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I did not realize before that I had any feelings of anxiety related to the subject of mathematics. Math is not the most difficult subject although certainly it can be challenging. Yet, my writing indicates that I do feel math-related anxiety which therefore need to be better understood. From early on, I knew that math was not my favorite subject. For many people math is difficult, primarily because it takes a great deal of memorization and strict rules. It is not a subjective subject, but rather an objective one. hen you do a math problem, you either find the correct answer or you find a wrong answer. There is little room for maneuvering between these two extremes. Perhaps this is where my anxiety with math is the most obvious, in the fear of finding the right answer and the subsequent fear of being wrong in my findings. My…… [Read More]
As always, understanding is always the building block of finding a lasting solution to a problem, and this anxiety has not always been at the forefront of teachers' minds, but raising awareness could also help in beginning to solve the problem.
Borhod et. al. (2012). "Math Anxiety." Anoka Ramsey Community College orking Paper. Retrieved, < http://webs.anokaramsey.edu/math/pdf/MathAnxiety.pdf>.
Curtain-Phillips, M. (2012). "Causes and Prevention of Math Anxiety." Math Goodies. Retrieved, < http://www.mathgoodies.com/articles/math_anxiety.html>.
No Author. (2012). "8 Empowering ays to Beat Math Anxiety." Math is Not a Four Letter ord. Retrieved, < http://mathfour.com/math-anxiety>.
No Author. (2012). "How to Stop Math Anxiety." Articles Base. Retrieved, < http://www.articlesbase.com/learning-disabilities-articles/how-to-stop-math-anxiety-overcome-dyscalculia-fast-5691066.html>.
Swanson, D. (2006). "Math Anxiety." Middle Institute Partnership. Retrieved, < http://scimath.unl.edu/MIM/files/research/SwansonD.pdf>.
Borhod et. al. (2012). "Math Anxiety." Anoka Ramsey Community College orking Paper. Retrieved, < http://webs.anokaramsey.edu/math/pdf/MathAnxiety.pdf>.
Borhod et. al. (2012).
Curtain-Phillips, M. (2012). "Causes and Prevention of Math Anxiety." Math Goodies. Retrieved, < http://www.mathgoodies.com/articles/math_anxiety.html>.
Curtain-Phillips,…… [Read More]
De-tressing the tress From Math
Arithmetic is a core rudiment of academia and spells academic and vocational success for many. Even those who do not need skill in arithmetic to progress with their career do need high grades in arithmetic to succeed in school. Unfortunately, for many, these high grades are almost unobtainable by the debilitating presence of math anxiety. Math anxiety is, in fact, so common that there is even a special word for it: Mathematics-Learning Distress (MALEI, 2006). About 85% of students studied in Perry (2004) in introductory math classes claimed to experience at least mild math anxiety. This experience seems to have a history that goes back to the earliest of formative child education since Jackson and Leffingwell (1999) found that only 7% of their 157 students actually had pleasant experiences related to math from their beginning the subject. Meanwhile, 27% of the respondents accumulated math anxiety…… [Read More]
Although many people state that they have math anxiety, quantifying the extent to which this can inhibit learning has proven challenging. In an attempt to do so, Shi & Liu (2016)’s study “Worrying Thoughts Limit Working Memory Capacity in Math Anxiety” hypothesized that individuals with higher levels of math anxiety would show poorer working level memory capacity performance when confronted with material with mathematical content, versus individuals with lower levels of mathematics anxiety. The authors based their hypothesis on previous research which suggested “MA detrimentally impacts mathematical performance by disrupting WM resources otherwise devoted to skill execution” (Shi & Liu, 2015, p.11).
After dividing Chinese undergraduate volunteers into two groups of 61 individuals using the Math Anxiety Rating Scale (MARS) and a text anxiety scale, participants were scored on working memory on neutral tasks and in mathematical tasks. Although the groups performed similarly on the general tests of working memory,…… [Read More]
top five academic anxieties (Test Anxiety ~ Math Anxiety), on the average (mean) of core, which anxiety variable achieved the lowest score? Explain.
The mean score on 'Test Anxiety' is 2.30, whilst that on 'math anxiety' is 1.90. The lowest average on first sight therefore seems to be math's anxiety which means that the class average for 'math Anxiety' was 1.90. However, when we assess the variability we see the radical divergence of variance that exist between the two Anxieties with .38 on Test Anxiety and .69 on Math's Anxiety. This means that the scores are more spread out / dispersed on the latter. This needs to be taken into consideration when evaluating results.
Among the top five academic anxieties (Test Anxiety ~ Math Anxiety), on the skewness of core, which anxiety variable achieved the highest negatively skewed score? Explain.
Test Anxiety was -.09, whilst Math's Anxiety was .51. Test…… [Read More]
This has had the unintended consequence of increasing the dropout rate, as students who fail to perform and to be promoted leave the schools altogether. Many good, creative teachers also drop out, frustrated with the stringent controls placed upon their teaching style.
ELL (English Language Learner) students are at a particular disadvantage for taking standardized tests, given the frequently arcane wording of the exams. The tests are often poorly written, and students are made to feel as if their worth as a human being and their whole future rests upon doing well on these very arbitrarily designed tests. Teachers perhaps understandably impose such performance anxiety upon their pupils, and the relationship between student and teacher is damaged, as teachers focus more on test-taking strategies than creativity or teaching new material. Also, teachers spend more time grading papers and administrating tests than getting to know their students, communicating, encouraging reasoning and…… [Read More]
Students that are talented apart from also having learning disabilities are those that have an exceptional talent/gift and are capable of achieving high performances, but who also have some sort of learning disability, which makes a certain feature of academic success challenging. These students are frequently regarded as underachievers, and this underachievement factor might be as a result of lack of inspiration, poor self-concept, or less pleasing traits like laziness. As school gets more difficult, their academic challenges might increase to a level whereby they are sufficiently lagging behind peers that a disability is eventually suspected. Even though these particular students seem to be doing considerably good, they are, unluckily, not doing well enough compared to their potential. As assignments get more and more challenging in the following years, and without the assistance they require for the accommodation of their inadequacies, their academic challenges normally increase to the level where…… [Read More]
value when comparing two things, instead of a univariate F. value. For instance, when comparing which of two textbooks are better for students, we are dealing with two separate factors that, although perhaps correlated, are still different. The MANOVA exaggerates these differences and then sees whether there is any contrast between the two.
The MANOVA is used to see whether (going to the previous example) the 3 factors help reduce math anxiety or whether they reduce public speaking anxiety. They may be helpful with one, but not helpful with the other. The ANOVA lumps them, but the MANOVA separates them and this distinction is very important. The MANOVA, therefore, also shows the researcher more differences that an ANOVA overlooks, as well as avoiding the possibility of a Type 1 error (namely saying that there is a significant result when there isn't').
On the other hand, it is more complicated than…… [Read More]
Special education field advisory
One of the challenges of special education in the modern, standards-focused environment is the fact that while special education almost by definition demands individualized attention on the part of the teacher, standardized tests evaluate students according to a set standard outside of the parameters of their specific curriculum. In response to this, the article entitled "Special Education Field Advisory," a memorandum written by James P. DeLorenzo of the University of the State of New York discusses the importance of IEPs or Individualized Educational Programs to give students the support they need. All students classified as having a disability in New York State must have an IEP aligned to state standards that still takes into consideration the student's special concerns. The Committee on Special Education meets with the students' mainstream teachers as well as special education teachers to ensure an IEP is adapted to both the needs…… [Read More]
Instructional Planning for Gender Gaps
It is not uncommon to find that female students have more difficulty with subjects that are traditionally associated with males -- such as those pertaining to mathematics and science. Perhaps the most prudent time to account for this disparity in achievement that oftentimes manifests itself in institutions of higher learning in which there are greater amounts of male than female students in math and science classes (the latter of which include chemistry, physics, biology, etc.) is to utilize gender differentiated instruction while students are still in elementary school. esearch indicates that even in elementary schools, female students are aware of the stereotype that males are supposed to be good in math and science while they are not (Halpern et al., 2007). Simultaneously, it may be prudent to do the same for male students in critical aspects of language arts and social studies.
One of the…… [Read More]
Helplessness in College
Background significant and notable problem within higher education is the conditioned state of mind associated with learned helplessness. Challenges to educators are often played out through the compounded years of this learning roadblock in a student's life, leaving many individuals with test anxiety so great that they are unable to test effectively on the concepts they have learned.
Learned helplessness (e.g., when someone learns from repeated, unpleasant, and painful experiences that he or she is unable to control the aversive environment or escape, that person will gradually lose the motivation to change the situation) (oberts, 1996, p. 7-8)
Challenge is especially high with regard to math learning. (Tobias, 1991, pp. 91-93) The system design therefore creates a challenge to students and instructors, who have no other way, than testing to determine the level of knowledge a student has actually achieved during instruction. Any situation where an alternative…… [Read More]
Such measures include providing positive examples of students and professionals who have garnered significant achievements in math, allowing students who may feel symptoms of stereotype threat to express their talent in other areas outside of math (by incorporating those areas into lessons and classroom engagement), and by downplaying differences in groups via the reframing of tasks to decrease levels of competitiveness amongst students (Singletary et al., 2009, p. 2) (Shih et al., 1999, p. 82).
In addition to considering the role of classroom and social environments that can impact middle school math students, it is also necessary to examine the type of learning styles that are typically used and which typically favor each gender. In most instances, competitive learning styles in which students are pitted against each tend to favor male students. However, by focusing on and accommodating a diversity of learning styles, instructors can actually increase the achievement of…… [Read More]
Juvonen et al., (2004) explains that a teachers in depth understanding of mathematics in particular is extremely important in middle school. The authors also point out that learning more difficult math in the eighth grade such as math is imports because 8th grade students who take algebra are more likely to apply to college than those that don't (Atanda, 1999). In addition the authors insists that when middle school students have teachers that have college degrees in the subject matter they are teaching the students are more likely to perform well on tests (ilson, Floden, Ferrini-Mundy, 2001). The author further explains that Researchers who have reviewed the evidence on subject-matter training believe that students in teacher training programs should be taught not only the content but also its conceptual underpinnings and a strong reasoning ability (ilson, Floden, and Ferrini-Mundy, 2001). Other evidence, although not derived from research on middle schools,…… [Read More]
There are almost as many different varieties of issues that can impede a child learner from succeeding in a math class as there are particular remedies to ameliorate such a problem. One of the chief reasons that certain children find mathematics difficult is because they are overwhelmed by it. They find the concept of a never ending series of numbers (as well as similarly interminable operations which one can put them through and which are taught daily and tested weekly) beyond challenging to the point where it incites anxiety and fear.
Additionally, difficulties can arise from learning differences such as dyscalculia, or situations in which students may not be familiar with the language that the class is taught in (such as English Language Learners). These two factors can exacerbate the initial feeling of anxiety that math can produce in child learners. Moreover, it is important to realize that in…… [Read More]
limit your summary to 8 sentences.
The research area is in cognitive processes related to performance, skill learning, and execution. It is related to research on mathematics anxiety, stereotype threats, and how those factors affect performance on math-related tasks. In particular, the researchers are interested in the "choking under pressure" phenomenon in which individuals perform poorer than expected on a task they have mastered, because they are under pressure. Moreover, the research touches upon working memory and its relationship to performance on mathematics tasks. Working memory is defined as a short-term memory system that can be especially relevant to concentration on a specific task at hand. Anxiety has been shown to impede working memory, basically by clogging it up with the worrisome thoughts.
Why was the current study conducted?
The current study was conducted to identify the individual traits and circumstances in which choking under pressure is most likely to…… [Read More]
During the proposed study's process, the researcher plans to fulfill the following objectives.
Objective 1: Address each of the proposed study's research questions during literature review:
Examine the effect athletic participation has on student GPAs;
Identify the effect athletic participation has on student DC CAS math scores;
Determine the effect athletic participation has on student DC CAS English eading scores;
Explore the effect music participation has on student GPAs;
Investigate the effect music participation has on student DC CAS math scores;
Discover the effect music participation has on student DC CAS English eading scores.
Complete study with 150 tenth grade student participants in the first semester of school year 2008-2009.
Analyze test results and compare with findings from literature reviewed.
One of the Best Investments
Despite current reported budget cuts and constraints in education, high school activity programs continue to constitute one of the best…… [Read More]
differentiated instruction necessary in the math class?
The reasoning behind endeavoring to find different behaviors for the math classroom education is to address the individual difficulties to learn math and differentiate the math learning disorders such as discalculia. Dyscalculia (i.e., mathematical blindness) is a specific learning disability in comprehending mathematics. The disorder could be classified as; (1) developmental dyscalculia (DD), generally described as a disorder in mathematical abilities, presumed to be due to a speci-c impairment in brain function or inherited from the family, (2) post lesion dyscalculia, caused by brain damage and head injury, (3) Pseudo-dyscalculia, environmentally caused mathematical inabilities for example uncomforting environment, having been instructed incorrectly. Most of the children and adults suffering from DD have normal social functions and abilities to deal with other subjects and succeed in the life. For example, Einstein had early difficulties with arithmetic. Benjamin Franklin passed all the subjects but mathematics…… [Read More]
According to reports coming out of Japan, teasing is often associated with poor performance, and may be instigated by teachers in many cases. America, it should be noted, tens to have an anti-intellectualism streak in its politics and nature, while Japan tends towards the opposite. It seems possible that the fact that Woodsa and Wolkeb discovered that less intelligent, lower class, and rural children were significantly more likely to be bullied represents an overarching social trend which puts down lower academic achievement in favor of higher achievement, and that teachers themselves are subtly giving children cues as to who they should bully. This point deserves to be more extensively explored, perhaps with comparative studies in America or other countries. Additionally, the school climate towards bullying may be a far more relevant issue than this research lets on.
The concept of victimization is also particularly important to this research. Woodsa and…… [Read More]
EP for Gifted Student
Giftedness is an intellectual ability that is significantly higher than average, not a skill, but an innate talent and aptitude that may be general or specific. Just as there are special needs for children who appear on the left side of the bell curve, so should there be for children on the far right. However, these students are often neglected in terms of special programing due to beliefs that they can just do "extra work" within a mainstreamed environment. From the 1920s to the 1970s, the trend in Western countries was to set up special schools to educate those who fell outside the norms of the bell curve, but by the 1980s most educators favored merging special and regular education in a comprehensive program that included students from all backgrounds -- in other words, mainstreaming them into a regular classroom environment. This idea, though, must also…… [Read More]
Interviews with his parents reveal a disturbing trend. His parents do not seem to want to challenge Christopher in any meaningful way and instead enable his lack of progress. Perhaps out of fear for his tantrums, Christopher's mother makes excuses for her son's behavior. The experiment of homeschooling Christopher has therefore been unproductive because he is not challenged, and therefore is not learning as much as he could be. His social skills have also been hampered by his homeschooling environment, and by the attitudes of his parents. Christopher does not understand certain social conventions. For instance, he will pass gas while talking to people or make a wolf whistle at a female.
Christopher has no real friends his own age. He seems to prefer being around adults due to the extra compassion and attention they show him. Christopher throws temper tantrums when he feels anxious or put on the spot,…… [Read More]
Marian Diamond addressed the nature vs. nurture issue so long debated by researchers and scientists by actually observing the effects of living in different environments on young rats. The beginnings of her research with Donald Head occurred in the 1960's, a time when the brain was not viewed as plastic. When presenting the results of their early research demonstrating a small but significant thicker cerebral cortex in rats raised in enriched environments vs. rats raised in impoverished environments she was actually told, "Young lady, that brain cannot change" (Diamond and Hobson, 1998-page 8). Nonetheless, Diamond believed the neurological basis that the environment provided for brain enrichment is the spreading of dendritic spines in the neuron as a result of environmental stimulation (Diamond and Hobson, 1998-page 25). In fact, research from her lab along with other researchers found that even honey bees' brains responded to environmental stimulation. Based on the…… [Read More]
Community Colleges in America
In 1983 and 1984, a dozen major reports on the United States' schools were published. All stressed the need for "excellence" in education. These reports are the subject of: Excellence in Education: Perspectives on Policy and Practice. The reports pertaining to higher education were published by The BusinessHigher Education Forum, and saw higher education as "unable to train skilled managers and technicians that they believed industry needed." (Altbach 32) These reports essentially claim that student achievement has declined at technical schools because schools "do not demand enough of their students, do not apply stiff criteria for promotion, do not test students enough, and particularly in high school, provide students with too many choices about what subjects they study." (Altbach 32) These reports are somewhat dated in that they compare American students with Japanese students and focus on technical proficiency vs. The intuitive grasp of problems and…… [Read More]
Undocumented tudents Equity to in-tate Tuition:
Reducing The Barriers
There exist policy ambiguities and variations at federal, state, and institutional levels related to undocumented student access to and success in higher education and this has created problems for these students. This study investigated specific policies and procedures to provide the resources and capital to assist undocumented students as well as reviewed key elements of showing the correlation of these difficulties with ethnic identity in access and equity to higher education that would help eliminate student's frustration. The study also illustrated that there is no accountability system surrounding the success of undocumented student's postsecondary education divide significant structure. Three research questions guided the study; a) Without the fundamental requirements met how will undocumented students achieve their goal to attain a degree, and seek a rewarding career? b) Is it unjust to extradite an illegal alien who has been living a constructive…… [Read More]
He also has hallucinations about being followed by a federal agent, in keeping with his academic world where the government seeks on the one hand to employ mathematicians and scientists and on the other hand mistrusts them. Many of the encounters he has in his mind with this agent and others have the aura of a detective movie, showing that Nash is replaying films he has seen and that these serve as the inspiration for his visions. In a way, that serves as another pattern in his mind, linking what he saw in the theater with what he believes is happening to him. Nothing comes out of whole cloth but always comes from experience and is then reformed in a form it did not have in reality.
In this way, the film shows the viewer the kind of world experienced by the schizophrenic and why this world is disorienting and…… [Read More]
I thought of the millions of people living their lives and looking at watches and clocks. I could not help thinking that one day my life would end and I began to think about those people who had passed on form this life.
A picked up the watch and placed it on my arm. I tightened the strap and the watch no longer felt strange or irritating. I looked a the glass interface again and was pleased to see that the images on the surface had changed with the changing light and that there were new and interesting shapes that swam across the silver surface of the watch. With a strange sense of joy I realized that the word around me was not boring or dull and that watches don't just measure time.
My watch reminded me that there are infinite and ever-changing possibilities in life and that sometimes we…… [Read More]
S. were "proficient in reading and math," Pytel explains. These statistics "loudly states that students entering high school" are simply not prepared, Pytel goes on. Moreover, U.S. students do not fare well on the international educational stage. At a time when globalization has brought much closer linkage between cultures, economies, and countries, American school children are lagging behind. The justification for focusing on strategies to keep children interested in school -- and to help them succeed in school -- is to be found in the fact that U.S. students' average scores are very poor in comparison to other students internationally.
To wit, according to the 2003 data from the Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) (in cooperation with the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, OECD), 15-year-old American students rank 24th out of 38 countries in science. U.S. students rank 12th of 38 countries in reading, and 26th of 38…… [Read More]
Participants were allowed to use a calculator and were given a time limit of eighteen minutes to complete the exam. After the exam stimuli, participants completed a short questionnaire consisting of seven questions about basic demographics and confound checks.
To see if participants major was a confounding variable, an one way ANOVA with a LSD test, was performed to see if participants major had an effect on exam performance.
A 2 X 3 factorial ANOVA was performed for the analysis of the main affect of test anxiety and the main affect of question difficulty sequence, as well as the interaction between test anxiety and question difficulty sequence on exam performance. A LSD test was performed for the three-level independent variable, question difficulty sequence, to see if cell means varied for question sequences of easy to hard, random, and hard to easy. Three contrast t-tests were performed to test the…… [Read More]
They are basically an "overhaul of mathematics instruction," (611).
The major points Alsup discusses in his article include the background information as to why traditional instruction falls short of the ideal, and includes the seven new rules for preservice elementary teachers' mathematics instruction. These seven rules are based on the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics and on what Alsup calls a "constructivist view of mathematics learning." According to the constructivist view, the teacher does not directly "transmit" mathematical knowledge and facts to the students; rather, students construct their own set of mathematical knowledge through active and creative problem solving (611).
Alsup suggests that the progressive, constructivist approach to teaching preservice elementary school teachers will lead to a "learning community." Students interact with one another and with the instructor, rather than having the instructor always stand before the class in a lecture format. The new rules enhance "confidence and independent…… [Read More]
He seems to be curious about what kind of options he has in life. He sees his sister enjoying herself very much in her studies and relationships developed at the conservatory and he wants some of those same things for himself. Shawn has shown somewhat of an increased interest in learning to socialize because of his growing interest in girls and romantic relationships. He wants to be evaluated in so far as he has interest in how his social skills and social intelligence stand up to his peers.
Shawn has accepted that he will be evaluated periodically. He does not show overt resistance to his evaluation, and he does not show overt excitement about it, either. He was mostly cooperative with the evaluation team. He expressed that he did not think many of his classmates liked him or even knew who he was. He mentioned that he recently became interested…… [Read More]
Case Study 2
Cherise's math-related anxiety is only partly due to her being diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorders. Many of our students demonstrate math-related anxiety and do not have any identifiable learning disability. Therefore, the plans used to help Cherise might also help other students, too. The outbursts that Cherise is exhibiting can be addressed by framing math differently for her. If it appears that Cherise needs to be taken out of the mainstream math classroom to receive specialized instruction, then that might help reduce the acute outbursts and behavioral problems. Because Cherise has become self-injurious, it is crucial to address this matter immediately and if necessary, remove her from this particular classroom.
The plan for Cherise will include assistive technologies designed for mathematics instruction. By reframing math as a fun and engaging learning activity, Cherise will eventually be less anxious in a mainstream classroom. The tools used to teach…… [Read More]
middle school, high school, and now college, is my ability to focus on an academic task when I really need to buckle down and concentrate. I get decent grades because I can give enough focus at the last minute, some call it "cramming," to get through the test, or get the paper done in time. But because I can't bring a consistent sense of concentration in a regular pattern, I become stressed when time comes to be tested, or to turn in a research paper or essay.
When I am assigned to read a book, I have a problem concentrating on the text, and very often I have to go back and read the whole previous page over again because I have no idea what I just read. Even very interesting fiction, my mind drifts off while I'm reading. But I have come to grips with my reading problem and…… [Read More]
Self-Efficacy: A Definition
Social Cognitive Theory
Triangulation Data analysis
Problems for the researcher
Data Analysis and Related Literature review.
Comparison of data with other literature in the field.
Efficacy, Self-esteem, Confidence and Experience
arriers to use
Co-oping and Project design.
Teacher Integration Education.
Meta-evaluation of data and related literature.
Data Analysis and Comparison
Recommendation for Further Research
Data Review Report
Teacher efficacy in the classroom is facilitated by a number of different factors for different professions. However, in the case of the teaching classroom, and adapting to new technology, andura's belief that the environment and the person's attitude toward / interactions with the environment are reciprocally affective.
andura (1993) identified 4 specific ways that self-efficacy is formed:
Through cognitive experiences
Through motivational experiences
Their affective interactions with environment
Through selectional experiences and choices.
andura…… [Read More]
Swanson, Ph.D., University of California, Irvine, CA 92715
Age: ____ Grade:
Ethnicity (circle one which best applies): African-American Asian Caucasian Hispanic
Completed by:____ Type of Class:
For each item, check the column which best describes this child:
Not at Just a Quite
1. Often fails to give close attention to details or makes careless mistakes in schoolwork or tasks
2. Often has difficulty sustaining attention in tasks or play activities
3. Often does not seem to listen when spoken to directly
4. Often does not follow through on instructions and fails to finish schoolwork, chores, or duties
5. Often has difficulty organizing tasks and activities
6. Often avoids, dislikes, or reluctantly engages in tasks requiring sustained mental effort
7. Often loses things necessary for activities (e.g., toys, school assignments, pencils, or books)
8. Often is distracted by extraneous stimuli
9. Often is forgetful in…… [Read More]
Women's Objectification in Society
Women's Objectification in Society
It is crucial to notice the language we use when we talk about bodies. We speak as if there was one collective perfect body, a singular entity that we're all after. The trouble is, I think we are after that one body. We grew up with the impression that underneath all this normal flesh, buried deep in the excessive recesses of our healthy bodies, there was a perfect body just waiting to break out. (Hornbacher, 1999, p. 47)
In recent years, much attention from both the public media and professional research community has focused on the growing problem regarding the objectification and sexualisation of women. The American Psychological Association's (2007) publication outlining the problem has given the public a greater awareness and understanding of the dynamics between our culture's tendency to objectify women's bodies and the consequences of this for…… [Read More]
Note the distinct similarities.
An examination of Escher's Circle Limit III can thus tell us much about distance in hyperbolic geometry. In both Escher's woodcut and the Poincare disk, the images showcased appear smaller as one's eye moves toward the edge of the circle. However, this is an illusion created by our traditional, Euclidean perceptions. Because of the way that distance is measured in a hyperbolic space, all of the objects shown in the circle are actually the same size. As we follow the backbones of the fish in Escher's representation, we can see, then, that the lines separating one fish from the next are actually all the same distance even though they appear to grow shorter. This is because, as already noted, the hyperbolic space stretches to infinity at its edges. There is no end. Therefore, the perception that the lines are getting smaller toward the edges is, in…… [Read More]
Millions of dollars are spent on test-prep manuals, books, computer programs and worksheets (Gluckman, 2002). Static/captive learning can help teachers around the nation prepare their students for standardized testing.
Significance of the Study to Leadership
A principal is the leader of the campus. The challenge for the principal is to know his or her district's mandated curriculum and make sure teachers are able to deliver it (Shipman & Murphy, 2001). As the key decision-maker for the use of time and space, principals must be aware of how the use of time and space affects instruction. Principals need to know how best to use assessment data based on relevant content standards with teachers, school communities. Improved student learning is always the focus of assessment.
ecause of high stakes testing, teachers are always assessing to monitor student progress and plan the scope and sequence of instruction. Principals can work to structure school…… [Read More]
They can provide remedial basic skills tutoring in reading and math for employees before training them, or use video or on-the-job training, both of which emphasize learning by watching and practicing rather than by reading.
Personality factors include conscientiousness, goal orientation, and anxiety. Personality is a good predictor of individual behavior across a wide variety of situations.
Conscientious individuals are dependable, organized, persevering, thorough, and achievement oriented.
Goal orientation may be considered the individual's mental framework, which influences interpretation and behavior in learning activities.
This is an acquired or learned fear that can result in physical arousal and a disruption in cognitive functioning and performance. While anxiety is frequently the result of the type of instructional environment being used, certain individuals have a predisposition to reacting anxiously in learning contexts.
Older employees have been found to demonstrate less learning and participation in training programs…… [Read More]
This encouragement and the ability to have opportunities are at the heart of what Conchas (2006) is trying to say.
There are many individuals who are for the tracking system, and many who are against it. They all have their reasons, and while most of them are good ones, both sides cannot always be correct. One case raised in favor of tracking is based on the research information that students who are low achievers or have low abilities often benefit from being in a class where other individuals are of the same ability level. While some opponents argue that this does not allow children who are doing poorly to have meaningful interaction with those that are doing well, the research findings state that children who are doing poorly often improve when they are placed in classes that are designed for remedial students. In other words, they need to be involved…… [Read More]
Please list sections according to instructions
Exercise 1.1: eview of esearch Study and Consideration of Ethical Guidelines
Option 1: Stanford Prison Experiment
Go to: http://www.prisonexp.org, the official site for the Stanford Prison Experiment.
What do you think the research questions were in this study? List 2 or 3 possible research questions (in question format) that may have been the focus of this experiment.
What happens when you put good people in an evil place? Does humanity win over evil, or does evil triumph? Does natural or innate evil exist, or is evil situational? Are certain people simply born "bad apples" or are they made evil by "bad barrels"?
What is "reality" in a prison setting? This study is one in which an illusion of imprisonment was created, but when do illusions become real? How quickly and easily will 'ordinary men' adjust to the roles as prisoners, guards and…… [Read More]
Mindfulness Meditation Training on Experimentally Induced Pain" by Zeidan et al., (2010), published in the Journal of Pain, presents the results of research to investigate
The research addresses a gap in the research examining the benefit of meditation in attenuating pain symptoms. The research problem is clearly articulated, with the title clearly stating the content of the paper and the introduction expressing and justifying the issue. Past research has demonstrated that meditation programs, such as mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBS) programs have been correlated with positive health outcomes, including pain attenuation. The most common form of program is the MBS. In the context of pain management the eight-week length of the program renders it difficult for some patients, such as suffers of chronic pain, as they may not have the ability, or the time, required to complete the course. The research undertaken by Zeidan et al. (2010) addresses this problem, implementing…… [Read More]
More so, were entries to incorporate theoretical ideas on multi-disciplinary fields too -- the entire better.
5. The math book: written for students conveying a broad-based general overview of finite and infinite math in an accessible and practical manner. Statistics, probability, and logic would be involved, each covered in a comprehensive manner.
. Why it is important.
1. The letters: whenever I am down or feeling dispirited with myself, I can, over and again, return to these letters for solace and for comforting memories. These are people who know me best, who have seen different facets of my personality, and care most for my welfare. They can, therefore, afford me glimpses of myself that I may not be accessible to.
2. The laptop- I love writing, and my aim is to continue developing my writing, using it to formulate my thoughts, and to develop some original theory that is helpful…… [Read More]
Even the much despised soccer is popular amongst American youths. Yet Americans cheer on their favorite individual stars in all of these sports, especially if the starts engage in charity efforts to justify their bloated salaries. The tension remains about what good sports do for both the individual or society, and Americans today are clearly using sports as a means of practical self-improvement like the Greeks as well as a means of collective identification like the English: "in the 1950's or 1960's, few people exercised; baseline fitness-consciousness was just above zero. Today, 20% of the U.S. population works out on a regular basis, while an additional 60%+ can be classified as...'Consciousness III' -- those persuaded of physical fitness, but who by their own admission, don't get enough exercise. As behavior lags enlightened attitudes, 4 out of 5 adult Americans are true believers in exercise and fitness." But the protests remain…… [Read More]
Such assistance allows him to focus more clearly on his school work and lessens his tendency to be distracted by others and by the classroom activity. The presence of the paraprofessional also seems to enable him to be more confident in his interactions with the other students in the classroom. Since the beginning of the school year, John has been participating in a contract (behavioral plan) that was drafted in an attempt to provide him with some structure. For the moment, John continues to have occasional problems but, overall, he has done well within the confines of the contract and a continuation of the contract terms would seem to be in his best interests. At the present time, there is no compelling need to adjust the contract.
As has been already mentioned, John functions best under the guidance of his paraprofessional. The presence of the paraprofessional appears to provide…… [Read More]
.. [and after they removed the bandages from his face] I saw a fearful sight...It wasn't him. I knew it. A few minutes later his breathing stopped" (The Lover 23). She still had not searched the upper floor, but the emotion of her search, the suffering of the men on those awful wards, was too much, and so she "left the building."
Dafi describes that when a math teacher is killed in the war, students were suffering over the loss, but, "it's impossible to be only sorry, but we really were stunned and shocked because we remembered him living and standing beside the blackboard not so long ago, writing out the exercises with endless patience...[and though many students went to sleep because of how boring he was] in the middle of all this drowsiness, in the cloud of chalk dust flying around the blackboard, the formulas used to penetrate. And…… [Read More]
Another person reading this information might think, "Well, this sounds good but I don't think I can do it." This person feels sad and discouraged. So it is not a situation which directly affects how a person feels emotionally, but rather, his or her thoughts in that situation. When people are in distress, they often do not think clearly and their thoughts are distorted in some way (eck).
Cognitive therapy helps people to identify their distressing thoughts and to evaluate how realistic the thoughts are. Then they learn to change their distorted thinking. When they think more realistically, they feel better. The emphasis is also consistently on solving problems and initiating behavioral change (eck).
Thoughts intercede between some sort of stimulus, such as an external event, and feelings. The motivator (stimulus) brings out a thought -- which might be a weighted judgment -- which turns into to an emotion. In…… [Read More]
The concept of general ability or intelligence has in the past been the most important single way of accounting for individual differences. IQ (Intelligence quotient) is usually assessed by measuring performances on a test of a number of different skills, using tasks that emphasize reasoning and problem solving in a number of different areas. Early assessments of IQ were done in France by Alfred Binet in 1905, as part of an attempt to identify children who needed specialist help to make educational progress. Interest in IQ testing continued in the U.S. By researchers such as Louis Terman.
IQ was thought to be fixed in these early years and so was often used in education in an attempt to predict children's future academic progress with different levels of measured intelligence being taken to imply the need for different forms of educational experiences. More able children are supposed to need…… [Read More]
Multicultural education researchers and educators agree that preservice teachers' attitudes, beliefs, and understandings are important: foci in multicultural education coursework (Cochran-Smith, 1995; Grant & Secada, 1990; McDiarmid & Price, 1993; Pohan, 1996). Teacher attitudes and beliefs influence teaching behaviors, which affect student learning and behavior (Wiest, 1998)."
1996 study used 492 pre-service teachers to try and gauge the attitudes and beliefs among the group when it came to understanding diversity and cultural differences in students (Wiest, 1998).
A decade earlier leading education experts Hollingsworth was able to identify a method for helping students of teaching to challenge their convictions and apply them to their careers.
Many advocates of multicultural education suggest that field experiences be included in preparing teachers to work with diverse student populations (Pohan, 1996; Sleeter, 1995; Tellez, Hlebowitsh, Cohen, & Norwood, 1995). Sleeter (1995) describes some investigations, such as miniethnographies, that her students conduct: I regard extended…… [Read More]
Song of Love
Music is a universal language shared and understood across all countries and cultures. It can help express emotions and create an array of reactions, ranging from relaxed feelings to the most motivated ones. Apart from this, music can be used therapeutically for people who face difficulties physically, emotionally, cognitively or socially (Bodner). There is some difficulty when defining the concept of music therapy because there are numerous definitions out there concerning to this practice. According to the American Music Therapy Association (AMTA) "Music therapy is an established health profession in which music is used in a therapeutic relationship to address physical, emotional, cognitive and social needs of individuals" (Ronna). This includes addressing mental and physical problems such as: self-awareness, spiritual enhancement, social and interpersonal development, and motor skills (Ronna). This type of therapy is used in many settings, such as schools, hospitals, nursing homes, rehabilitation centers, and…… [Read More]
ADHD (what it is this disease) and what are the symptoms and result of this disease. The paper also discusses the affects of ADHD on patients. In this paper the treatment of ADHD is also discussed and explained.
All the details relating to this condition and its symptoms and treatments are explained and supported by the use of literature review.
ADHD in Children
ADHD (attention deficit hyperactivity syndrome) is a chronic condition that affects the children and continues till their adulthood in many cases. This disease results in the combination of a number of problems such as difficulty in focusing on something and paying attention, 'hyperactivity and impulsive behavior'. (Mayo Clinic, 2013)
In the children, the children suffering from ADHD also experience lack of confidence and self-esteem, trouble in relationships and bad performance in school. The disease is usually preceded by behavioral and learning problems and lack of attention in…… [Read More]
Social Advocacy in Counseling
Social advocacy has been described by some counseling theorists as a "fifth force" paradigm that should be considered to rival if not replace other major counseling psychology paradigms regarding behavior and mental illness (atts, 2009). This paper briefly discusses what social justice/advocacy is, the debate regarding its status as a paradigm in counseling psychology, and how social advocacy can enhance both the client's experience and life and the professional counselor's personal, professional, and ethical obligations to helping others.
Social justice is fairness or impartiality exercised in society, specifically as it is implemented by and within different levels of social classes of a society. A truly socially just populace would be based on the principles of solidarity and equality, would consider and maintain values, human rights, and the dignity of every person in the society (Bell, 1997). Social justice/advocacy theories have in recent years been…… [Read More]
Children of Alcoholic Parents
It is generally accepted that alcoholism tends to run in families and that compared with children of non-alcoholics, children of alcoholic parents have approximately four time greater risk of becoming alcoholics themselves (Reich Pp). However, the causal factors that determine the development of alcohol abuse and dependence have not yet been conclusively determined (Reich Pp).
Studies from the 1950's and 1960's generally emphasized psychosocial explanation, such as "poor parenting, lack of good role models. And impoverished home life" (Reich Pp). Beginning in the 1970's, research has investigated heritable components in the familial transmission of alcoholism" (Reich Pp). Adoption studies analyses of half-siblings and studies comparing identical and fraternal twins have all provided evidence that genetic factors play a crucial role in the etiology of alcoholism (Reich Pp). Although there is strong evidence for a genetic contribution, few researchers would deny the influence of environmental factors in…… [Read More]
Is ability grouping the way to go, or should it go away?
Whether or not ability grouping is an effective strategy for the instruction of students of different academic abilities is a hotly debated issue, with divergent evidence. Some research has indicated that grouping students according to ability promotes increased achievement, while other research has demonstrated that stratifying students according to achievement has detrimental effects. This study aims at evaluating whether students in grouped vs. non-grouped learning situations differ in academic and personal factors, and whether differences also exist within the grouped situation between low and high-ability students.
Introduction and Literature eview
Ability grouping in schools has been a continuously debated topic among teachers, administrators and researchers. Whether it is beneficial or not to separate students according to aptitude or ability level has been extensively discussed and researched, and evidence has been provided in support of both sides…… [Read More]
0 tool has little to do with its overall effectiveness in getting attaining learning goals and objectives for example. Controlling for the informality or formality of Web 2.0 tools use is required, as many instructors are relying on the conversational and broadcast functionality of social networks as a substitute for e-mail. Still, the informal aspects of social networking applications including Web 2.0 tools and their anticipated benefits as a learning tool must be indexed or evaluated from their actual effectiveness in assisting learned to gain mastery of subjects. Creating this link between Web 2.0 tool effectiveness and their relative perception of value with respondents to this study will require a research design that can isolate attitudinal and effectiveness measures while not introducing sampling bias or error.
Fifth, the risks that Web 2.0 tools might create for formal learning in educational institutions also faces the same dilemma from a methodology standpoint…… [Read More]
I believe I can overcome that by taking more interest in the subject and overcoming my fear. But I also feel that the different topics have been approached in different settings and I felt uncomfortable with functions, especially the exponential and logarithmic functions which was a tough nut to crack. Is it because I failed to grasp, or because there was too much being rushed at a too fast pace so that the pickup was slow? I cannot tell. However I feel that the class could be made better by expanding the functions module some more and taking it from very basic level with more simple problems and then proceeding to complications. That is where I seem to have had lesser grasp.
3. Topics you have identified that you did not understand or were not successful in trying to implement and suggestions you may have about how to improve the…… [Read More]
Several assessment tools are available, often using data collection sheets that include items such as direct observation and interviews with adults who closely interact with the student. In Justin's case, this group could include Carrie, the paraprofessional who works directly with Justin, in addition to the special education teacher, the speech and language specialist, other teachers who regularly interact with Justin (e.g., art, physical education, music and media), and Justin's parents.
Justin's tantrums are a cause of concern for their negative effects not just on Justin but on the classroom as a whole. An FBA can be done on Justin; managing these outbursts is the main goal for the kindergarten year so that more learning can take place. It is important that the target behavior descriptions are as specific as possible. For example, "has outbursts" does not provide as much information as "screams, cries, kicks and throws items when upset."…… [Read More]
Dreaming is just one of the natural phenomenons that human beings do during the process of sleeping. Indeed, this natural process is not constrained to any particular characteristic and people with cultural diversity, all age groups and different social backgrounds dream throughout their entire lives. Since dreaming is linked to the mind and soul, thus it is considered that people will continue to dream until they are living (Hobson 2004).
Dreaming is an entire chain and cycle of metaphors, feelings, sensation and insight that forms a story while a person is asleep. Since the dreams people see are not in one shape, hence it can be peaceful, thrilling, practical, scary, chaotic, or implausible. This means that during the entire phenomenon of dreaming, a person can hallucinate about humans, houses, places such as cities, hills, rivers and various other things that the individual have not even seen in real life (Hobson…… [Read More]
Mathematics Summer Institute Statement of Goals
Attending the 2002 Summer Institute for Elementary School Teachers represents and exciting opportunity for me to further explore my interest in teaching mathematics, as well as an opportunity for me to apply and share my knowledge and experience with like-minded educators.
I am a strongly committed to and enthusiastic about mathematics education at the elementary school level. I believe that ensuring that children are engaged and interested in mathematics in early elementary school is essential to building strong numeracy in our youth. When young children develop an interest in math and strong skills as youngsters, they are more likely to continue studying mathematics as they grow older. In addition to these academic benefits, understanding and being able to apply math principles and concepts helps children grow into effective critical thinkers with a broader skill set.
I hope to achieve several personal learning goals by…… [Read More]
Kellogg & Young in Schema Therapy for Borderline Personality Disorder offer a comprehensive explanation of the use of Schema Therapy for patients with BPD, by first explaining the disorder and how it is particularly prime for the use of schema therapy as the disorder itself and the behavior and emotions exhibited from it can be seen as an individual traversing through a short list of schemas and are reflective of the childhood origins of BPD. The modes of BPD are described by the authors as consisting of the angry and impulsive child mode, the detached protector mode, the punitive parent mode and lastly the healthy adult mode. According to the authors if these modes are lacking in integration and emotions cannot be traversed across each, or if the modes are significantly unbalanced they become schemas that override normal adult behavior. The particulars of Schema Therapy are then described after a…… [Read More]
Another way to reinforce teaching is through quizzes and classroom participationg. Quizzes do not only test student knowledge, but also evaluate comprehension, which is a good measure of the job that the counselor educator is doing. Likewise, having students engage in classroom presentations and other peer-to-peer teaching is important because that opens up the opportunity for students to put theory into practice.
Techniques and Methods to Engage Students
Anything that can encourage students to discuss their experience is going to help get students engaged. There are several techniques that teachers can use to encourage that discussion including: assisting students to understand the subject matter by giving them practice in thinking; challenging students to evaluate logic of and evidence for their own and others' positions; giving students opportunities to formulate applications of principles; developing motivation for further learning; helping students articulate what they've learned; and getting prompt feedback on student understanding…… [Read More]
children in the U.S. has a learning disability and nearly 3 million have ADHD. Most of them are between the ages of 5 and 21, males whose mothers have less than 12 years of education, of poor health and socio-economically disadvantaged. One in every 25 or 30 school children in one classroom will have a learning disability. Learning disabilities also persist for a lifetime. At present, these affected children and adults can only be helped to make the best use of their skills and themselves through stimulants and psychotherapy as well as the combined support of their families, school, community and public services.
Learning disabilities in children and adults have yet to be thoroughly understood and adequately contained.
A learning disability generally refers to one of specific kinds of learning problems, such as the difficulty in learning and using certain skills (NICHCY 2002). These trouble areas are often reading, writing,…… [Read More]