals as a reflection of culture: Mobile phone advertising in Vietnam. Asia Pacific Business Review. Vol. 13, 1, p.21.
138). The same study showed that "between 3 and 4% of college men also report surviving a rape or attempted rape experience on anonymous surveys" (Foubert, Cremedy, pg. 138). It would seem that according to the above studies, those individuals most at risk are the ones who are minorities, lower income, or young college students. Another area of society that might be at risk are military members, prisoners, and of course, members of the gay society who are a low percentage of the overall picture but are probably most likely to be affected especially in regards to sexual diseases etc.
One recent study found, "enduring and pervasive patterns of male sexual behaviour involving coercion, violence and gang rape are highly conducive to the transmission of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections" (Lepani, 2008, pg. 151). The threat of an HIV infection by the perpetrator to the victim is like an…
Anderson, C.B.; (2004) Women, ideology, and violence: Critical theory and the construction of gender in the Book of the Covenant and the Deuteronomic Law, London: Clark Publishing
Foubert, J.D.; Cremedy, B.J.; (2007) Reactions of men of color to a commonly used rape prevention program: Attitude and predicted behavior changes, Sex Roles, Vol. 57, No. 1-2, pp. 137-144
Hickson, F.C.I.; Davies, P.M.; Hunt, a.J.; Weatherburn, P.; McManus, T.J.; Coxon, a.P.M.; (1994) Gay men as victims of non-consensual sex, Archives of Sexual Behavior, Vol. 23, pp. 281-294.
Lepani, K.; (2008) Mobility, violence and gendering of HIV in Papua New Guinea, Australian Journal of Anthropology, Vol. 19, No. 2, pp. 150-164
Girl and Great Falls
All cultures, seemingly without exception, foster gender role differentiation. Codes of male vs. female behavior guide the way parents raise their children, the ways children relate to each other, and the way individuals view themselves. In many cases, sex-differentiated adult gender roles, social norms, and expectations are constructed painfully. The painful, chaotic, and even violent process by which gender role differentiation occurs is captured by both Jamaica Kincaid and Richard Ford in their respective short stories, "Girl," and "Great Falls." These short stories show how gender as a sociological phenomenon can disrupt inner peace and fracture the soul. In her terse tale "Girl," Jamaica Kincaid recounts her internalized authoritarian voices: a list of "thou shalts" and "thou shalt nots" that have, for better or worse, constructed the narrator's sense of identity. In addition to the poignant impact of the narrator's internal dialogue, "Girl" shows how one…
Ford, Richard. "Great Falls." The Norton Anthology of Short Fiction. New York: W.W. Norton, 2000. (pp. 338-349)
Kincaid, Jamaica. "Girl." The Norton Introduction to Literature. 8th Edition, 2002. (pp. 476-77).
Dr. Gregory House MD. Fox TV series House. I Gender Theory theme Masculinity Gregory House MD theme. Disregard option A. Option B. I figure I paper display. Our papers ran program Turn .
Gender is often referred to as any socially assigned roles given to a certain gender be it a male or a female. This gender is normally expected to act in a way familiar to the expectation of the society or the people around him or her Butler, 1990.
Gender roles and responsibilities is usually different both in females and males and the roles can be assigned at any setting such as a workplace, community, in the churches and in a family unit among other. But the main difference arises among the various cultures existing because of their beliefs and customs present among them. Gender complements both the physiological and the biological differences existing between the female and…
Butler, J. (1990). Subjects of sex/gender/desire in Gender Trouble: Feminism and the subversion of identity (pp. 25).
Calasanti, T.S., KF (2001). Gender, Social Inequalities and Aging (pp. 27).
Lippa, R.A. (2002). Gender, Nature, and Nurture: L. Erlbaum.
Peters J. (2005). Gender prac: Gender as performance, not gender theory. Gay & Lesbian Issues. Psychology, 1(3), 1-98.
Cultural Profile of Danny
Below is the profile of a college Freshman using the ADRESING format by Hays (Hays; Hays 309-315) This method of assessment of cultural awareness is used by many clinical psychologists in order to guarantee cultural sensitivity during therapy and to provide culturally relevant care:
Age or generational differences:
Danny is 19, and a Freshman in college
He has no visible disabilities and none of which he is aware.
He is a Christian, but is not currently attending any local church.
Danny is Han Chinese.
At home in Beijing, Danny is upper middle class. His parents have good jobs and are party members, though they are not rich.
He is a member of the majority culture in Beijing, but is Asian minority in America.
Citizen of the PRC
Danny is a college freshman…
"China - Chinese Geert Hofstede Cultural Dimensions Explained "Web. 11/23/2010 .
"China today "Web. 10/31/2010 .
Hays, Pamela A. "
Multicultural Applications of Cognitive-Behavior Therapy." Professional Psychology: Research and Practice 26.3 (1995): 309-15. Web.
Cultural in the United States
Compare and contrast what Morris Berman, Frank Capra, and David Fincher present as the flaws in our culture's pursuit of material self-interest.
Morris Berman, Frank Capra, and David Fincher present the society in postmodern consumer where the masculine identity is lost: the gray-collar male personnel and the satisfaction socially created by the society focused in materialism. Technology is the baseline for Berman's argument. The argument goes well-known to Neil Postman, and McLuhan Marshal it is not normal, not only does it change the way we connect with the rest of the world, but it also gets our brains wired (Berman 21). A normal brain of a person who has been print raised differs with a big margin from that of a person who, most of his time is corrupted by the internet.
However, the significance of the internet is making a reduction to our understanding…
Berman, Morris. Why America Failed: The Roots of Imperial Decline. Hoboken, N.J: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2012. Print.
Frank, Capra. It's a Wonderful Life: A Play in Two Acts. Woodstock, Ill: Dramatic Pub, 2008.
Finchers, David. "fight Club." Mu-nchen: GRIN Verlag GmbH, 2007. Internet resource.
feminist rhetorical theory. omen have been historically minimized and isolated by the domination of the patriarchal majority. Although women have been able to make a degree of progress, finally achieving positions of social and political power, the number of women in these high offices is still far less than the roles that are filled by man. Modern women, far removed from the "angels in the house" of the Victorian age, are nonetheless still impacted by the sociological oppression of women which was reinforced during that era, according to the rhetorical theory of feminism. Given that this is the case, men and women need to be aware of these underlying gender biases so that they can both combat them and make sure that they themselves do not fall prey to them. People who deny that this subjugation of women may be enlightened by closer examination of the power dynamics which exists…
Cixous, H., Cohen, K, & Cohen, P. (1976). The laugh of the Medusa. Signs. 1(4). The University
of Chicago Press: Chicago, IL. 875-93.
Foss, S. & Griffin, C. (2003). Beyond persuasion: a proposal for an invitational rhetoric.
Communications Monographs. 2-18.
Power Relations in Junichiro Tanizaki's Naomi
The most powerful and lasting contributions to the literature of a given era are invariably penned by bold thinkers struggling to comprehend the ever changing world in which they live. Spanning the late 19th and early 20th centuries, the Japanese Meiji Restoration period, which was propelled by the fusion of industrialized economy and estern culture, and personified by the authorial brilliance of authors such as Jun'ichir? Tanizaki, shaped and inspired a momentous political and social transformation within one of the world's most ancient civilzations. The toppling of previously infallible Shoguns and the sudden distribution of democratic ideals across boundaries of gender and class forced many traditional Japanese to recalibrate their worldview instantly, and the result is a wealth of material, including novels, plays and works of critical nonfiction, all of which focuses intently on the crumbling conventions of age-old gender roles. ith the external…
Tanizaki, Jun'ichiro. "Naomi," trans. Anthony H. Chambers." (1986).
Dominican Fantasies, ritten and Unwritten:
The use of science fiction in the Brief ondrous Life of Oscar ao
Juan Diaz's novel The Brief ondrous Life of Oscar ao details the life of an overweight Dominican boy who has aspirations of being a romantic hero that are continually thwarted by his great size and unattractive physical appearance. However, one of the dominant themes of the book is that appearances can deceive. Despite the fact that he is ugly on the outside, Oscar has a beautiful soul. His inner life is at odds with his outer life. One way in which Oscar deals with this is by escaping into a world of fantasy novels and characters. Diaz's coming-of-age novel is thus very much a book 'about' other books, just as much as it is a book about a man's life. Its postmodern nature is clear in the sense that the novels and…
Diaz, Juan. The Brief Wondrous Life of Oscar Wao. New York: Riverhead, 2008.
Lingam, John. Review of The Brief Wondrous Life of Oscar Wao.
The Quarterly Conversation, 2008. [7 Dec 2012]
Bonnie G. Smith begins book announcing: "This book inserts term 'gender' account historiography West
In many ways, one can read Bonnie G. Smith's book The Gender of History, as merely stating the obvious. That she does so in an abu7ndance of detail and varying perspectives while stratifying some of the fundamental concepts that make up historiography makes her conclusion none the less obvious. One can simply deconstruct the term history and see that there are inherent gender implications -- professional and scholastic history is, for the most part, the account of some man or men (typically Caucasian) rendering an 'official' accounting of events past. As such, that accounting is going to be written from the perspective of this universal male symbol of authority and address those things that he wants addressed, while favoring those things he believes posterity will need to regard as important. The author's assertion (1998), then that…
Smith, B.G. (1998). The Gender of History: Men, Women and Historical Practice. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
society in which Angela Vicario and Bayardo San Roman lived? Use specific examples from the book to illustrate your points.
The society in which Angela Vicario and Bayardo San Roman lived can best be described as a small Latin American community with traditional values. Everyone in the town knows each other by name, and knows each others' business. It is also a relatively stratified society with a coded social hierarchy. One's position in society is determined by gender and class, as well as family name.
For example, the plot is driven by the story of Bayardo San Roman coming to the town in order to find a bride. This represents the patriarchal culture in which both the protagonists live. Furthermore, the fact that Angela's family was poorer than Bayardos also reveals the importance of social class. Everyone ends up knowing the personal business of the couple, including intimate details such…
Cultures, Social Networking and SPL Model
The modern business environment has contributed to increased international operations by companies in attempts to enhance global presence and gain competitive advantage. However, international companies experience various challenges with regards to hiring and retaining employees in foreign countries or new cultures. As an individual spearheading a study in an international company, one of the major issues to address is determining the advantage or disadvantage of hiring locals or natives vs. sending present company employees for short periods of time and necessary training for those operations.
For the international company, sending present company employees for short periods of time is more beneficial than hiring locals or natives. This is primarily because the knowledge and skills required in the job in the host country are either in short supply or not present in the locals or natives. Moreover, the existing employees have adequate knowledge of…
Atchison, T.J., Belcher, D.W. & Thomsen, D.J. (2000). International Remuneration. In Internet
based benefits & compensation administration (chap. 22). Retrieved from http://dlc.erieri.com/onlinetextbook/chpt22/text_main.htm
Cashman, K. (2008). Leadership from the inside out: becoming a leader for life (2nd ed.). San
Francisco, CA: Berrett-Koehler.
Ibsen's side note is a emakably astute and honest appaisal of the ealities of patiachy. The statement was cetainly tue of Noa and he society. Even as she ties to negotiate some semblance of powe in the domestic ealm, the baies to women achieving genuine political, financial and social equality ae too entenched in the society.
The cental theme of patiachy is played out though the motif of the doll house itself, which is a metapho fo the domestication and subjugation of women. A woman is pevented fom acting outside of he ole in the domestic sphee. She cannot "be heself" in the way a man can, which is to say, pemitted to pusue any level of education she pleases o acquie any type of pofessional cedentials she would like. Women ae beholden to men and become financially dependent on them, as they ae lauchned into caees of domestic sevitude.…
references to the need to subvert patriarchy in whatever means possible. Patriarchy has a literal and symbolic stranglehold over society. It chokes the ability of women to be happy, as the story of Mrs. Wright shows. Her neighbors muse about the way Mrs. Wright used to be happy, "She used to wear pretty clothes and be lively, when she was Minnie Foster." This shows how marriage can kill the spirit of a woman. The play is an outcry against gender inequity and injustice, not a murder mystery.
Human beings are manifest as male and female. The long absence of a female deity has resulted in the repression of the female energy as subordinate and less important than that of the male. However, Woodman's suggestion of the Goddess Kali and Shearer's suggestion of Themis could serve as bases for reconciliation within the self and between the genders on a collective level.
Ann Shearer (in Huskinson, 2008, p. 49) notes that Themis provides a point of reconciliation between the male and the female. Her name means "right order," and she represents the relationship of the human with the divine. As a Titan, she predates the split between the male and female and represents the healthy psychological being. Indeed, the author compares her with Jung's concept of the "Self," where an instinctual psychological being is present, where the male and female aspect are in harmony with each other. As archetype,…
Austin, Sue. (2003, 22 Nov.). Women's Aggressive Fantasies: A Feminist Post-Jungian Hermeneutic. The Jung Page. Retrieved from http://www.cgjungpage.org/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=75&Itemid=40
Shearer, Ann. (2008). The myth of Themis and Jung's concept of the Self. In dreaming the myth onwards: new directions in Jungian therapy and thought edited by Lucy Huskinson. New York: Routledge.
Woodman, M. And Dickinson, E. (1996). Dancing in the Flames: The Dark Goddess in the Transformation of Consciousness.
Leadership and the ole of Sex and Gender
Previous studies have revealed that gender roles and gender may both be predictors of the emergence of leadership. This paper will examine the impact of the above variables, using role congruity and expectation states theories. With respect to gender, males will most likely emerge as the leaders in case of gender-neutral and masculine tasks, while females more likely dominate the domain of feminine tasks. The process may be explained in terms of performance expectations the society has for females and males with regard to specific tasks. In the gender role context, androgynous and masculine personalities will most probably come forward in the leadership role across a range of tasks. This arises out of congruence between androgynous and masculine gender roles, as well as the stereotypical example of the leadership role. It appears that (in western societies, at least), model leaders remain stereotyped…
Catalyst, (2016). Women CEOs of the S&P 500. New York. Retrieved from http://www.catalyst.org/knowledge/women-ceos-sp-500 on 19 May 2016
Dawson, M., Burrell, D. N., & Rahim, E. (2010). Deep Dive into Understanding the Theory of Military Organization, Military Leadership, Skill Transfer, Aspects of Program Management, and Decision Support Systems. International Handbook of Academic Research and Teaching, 33.
KENT, R. & MOSS, S.E. (1994). EFFECTS OF SEX AND GENDER ROLE ON LEADER EMERGENCE. Academy of Management Journal, 37(5), 1335-1346.
Laurence, J. H. (2011). Military Leadership and the Complexity of Combat and Culture. Military Psychology, 23, 489-501. doi:10.1080/08995605.2011.600143
.....entrepreneur one must endure multiple hardships. These hardships define people as leaders or failures. Women in the last few decades have amidst gender inequality, started businesses. This had led to a major growth in the number of women entrepreneurs in a predominantly male-dominated area. However, while women entrepreneurship has written, the persistent inequalities and continued views of women have led to the assumption that entrepreneurship may still be gendered. Meaning, society views only men as the main bread winners and capable of being effective leaders that entrepreneurs are defined as. This paper supports this assumption and will provide evidence of gendered entrepreneurship as well as literature that goes against such notion, demonstrating the potential for the gender gap to narrow in the future.
To first understand the potential of gendered entrepreneurship, one must first define it. Gendered entrepreneurship is a hypothesis considering entrepreneurship to have gendered patterns. The UK was…
Management STYLE IN THE United States
Cultural Values and Business
Theory X vs. Theory Y
Management the High Tech Way
Management STYLE IN THE DOMINICAN EPUBLIC
CULTUAL VALUES AND Business
ole of Entrepreneurship
In the United States, management values, beliefs and attitudes have undergone a gradual shift away from the simplistic stance of planning, organizing and directing. Valuable managerial skills, no matter what culture is being considered, have traditionally been masculine skills, highlighting the dominant, assertive, and decisive elements of management behavior and downplaying the team and supportive aspects that are more readily identified with women. This traditional view is now giving way in the United States to an approach where team behaviour is seen as increasingly important to a truly successful management style.
The global leadership skills of the future will evolve from a combination of individual/group and masculine/feminine traits involving strategic thinking and communication skills. The final result…
Arnold, D.J. & Quelch, J.A. (1998). "New strategies in emerging markets." Sloan Management Review, 40, 7-20.
Bakhtari, H. (1995). "Cultural Effects on Management Style: A Comparative Study of American and Middle Eastern Management Styles." International Studies of Management & Organization, 25(3), 97+.
Barham, K., Fraser, J. & Heath, L. (1988). Management for the future. Foundation for Management Education/Ashridge Management College.
Bennis, W., Heil, G. & Stephens, D. (2000). Douglas McGregor, revisited: Managing the human side of enterprise. New York: John Wiley.
Coker's article (published in a very conservative magazine in England) "reflected unease among some of his colleagues" about that new course at LSEP. Moreover, Coker disputes that fact that there is a female alternative to male behavior and Coker insists that "Whether they love or hate humanity, feminists seem unable to look it in the face" (Smith quoting Coker, p. 58).
If feminists are right about the female nature being more peaceful and "less aggressive" than men, then women pose a "far greater danger than men…" to the world and to international relations Coker continued. It was a less aggressive attitude toward international relations that "prevented us from deterring Hitler," Coker went on, referencing (without naming) Neville Chamberlain, England's Prime Minister who reportedly appeased Hitler rather than take a strong stand against the Third Reich.
On page 58 Steve Smith explains that in cases where feminine concerns are being…
Carpenter, R. Charli, 2005, 'Women, Children, and Other Vulnerable Groups: Gender, Strategic Frames and the Protection of Civilians as a Transnational Issue', International Studies Quarterly, vol. 49, 295-334.
Elshtain, Jean Bethke, 1995, Women and War, Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Goldstein, Joshua S., 2003, War and Gender: How Gender Shapes the War System and Vice Versa. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Hooper, Charlotte, 2001, Manly States: Masculinities, International Relations, and Gender Politics. New York: Columbia University Press.
She epitomizes pragmatic reality, and by so doing, in a certain manner assumes tangible metaphysical form. ather than being apart and indistinct from humans, the Lady has become absorbed in the Mexican culture and has become such an endearing figure precisely due to the fact that she is seen as part of their suffering and as corporal liberal embodied in incorporeal form that is part of -- the essence of -- their very being. In that way, she is more animate than inanimate and possesses enduring capacity.
Part II. Major theological themes that can be infered from the works of Jeanette odriguez and Nancy Pineda-Madrid on Our Lady of Guadalupe
Various replicative theological themes can be inferred from the works of these authors. The essay elaborates on them.
Mary's relationship to the American-Mexican woman, i.e. As symbol that is stereotyped by a supercilious, dominating majority, but that appears…
Pena, M. (1995). Our Lady of Guadalupe: Faith and Empowerment among Mexican-American Women Gender and Society, 9, 32-47.
Pena, M. & Frehill, L.M. (1998). Latina religious practice: Analyzing cultural dimensions in measures of religiosity. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 37, 620-629
Pineda-Madrid, N. (March 2005). Interpreting Our Lady of Guadalupe: Mediating the Christian Mystery of Redemption. Graduate Theological Seminary, Berkeley, CA,
Pineda-Madrid, N. (2008). On Mysticism, Latinas/os, and the Journey: A Reflection in Conversation with Mary Engel, Journal of Feminist Studies in Religion, 24, 178-183.
" James a.S. McPeek
further blames Jonson for this corruption: "No one can read this dainty song to Celia without feeling that Jonson is indecorous in putting it in the mouth of such a thoroughgoing scoundrel as Volpone."
asserts that the usual view of Jonson's use of the Catullan poem is distorted by an insufficient understanding of Catullus' carmina, which comes from critics' willingness to adhere to a conventional -- yet incorrect and incomplete -- reading of the love poem. hen Jonson created his adaptation of carmina 5, there was only one other complete translation in English of a poem by Catullus. That translation is believed to have been Sir Philip Sidney's rendering of poem 70 in Certain Sonnets, however, it was not published until 1598.
This means that Jonson's knowledge of the poem must have come from the Latin text printed in C. Val. Catulli, Albii, Tibulli, Sex.…
Alghieri, Dante Inferno. 1982. Trans. Allen Mandelbaum. New York: Bantam Dell, 2004.
Allen, Graham. Intertextuality. Routledge; First Edition, 2000. Print.
Baker, Christopher. & Harp, Richard. "Jonson' Volpone and Dante." Comparative
Gender and Counseling
The past few years have seen significant advances in the field of counseling. Psychologists and psychiatrists have gained a better understanding of the human psyche. Based on their insights, they have been able to identify new problems and propose more effective methods of treatment.
Many of the problems identified affect the mental health and role of men in society. This is a significant advance, since men's problems have previously been ignored. However, despite such advances, many men are still reluctant to seek help for their mental of psychological problems.
The first part of this paper examines the various gender roles that have been assigned to men in American society. It studies how, through a process of socialization, men are required to acquire several key characteristics that are defined as "masculine," such as aggression, competitiveness and the ability to restrain their emotions.
The next part then examines how…
Allen, Jo Ann and Sylvia Gordon. 1990. "Creating a Framework for Change." Men in Therapy: The Challenge of Change. Richard L. Meth and Robert S. Pasick. New York: The Guilford Press.
Connell, Robert W. 1987. Gender and Power. Cambridge, Polity Press.
Eckert, P. 1989. "The whole woman: Sex and gender differences in variation," Language Variation and Change (Cambridge), Vol. 1, No. 3, pp. 245-267
Grant, J. 1988. "Women as managers: What they can offer to organizations," in Organizational Dynamics (New York), Vol. 16, No. 3, pp. 56-63.
Italy is a cultural hub of gender identity where issues of feminism and masculinism have been deeply entrenched for many years. For centuries Italy has been considered a more masculine country, though the majority of work documented related to masculinism actually is sparse. Issues of feminism and masculinity has surfaced in the workplace, where naturally access to issues such as equal employment and technology have surfaced. Gender inequality issues in Italy have in fact created a basis for the continuance of a feminism-masculinism dichotomy.
Masculinism has been defined as "the property by which humans of the male sex are defined as manly" (Noumenal, 2004). Alternatively, Simone de Beauvoir described femininity as "neither a natural nor an innate entity, but rather a condition brought about by society." This statement is more true than any other, as evidenced by gender inequality differences largely the result of the paternalistic nature of the culture…
Angier, N. 2000. "Women: An Intimate Geography." Anchor.
Barker, P. 1998. "Michel Foucault -- An Introduction." Edinburgh University Press.
Beccalli, B. 1994. The Modern Women's Movement in Italy, in New Left Review. Volume a, Issue 204: 86-112.
Boccia, M.L. 1991. "The Gender Representation." In Bono and Kemp, "Italian Feminism." Blackwell.
Gender and Organizational Social Change Models
The increasing number of women in managerial positions represents a social change. Women are in these positions, and must earn their way to be accepted by both males and females. There are other changes within organizational styles that may be impacted by the entrance of more female managers into the workplace. For instance, the older authoritarian styles of the early part of the century are slowly being replaced by a more "team" approach (McGuire and Hutchings, 2006). These cultural changes within organizations represent a switch to an organizational culture that is more oriented towards the female managerial style. Male managers may need to soften their approach in order to make the transition to a "team oriented" organization.
The differences in the way in which males and females approach problems is an accepted paradigm in psychology. Historically, women have had difficulty adjusting to the male…
Aaltio, L. And Huang, J. 2007. Women managers' careers in information technology in China: high flyers with emotional costs? Journal of Organizational Change Management. Vol. 20. Issue 2, pp. 227-244.
Akgun, a., Byrne, J., Lynn, G., and Keskin, H. 2007. Organizational unlearning as changes in beliefs and routines in organizations. Journal of Organizational Change Management. Vol. 20. Issue 6, pp. 794-812.
American Psychological Association (APA). 2006. When the Boss is a Woman. March 22, 2006. Psychology Matters. Available at http://www.psychologymatters.org/womanboss.html
Diefenbach, T. 2007. The managerialistic ideology of organisational change management. Journal of Organizational Change Management. Vol. 20. Issue 1., pp. 126-144.
Mythic Constructions of Masculinity and Feminity:
A Jungian Analysis
A myth is a story that spreads out a psychological blueprint for a certain kind of human experience. The story of Parsifal and his search for the Holy Grail is a myth about what is required for a boy to reach a complete sense of manhood; the myth of Eros and Psyche shows what a girl must do to become a fully self-actualized woman. Robert A. Johnson, author of He: Understanding Masculine Psychology and She: Understanding Feminine Psychology, points out that basic human needs and motivations "have remained stable over the years" (He, p. ix). ecause human nature does not change, we can learn about human behavior from ancient stories. A myth can be seen as society's collective dream. Analysis of a myth is like analyzing a dream in which all the characters represent parts of the self. In this paper…
Johnson, Robert A. He: Understanding Masculine Psychology. New York: Harper and Row, 1989.
Johnson, Robert A. She: Understanding Feminine Psychology. New York: Harper
At the end of the party he took a card out of his wallet and gave it to me. He said, "Here, I'll give you my phone number. If you'd like to call me up, I'd love to hear from you." called him two days later and we made a date. Turned out he didn't drive so I had to pick him up. Since I had called him and I was going to be the driver, I bought a small bouquet of flowers and brought them to him. It was fun to reverse roles. Philip was the only man I ever met who didn't have a driver's license. He said he didn't want or need to drive. He liked taking buses and having his friends drive him places.
Dinner was a success. He paid for everything in the traditional manner. Philip told me he was a feminist. He had never…
Furman, Frida K. Facing the Mirror: Older Women and Beauty Shop Culture. New York:
Tannen, Deborah. You Just Don't Understand. New York: Ballantine Books, 1990.
Wood, Julia T. Gendered Lives.
Bridging the Gap
(Between Communication Styles)
In Management in Two Cultures, author Eva S. Kras discusses many differences between Mexican and U.S. cultures and their effects on business dealings. She describes differences in cultural values, customs, and attitudes that lead to misunderstandings when the two countries meet in the workplace. Perhaps most significant are communication styles, which are learned by socialization in childhood and so habitual to both cultures that they almost go unnoticed. The work of Deborah Tannen (1995) on feminine and masculine communication styles is helpful as a way to look at differences in the communication styles of Mexicans and Americans.
Tannen argues that American girls and boys are socialized so differently, they almost grow up in two different cultures. Socialization begins at birth. For example, when we hold baby girls, we position them so that they can see directly into our faces as we talk to them.…
Kras, E.S. (1995). Management in two cultures: Bridging the gap between U.S. And Mexican managers. Yarmouth, ME: Intercultural Press.
Tannen, D. (1995). Talking from 9 to 5. New York: HarperCollins.
Integration in the CI/HUMINT Community
An Analysis of the Benefits of Integration in the CI/HUMINT Community and Strategies for Effective Implementation
The success of any counterinsurgency operation depends largely on the effectiveness and appropriateness of intelligence gathered. Human subjects are a crucial source of intelligence for counterinsurgency operations. Several years back, the U.S. Armed Forces opened up opportunities for women to occupy specific positions in counterintelligence/human intelligence (CI/HUMINT) discipline. However, women still remain underrepresented in the same, and researchers remain largely divided on whether their participation in the same ought to be increased. esearchers have raised concern that the decision to integrate women into HUMINT units could cost the country dearly in the long-term as it is likely to ruin unit cohesion and impede on overall effectiveness. Proponents of the whole idea of integration have, however, argued that the inclusion of women in HUMINT units will actually enhance…
Alderman, M. I. (1993). Women in Direct Combat: What is the Price for Equality? School for Advanced Military Studies Monograph, Fort Leavenworth, Kansas.
Al-Ali, N. & Pratt, N. (2009). What Kind of Liberation: Women and the Occupation of Iraq. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
Bartone, P.T. Johnsen, B.H. Eid, J. Brun, W. & Laberg, J.C. (2002). Factors Influencing Small-Unit Cohesion in Norwegian Navy Officer Cadets. Military Psychology, 14(1), 1-22.
Beal, D.J. Cohen, R.R. Burke, M.J. & McLendon, C.L. (2003). Cohesion and Performance in Groups: A Meta-Analytic Clarification of Construct Relations. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88 (6), 989-1004.
start of the new millennium is a true privilege, especially for previously oppressed social and ethnic groups such as women and African-Americans. A new social paradigm of equality and tolerance has begun to ensure that anyone can do anything useful with their lives if they want to. This makes the 21st century an exciting time, but also a challenging one. Although the above-mentioned new paradigm does exist, centuries of conditioning makes it difficult for the professed ideals to come true in practice. In focusing on gender roles and conflicts in the workplace then, it is my aim to investigate the extent to which an environment that is professed to be diverse, actually does cater for the variety of needs experienced by women. I also wish to find out how gender roles are perceived and to what extent these still dictate a certain amount of prejudice in the workplace.
Atwater, Leanne E. (February, 2004). "Men's and women's perceptions of the gender typing of management subroles." In Sex Roles: A Journal of Research, Plenum Publishing Corporation. Database: www.findarticles.com.
Cinamon, Rachel Gali (December, 2002). "Gender differences in the importance of work and family roles: implications for work-family conflict." In Sex Roles: A Journal of Research, Plenum Publishing Corporation. Database: www.findarticles.com.
Gianakos, Irene (December, 2002). "Issues of anger in the workplace: do gender and gender role matter?" In Career Development Quarterly, National Career Development Association. Database: www.findarticles.com.
Yet, before one can understand Johnson's call for a taking back of the feminine Christ, one must first understand how the feminine Christ was lost.
The starting point is with the ministries of Christ and to the point of his resurrection. This short period of time is the only time that Jesus himself was in charge of defining his philosophy, although even he recognized the fact that history would define him and not himself.
Jesus' ministry involved numerous acts of kindness, preaching and forgiveness. Many of these acts are seen as miracles, or "Signs" as the Gospel of John refers to them. These included exorcisms, walking on water, turning water into wine, and raising people from the dead. According to the Gospel of John, Jesus' ministry lasted for a period of three years. The major event of the ministry phase was the giving of the Sermon on the Mount, where…
Cook, Michael L. Responses to 101 Questions About Jesus. New York: Paulist Press, 1993.
"Gospel of Luke." King James Bible.
Johnson, Elizabeth. (1992): Consider Jesus: Waves of Renewal in Christology. New York: Herder & Herder.
Johnson, Timothy. (1991): The Gospel of Luke. Michael Glazier Inc.
Morph = form or shape, ology = study of Language comprises of words and words have meanings. Meanings give value to words hence they must be given attention in body of knowledge. This is the reason; a study of foundation of meaning is developed. This foundation is called morpheme which is the basic and the smallest entity containing meaning or function in language. This whole study is known as Morphology (Kuthy, 2002).
What Are Morphemes?
It must be noted with concern that word is not the unit of meaning in language. It is because; a word may contain multiple words in meaning (Kuthy, 2002). Below are a few examples when words contain obvious, difficult and medium meanings.
a. obvious: dinnertime, homework, moonlight, classroom
difficult: tenth, walks, dog's, flipped
c. medium: quickly, fearless, fishing, momentary
Morpheme is the most basic element of meaning. If above mentioned words are carefully…
Abdah, D.A. (1979). Frequent words in Arabic. Riyad University, Saudi Arabia (in Arabic).
Abuleil, Saleem and Evens, Martha W. (1998). "Discovering Lexical Information by Tagging Arabic Newspaper Text." Computational Approaches to Semitic Languages, Proceedings of the Workshop.
Ali, N. (1988). "Computers and the Arabic Language." Cairo, Egypt: Al-khat Publishing Press, Ta'reep. Al-Kharashi, I. And Evens,
Anshen, F., & Aronoff, M. (1999). Using dictionaries to study the mental lexicon. Brain and Language, 68, 16 -- 26.
Ross (1988) notes the development of Romanticism in the late eighteenth century and indicates that it was essentially a masculine phenomenon:
Romantic poetizing is not just what women cannot do because they are not expected to; it is also what some men do in order to reconfirm their capacity to influence the world in ways socio-historically determined as masculine. The categories of gender, both in their lives and in their work, help the Romantics establish rites of passage toward poetic identity and toward masculine empowerment. Even when the women themselves are writers, they become anchors for the male poets' own pursuit for masculine self-possession. (Ross, 1988, 29)
Mary ollstonecraft was as famous as a writer in her day as her daughter. Both mother and daughter were important proponents of the rights of women both in their writings and in the way they lived and served as role models for other…
Alexander, Meena. Women in Romanticism. Savage, Maryland: Barnes & Noble, 1989.
Burke, Edmund. Reflections on the Revolution in France. Indianapolis: Hackett, 1987.
Cone, Carl B. Burke and the Nature of Politics. University of Kentucky, 1964.
Conniff, James. "Edmund Burke and His Critics: The Case of Mary Wollstonecraft" Journal of the History of Ideas, Vol. 60, No. 2, (Apr., 1999), 299-318.