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Affects of Mass Media on Children
Mass media can be defined as those channels of communication through which the messages are reached to a wider audience simultaneously (Kundanis, 2003, p. 5). The mass media plays a distinguishing and unique role in shaping the identity and culture of children and young people. Not only this, it also affects their relationship and liaison with family, friends, school, and community (Livingstone & Bovill, 2001).
With their entrance in adolescence, many children start on to engage in health behaviors that are hazardous and unsafe. There are six grave types of adolescent health risk behaviors that are reported to lead the youth worldwide to death and disability. Those include alcohol use, smoking, violent behavior, physical immobility, poor eating habits and sexual behaviors. These behaviors not only put the present and future physical state of adolescents on an edge but also affect their education,…
Escobar-Chaves, S.L., & Anderson, C.A. (2008). Media and Risky Behaviors. The Future of Children, 18(1), 147+. Retrieved February 2, 2012, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5027444453
Gunter, B., & McAleer, J. (1997). Children and Television. London: Routledge. Retrieved February 2, 2012, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=108880528
Herrington, S.D., & Emmans, C.C. (2002, Summer). Character Education and Media Literacy-Finding Common Ground: Media Literacy and Character Education Are Two Hot Topics in Education That Have Become Closely Intertwined, Perhaps Unwittingly. Knowledge and Understanding of Media-Media Literacy-Can Be a Successful Strategy for Promoting Critical Thinking and Intelligent Decision Making about Risky Behaviors. Technos: Quarterly for Education and Technology, 11, 22+. Retrieved February 2, 2012, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5002486798
Kundanis, R.M. (2003). Children, Teens, Families, and Mass Media: The Millennial Generation. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Retrieved February 2, 2012, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=108662257
Mass Media and Female Body Image
During te last two centuries, tere as been an unprecedented transformation of te role of females in modern society. Females are being increasingly perceived as empowered agents of teir own destiny instead of elpless, docile women. However, te legacy of females as passive objects of male desire casts a giant sadow on te female psyce and female self-confidence. Tesis: Cultural influences suc as mass media exert suc a armful influence on female body image because standardized ideals of female beauty arm te ability of individual females to find a suitable male mate and reproduce, tereby treatening te fundamental biological impulse for females to settle down and start a family.
Cultural Factors in Saping te "Ideal Body"
An Ancient Form of Mass Media: Greek Sculpture
Te very first influences on society's understanding of te body came troug, as tey do now, media. Te form of…
The conflict perspective is founded mostly on the works of Karl Marx. He believed that the distinctions between the classes and conflicts of interest created issues. This theory promulgates that society is ruled by a certain number of dominant groups and classes. It is argued that society is not truly unanimous in its value system, as debated by the functionalist mindset. The conflict view point states that this "consensus" is artificial and the "values" have been enforced upon society by the influential entities that operate in it. It questions the very foundation upon which society is built and wonders who truly is benefitting within society.
The channels of communication are usually owned by the wealthy or those that can be classified as "dominant and influential parties. Media can be used to build disagreements between variant factions residing in the community. Under this theory, it may target certain age…
Brown, R. (2011). New Holistic Business Model. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media .
Desai, V.M. (2011). Mass Media and Massive Failures: Determining Organizational Efforts to Defend Field Legitimacy Following Crises. Academy of Management Journal .
Laswell, H. (1948). The structure and function of communication and society: The communication of ideas. New York: Institute for Religious and Social Studie.
Macnamara, J. (2003). Mass Media Effects: A Review of 50 years of Media Research. Carma International.
This was also the case in the subsequent transition, between the Agrarian Age and the Industrial Age, when the first actual newspapers, representatives of the new style media appeared. With the development of the industrial revolutions, not only did people live closer together, in growing cities, but they were also becoming more concerned with the society they lived in and to become more interested in elements about their society.
Mass media in industrial societies began to reflect things of interest for the workers, while in agrarian societies, like the Southern states of the U.S., the media and newspapers still covered basic information about growing crops, for example. In industrial societies, mass media developed as a growing need for the individuals in those societies to become informed and to respond to the issues going on in the world.
In my opinion, at this point mass media turns from being a material…
Mass Media and Politics
The Advantages and Disadvantages of the "New Medias" Such as the Internet and Talk adio for Democratic Governance in the U.S.
Mass medium has always functioned as the much-need link between the people and government in a democracy. The print media had been providing this link traditionally in the United States, until about 70 years ago, when President oosevelt introduced the radio medium to connect directly and instantly with scores of Americans across the nation. In the 1960s, John F. Kennedy furthered this by effectively utilizing the power of television as a visual communications medium. Today, candidates and representatives of every political affiliation are tapping the power of the Internet to communicate and interact with citizens
Steve Forbes was the first presidential candidate to proclaim his bid for office over the Internet in1999.
George W. Bush was the first presidential candidate to publish a full list…
Ben Bagdikian, The Media Monopoly, 6th ed. Beacon Press; 1983
Cass Sunstein Republic.com, Princeton University Press, New York, 2002
Doris Graber. Media Power in Politics, 4th ed. Washington, D.C.: CQ Press. 2000.
Timothy Cook. Governing With the News: the News Media as a Political Institution. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. 1998.
Mass Media Society
ILLIAM RANDOLPH HEARST: THE PRESS KING
It is always the contribution of a few good men which goes on to impact the whole of the society. The reason that these people are able to have such a profound impact is due to their endless struggle for a cause or for something in which they truly believe.
One such person has been illiam Randolph Heart, the founder of the Hearst Corporation, or "The Press King," his rise in the world of Journalism is truly remarkable. Born in 1863, and graduating from Harvard, by the end of the year 1887, illiam Hearst had become the owner of the San Francisco Examiner (illiam Randolph Hearst (1863-1951), n.d.).
His quick success and rise was partially favored by the family's wealth earned through the mining industry. However, Hearst decided to separate his path from his families and took this course. During his…
Great Projects Film Company, Inc. (1999). Yellow Journalism: William Randolph Hearst (1863-1951). Retrieved December 15th, 2011, from PBS: http://www.pbs.org/crucible/bio_hearst.html
DiMauro, F.J. (n.d.). Hearst Tower - New York City. Retrieved December 15th, 2011, from Green Design Etc: http://www.greendesignetc.net/buildings_07(pdf)/DiMauro_Frank_Hearst (paper).pdf
Giessel, J. (n.d.). Black, White and Yellow: Journalism and Correspondents of the Spanish-American War. Retrieved December 15th, 2011, from The Spanish American War: Centennial Website: http://www.spanamwar.com/press.htm
San Francisco Examiner. (n.d.). Retrieved December 15th, 2011, from MondoTimes: http://www.mondotimes.com/1/world/us/5/316/839
, 2007). Looking to the future of this evolution of publicly owned mass media, the exact details are only speculative at this point, but one thing is clear- more sources will be competing for the attention and dollar of the reader, viewer, and listener, especially as technology creates new ways to spread the news of the day, or more precisely, of the nano-second, given lightning fast communication methods of the present, and future.
In conclusion, what can be seen is that the publicly owned media has changed the face of how Americans get their news, and undoubtedly will continue to do so for many years to come.
Campbell, R; Martin, C.R.; Fabos, B. (2007) Mass Media and Culture, 6th ed. Boston and New York: Bedford/St. Martin's Press.
Powers, . (2005, January/February). The Massless Media: ith the Mass Media Losing Their Audience to Smaller, More Targeted Outlets, e May…
Campbell, R; Martin, C.R.; Fabos, B. (2007) Mass Media and Culture, 6th ed. Boston and New York: Bedford/St. Martin's Press.
Powers, W. (2005, January/February). The Massless Media: With the Mass Media Losing Their Audience to Smaller, More Targeted Outlets, We May Be Headed for an Era of Noisy, Contentious Press Reminiscent of the 1800s. The Atlantic Monthly, 295, 122+.
Mass Media Promotes Democracy
The journalistic side of the twentieth century can be defined as the struggle for democracy and an independent media against propaganda and subservience to the state. That struggle culminated during the first half of this century in the seizure of the means of communication by the demagogues of the 1930s and 1940s -- Adolf Hitler and Josef Stalin -- and their Cold War reincarnation of the 1950s, Joseph McCarthy -- the ghost that still haunts U.S. journalism. (1) Modern journalism began around 1890 with the advent of a national system of communication and has had a pretty long run.
Describing Philadelphia on the eve of the Revolutionary War, Sam ass Warner observed that gossip in the taverns provided Philadelphia's basic cells of community life.... Every ward of the city had its inns and taverns and the London Coffee House served as central communication node of the…
Albright, Madeleine Korbel. Poland: The Role of the Press in Political Change London: Praeger Publishers, 1983.
Alger, Dean. The Media and Politics, Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1989, 6.
Anderson, Benedict. Imagined Communities, London: Verso Books, 1983.
Bayley, Edwin F. Joe McCarthy and the Press (Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press, 1981).
Mass Media and Ontological Security
"Despite the fact that crime rates in most U.S. cities have been in steady decline for a decade, local newscasts still operate under the mantra, 'If it bleeds, it leads'." Gross, et al., 2003, p. 411.
Does the mass media threaten society's sense of ontological security more than it contributes to society's ontological security? This paper delves into and analyzes this question from the perspective of peer-reviewed, scholarly articles. From the literature available it is clear to an objective observer that indeed today's mass media presents constant and disturbing images, beyond what the community's actual social dynamics present as far as danger to individuals. And hence, the ontological security of millions of citizens is both threatened and disturbed.
Ontological security: a stable, steady, consistent personal emotional state that results from a sense of comfort and continuity regarding the events on one's daily life. When…
Altheide, David L., 1997, 'The News Media, The Problem Frame, And The Production of Fear', The Sociological Quarterly, Vol. 38, No. 4, 647-668.
Altheide, David L., 2007, 'The Mass Media and Terrorism', Discourse & Communication, Vol. 1, No. 3, 287-308.
Gross, Kimberly, and Aday, Sean, 2003, 'The Scary World in Your Living Room and Neighborhood: Using Local Broadcast News, Neighborhood Crime Rates, and Personal Experience to Test Agenda Setting and Cultivation', Journal of Communication, Vol. 53, No. 3, 411-426.
Kinnvall, Catarina, 2004, 'Globalization and Religious Nationalism: Self, Identity, and the Search for Ontological Security', Political Psychology, Vol. 25, No. 5, 741-767.
The variables were in some instances, however, a bit too general and limited -- for example, in terms of social activity assessment both external and internal factors were measured, but this was too general to bring about any truly definitive results. The measurement of acculturation was also felt to be too general and did not include enough criteria and variables to be very effective. Nevertheless, the results of this survey in terms of the findings of the relationship between the media and acculturation were significant and noteworthy. It is also noteworthy that the measurement fro acculturation and the use of media was comprehensive and included a wide range of aspects, including exposure and media-related needs.
One of the significant findings from this survey was that the level of social knowledge was relatively low. The means score out a possible 10 ten points was 4.99 (yu, 1977, p. 9). Females were…
Beasley R., Chuang Y. And Liao C. (2008) American Music Immersion: Influencing
Factors and Its Impact on Taiwanese EFL. Journal of Educational Multimedia and Hypermedia, 17(1).
Clement R. et al. (2005) Media Effects on Ethnic Identity Among Linguistic Majorities
and Minorities. Human Communication Research, 31(3), pp. 399-422.
Other aspects of popular culture reflect this value as well, from the "roll-back" Wal-mart phenomenon to the speedy fabrication and marketing of most popular music, movies, and television shows. These trends also encouraged by the short attention spans of consumers. On the web, it has been shown that a particular site has less than seven seconds to load and attract the attention of the viewer before he or she moves on to the next Google result. (WebGuru) In the kitchen, this is evidenced by the prevalence of instant oatmeal, instant coffee, instant cookie dough, and other products promising instant gratification for minimal effort.
This fast-food culture has also helped to foster a removal from reality for consumers. Children do not understand that nuggets come from birds or that urgers come from cows, and most adults chose to never think about the unpleasant aspects of factory-farms and slaughterhouses having anything to…
MAN. "For Parents: Marketing and Consumerism." Media Awareness Network. http://www.media-awareness.ca
Schlosser, Eric. "Fast-Food Nation: The True Cost of America's Diet." Rolling Stone Magazine. Issue 794. 3 September 1998. http://www.mcspotlight.org/media/press/rollingstone1.html
Sheehan, Helena. "Story, Myth, Dream and Drama." Irish Television Drama: A Society and Its Stories. 2001. http://www.comms.dcu.ie/sheehanh/myth.htm
WebGuru. "In Seven Seconds. http://www.123webguru.com/web_news/in-seven-seconds-11.shtml
Mass Media and Congressional Campaigns in U..
This is a study on the mass media principles and how they are used in congressional campaigns in the U.. It has 12 sources.
In view of the strong economic-based relationship that exists between the congressional elections and the mass media, more rigid laws need to be established in addition to a screening process for each candidate through which they all have to pass in order to represent the American people.
The media plays an important role in contemporary political activity, as it is a key communicator. This communication is supposed to serve the needs of the people as a whole and bring information to them that would serve their interests. However, such media may be the tool of politicians, as they may manipulate certain important information about themselves in order to gain popularity. Ideally, it is the media that is used to…
Annenberg Public Policy Center, 2000. Media in the Home 2000.
Cohen S, Young J (eds) (1980). The Manufacture of News: Social Problems, Deviance and the Mass Media (revised). London: Constable.
Conflicting Theories of Congressional Elections. Accessed on 24-11-2003. http://www.google.com/search?q=cache:g4H8gEwwJjoJ:weber.ucsd.edu/~skernell/strategy/strategy2.pdf+theories+Congressional+campaigns+&hl=en&ie=UTF-8
Gregory Meeks on Principles & Values. 2001. http://www.issues2000.org/NY/Gregory_Meeks_Principles_+_Values.htm
93 (Hispanicism), .89 (Americanism); test-retest (6weeks) .50 (H)/.79 (a). This Likert scale involves rating of 1-5, in which scale 1 represents not feeling comfortable and scale 5 indicates very comfortable at accepting the American music, TV programs and English printed media.
This relational study incorporates statistical devices of Multiple egression Analysis to test the hypothesis. Correlations between variables will be performed as well. Each predictor derived from individual analysis represents time spent on each of these three specific media, with the criterion variable being acculturation level. Hours per viewing per day and per week with moderators such as English proficiency level, are included in each of the analysis presented.
Fox, S., ainie, L., Larsen, E., Horrigan, J., Lenhart, a., Spooner, T., & Carter, C.
(2001). Wired Seniors. The Pew Internet and American Life Project. etrieved from http://www.pewinternet.org/pdfs/PIP_Wired_Seniors_eport.pdf
Furlong, M.S. (1989). An electronic community for older adults: The SeniorNet…
Fox, S., Rainie, L., Larsen, E., Horrigan, J., Lenhart, a., Spooner, T., & Carter, C.
(2001). Wired Seniors. The Pew Internet and American Life Project. Retrieved from http://www.pewinternet.org/pdfs/PIP_Wired_Seniors_Report.pdf
Furlong, M.S. (1989). An electronic community for older adults: The SeniorNet network.
Journal of Communication, 39 (3), pp. 145-153.
However, this is not a reason to treat the entire religion as a terrorist organization itself. After 9/11, many Americans and media outlets have begun to treat all Muslims, and even the concept of Islam as a terrorist organization. No other controversies show this strong enough as the controversy concerning the building of the mosque near the site of 9/11. In this case, there is a lot of public outcry regarding a huge mosque that was being proposed to be built beginning in 2009. he film here highlights both media sources and individual survivors of 9/11 and how they are threatened with the presence of the mosque being so close to the site of the twin towers of the World rade Building. o many survivors it is a really emotional time still because the deaths of loved ones and friends are still very real in their minds. Yet, these individuals…
There are a number of things the media can do when being threatened by terrorist threats in order to stop the wave of fear the terrorists are looking to spread within American society. First, removing terrorists' access to the media will help decrease the media's relationship with spreading terror. Media outlets should refuse to print or highlight the terrorists own explanations of attacks and threats, as many terrorists often accompany threats with tapes or other sorts of verbal statements. This decreased attention will not continue to increase public fear as much, therefore not serving the terrorists on a silver platter.
Yes, there have been some radical Muslims that have taken extreme terrorist acts against the United States. However, this is not a reason to treat the entire religion as a terrorist organization itself. After 9/11, many Americans and media outlets have begun to treat all Muslims, and even the concept of Islam as a terrorist organization. No other controversies show this strong enough as the controversy concerning the building of the mosque near the site of 9/11. In this case, there is a lot of public outcry regarding a huge mosque that was being proposed to be built beginning in 2009. The film here highlights both media sources and individual survivors of 9/11 and how they are threatened with the presence of the mosque being so close to the site of the twin towers of the World Trade Building. To many survivors it is a really emotional time still because the deaths of loved ones and friends are still very real in their minds. Yet, these individuals are making the mistake of assuming all Muslims are anti-American, and even terrorists.
Many people are directly correlating Islam with the terrorists that were responsible for 9/11. Yet, this is simply not true. The terrorists who were responsible were a small fraction of fundamentalist radicals, not representatives of larger Islam itself. Those who were responsible for the extreme violence and pain that was 9/11 were not representative of the Islamic world as a whole. They were an extremist group that harbored political differences with the United States that had been building for generations. Thus, the act of terrorism was not necessarily religiously based. In this sense, blaming the religion for the act of terror would be a huge mistake. Muslims living in this country are still Americans. Therefore, they need to be able to experience the same rights to freedom of religion as other members of religious faiths do.
Racism in Media
Television news casting has a long history of perpetuating negative stereotypes of the Black community through what the news broadcasts and how it creates images that are transformed into symbols that become associated with the African-American community. Through these images, certain signs and symbols are created that later become associated with the Black community. hile attempts to make media more inclusive have marginally succeeded, failure lies in its inability to create any sort of social change but instead continues to perpetuate stereotypes.
In "Racism and the Media," Yasmin Jiwanai describes the role the media has on people's everyday lives. Jiwani writes that the media provides "us with definitions about who we are as a nation; they reinforce our values and norms; they give us concrete examples of what happens to those who transgress these norms; and most importantly, they perpetuate certain ways of seeing the world and…
Balkaran, Stephen. "Mass Media and Racism." The Yale Political Quarterly Vol. 21 No. 1
(October 1999). Web. 3 December 2012.
Brown, Michael K. Whitewashing Race: The Myth of a Color-Blind Society. Los Angeles:
University of California Press, 2003. GoogleBooks. 3 December 2012.
Media on the U.S. Society
Some years ago, if someone asked us to name the sources of media present in our society, we would easily be able to do so. However, today media has extended and become much more widespread than it was before. ith the process of globalization that has encompassed the entire world, came the concept of media and the need to stay in touch as the infrastructure and mediums of communication grew. e can name a couple of media sources that have come to influence us the most which are firstly the internet and the social networking that has now become an integral part of our society and our lives. It is absolutely essential to be a part of the social media networking (Perse).
Another type of media has been the television which has existed for quite some while now but its implications and its fame is…
Bell, Steve. "Impact of Global Media Revolution." USA Today (1999).
Bennett, Tony. Culture, Society and the Media. Routledge Publications, 1990.
Burton, Graeme. Media and Society: Critical Perspectives. Open University Press, 2005.
Gonzenbach, William J. The media, the president and public opinion: a longitudinal study on drug issue. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1996.
The creation of green spaces would be a highly advantageous project as these spaces could be used as leisure spaces for adults and playgrounds for children.
The partnership between us and the local authorities could have numerous mutual advantages form this point-of-view as they would help promote the campaign while promoting the common initiative regarding the green spaces. Another initiative would be represented by the partnership with various gyms. As incentive they would offer various types of discounts for the targeted audience, as well as personalized classes within a wide range of activity types (from martial arts to pilates).
The products is represented by any type of physical activity. Indoor and outdoor sports are the focus of our campaign. The price of the product is to be adapted to the target audience. The target aged 25 to 32 is to be addressed with special price offers from the part of…
Marketing mix, the executive fast track, 5 April 2008. http://www.12manage.com/methods_marketing_mix.html
Marketing Mix, Value-Based Management, 5 April 2008. http://www.valuebasedmanagement.net/methods_marketing_mix.html
2007) Prevalence of regular physical activity among adults- United States, 2001 and 2005, MMWR weekly, http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm5646a1.htm?s_cid=mm5646a1_e
Promoting physical activity, a guide for community action, 5 April 2008. http://www.cdc.gov/nccdphp/dnpa/pahand.htm
2. Freedman, Jonathan. (2007). "No real evidence for TV violence causing real violence."
Retrieved July 7, 2010 from:
This source is an Internet editorial article published online on April 27, 2007 by Jonathan
Freedman, a Psychology professor and former department chairperson at the University
of Toronto. Professor Freedman has taught previously at Stanford University and Columbia University and has chaired the department at the University of Toronto.
Professor Freedman's central thesis is his fundamental opposition to the position taken in
2007 by the U.S. Federal Communications Commission (FCC) that violence in media is a causal factor in actual aggression and violence in society. According to Professor
Freedman, the FCC relied on inaccurate information on the number of relevant studies, and also failed to distinguish between empirically valid information and anecdotal information in reaching their position on the issue. Professor Freedman also suggests the need to differentiate between depictions of…
In a democracy like American where freedom of speech is enshrined in the Constitution, this view takes on a certain reality in that the news and views disseminated by the media may not always be factual or true and the reader or viewer has to be very discerning in what they read or watch. A study on this subject entitled Mind control and the media states that while the invention of printing is historically linked to the rise of democracy in the worlds and in Media, yet, "...this does not mean that the mass media inherently serves democracy." (Gannaway)
This article goes on to articulate a view that has become reiterated in many other studies of the media with regard to the potential that the media has to present false and biased views to the general public. The study also repeats a view that is central to the criticism of…
A Deconstruct of the movie "Paris is Burning" as it relates to 6 Chapters in our textbook
Paris Is Burning is a provocative and controversial documentary film released in the year 1990. The direction was done by Jennie Livingston who focused on filming the drag ball culture and society that existed in the city of New York during the 1980s. The film focuses on three primary topics: race, homosexuality and prejudice towards a social stereotype. Hence the movie focuses on not just the culture of the whites in the American urban society but also the lifestyles of the African-Americans, Latinos and gays within the communities while also shedding light on the lives of the transsexual and sex workers in the city.
The significance of the movie is not only on the thought-provoking topics it covers, but also in its style of filming and the fact that it perhaps…
Clarkson, J. (2008). The limitations of the discourse of norms: Gay visibility and degrees of transgression. Journal of Communication Inquiry, 32(4), 368-382. Published by Sage Publications, Inc.
Green, J. (1993). "Paris Has Burned." The New York Times. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9F0CE0DF143DF93BA25757C0A965958260&sec=&spon=&pagewanted=all . Retrieved August 9th, 2011
Merskin, D. (2007). Three faces of Eva: Perpetuation of the hot-Latina stereotype in Desperate Housewives. Howard Journal of Communications, 18, 133-151. Reprinted by permission of Taylor & Francis Ltd.
Moore, C. (2008). Resisting, reiterating and dancing through: the swinging closet doors of Ellen DeGeneres's televised personalities. In R. Beirne (Ed.), Televising queer women: A reader (pp. 17-31). New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
omen have long faced media images that create unrealistic images of themselves to live up to, but a lesser known fact is that men face the same problem. In today's mass media, men are dunderheaded, philandering imbeciles, or impossibly perfect heroes. These are equivalent to the slut and the Barbie images that women face in the media, and such false, unrealistic images of men are just as dangerous as their female equivalents. The portrayal of men in the mass media is negative and needs to be changed.
In a landmark study, Macnamara (2006) examined over 2000 mass media instances and found that 69% of them portrayed men in a negative light, and much of the rest was dismissive about the positive coverage. On their own, such images can be foolish and absurd, but as occurs with the negative images of women, the negative images of men have negative…
Macnamara, J. (2006). "Men become the main target in the new gender wars." Palgrave MacMillan. In possession of the author.
Petersen, S. (2013). Dumbing down dad: How media present husbands, fathers as useless. Deseret News. Retrieved October 14, 2013 from http://www.deseretnews.com/article/865574236/Dumbing-down-Dad-How-media-present-husbands-fathers-as-useless.html?pg=all
Wecks, E. (2012). This is how you lose her by Junot Diaz is a difficult but illuminating tale of failure and growth. Wired. Retrieved October 14, 2013 from http://www.wired.com/geekdad/2012/11/junot-diaz/
Media & Society
The author of this report has been asked to offer a brief summary and review of several topics pertaining to media, modern technology and the overall paradigm that has been formed by the combination of the two. The author of this report will touch in several topics. These topics will include the historical and contemporary roles of media in society, how the chemical and electronic technology of photography, recording and transmission has advanced from its initial discover to the present, how the mass media makes use of these technological innovations, how the development of this digital technology has affected the content, distribution and style of electronic media and how the role of mass media has changed with these overall developments. The author will make use of at least two peer-reviewed sources along the way. While there is much more to life than the media and technology, these…
Carpenter, S., Hoag, A., Grant, A.E., & Bowe, B.J. (2015). An Examination of How
Academic Advancement of U.S. Journalism Students Relates to Their Degree
Motivations, Values, and Technology Use. Journalism & Mass Communication
Educator, 70(1), 58-74. doi:10.1177/1077695814551834
Mass Media & Values
The author of this report has been asked to answer a rather broad but still important question. The question at hand is whether the mass media is simply a representation of the broader cultural values, attitudes and stereotypes of a society or whether the mass media is involved with shaping the same rather than just being a reflection or representation. The author of this response does not mean to be non-committal or waffling but the answer is actually a little of both. There are some instances where mass media is simply just groveling to the masses but there are some instances where narratives are being established and cultural trends are being written. What is true in a given situation usually depends on the situation but it is not entirely hard or difficult to tell which is happening in a given instance. While mass media output is…
ABC News. 'Fox's Temptation Island Draws Fire'. ABC News. N.p., 2015. Web. 17 Nov. 2015.
Al-Jazeera. 'Hungary Journalist To Sue Syrian Refugee She Tripped'. Aljazeera.com. N.p., 2015. Web. 17 Nov. 2015.
Cassell, Paul. 'The Physical Evidence In The Michael Brown Case Supported The Officer [Updated With DNA Evidence]'. Washington Post. N.p., 2014. Web. 17 Nov. 2015.
Darren O. 'What's In A Name: Do MTV, History, And TLC Have Branding Issues?'. starcasm.net. N.p., 2013. Web. 17 Nov. 2015.
As some journalists have brought up, this scandal is evocative of the scandal with the Catholic Church and demonstrates how a marked upheaval in the way universities and institutions are conducted (Hamilton, 2012).
The media, while impartial, can often be a moral compass for the rest of the world. Few people can forget the horrors of the reactions of Penn State's college students when the scandal just broke, upon the firing of Joe Paterno: the media captured how the students rioted the streets, acting out, even turning over a news van. The rest of the world watched in revulsion: these college students, by sympathizing with Paterno, someone who had essentially protected and sheltered a pedophile, these young college students were sympathizing with Sandusky, the pedophile in question. "It's difficult to look at the images of the Penn State University students performing pep rally chants and turning over a media van…
Engel, J. (2012, July 16). Penn State should get death penalty. Retrieved from Foxsports.com: http://msn.foxsports.com/collegefootball/story/penn-state-should-lose-football-privileges-dealth-penalty-in-wake-of-freeh-report-child-sex-abuse-071212/
Hamilton, M. (May, 27 2012). Penn State and Catholic Church Child Sex-Abuse Trials Divide Penn. Public. Retrieved from Dailybeast.com: http://www.thedailybeast.com/articles/2012/05/27/penn-state-and-catholic-church-child-sex-abuse-trials-divide-penn-public.html
Kane, C. (July, 23 2012). Penn State penalties: $60 million fine, 4-year bowl ban. Retrieved from Chicagotribune.com: http://www.chicagotribune.com/sports/college/ct-spt-0724-penn-state -- 20120724,0,6965116.story
Muskal, M. (2012, June 22). Jerry Sandusky convicted of 45 child sexual abuse charges. Retrieved from LA Times: Jerry Sandusky convicted of 45 child sexual abuse charges
In the mass national media our contemporary gossip culture creates a sense of intimacy and knowledge about the rich and famous through television, if not personal interaction.
New York thus had a paradoxical culture of mass communication and segmentation, even before these descriptions became apt for the mass media of the world. According to Campbell, Martin, and Fabos (2007), the history of media can be traced through five main eras that of oral, written, print, electronic, and digital. The last three phases are significant because they have featured the development of mass communication: or delivering cultural messages to large and diverse audiences through media channels. New York, because of its small size and diversity had a mass media and a culture of diverse communication styles long before it became common all over the nation and the world. And ironically, because of the media segmentation allowed by the mass communication of…
Campbell, R, C.R. Martin, & B. Fabos. (2007). Mass Media and Culture. Sixth Edition. Bedford/St. Martin's: Boston, New York.
Yellow Journalism." (2007). Think Quest. Retrieved 21 Oct 2007 at http://library.thinkquest.org/C0111500/spanamer/yellow.htm
Race in Today's Mass Media
Channel surfing during primetime these days, will often times create a personal dilemma on what show to watch and usually, it is one we will stick with from season to season - if the 'powers that be' allow it a renewed contract. These days, we have a variety of broadcast channels to choose from and our ethnic background, sadly, often determines whether we choose the W over NC. The reality is, that "mass media actually work to reinforce assumptions that black folks should always be cast in supporting roles in relation to white characters" (Hook, 1995).
Let's take for example, some currently popular shows: Friends, Frasier and, yes, even The Simpsons portray minorities either in 'guest' roles, as supporting roles in stereotypical fashion, or not at all. In the case of The Simpsons, it could be justifiably argued that the show portrays views of race…
Hooks, B. Teaching Resistance: The Racial Politics of Mass Media
New York: Holt 1995
Media in America [...] How does mass media affect American values? American media is pervasive in nearly every aspect of society today. Newspapers, magazines, online Web sources, television, radio, and film all create a sense of commonality, and often a sense of how to behave, think, and react to social and societal situations.
Today, Americans rely on a variety of media for most of their news, information, and values, whether they know it or not. While this may seem like a recent occurrence, experts and researchers have been seeing this trend in media influence for decades. Two experts note, "Over a half century ago, Lippmann (1922) also noted this role of the news media in defining our world, not just the world of politics during and between elections, but almost all of our world beyond immediate personal and family concerns" (Bryant and Zillmann, 1994, p. 2). Thus, the media has…
Arant, M.D., & Meyer, P. (1998). Public journalism and traditional journalism: A shift in values? Journal of mass media ethics, 13(4), 205-218.
Brown, A. (1996). Economics, public service broadcasting, and social values. Journal of media economics, 9(1), 3-15.
Coleman, A.W. (2000). "Calvin and Hobbes": A critique of society's values. Journal of Mass Media Ethics, 15(1), 17-42.
Gomez, D.S. (2001, April). Sex, peers, media -- and family values: The NEA health information network's 'can we talk?' program helps thousands of parents talk with their kids, in English or Spanish. NEA today, 19, 29.
agenda-setting function mass media work current presidential election. Consider essay: a) What issue(s) highlighted media ( candidates ) effect voters year? b) There emphasis independent voters swing states Ohio.
The role of the media in today's society is considered of utmost importance. It shapes opinions, if creates opinions, but most importantly it influences the way in which perceptions are created and decisions taken. This is why the media is viewed in a democratic society to be the fourth power in the state, after the executive, legislative, and judicial ones. This role is most obvious perhaps during election years and periods, regardless of the type of voting action. This is largely due to the fact that the media usually influences the agenda of the elections to take place.
The importance of the presidential elections is without any doubt. These are the times when the media exercises its biggest influence. The Watergate…
America.gov.. Third Parties in U.S. Elections. 2008 http://www.america.gov/st/usg-english/2008/September/20080926163103naneerg0.5847132.html
Driehaus, B. "Court Orders Ohio to Include Libertarian Party on Ballot." The New York Times. 2008. http://www.nytimes.com/2008/07/19/us/politics/19ohio.html?_r=1
McCombs, M. The Agenda-Setting Role of the Mass Media in the Shaping of Public Opinion. N.d. http://www.infoamerica.org/documentos_pdf/mccombs01.pdf
The Conservative Brawler. Agenda-Setting What is it, what role did it play in the 2008 presidential election and where is it going? Agenda-Setting in the Media. 2009. http://www.theconservativebrawler.com/2009/11/msm-agenda-setting-in-2008-election.html
Consumption and Mass Media
What is conspicuous consumption? How does conspicuous consumption influence purchasing decisions? Think about a high-priced item (Rolex) that you would like to buy. To what extent could conspicuous consumption affect your decision?
Conspicuous consumption is consumption for the sake of impressing observers. Most consumers buy Rolex watches not because of Rolex's quality, but because the brand signifies that the purchaser is wealthy enough to afford a Rolex. Although an extremely cheap watch and an expensive watch may vary in terms of their quality, the expense of a Rolex cannot be justified by quality alone. Someone who wishes to signify his social class and economic status to friends and associates 'in the know' buys a Rolex; without these signifiers the Rolex means nothing.
Q2. What is conspicuous leisure? In what ways are leisure activities informed by social and economic class? Provide an example of a popular leisure…
Also, gay characters have slowly become more prominent both on TV and in the movies.
In the 1990s, producers gave up on feeling that they had to challenge gender representations as models of masculinity and femininity had become less offensive and clearly defined. We can, for instance, refer to the hit sit-com Friends which presented three male characters, Ross, Chandler and Joey whose masculinity was placed within conventional models of masculinity without excluding qualities such as gentleness and sensitivity. imilarly, the female characters were clearly feminine but sufficiently intelligent in order to escape the housewife cliche. Furthermore, the context of the show was relatively innovative as the six main characters were linked by friendship as opposed to the more traditional family circle which had dominated the previous two decades. The model of equal genders appears in many shows from the 1990s onwards (Gauntlett 61).
Race is depicted in the media…
Coover, Gail E. "Television and Social Identity: Race Representation as "White" Accommodation." Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media 45, no. 3 (2001): 413.
Gauntlett, David. Media, Gender, and Identity: An Introduction. Routledge, 2002.
Gurevitch, Michael, Tony Bennett, James Curran, and Janet Woollacott, eds. Culture, Society, and the Media. London: Routledge, 1990.
Mantios, Gregory. "Making Class Invisible"
Family, Mass Media and Education as Socialization Factors
A growing body of evidence confirms that agents of socialization play crucial roles in the social development of an individual. Certain agents are identified as being more influential than others, with these agents being responsible for causing the most influence in our lives and playing a major role in the altering of our self-images over the course of our lives. Some of these agents include family (especially parents), schools and peers, work environment, gender and the mass media, among others. The development of a social life and the social relationships of an individual are inextricably related to the influence from these respective agents and how they are manifest in people's day-to-day lives (Henslin, 2013). There are several agents of socialization that have most significantly affected my life, including most especially family, mass media and education. These socialization agents were selected based on…
Henslin, J. (2013). Sociology: A down-to-earth approach. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.
Logic and Biological Explanations of Human Behavior
What are the logic or biological explanations of human behavior? Why do sociologists argue that they are misguided/
Logical explanations of human behavior are common enough. For instance, in the society, it is always believed that it is natural for a woman and a man to fall in love, be married, and start a family. Equally, it is natural for this nuclear family to exist as a unit, with the parents going to work to provide for their children. The wife also devotes some of her time to looking after the kids and being a mother. As the family grows and becomes more independent, it is only logical for the kids to live at home with their parents at least until their late teen years. By this time, it is only logical for them to leave their parents' home and want to make…
But Martin Lawrence bugs out his eyes a little and he's a coon. It makes no sense.'7
The defense seems somewhat warranted. After all, if all characters in the sitcom Martin were white, and acted the same way, such behavior would be attributed to the standard stupidity showcased on television. Much like the quote earlier about sitcoms and stereotypes leveling things, television in general fails to showcase the brightest and most sublime of human endeavors.
Lawrence is not alone in criticisms aimed at contemporary black actors. In her essay, "Stereotypes of History: Reconstructing Truth and the Black Mammy," Jennifer Kowalski claims, "actors such as Martin Lawrence, Eddie Murphy, and Tyler Perry, have once again recycled the first existence of the Mammy/Aunt Jemima character." The "mammy" stereotype is "represented as full-figured women with strong and defensive attitudes, especially toward men who may bring harm to their loved ones." Lawrence recently starred…
Aristotle. "Poetics." The Norton Anthology of Theory and Criticism. Ed. Vincent B.
Leitch. New York. W.W. Norton and Company, 2001, 90-117.
"Blackboard Jungle Fever." Martin. By John Bowman. Martin Lawrence, Tisha
Campbell-Martin, Carl Anthony Payne II, Thomas Mikal Ford. The WB. January
Vietnam films have rewritten the winners and the losers of that saga and action-adventure films reinforce cultural norms of violence and power (175). Despite the increased real presence of women in positions of power, often media representations of women and other formerly disenfranchised groups remain stereotyped or relegated to marginal or token roles, although this is changing. Still, certain outlets like women's magazines often function as advertisements that perpetuate corporate images that make women feel worse, rather than better about themselves (188). Furthermore, a hegemonic ideology is implied by supposedly mainstream news organizations. Consider the construct of 'economic news.' This implies that the 'economy' is in a neat little box, and that social issues of race and political disenfranchisement, limits on wealth and access to education and power, have no role in who possess wealth and who lacks wealth in society. Economics as separate from other issues is essentially an…
Injustice and the Media
There was a point in the not-too-distant past when it was reasonable to perceive the media as a force collectively aimed at informing the public, exposing corruption, surfacing scandal and general performing the responsibility of protecting the people's right to know. However, several forces have permeated the so-called 'fourth estate,' diluting the media's acceptance of this responsibility. At one end of the spectrum, the growth in value of cable news such as CNN or MSNBC has created a highly monetized and commercially-motivated form of news. At the opposite end of the spectrum, the increasing visibility of social media such as Facebook and Twitter in spreading news stories has removed much of the accountability or professionalism from our media outlets.
The result is that our media outlets rarely have the motivation to ensure that a well-informed public is made aware of injustice in all its forms.…
Boettger, B. (2012). The Social Responsibility of Social Media. Media Post.
Chiyamwaka, B. (2008). Media Ethics: A Call To Responsible Journalism. Hippo Lodge Liwonde.
Christians, C.G. (2007). Utilitarianism in Media Ethics and Its Discontents. Journal of Mass Media Ethics, 22(2-3), 113-131.
Daily Graphic. (2009). Ethical, Responsible Journalism Essential for Media's Success. Modern Ghana.
Media as the Linguistic Discourse Analysis Object
esearch in Discourse Analysis - Linguistics
Discourse analysis' focus is noteworthy semiotic events. Discourse analysis aims to understand not only the nature of the semiotic event, but also the socio-psychological traits of the participants of the event. The proposed subject of research is media discourse analysis or media as the linguistic discourse analysis object. Media is highly relevant and almost fundamental to life in the 21st century. There is no doubt that there are social, perceptual, psychological, linguistic, and behavioral affects of technology and media upon users and communities. Objects of discourse analysis vary in their definition of articulated sequences of communication events, speech acts, etc. Media is nothing but a series of coordinated sequences of various communications events operating semiotically. Therefore, media discourse analysis is a worthwhile linguistic research endeavor. The hypothesis of the research contends that media discourse analysis, as part…
Chen, L. (2004) Evaluation in Media Texts: A Cross-Cultural Linguistic Investigation. Language in Society, 33(5), 673 -- 702.
Chigana, A., & Chigana, W. (2008) Mxit It Up in the Media: Media Discourse Analysis on a Mobile Instant Messaging System. The South African Journal of Information and Communication, 9, 42 -- 57.
Constantinou, O. (2005) Multimodal Discourse Analysis: Media, modes and technologies. Journal of Sociolinguistics, 9(4), 602 -- 618.
Gamson, W.A., Croteau, D., Hoynes, W., & Sasson, T. (1992) Media Images and the Social Construction of Reality. Annual Review of Sociology, 18, 373 -- 393.
Mass Comm Final
One theme that is a constant throughout the study of contemporary mass communication is the function that mass communication holds in the democratic political process. Although the present-day concepts of "media" or "mass communication" would have been unknown at the time of the Bill of Rights, it is nonetheless clear that the First Amendment's guarantee of freedom of the press essentially enshrines in law the notion that an informed and intellectually engaged electorate is crucial for the health of the American political system. And certainly the drafters of the U.S. Constitution were familiar with the notion that clear reasoned argumentation that could reach a broad majority of citizens was necessary for the political system they envisioned: there would not be a U.S. Constitution if there had not been Thomas Paine's "Common Sense," a widely-reproduced pamphlet laying out the basic argument for American independence. However, in different ways,…
Baym, "The Daily Show and Political Journalism"
McChesney, "Policing the Unthinkable," "Response to Compaine"
Compaine, "Myths of Encroaching Global Media Ownership," "Response to McChesney"
Koch, "Cyber Citizen or Cyborg Citizen"
MEDIA & GLOBAL POLITICS
Shirky's piece is about the potential for media to change the course of government and politics across the world. He writes of ways that specifically the technology of social media has the power and/or potential for political activism and social change. The 21st century has seen an increase in the frequency and the efficiency of grassroots activism and social movements around the world, due in great part because of the Internet and social media. In fact, the drastic increase in this kind of activity began in the late 20th century:
Since the rise of the Internet in the early 1990s, the world's networked population has grown from the low millions to the low billions. Over the same period, social media have become a fact of life for civil society worldwide, involving many actors -- regular citizens, activists, nongovernmental organizations, telecommunications firms, software providers, governments…As the…
Castells, M. (2009). Communication Power. Oxford University Press. Pp. 299-432.
Morozov, E. (2011). Net Delusion: The Dark Side of Internet Freedom. Public Affairs: New York. Pp. 1- 32, 179-204.
Shirky, C. (2011). The Political Power of Social Media. Foreign Affairs, Jan/Feb2011, 90(1), 28-41.
How Technology Shapes Society
A society is a conglomerate of people who, for some reason, are throw together in a particular bounded region. The group has to make laws that will govern their actions and they also determine how they will live together in the most productive manner. But, there are events and devices that some say can change the way this group of people behaves and what laws they will make for one another. For example, an early hunter-gatherer society subsisted on what they could kill and find. Then someone invented the hoe, and they became cultivating societies (Keel, 2011). This meant that the people did not have to roam so far afield to find they needed to exist. Thus they could stay closer together and build up societies. Small events sometimes shape great changes in society without the people within the society realizing that the invention will…
Anderson, P., & Tushman, M.R., (1990). Technological discontinuities and dominant designs: A cyclical model of technological change. Administrative Science Quarterly, 35(4), 604-619.
Beals, G., (1997). The biography of Thomas Edison. Retrieved from http://www.thomasedison.com/biography.html
Carlson, W.B., (1992). "Artifacts and frames of meaning: Thomas A. Edison, his managers, and the cultural construction of motion pictures," in W.E. Bijker and J. Law Shaping technology/building society: Studies in sociotechnical change. Cambridge, MA: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Press, pp. 175-198.
Chandler, D., (2002). Technological or media determinism. Retrieved from http://www.aber.ac.uk/media/Documents/tecdet/tdet01.html
28, No. 4, 603-625 (2006) Sage Publications.
Aeron avis states that the work in writing "Media Effects and the Question of the Rational Audience: "... offers evidence for an alternative perspective on the media effects debate. Early work on media influence, be it conservative or critical, assumed a causal link between mass media and mass behavior. In contrast, decades of effects and audience research has established the inadequacy of this 'strong effects' paradigm. The main thrust of this counter-research is the realization that audiences actively consume and use the media for self-serving purposes. The alternative perspective offered here comes from a study of elite fund managers, their communications and decision-making in the London Stock Exchange. The research findings suggest that such individuals do respond actively to media, but, collectively, the results can be both self-defeating and on a mass scale. That is, individuals do not have to be ignorant nor…
Davis, Aeron (2006) Media Effects and the Question of the Rational Audience: Lessons from the Financial Markets. Media, Culture & Society, Vol. 28, No. 4, 603-625 (2006) Sage Publications.
Aeron Davis states that the work in writing "Media Effects and the Question of the Rational Audience: "... offers evidence for an alternative perspective on the media effects debate. Early work on media influence, be it conservative or critical, assumed a causal link between mass media and mass behavior. In contrast, decades of effects and audience research has established the inadequacy of this 'strong effects' paradigm. The main thrust of this counter-research is the realization that audiences actively consume and use the media for self-serving purposes. The alternative perspective offered here comes from a study of elite fund managers, their communications and decision-making in the London Stock Exchange. The research findings suggest that such individuals do respond actively to media, but, collectively, the results can be both self-defeating and on a mass scale. That is, individuals do not have to be ignorant nor act irrationally to contribute to media-instigated, collective irrationality."
Media Effects on Culture
These four readings were written between 1944 and 1955, and to a certain extent represent an outmoded era of media criticism. This does not mean these studies are obsolete, but it does mean that they must be considered in light of the current sea-change that is taking place in media overall -- most notably with the Internet, but also with the effect that the Internet is having upon other forms of media (such as the decline and instability of newspaper journalism). But we must acknowledge the limitations of these studies.
The most basic study is presented by Lasswell (1948), who is interested in defining the terminology, as scientifically as possible, as to what constitutes "communication." Lasswell draws parallels between various biological processes (of how organisms gather information through sensory apparatus, and how they attempt to control the amount of information they give out) to come up with a…
MEDIA WORLD & CULTURE
The Media World in Today's Culture
The Media World and Today's Culture
The Media World and Today's Culture
The media is the most indispensable medium that most urbanized and developing countries have adapted to accessing first hand and vital information. It is also in the branch category of the most growing industries in today's global economy. However, the industry is faced with controversies from other sectors such as culture and politics. Implications of the social media and media personalties have always been at the limelight, especially with how the youth and children perceive what they see and hear from the media. It is therefore, necessitated to review how the current global culture allows for the continuity of the world of media.
According to Kaya and Cakmur, media has been a centre-stage in Turkey die to the linkage it has to politics. Turkish media is…
Yet, every major aspect of the Internet builds on the strengths of those prior media forms.
The development of technology has allowed for cultural acceleration, as each media form starting with the telegraph represents an improvement in the speed and/or scope of communication (Carey, 2010). The telegraph separated transportation from communication, which was the first step. The telephone increased speed further, and wireless telegraph set the foundation for later wireless technologies. Radio and television, for example, were based on wireless broadcast, which enabled communications to reach a broader audience. here the telephone and telegraph introduced an accelerated pace to communications, the impacts of any one given communication were individual. News of the Titanic sinking, for example, was carried through a network of different messages on different media (Carey, 2010). Such large-scale impacts of communication on society became commonplace with radio. Television had yet more potency as a communications…
Carey, J. (2010). Electricity creates the wired world. In possession of the author.
Yes, the Oedipus complex aspect of Shakespeare it gives us and which in turn invites us to think about the issue of subjectivity, the myth and its relation to psychoanalytic theory. (Selfe, 1999, p292-322)
Hemlet and Postcolonial theory
Postcolonial theory was born as a result of the publication of the famous work of Edward Said, Orientalism (1978). This theory claim that some authors (Paul Gilroy, Achille Mbembe, Francoise Verges, etc.) and that seem so elegant in its formulation, in my opinion raises three fundamental problems: At a time when we are witnessing the emergence of new expressions of colonialism (colonialism, cultural, political and economic globalization, neo-colonialism nestled in the relationship between the hegemonic colonial past and their old colonies, colonialism in disguise that structure the relationship between international institutions and developing countries, institutions from the rest behest of the former colonial powers according to their interests), speak of post-colonial era…
Aragay, Mireia, and Gemma Lopez. 2005. "Inflecting Pride and Prejudice: Dialogism, Intertextuality, and Adaptation." Books in Motion: Adaptation, Intertextuality, Authorship. Ed. Mireia Aragay. Amsterdam and New York: Rodopi, p201-19.
Aragay, Mireia, ed. 2005. Books in Motion: Adaptation, Intertextuality, Authorship. Amsterdam and New York: Rodopi, p88-96.
Baetens, Jan. 2007. "From Screen to Text: Novelization, the Hidden Continent." The Cambridge Companion to Literature on Screen. Ed. Deborah Cartmell and Imelda Whelehan. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, p226-38.
Balides, Constance. 2000. "Jurassic Post-Fordism: Tall Tales of Economics in the Theme Park." Screen 4 I .2: p139-60.
Media Negatively Affects the Body Image Concerns of Adolescent Girls
Among adolescent girls, body image concerns are not uncommon. The hypothesis of this paper believes that media negatively affects the body image concerns of adolescent girls. The independent variable is the adolescent girls and the dependent variable is the media. This is because adolescent girls can be affected by a lot of other things when it concerns body image, this can come in the form of their peers, society and even history. These variables can affect the concerns on body image of adolescent girls in both a positive and a negative way. However, this paper will only discuss the negative affects which body images are supplied by media to adolescent girls with.
The theoretical approach which best suits this study is the Psychodynamic Approach. This is because the concerns regarding body images are implanted in the minds of these adolescent…
Anschutz, D.J., Van Strien, T., & Engels, R.C. (2008). Exposure to Slim Images in Mass Media: Television Commercials as Reminders of Restriction in Restrained Eaters. Health Psychology. 27(4); 401-408.
Cheng, H.L. & Mallinckrodt (2009). Parental Bonds, Anxious Attachment, Media Internalization, and Body Image Dissatisfaction: Exploring a Mediation Model. Journal of Counseling Psychology. 56(5); 365-375.
Clark, L., & Tiggemann, M. (2008). Sociocultural and Individual Psychological Predictors of Body Image in Young Girls: A Prospective Study. Developmental Psychology. 44(4); 1124-1134.
Dohnt, H. & Tiggemann, M. (2006). The Contribution of Peer and Media Influences to the Development of Body Satisfaction and Self-Esteem in Young Girls: A Prospective Study. Developmental Psychology. 42(5); 929-936.
Media Portrayal of Sexes
abies, when born, have no inherent knowledge about how girls and boys, men and women, are "supposed to act." They learn their cultural roles from the culture around them -- their adult and older-child role models, and more and more, through the media. As one writer quoted lum, "Nothing in biology labels behaviors as right or wrong, normal or abnormal. Any stereotypes we impose on children -- and by extension, adults -- are purely cultural, not biological" (Abels, 2002). Depiction of males and females in popular media is in a constant change of flux, partly based on inaccurate stereotype but partly reflecting the very real diversity seen in both sexes.
Experts in the field believe that children begin to learn what gender role is expected of them early in childhood, and that these expectations are communicated to them both purposefully and in unintended lessons. Part of…
Abels, Lori. 2002. "Sex-role stereotypes in TV Programs aimed at the preschool audience: an analysis of Teletubbies and Barney & Friends." Women and Language, Sept. 22.
Giuliano, Traci A. 2003. "Blood, sweat, and jeers: the impact of the media's heterosexist portrayals on perceptions of male and female athletes." Journal of Sport Behavior, Sept. 1.
MacKenzie, Nancy R. 1998. "Effects of television viewing on children's development." Pediatric Nursing, Sept.
Shugart, Helene A. 2003. "She shoots, she scores: mediated constructions of contemporary female athletes in coverage of the 1999 U.S. women's soccer team." Western Journal of Communication, Jan.
The ad also says that it is America's #1 weight loss patch. Says who? Just them. There does not appear to be any proof that backs up any of the claims that they make in regards to this product.
Advertising is an essential part of marketing. The intention of an ad campaign is to reach a lot in order to increase the demand for the products being endorsed. In this campaign the advertisers used Highlighting Features. The features of the product should be clearly stated. An advertisement campaign that talks on and on about a product without affirming its features will fail to do any good. A high-quality weight loss product campaign should start by discussing about that the weight loss product has been designed to help people lose weight fast, or lose weight safely or lose weight without regaining the lost weight. People who are troubled about losing weight…
Advertisement Techniques: Creative Advertising Techniques and Tricks. (2010). Retrieved May
1, 2010, from Buzzle Web site: http://www.buzzle.com/articles/advertisement-techniques-creative-advertising-techniques-and-tricks.html
Baker, Sherry and. Martinson, David L. (2001). The TARES Test: Five Principles for Ethical
Persuasion. Journal of Mass Media Ethics.16 (2&3), p, 148 -- 175.
media / favorite form media. You choose . Analysis
In my opinion, the most preferable form of mass media is the fairly conventional compact disc. CDs are an excellent sociological tool in learning about one's environment and the relevant issues that affect society today. Additionally, CD's allow for a highly limited form of intervention between the message that the music artist is attempting to convey and its reception by the listener. Conversely, I believe that one of the least preferable forms of media is the internet. Despite the fact that there are vast amounts of information accessible to users on it, there are a number of ways in which using the internet inherently impinges on the privacy of a particular user. Cookies and other sorts of intelligence metrics track the particular activity of people. Moreover, this capability of the internet, when combined with aspects of data governance, data stewardship, and…
Godwin, Allotey. "Libertarian V. Social Responsibility." Allotey Godwin. http://alloteygodwin.blogspot.com/2009/05/libertarian-v-social-responsibility.html
No Author. "Introduction to Mass Communication." Zeepedia.com. No date. Web. http://www.zeepedia.com/read.php?media_theories_libertarian_theory_social_responsibility_theory_introduction_to_mass_communication&b=78&c=39
No author. "Theories of Communication." www.peoi.org. 2012. Web. http://www.peoi.org/Courses/Coursesar/mass/mass2.html
Naveed, Fakhar. "Normative Theories of Mass Communication." Ask For Mass. 2012. Web. http://mastermasscommunication.blogspot.com/2012/02/normative-theories-of-mass.html
Where, the images of: various icons, symbols and ideas are going beyond national borders. This is significant, because it shows how improvements in technology, are playing a role in determining the way various forms of content is presented in the media. Where, globalized awareness within the different organizations has an impact, on shaping how individuals will view these various cultural icons. (Grossberg 421 -- 432)
What the different chapters show, is that the overall role of the media is continuing to change. The reason why this is occurring is because of: improvements in technology (which are helping to make the world smaller). This is causing the total number of media outlets to become: larger, more focused on specific demographics and aware of what content they should be providing for audiences. This is significant, because over the course of time, this is changing the way various forms of content are presented.…
Grossberg, Lawrence. Media Making. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications, 2006. Web. http://books.google.ca/books?id=IfCiG4fh_-YC&dq=MediaMaking:+Mass+media+in+popular+culture&printsec=frontcover&source=bn&hl=en&ei=BLzsS7vfAYSdlgeeq-y1CA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=4&ved=0CCoQ6AEwAw#v=onepage&q&f=false
Kanadah, Karen. Media Making. AC Journal, 1998. Web. 23 Jun. 2010.
New Media Implications
The improvement of internet and other technology and its ready availability to more and more people has revolutionized the structure and population of the media around the world. People that would normally be members of the audience have become the creators of news and vice versa. The lines that separate news makers and people that normally would be making news or expected to make news have blurred significantly and in several different ways. There are many examples of countries that could be focused on for this subject but one of the best is the United States.
There are multiple ways in which the structure of news creators has changed and evolved over recent months and years. One way in which the idea regarding audience and news sources has been altered significantly is the corporate structure of the people that are providing the news. The companies…
Babad, E. (2005). The Psychological Price of Media Bias. Journal of Experimental
Psychology. 11 (4), 245-255.
Barkow, J., O'Gorman, R. & Rendell, L. (2012). Are The New Mass Media Subverting
Cultural Transmission. Review of General Psychology. 16 (2), 121-133.
The argument being advanced is that since, the Muslim extremists were responsible for the 9/11 disaster, the construction of the Muslim religious center would inculcate the jihad teachings and dishonor to the memory of the 9/11 victims. The question one would ask is this, what about the strip clubs, bars and other activities that are zero blocks away from the hallowed ground, do they honor the victims of the attacks. Consequently, it can be argued that Politicians and anti-Muslim groups found an easier way to agitate the crowds by exploitation of their Islamophobic instincts with the aid of the media framing of the issue. In same the interview, what comes out clearly is that Pamela fights against what she perceives as Islamization of America as opposed to Americanization of Islam. he later describes the center, which she refers to as ground zero mosque as a war memorial against the Americans…
Stone, D.A. (2002). Policy paradox: The art of political decision making. New York: Norton.
Payser, a (May 13, 2010).Mosque madness at Ground Zero.
The topic of the proposal is related to media psychology and reality television. Media psychology is an interdisciplinary field that works in collaboration with fields such as neuroscience, computer science, international relations, and philosophy. Media psychology seeks to understand the perceptions, interpretations, uses, responses, and relationships among media and media consumers. Media psychology identifies both the benefits and the drawbacks of media consumption. Media psychology reads media as a text and as an entity with behaviors, relationships, and cultures. Media psychology receives increasing attention in the 21st century as the media landscape of the times is much more rich, diverse, and abundant than other periods in human history. Media is a much larger fixture in more people's lives around the world in the 21st century. The growing consensus among media critics, researchers, theorists, producers, consumers, and distributors is that media affects human behavior and attitudes. Therefore, the…
Bagdasarov, Z., Greene, K., Banerjee, S.C., Krcmar, M., Yanovitsky, I., & Ruginyte, D. (2010) I Am What I Watch: Voyeurism, Sensation Seeking, and Television Viewing Patterns. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 54(2), 299 -- 315.
Giles, D. (2003) Media Psychology. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates: Mahwah, New Jersey.
Hall, A. (2009) Perception of Authenticity of Reality Programs and Their Relationships to Audience Involvement, Enjoyment, and Perceived Learning. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 53(4), 515 -- 531.
Reiss, S, & Wiltz, J. (2004) Why People Watch Reality TV. Media Psychology, 6, 363 -- 378.
Media in America as the Fourth Estate: From Watergate to the Present
During the 1970's, the role of the media changed from simply reporting the news to revealing serious political scandals (Waisbord, 2001). The media's role during Watergate was viewed as the mirror that reflected the most that journalism could offer to democracy: holding powers accountable for their actions. This became a trend in the American media and journalism had high credibility in the years that followed, and a great increase in journalism school enrollment followed.
However, during the 1980's and 1990's, this trend withered away. Investigative journalism is no longer rampant the firmament of American news. While the tone of the press was self-congratulatory in the post-Watergate years, the state of American journalism is currently viewed in a less positive light.
For the elite, the shift in journalism is welcomed. For example, according to John Dean, an American journalist,…
Altbach, Philip. (1995). International book publishing, and Encyclopedia. Fitzroy Dearborn.
Bagdikian, Ben. (1993). The Media Monopoly. Beacon Press.
Barton, C. Franklin, Jay B. (1994). The First Amendment and the Fourth Estate: the Law of Mass Media,6th ed. Foundation Press.
Coronel, Sheila. (July 31, 2000). Investigative Reporting: The Role of the Media in Uncovering Corruption. Southeast Asian Press Alliance.
Consumers often do not know that, for example, Disney owns ABC, when they are watching ABC present an ostensibly objective business story about the children's entertainment industry. Consumers may have the illusion of choice because they are watching different channels, without realizing that they may be watching many channels, all owned by the same network or media mogul.
Fewer media outlets means less diversity in terms of the range of news stories that is covered, not simply ideology. A narrower range of what is deemed 'important' and 'newsworthy' limits consumer awareness about the world. Although channels have proliferated, watching more channels does not necessarily translate into a new perspective, or even more knowledge. Gaining an audience is an expensive and daunting task for new media companies and FCC regulations that would allow for more mergers, permitting consolidation of up to 45% control in a geographic market, would make it all…
Blosser, Larry (2010l). Introduction. The case against media consolidation: Evidence on concentration, localism and diversity. Edited by Mark Cooper. Retrieved May 5, 2010 at http://www.fordham.edu/images/undergraduate/communications/caseagainstmediaconsolidation.pdf
The Fairness Doctrine. (2003). PBS. Retrieved May 5, 2010 at http://www.pbs.org/now/politics/fairness.html
A Day Without the Media
The different mass media channels have become an important factor of influence on society. In order to determine how a day without the media would look like, it is important to analyze the roles that the media play. The most important roles of media refer to information, education, and communication (Foulger, 2003). Therefore, an important effect of lack of media is represented by lack of information. As a consequence, people would have no information about subjects of interest to them. They would not benefit from the latest news on political, social, and economic issues. This could affect their professional life, but also their daily activities. Some of this news is of public interest, while others concern certain groups of the population.
The educational role of the media is also important. The lack of media in this direction could lead to the lack of principles…
1. Foulger, D. (2003). Roles in Media. Retrieved February 19, 2012 from http://evolutionarymedia.com/papers/rolesInMedia.htm .
2. The Role of Media in Democracy: A Strategic Approach (1999). Center for Democracy and Governance. Retrieved February 19, 2012.
3. Coronel, S. (2010). The Role of the Media in Deepening Democracy. Retrieved February 19, 2012.
4. Ragone, N. (2010). The Role of Media in Government. Retrieved February 19, 2012 from http://www.netplaces.com/american-government/the-media/the-role-of-media-in-government.htm.
Parallels in Journalism Studies
Chapter 11 by Coleman et al. is primarily concerned with the importance and methods of agenda setting in mass media, communication, and journalism studies. Agenda setting is a set that should come very early on in the production process of media for critical reasons. Without an agenda, the media lacks direction. Without an agenda, it is nearly impossible to judge or evaluate the success of a piece of media. Agenda setting is like knowing one's audience: if a media producer or journalist does not know his/her audience and lacks a concise & clear agenda, then there really is no point in producing such a piece of media. It would be a waste of time and resources. According to this chapter, agenda setting did not begin in mass media specifically nor journalism. Methods and research into agenda setting in the United States began with several presidential…
Coleman, R., McCombs, M. & Shaw, D & Weaver, D. (2009). Agenda Setting. In K. Wahl-Jorgensen & T. Hanitzsch (Eds.), The Handbook of Journalism. (pp. 147-160). New York, NY: Routledge. (chapter 11)
Cottle, S. (2009). Journalism and Globalization. In K. Wahl-Jorgensen & T. Hanitzsch (Eds.), The Handbook of Journalism. (pp. 341-356). New York, NY: Routledge. (chapter 24)
Entman, R.M., Matthes, J. & P. Pellicano, L. (2009). Nature, Sources, and Effects of News Framing. In K. Wahl-Jorgensen & T. Hanitzsch (Eds.), The Handbook of Journalism. (pp. 175-190). New York, NY: Routledge. (chapter 13)
McNair, B. (2009). Journalism and Democracy. In K. Wahl-Jorgensen & T. Hanitzsch (Eds.), The Handbook of Journalism. 237 -- 249. New York, NY: Routledge. (chapter 17)
aising Media-Savvy Kids." (November/December 2004)
"Every one' knows the 'common sense' cliche -- television is bad, the mass media is bad, anything learned over the Internet is especially bad and of doubtful truth, and today's children would be better off in a technology free-zone, locked in stimulation-free rooms that are lit by candlelight and filled with nothing but volumes of the collected works of Shakespeare and perhaps conduct books from the past century.
Not so, says the author of "aising Media Savvy-Kids." The media, like so many things, must be approached with a 'use it or lose it' strategy by parents and educators. Use the media to your advantage, parents and educators, or lose children to the media's worst excesses. Disdain the media at your own risk!
ather than viewing the media with hostility and attempting to eradicate its presence from children's environments -- a Quixotic quest, at best…
Rather than viewing the media with hostility and attempting to eradicate its presence from children's environments -- a Quixotic quest, at best -- children must learn how to become good consumers of the media, and to use media strategies in intelligent and proactive ways, such as deploying positive public relations posters for good causes like 'Earth Day.'
In the article, one educator even compares media 'protections' of children as a kind of book burning, or censorship. Rather, she encourages critical and creative approaches to media consumption in her students. For example, she purchased a 1919 conduct book over eBay for young women of the turn of the century. The teacher read from it to the class, and encouraged students to critique this historical artifact.
This book, of course, was a media representation in and of itself. The implication is not simply, that one cannot stand against the changing technological tides of history -- but perhaps the good old days before the Internet and the mass media weren't as good or pure either, of misinformation and stereotypes!
Media on Eating Disorders with a Concentration of 16- to 24-year-Olds
Agency Name: ocky Mountain Treatment Foundation for Eating Disorders
Location: The ocky Mountain Treatment Foundation for Eating Disorders is located high in the ock Mountains just 15 miles from Colorado Springs, Colorado. It is located on an old camp ground that is housed inside an old student union building. The facility was once part of Colorado University and now used as treatment center for teens and young adults. Led by nine of the top full-time, board-certified psychiatrists plus other professionals that will specialize in treating eating disorders, The ocky Mountain Treatment Foundation for Eating Disorders will consist of a highly skilled treatment team that will works to address each patient nutritionally and psychosomatically, as well as to manage other medical issues common to eating disorders. The ocky Mountain Treatment Foundation for Eating Disorders provides the best contact to some…
Derenne, J.L., & Beresin, E.V. (2006). Body image, media, and eating disorders. Academic Psychiatry, 30(3), 257-61.
Harrison, K., & Cantor, J. (2011). The relationship between media consumption and eating disorders. Journal of Communication, 47(1), 40-67.
Jane, D.M., Hunter, G.C., & Lozzi, B.M. (2009). Do Cuban American women suffer from eating disorders? Effects of media exposure and acculturation. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 21(2), 212-218.
Levine, M.P., & Murnen, S.K. (2009). "EVERYBODY KNOWS THAT MASS MEDIA ARE/ARE NOT [pick one] A CAUSE OF EATING DISORDERS": A CRITICAL REVIEW OF EVIDENCE FOR A CAUSAL LINK BETWEEN MEDIA, NEGATIVE BODY IMAGE, AND DISORDERED EATING IN FEMALES. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 28(1), 9-42.
For instance, team allegiances and celebrity athletes may affect personal identity construction. Fans of a team often organize their social lives around sporting events. The Olympics is a special example of how media-sport is used to promote cross-cultural awareness or in some cases as a political tool.
Almost ten years after Moragas (1996) wrote, the media-sport phenomenon has proliferated. Dedicated sports channels on cable have become highly specified so that one type of sport (such as hockey or soccer) can have its own network, and in some cases more than one. The plethora of programming available and the number of paying customers proves how integral sports media and media-sport has become for the culture, the individual, and the marketplace.
Moragas, Miquel de. (1996). The new role of the mass media in the construction of sport and Olympic values. etrieved Feb 1, 2010 from…
Moragas, Miquel de. (1996). The new role of the mass media in the construction of sport and Olympic values. Retrieved Feb 1, 2010 from http://olympicstudies.uab.es/pdf/wp051_eng.pdf
Also stated in their findings was that exposure in the laboratory of video games that were 'graphically violent...increased aggressive thoughts and behavior (2000:1) Also stated in this report is that other studies conducted by Anderson and Gentile give indication that videogames "have a strong effect on aggression..." particularly in children.
3. Coleman, Loren (2004) The Copycat Effect Paraview Publishing. Online available at http://www.paraview.com/coleman/index4.htm.
According to Coleman, the copycat effect has been a result of media coverage of events such as school shootings. Coleman brings to light how media affects culture within a society.
4. The Culture of Commercialism (2006) Media Awareness Network Online available at http://www.media-awareness.ca/english/resources/educational/handouts/ethics/rr_culture_commercialism.cfm.
This work states that "advertising projects false images commercialism distorts our culture by turning every event into a reason to consume.... [and that]...advertising perpetuates stereotypes..."
5. Digital Beginnings: Young Children's Use of Popular Culture, Media and New Technologies Popular Culture and Media Literacy: Research…