Math Anxiety Essays (Examples)

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Top Five Academic Anxieties Test Anxiety

Words: 927 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76399218

top five academic anxieties (Test Anxiety ~ Math Anxiety), on the average (mean) of core, which anxiety variable achieved the lowest score? Explain.

The mean score on 'Test Anxiety' is 2.30, whilst that on 'math anxiety' is 1.90. The lowest average on first sight therefore seems to be math's anxiety which means that the class average for 'math Anxiety' was 1.90. However, when we assess the variability we see the radical divergence of variance that exist between the two Anxieties with .38 on Test Anxiety and .69 on Math's Anxiety. This means that the scores are more spread out / dispersed on the latter. This needs to be taken into consideration when evaluating results.

Among the top five academic anxieties (Test Anxiety ~ Math Anxiety), on the skewness of core, which anxiety variable achieved the highest negatively skewed score? Explain.

Test Anxiety was -.09, whilst Math's Anxiety was .51. Test…… [Read More]


Funk TA (2009) Identification of Academic and Social Expectation Anxieties and Self-efficacy

Issues Experienced by Non-traditional Students and Examination of Their Effects on Academic Success. Dissertation. TUI University

Kaufman, JC et al. (2008) The role of personality and motivation in predicting early college academic success in non-traditional students at a Hispanic-serving institution

Learning and Individual Differences 18, 492 -- 496
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Math Got to Do With

Words: 1598 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98559294

This has had the unintended consequence of increasing the dropout rate, as students who fail to perform and to be promoted leave the schools altogether. Many good, creative teachers also drop out, frustrated with the stringent controls placed upon their teaching style.

ELL (English Language Learner) students are at a particular disadvantage for taking standardized tests, given the frequently arcane wording of the exams. The tests are often poorly written, and students are made to feel as if their worth as a human being and their whole future rests upon doing well on these very arbitrarily designed tests. Teachers perhaps understandably impose such performance anxiety upon their pupils, and the relationship between student and teacher is damaged, as teachers focus more on test-taking strategies than creativity or teaching new material. Also, teachers spend more time grading papers and administrating tests than getting to know their students, communicating, encouraging reasoning and…… [Read More]

Works Cited

"Standards for school mathematics." National Council of Teacher of Mathematics. NCTM.

May 12, 2009.
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Analyzing Math Learning Disability

Words: 1301 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41773896

Students that are talented apart from also having learning disabilities are those that have an exceptional talent/gift and are capable of achieving high performances, but who also have some sort of learning disability, which makes a certain feature of academic success challenging. These students are frequently regarded as underachievers, and this underachievement factor might be as a result of lack of inspiration, poor self-concept, or less pleasing traits like laziness. As school gets more difficult, their academic challenges might increase to a level whereby they are sufficiently lagging behind peers that a disability is eventually suspected. Even though these particular students seem to be doing considerably good, they are, unluckily, not doing well enough compared to their potential. As assignments get more and more challenging in the following years, and without the assistance they require for the accommodation of their inadequacies, their academic challenges normally increase to the level where…… [Read More]


Geary, D. C. (2011). Consequences, characteristics, and causes of mathematical learning disabilities and persistent low achievement in mathematics. Journal of developmental and behavioral pediatrics: JDBP, 32(3), 250.

Geary, D. C., Hoard, M. K., Nugent, L., & Bailey, DH (2012). Mathematical cognition deficits in children with learning disabilities and persistent low achievement: A five-year prospective study. Journal of Educational Psychology, 104(1), 206.

Gersten, R., Chard, D. J., Jayanthi, M., Baker, S. K., Morphy, P., & Flojo, J. (2012). Mathematics instruction for students with learning disabilities: A meta-analysis of instructional components. Review of Educational Research, 79(3), 1202-1242.

Ostergren, R. (2013). Mathematical Learning Disability: Cognitive Conditions, Development and Predictions.
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Training -- the Traditional Model

Words: 1214 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 47276278

value when comparing two things, instead of a univariate F. value. For instance, when comparing which of two textbooks are better for students, we are dealing with two separate factors that, although perhaps correlated, are still different. The MANOVA exaggerates these differences and then sees whether there is any contrast between the two.

The MANOVA is used to see whether (going to the previous example) the 3 factors help reduce math anxiety or whether they reduce public speaking anxiety. They may be helpful with one, but not helpful with the other. The ANOVA lumps them, but the MANOVA separates them and this distinction is very important. The MANOVA, therefore, also shows the researcher more differences that an ANOVA overlooks, as well as avoiding the possibility of a Type 1 error (namely saying that there is a significant result when there isn't').

On the other hand, it is more complicated than…… [Read More]

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Teaching Students With Disabilities

Words: 2288 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26598543

Special education field advisory

One of the challenges of special education in the modern, standards-focused environment is the fact that while special education almost by definition demands individualized attention on the part of the teacher, standardized tests evaluate students according to a set standard outside of the parameters of their specific curriculum. In response to this, the article entitled "Special Education Field Advisory," a memorandum written by James P. DeLorenzo of the University of the State of New York discusses the importance of IEPs or Individualized Educational Programs to give students the support they need. All students classified as having a disability in New York State must have an IEP aligned to state standards that still takes into consideration the student's special concerns. The Committee on Special Education meets with the students' mainstream teachers as well as special education teachers to ensure an IEP is adapted to both the needs…… [Read More]


Neuman, S. & Wright, T. (2014).The magic of words: Teaching vocabulary in the early childhood classroom. American Educator, 6-13

Article review: "Assistive Technology for Children with Autism"

According to Stokes (2015), assistive technology can offer a critical supportive function for students on the autistic spectrum. Assistive technology does not necessarily have to be 'high tech' in the form of iPads or voice output devices but can be as simple and low-tech as storyboards, which allow the child to point to pictures to verbalize his or her needs, or highlighter tape which can keep students focused on the lines of a book. These technologies can empower children and provide them with critical sources of independence. For example, the Mayer-Johnson software program, Boardmaker allows for the creation of specific line drawings to allow the child to communicate through pointing to visual representations. Other pictorial, expressive formats allow for three-dimensional representations which children can touch and feel. The purpose of using assistive technology is not to get the most 'high tech' format available but to match the technology with the particular needs of the child. Some children, for example, may be very sensitive to particular colors and having black-and-white representations is essential for neutral stimuli.

In terms of my own professional work, I have found assistive technology to be an important bridge for communicating with and teaching many students. Even students with mild learning disabilities can improve their skills with talking books or computer programs which give them a sense of mastery over basic skills by pairing images with words and sound. For students who have problems learning in a verbally-based format, technology provides a relatively easy way to ensure that they can remain in a mainstream classroom with relatively non-intensive support during the day, versus having an aide to explain the material or having the teacher work independently with them (which may not be feasible in a crowded classroom). Simply because an autistic child's disability is not immediately obvious to the naked eye does not make it any less real and any less in need of assistive technology. Some students may only need assistance with organizational skills; others may need assistance with almost all functions.
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Learned Helplessness in Battered Abused Women

Words: 2872 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36923033

Helplessness in College

Background significant and notable problem within higher education is the conditioned state of mind associated with learned helplessness. Challenges to educators are often played out through the compounded years of this learning roadblock in a student's life, leaving many individuals with test anxiety so great that they are unable to test effectively on the concepts they have learned.

Learned helplessness (e.g., when someone learns from repeated, unpleasant, and painful experiences that he or she is unable to control the aversive environment or escape, that person will gradually lose the motivation to change the situation) (oberts, 1996, p. 7-8)

Challenge is especially high with regard to math learning. (Tobias, 1991, pp. 91-93) The system design therefore creates a challenge to students and instructors, who have no other way, than testing to determine the level of knowledge a student has actually achieved during instruction. Any situation where an alternative…… [Read More]


Campbell, C.R., & Henry, J.W. (1999). Gender Differences in Self-Attributions: Relationship of Gender to Attributional Consistency, Style, and Expectations for Performance in a College Course. Sex Roles: A Journal of Research, 41(1), 95. Retrieved September 16, 2004, from Questia database,

Grimes, S.K., & David, K.C. (1999). Underprepared Community College Students: Implications of Attitudinal and Experiential Differences. Community College Review, 27(2), 73. Retrieved September 16, 2004, from Questia database,

Leunes, A.D., Nation, J.R., & Turley, N.M. (1980). Male-Female Performance in Learned Helplessness. Journal of Psychology, 104, 255-258.

Maimon, L. (2002). The Relationship between Self-Efficacy and the Functions of Writing. Journal of College Reading and Learning, 33(1), 32+. Retrieved September 16, 2004, from Questia database,
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Creating Lesson Plans for Girls

Words: 1289 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97015273

Instructional Planning for Gender Gaps

It is not uncommon to find that female students have more difficulty with subjects that are traditionally associated with males -- such as those pertaining to mathematics and science. Perhaps the most prudent time to account for this disparity in achievement that oftentimes manifests itself in institutions of higher learning in which there are greater amounts of male than female students in math and science classes (the latter of which include chemistry, physics, biology, etc.) is to utilize gender differentiated instruction while students are still in elementary school. esearch indicates that even in elementary schools, female students are aware of the stereotype that males are supposed to be good in math and science while they are not (Halpern et al., 2007). Simultaneously, it may be prudent to do the same for male students in critical aspects of language arts and social studies.

One of the…… [Read More]


Beilocj, S., Gunderson, E., Ramirez, G., Levine, S.C. (2010). Female teachers' math anxiety affects girls' math achievement. PNAS. 107(5): 1860-1863.

Halpern, D.F., Aronson, J., Reimer, N., Simpkins, S., Star, J.R., Wentzel, K. (2007). Encouraging girls in math and science. Institute of Education Sciences. Retrieved from

Shaw, J.B. (1925). Teaching mathematics to girls. The Mathematics Teacher. 18(8), 455-464.

Vedantam, S. (2012). How stereotypes can drive women to quit science. Retrieved from
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Gender Differences in Middle School

Words: 3217 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2652915

Such measures include providing positive examples of students and professionals who have garnered significant achievements in math, allowing students who may feel symptoms of stereotype threat to express their talent in other areas outside of math (by incorporating those areas into lessons and classroom engagement), and by downplaying differences in groups via the reframing of tasks to decrease levels of competitiveness amongst students (Singletary et al., 2009, p. 2) (Shih et al., 1999, p. 82).

In addition to considering the role of classroom and social environments that can impact middle school math students, it is also necessary to examine the type of learning styles that are typically used and which typically favor each gender. In most instances, competitive learning styles in which students are pitted against each tend to favor male students. However, by focusing on and accommodating a diversity of learning styles, instructors can actually increase the achievement of…… [Read More]


Amelink, C.T. (2009). "Gender differences in math performance." Assessing Women and Men in Engineering. Retrieved from 

James, a.N. (2007). "Gender differences and the teaching of mathematics." Inquiry. 12 (1): 14-25. Retrieved from

Keast, S. (1998). "Learning styles in mathematics classrooms." Voices. 52-58. Retrieved from 

Lau, W., Yuen, a. (2010). "Gender differences in learning styles: Nurturing a gender and style sensitive computer science classroom." Australasian Journal of Education Technology. 26 (7): 1090-1103.
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Gender-Based Education for Many Decades

Words: 9107 Length: 35 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84824524

Juvonen et al., (2004) explains that a teachers in depth understanding of mathematics in particular is extremely important in middle school. The authors also point out that learning more difficult math in the eighth grade such as math is imports because 8th grade students who take algebra are more likely to apply to college than those that don't (Atanda, 1999). In addition the authors insists that when middle school students have teachers that have college degrees in the subject matter they are teaching the students are more likely to perform well on tests (ilson, Floden, Ferrini-Mundy, 2001). The author further explains that Researchers who have reviewed the evidence on subject-matter training believe that students in teacher training programs should be taught not only the content but also its conceptual underpinnings and a strong reasoning ability (ilson, Floden, and Ferrini-Mundy, 2001). Other evidence, although not derived from research on middle schools,…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Atanda, R., "Do Gatekeeper Courses Expand Education Options?" Education Statistics Quarterly, Vol. 1, No. 1, Spring 1999. Also available online at (as of October 17, 2003).

Bae, Yupin, Susan Choy, Claire Geddes, Jennifer Sable, and Thomas Snyder. 2000. Trends in Educational Equity of Girls and Women. Washington, D.C.: National Center for Education Statistics.

Becker, J.R. (2003, April). Gender and Mathematics: An Issue for the Twenty-First Century. Teaching Children Mathematics, 9, 470+.

Belenky, M.F., et al. Women's Ways of Knowing: The Development of Self Voice, and Mind. New York: Basic Books, 1997.
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Piaget There Are Almost as Many Different

Words: 604 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60607073


There are almost as many different varieties of issues that can impede a child learner from succeeding in a math class as there are particular remedies to ameliorate such a problem. One of the chief reasons that certain children find mathematics difficult is because they are overwhelmed by it. They find the concept of a never ending series of numbers (as well as similarly interminable operations which one can put them through and which are taught daily and tested weekly) beyond challenging to the point where it incites anxiety and fear.

Additionally, difficulties can arise from learning differences such as dyscalculia, or situations in which students may not be familiar with the language that the class is taught in (such as English Language Learners). These two factors can exacerbate the initial feeling of anxiety that math can produce in child learners. Moreover, it is important to realize that in…… [Read More]


Huitt, W., & Hummel, J. (2003). "Piaget's theory of cognitive development." Educational Psychology Interactive. Valdosta, GA: Valdosta State University. Retrieved from
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Limit Your Summary to 8 Sentences The

Words: 1206 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95942145

limit your summary to 8 sentences.

The research area is in cognitive processes related to performance, skill learning, and execution. It is related to research on mathematics anxiety, stereotype threats, and how those factors affect performance on math-related tasks. In particular, the researchers are interested in the "choking under pressure" phenomenon in which individuals perform poorer than expected on a task they have mastered, because they are under pressure. Moreover, the research touches upon working memory and its relationship to performance on mathematics tasks. Working memory is defined as a short-term memory system that can be especially relevant to concentration on a specific task at hand. Anxiety has been shown to impede working memory, basically by clogging it up with the worrisome thoughts.

Why was the current study conducted?

The current study was conducted to identify the individual traits and circumstances in which choking under pressure is most likely to…… [Read More]


Beilock, S.L. & Carr, T.H. (2005). When high-powered people fail: Working memory and "choking under pressure" in math. Psychological Science 16(2), 101-105.
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Psychologists Are Addressing Both Psychologists

Words: 1740 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38204485

The next day he got an a on the test. Can he conclude that eating lots of popcorn is a necessary condition for memorizing psychology information? Why or why not?

No, Todd cannot draw that conclusion from the limited experiment he conducted. First of all, Todd does not know how he would have performed on the test if he hadn't eaten the popcorn, and he hasn't considered all the other conditions that occurred and may be the necessary condition for getting an a on the test, such as: amount of studying, amount of sleep, type of food eaten, memory ability, learning ability, etc.

* Depict a scenario describing each of the three relationships with their required conditions as discussed earlier in the Analyzing Data section of this Journal Activity.

Necessary condition: If the child hears the English language spoken, the child may or may not learn to speak English.

Sufficient…… [Read More]

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Positive Effects of Extracurricular Activity

Words: 4686 Length: 17 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48354620


During the proposed study's process, the researcher plans to fulfill the following objectives.

Objective 1: Address each of the proposed study's research questions during literature review:

Examine the effect athletic participation has on student GPAs;

Identify the effect athletic participation has on student DC CAS math scores;

Determine the effect athletic participation has on student DC CAS English eading scores;

Explore the effect music participation has on student GPAs;

Investigate the effect music participation has on student DC CAS math scores;

Discover the effect music participation has on student DC CAS English eading scores.

Objective 2:

Complete study with 150 tenth grade student participants in the first semester of school year 2008-2009.

Objective 3:

Analyze test results and compare with findings from literature reviewed.

One of the Best Investments

Despite current reported budget cuts and constraints in education, high school activity programs continue to constitute one of the best…… [Read More]


Baker, Christina. (2008, August). Under-represented college students and extracurricular involvement: the effects of various student organizations on academic performance. Social Psychology of Education, Volume 11 (3). Retrieved January 27, 2009 at

The case for extracurricular activities. (2008). National Federation of State High School Association. Retrieved January 23, 2009 at

The Columbia World of Quotations. (1996). Columbia University Press, New York. Retrieved January 27, 2009 from

Draper, Michelle. (2008, September 7). Vic: Principals link mental health to academic achievement. ( General News (Australia). Retrieved January 28, 2009 from HighBeam Research:
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Differentiated Instruction

Words: 633 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40738145

differentiated instruction necessary in the math class?

The reasoning behind endeavoring to find different behaviors for the math classroom education is to address the individual difficulties to learn math and differentiate the math learning disorders such as discalculia. Dyscalculia (i.e., mathematical blindness) is a specific learning disability in comprehending mathematics. The disorder could be classified as; (1) developmental dyscalculia (DD), generally described as a disorder in mathematical abilities, presumed to be due to a speci-c impairment in brain function or inherited from the family, (2) post lesion dyscalculia, caused by brain damage and head injury, (3) Pseudo-dyscalculia, environmentally caused mathematical inabilities for example uncomforting environment, having been instructed incorrectly. Most of the children and adults suffering from DD have normal social functions and abilities to deal with other subjects and succeed in the life. For example, Einstein had early difficulties with arithmetic. Benjamin Franklin passed all the subjects but mathematics…… [Read More]

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Roots of Psychopathology

Words: 588 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97410854

Freud was ight, Peter Muris discusses Freud's analysis of abnormal behavior. He acknowledges that Freud's research methods were flawed because he focused on case studies rather than empirical analysis to try to determine causation. Despite that, Muris suggests that Freud's theories about the etiology of psychological disorders and abnormal behavior being rooted in childhood and showing emerging behavior in children and adolescents may be supported by what is known of abnormal psychology. This does not mean that Muris believes that Freud's explanations for abnormal behavior, specifically his Oedipal theories, explain abnormal behavior; he does not believe that abnormal behavior is necessarily rooted in sexual impulses towards parents as Freudian theories would explain. However, he does believe that Freud's studies began to explain the origins of abnormal human behavior and may provide insight into helping those who engage in abnormal behavior.

Muris believes that many patterns of abnormal adult behavior have…… [Read More]


Muris, P. (2006). Freud was right…about the origins of abnormal behavior. Journal of Child

and Family Studies, 15(1), pp.1-12. doi: 10.1007/s10826-005-9006-9.
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Woodsa S & Wolkeb D

Words: 1993 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91563836

According to reports coming out of Japan, teasing is often associated with poor performance, and may be instigated by teachers in many cases. America, it should be noted, tens to have an anti-intellectualism streak in its politics and nature, while Japan tends towards the opposite. It seems possible that the fact that Woodsa and Wolkeb discovered that less intelligent, lower class, and rural children were significantly more likely to be bullied represents an overarching social trend which puts down lower academic achievement in favor of higher achievement, and that teachers themselves are subtly giving children cues as to who they should bully. This point deserves to be more extensively explored, perhaps with comparative studies in America or other countries. Additionally, the school climate towards bullying may be a far more relevant issue than this research lets on.

The concept of victimization is also particularly important to this research. Woodsa and…… [Read More]

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Case Study of a Gifted High School Student

Words: 870 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64958518

EP for Gifted Student

Giftedness is an intellectual ability that is significantly higher than average, not a skill, but an innate talent and aptitude that may be general or specific. Just as there are special needs for children who appear on the left side of the bell curve, so should there be for children on the far right. However, these students are often neglected in terms of special programing due to beliefs that they can just do "extra work" within a mainstreamed environment. From the 1920s to the 1970s, the trend in Western countries was to set up special schools to educate those who fell outside the norms of the bell curve, but by the 1980s most educators favored merging special and regular education in a comprehensive program that included students from all backgrounds -- in other words, mainstreaming them into a regular classroom environment. This idea, though, must also…… [Read More]

Intervention Plan- For CB there are essentially four major issues: her lack of attention span, the need for extended time on some assignments combined hyper-perfectionism, lack of social skills, and home activity intervention/anxiety. In each of these there is a discrepency between what is needed and/or expected in CB's school curriculum and her performance. We find that there may a disconnect in motivational issues, as well, CB is clearly bright, and when engaged, is able to perform at a higher than grade level. The key, in wrapping up all the issues, seems to be finding intervention strategies that will allow her to focus, to remove some of the anxiety and perfectionistic issues, and to improve social skills (Suping, 2003; Taylor, 1998):

Intervention #1 -- Issue: Attention Span -- Work with teacher to find modifications within the stated curriculum that are interesting to CB. Allow her to focus more on those aspects, and potentially preload the evening before if possible. This will focus CBs attention on aspects of the lesson that are more comfortable. Possible solutions to aid in this would be to allow an older student or an intern from a local teacher's college to visit a few times a week to work with CB and, with individualized attention, continually reinforce attention to tasks at hand.

Intervention #2 -- Issue: Extended Time needed/Hyper Perfectionism -- Part of CB's OCD and Anxiety diagnosis have resultant behaviors in needing extended time to complete assignments. Most of the people that work with her, however, believe that CB is quite capable of completing the tasks, but is hyper-self-critical and then unable to finish the work in the timeframe needed. Intervention will be gradual, at first allowing extra time or an untimed period (when applicable), gradually reducing the extra time until CB is back on the schedule with other students at grade level. The goal is to move toward integration within the details of the classroom; begin by offering some extra time and then gradually diminishing it based on
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Music Education by Any Objective

Words: 6529 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16215225

Studies here included in this set are evaluations of large multisite and single site after school programs; evaluations of school- and community-based models; evaluations assessing a narrow to a broad range of outcomes; key developmental research studies; and key meta-analyses and research syntheses (Little, imer, and eiss, 2007, 3).

In Music for Citizenship, David J. Elliott, he elaborates upon the vision of Paul oodford in Democracy and Music Education who lays out a vision for music education to take a "radical liberal" turn in order to "prepare [music] students to participate in democratic society and thereby contribute to the common good" (Elliott, 2008, 45). Such a vision is in keeping with the traditions of John Dewey who held that critical thinking was a moral and political kind of thinking. He wants the profession to reclaim a democratic purpose for music education by contributing to intellectual and political conversations about the…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Abril, C.R., & Gault, B.M. (2008). The state of music in secondary schools: the principal's perspective. Journal of Research in Music Education, 56(1), 68-81.

Afterschool alliance, policy and action center: policy news. (2011). Retrieved from .

Baker, S.H. (2011). The effect of in-school opera performance and related curriculum on music cognition and attitude. Baton Rouge, LA: Louisiana State University.

Beveridge, T. (2010). No child left behind and fine arts classes. Arts Education Policy Review, 111, 4-7.
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Child Study Christopher Cole Is

Words: 653 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4479508

Interviews with his parents reveal a disturbing trend. His parents do not seem to want to challenge Christopher in any meaningful way and instead enable his lack of progress. Perhaps out of fear for his tantrums, Christopher's mother makes excuses for her son's behavior. The experiment of homeschooling Christopher has therefore been unproductive because he is not challenged, and therefore is not learning as much as he could be. His social skills have also been hampered by his homeschooling environment, and by the attitudes of his parents. Christopher does not understand certain social conventions. For instance, he will pass gas while talking to people or make a wolf whistle at a female.

Christopher has no real friends his own age. He seems to prefer being around adults due to the extra compassion and attention they show him. Christopher throws temper tantrums when he feels anxious or put on the spot,…… [Read More]


"Asperger's Syndrome." WebMD. Retrieved online: 

"Cleft Lip and Palate," (2011). Retrieved online:
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Human Development

Words: 823 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48680821


Marian Diamond addressed the nature vs. nurture issue so long debated by researchers and scientists by actually observing the effects of living in different environments on young rats. The beginnings of her research with Donald Head occurred in the 1960's, a time when the brain was not viewed as plastic. When presenting the results of their early research demonstrating a small but significant thicker cerebral cortex in rats raised in enriched environments vs. rats raised in impoverished environments she was actually told, "Young lady, that brain cannot change" (Diamond and Hobson, 1998-page 8). Nonetheless, Diamond believed the neurological basis that the environment provided for brain enrichment is the spreading of dendritic spines in the neuron as a result of environmental stimulation (Diamond and Hobson, 1998-page 25). In fact, research from her lab along with other researchers found that even honey bees' brains responded to environmental stimulation. Based on the…… [Read More]


Diamond, M.C., and Hopson, J., 1998: Magic Trees of the Mind: How to Nurture Your Child's

Intelligence, Creativity, and Healthy Emotions from Birth Through Adolescence, Dutton,

New York.
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Learning Styles and College Students

Words: 4864 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64521808

Community Colleges in America

In 1983 and 1984, a dozen major reports on the United States' schools were published. All stressed the need for "excellence" in education. These reports are the subject of: Excellence in Education: Perspectives on Policy and Practice. The reports pertaining to higher education were published by The BusinessHigher Education Forum, and saw higher education as "unable to train skilled managers and technicians that they believed industry needed." (Altbach 32) These reports essentially claim that student achievement has declined at technical schools because schools "do not demand enough of their students, do not apply stiff criteria for promotion, do not test students enough, and particularly in high school, provide students with too many choices about what subjects they study." (Altbach 32) These reports are somewhat dated in that they compare American students with Japanese students and focus on technical proficiency vs. The intuitive grasp of problems and…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Altbach, Philip G., Gail P. Kelly, and Lois Weis, eds. Excellence in Education: Perspectives on Policy and Practice. Buffalo, NY: Prometheus Books, 1985.

Baker, George A., Judy Dudziak, and Peggy Tyler, eds. A Handbook on the Community College in America: Its History, Mission, and Management. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1994.

Diaz, David P., and Ryan B. Cartnal. "Students' Learning Styles in Two Classes Online Distance Learning and Equivalent On-Campus." College Teaching 47.4 (1999): 130-135.

Miller, Richard I., Charles Finley, and Candace Shedd Vancko. Evaluating, Improving, and Judging Faculty Performance in Two-Year Colleges. Westport, CT: Bergin & Garvey, 2000.
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Health Literacy the Nurse Plays

Words: 636 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35885390

Therefore, I would tell the patient that their symptoms should not be considered in isolation of their whole person. Websites that address symptoms only are not taking into account the wealth of factors that can influence the diagnosis of a specific disease.

At the same time, patients have the right to know about alternative solutions other than those provided or suggested by the physician or health care organization. Sometimes insurance constraints prevent nurses and doctors from mentioning interventions, diagnoses, and cures. The insurance provisions should not come in the way of the patient seeking second opinions or investigating such things as alternative and complementary medicine.

The strategies for assisting patients in becoming informed consumers of online health information include creating brochures and pamphlets, as well as websites. These materials can offer patients helpful links to the CDC (2013) and similar credible resources related to health literacy. The nurse can also…… [Read More]


CDC (2013). Health literacy. Retrieved online: 

Speros, C.I. (2011). Promoting health literacy: A nursing imperative. Nurs Clin North Am. 2011 Sep;46(3):321-33, vi-vii. doi: 10.1016/j.cnur.2011.05.007
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Undocumented Students Equity to In-State Tuition Reducing

Words: 8115 Length: 22 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92893549

Undocumented tudents Equity to in-tate Tuition:

Reducing The Barriers

There exist policy ambiguities and variations at federal, state, and institutional levels related to undocumented student access to and success in higher education and this has created problems for these students. This study investigated specific policies and procedures to provide the resources and capital to assist undocumented students as well as reviewed key elements of showing the correlation of these difficulties with ethnic identity in access and equity to higher education that would help eliminate student's frustration. The study also illustrated that there is no accountability system surrounding the success of undocumented student's postsecondary education divide significant structure. Three research questions guided the study; a) Without the fundamental requirements met how will undocumented students achieve their goal to attain a degree, and seek a rewarding career? b) Is it unjust to extradite an illegal alien who has been living a constructive…… [Read More]

Scott, W.R. (2004). Institutional theory: Contributing to a theoretical research program. Retrieved from

Spickard, P. (2007). Almost all aliens: Immigration, race, and colonialism in American history and identity. New York, NY: Routledge.

Taylor, E. (2009). The foundations of critical race theory in education: An introduction. In E. Taylor, D. Gillborn & G. Ladson-Billings (Eds.), Foundations of critical race theory in education (pp. 1-13). New York, NY: Routledge.
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Beautiful Mind the Film a

Words: 1431 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 47797651

He also has hallucinations about being followed by a federal agent, in keeping with his academic world where the government seeks on the one hand to employ mathematicians and scientists and on the other hand mistrusts them. Many of the encounters he has in his mind with this agent and others have the aura of a detective movie, showing that Nash is replaying films he has seen and that these serve as the inspiration for his visions. In a way, that serves as another pattern in his mind, linking what he saw in the theater with what he believes is happening to him. Nothing comes out of whole cloth but always comes from experience and is then reformed in a form it did not have in reality.

In this way, the film shows the viewer the kind of world experienced by the schizophrenic and why this world is disorienting and…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Howard, Ron. A Beautiful Mind. Universal Pictures, 2001.

Scott, a.O. "From Math to Madness, and Back." The New York Times (21 Dec 2001). May 5, 2008.
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Watch Observation of Some Old

Words: 1551 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48191493

A picked up the watch and placed it on my arm. I tightened the strap and the watch no longer felt strange or irritating. I looked a the glass interface again and was pleased to see that the images on the surface had changed with the changing light and that there were new and interesting shapes that swam across the silver surface of the watch. With a strange sense of joy I realized that the word around me was not boring or dull and that watches don't just measure time.

My watch reminded me that there are infinite and ever-changing possibilities in life and that sometimes we become stuck in routines and habits that we sometimes need to break. I was pleased that this ordinary old thing had become more than just another object to me. I also wondered about all the other objects and things that we take for…… [Read More]

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Justification for the Research Page

Words: 12922 Length: 40 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39447745

S. were "proficient in reading and math," Pytel explains. These statistics "loudly states that students entering high school" are simply not prepared, Pytel goes on. Moreover, U.S. students do not fare well on the international educational stage. At a time when globalization has brought much closer linkage between cultures, economies, and countries, American school children are lagging behind. The justification for focusing on strategies to keep children interested in school -- and to help them succeed in school -- is to be found in the fact that U.S. students' average scores are very poor in comparison to other students internationally.

To wit, according to the 2003 data from the Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) (in cooperation with the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, OECD), 15-year-old American students rank 24th out of 38 countries in science. U.S. students rank 12th of 38 countries in reading, and 26th of 38…… [Read More]

Works Cited

American School Counselor Association. (2010). Why Middle School Counselors. Retrieved January 20, 2011, from

Barlow, Sally H., Fuhriman, Addie J., and Burlingame, Gary M. (2004). The History of Group

Counseling and Psychotherapy. In J.L. DeLucia-Waack (Ed), Handbook of Group

Counseling and Psychotherapy (pp. 4-18). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
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School Are Designed to Be

Words: 2399 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 6088454

Participants were allowed to use a calculator and were given a time limit of eighteen minutes to complete the exam. After the exam stimuli, participants completed a short questionnaire consisting of seven questions about basic demographics and confound checks.


To see if participants major was a confounding variable, an one way ANOVA with a LSD test, was performed to see if participants major had an effect on exam performance.

A 2 X 3 factorial ANOVA was performed for the analysis of the main affect of test anxiety and the main affect of question difficulty sequence, as well as the interaction between test anxiety and question difficulty sequence on exam performance. A LSD test was performed for the three-level independent variable, question difficulty sequence, to see if cell means varied for question sequences of easy to hard, random, and hard to easy. Three contrast t-tests were performed to test the…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Deffenbacher, J.L., & Hazaleus, S.L. (1985). Cognitive, emotional, and physiological components of test anxiety. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 9(2), 169-180.

Nelson, J.T. (1975). Effects of anxiety type and item-difficulty sequencing on mathematics test performance. Journal of Education Measurement, 12(4), 241-249.

Tobias, S. (1985). Test anxiety: interference, defective skills and cognitive capacity.

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School Improvement Project Proposal Improving

Words: 4564 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29005100

Causative Analysis

There are several causes to why the students did not pass the state standardized test in mathematics and in language arts. It is strongly believe that the students were not adequately prepared for the test because they had not been completing the required assignments and attending the online classes offered by their teachers. Their lack of School Improvement 7 participation in the class, has lead them to a failing test score because if they had not completed the assignments in their learning management system, then there was no way for them to be adequately prepared for the materials on the tests. The course materials that are found in the learning management system are closely related to the state bench marks and are closely aligned with the state requirements.

There are several reasons that students may not complete work in their online classes. These reasons include lack of motivation,…… [Read More]

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New Classroom Rules to Promote

Words: 595 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99061251

They are basically an "overhaul of mathematics instruction," (611).

The major points Alsup discusses in his article include the background information as to why traditional instruction falls short of the ideal, and includes the seven new rules for preservice elementary teachers' mathematics instruction. These seven rules are based on the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics and on what Alsup calls a "constructivist view of mathematics learning." According to the constructivist view, the teacher does not directly "transmit" mathematical knowledge and facts to the students; rather, students construct their own set of mathematical knowledge through active and creative problem solving (611).

Alsup suggests that the progressive, constructivist approach to teaching preservice elementary school teachers will lead to a "learning community." Students interact with one another and with the instructor, rather than having the instructor always stand before the class in a lecture format. The new rules enhance "confidence and independent…… [Read More]

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Individualized Education Program - Shawn

Words: 3679 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73585361

He seems to be curious about what kind of options he has in life. He sees his sister enjoying herself very much in her studies and relationships developed at the conservatory and he wants some of those same things for himself. Shawn has shown somewhat of an increased interest in learning to socialize because of his growing interest in girls and romantic relationships. He wants to be evaluated in so far as he has interest in how his social skills and social intelligence stand up to his peers.

Shawn has accepted that he will be evaluated periodically. He does not show overt resistance to his evaluation, and he does not show overt excitement about it, either. He was mostly cooperative with the evaluation team. He expressed that he did not think many of his classmates liked him or even knew who he was. He mentioned that he recently became interested…… [Read More]

Resources for the family regarding dietary/nutritional changes and pharmaceutical solutions regarding his ADD & ODD

Annual Goals and Benchmarks:

Area: Social Skills

Annual Goal: By the end of the school year, Jason will greet three specific peers (Charlie, Melissa, & Allan) at least twice per day with unprompted eye contact and unprompted one word greetings, such as, "Hi Charlie," "Hello Melissa," "What's up Allan."

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Affects of Block Scheduling on Student Academic Achievement

Words: 5757 Length: 18 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83160922


The Affects of Block Scheduling on Student Academic Achievement

The overall strategy of utilizing block scheduling is to organize the day into fewer, but longer, class periods to allow flexibility for instructional activities. Block scheduling is used primarily at middle school and high school levels. Currently, block scheduling is defined as a restructuring of the school day into classes longer than the traditional fifty-minute period classes (Adams & Salvaterra, 1997; Georgia Department of Education, 1998). Gordon Cawelti (1994) agrees with this concept and verifies the definition supplied by Adams and Salvaterra along with the Georgia Department of Education as one that works to meet the needs of all models. The expressed goal of block scheduling programs is to improve student academic performance. Some other benefits of this schedule are increased student and teacher morale, encouragement for the use of innovative teaching methods that address multiple learning styles, and an…… [Read More]


Adams, D., & Salvaterra, M. (1997). Structural and teacher changes: Necessities for successful block scheduling. High School Journal, 81, 98-106.

Bateson, D. 1990. Science achievement in semester and all-year courses. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 27, 230-40.

Canady, R., and M. Rettig. 1995. Block scheduling: A catalyst for change in high schools.

Gardiner, NY: Eye on Education.
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Special Ed the Integrated Co-Teaching

Words: 653 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48403724

Case Study 2

Cherise's math-related anxiety is only partly due to her being diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorders. Many of our students demonstrate math-related anxiety and do not have any identifiable learning disability. Therefore, the plans used to help Cherise might also help other students, too. The outbursts that Cherise is exhibiting can be addressed by framing math differently for her. If it appears that Cherise needs to be taken out of the mainstream math classroom to receive specialized instruction, then that might help reduce the acute outbursts and behavioral problems. Because Cherise has become self-injurious, it is crucial to address this matter immediately and if necessary, remove her from this particular classroom.

The plan for Cherise will include assistive technologies designed for mathematics instruction. By reframing math as a fun and engaging learning activity, Cherise will eventually be less anxious in a mainstream classroom. The tools used to teach…… [Read More]

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Teacher Attitudes and Perceptions About Curriculum Innovation in Learning and Technology

Words: 22121 Length: 76 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4872492

Self-Efficacy: A Definition

Social Cognitive Theory

Triangulation Data analysis

Teacher Self-Efficacy

Problems for the researcher

Data Analysis and Related Literature review.

aseline Group

Gender Deviation

Age Deviation

Comparison of data with other literature in the field.

Everyday Integration

Efficacy, Self-esteem, Confidence and Experience

arriers to use

Integration paradigm.

Co-oping and Project design.

Organizational Climate

Teacher Integration Education.

Meta-evaluation of data and related literature.

Data Analysis and Comparison

Recommendation for Further Research

Data Review Report

Teacher efficacy in the classroom is facilitated by a number of different factors for different professions. However, in the case of the teaching classroom, and adapting to new technology, andura's belief that the environment and the person's attitude toward / interactions with the environment are reciprocally affective.

andura (1993) identified 4 specific ways that self-efficacy is formed:

Through cognitive experiences

Through motivational experiences

Their affective interactions with environment

Through selectional experiences and choices.

Cognitive Experiences

andura…… [Read More]

Bibliography of the literature dealing with teacher training in the uses of the computer in education. (ERIC No. ED 260-696)

Bushman, B. And Baumeister, R. (1998, July) Threatened Egotism, Narcissism, Self-Esteem, and Direct and Misplaced Aggression: Does Self-Love or Self-Hate Lead to Violence? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology.

Campus Computing Project. (1999). The continuing challenge of instructional integration and user support. Encino, CA: Retrieved November 21, 2003 from the World Wide Web: 

Christensen, R. (2002, 22 June) Effects of technology integration education on the attitudes of teachers and students.Journal of Research on Technology in Education.

Clifford, M., Kim, A. McDonald, B. (1988 Fall) "Responses to Failure as Influenced by Task Attribution, Outcome Attribution, and Failure Tolerance." The Journal of Experimental Education. Volume 57, Number 1. Pages 19-35.
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Middle School High School and Now College

Words: 1871 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9899936

middle school, high school, and now college, is my ability to focus on an academic task when I really need to buckle down and concentrate. I get decent grades because I can give enough focus at the last minute, some call it "cramming," to get through the test, or get the paper done in time. But because I can't bring a consistent sense of concentration in a regular pattern, I become stressed when time comes to be tested, or to turn in a research paper or essay.

When I am assigned to read a book, I have a problem concentrating on the text, and very often I have to go back and read the whole previous page over again because I have no idea what I just read. Even very interesting fiction, my mind drifts off while I'm reading. But I have come to grips with my reading problem and…… [Read More]

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Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder ADHD

Words: 6369 Length: 17 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 74077030

Often is forgetful in daily activities

10. Often has difficulty maintaining alertness, orienting to requests, or executing directions

11. Often fidgets with hands or feet or squirms in seat

12. Often leaves seat in classroom or in other situations in which remaining seated is expected

13. Often runs about or climbs excessively in situations in which it is inappropriate

14. Often has difficulty playing or engaging in leisure activities quietly

15. Often is "on the go" or often acts as if "driven by a motor"

16. Often talks excessively

17. Often blurts out answers before questions have been completed

18. Often has difficulty awaiting turn

19. Often interrupts or intrudes on others (e.g., butts into conversations/games)

20. Often has difficulty sitting still, being quiet,... inhibiting impulses in...classroom or at home

21. Often loses temper

22. Often argues with adults

23. Often actively defies or refuses adult requests or rules

24.…… [Read More]


The Columbia World of Quotations. New York: Columbia University Press, 1996. Retrieved April 16, 2008, at

Cloward, Janessa. "ADHD drugs pose heart risks, federal panel says," University Wire, February 15, 2006. Retrieved April 17, 2008, at

DeMarle, Daniel J.;Denk, Larry;Ernsthausen, Catherine S.. "Working with the family of a child with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.(Family Matters)," Pediatric Nursing, July 1, 2003. Retrieved April 16, 2008, at

Edwards, Jason H.. "Evidenced-based treatment for child ADHD: "real-world" practice implications." Journal of Mental Health Counseling, April 1, 2002. Retrieved April 17, 2008, at
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Women's Objectification in Society

Words: 2395 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 13932504

Women Objectification

Women's Objectification in Society

Women's Objectification in Society

It is crucial to notice the language we use when we talk about bodies. We speak as if there was one collective perfect body, a singular entity that we're all after. The trouble is, I think we are after that one body. We grew up with the impression that underneath all this normal flesh, buried deep in the excessive recesses of our healthy bodies, there was a perfect body just waiting to break out. (Hornbacher, 1999, p. 47)

In recent years, much attention from both the public media and professional research community has focused on the growing problem regarding the objectification and sexualisation of women. The American Psychological Association's (2007) publication outlining the problem has given the public a greater awareness and understanding of the dynamics between our culture's tendency to objectify women's bodies and the consequences of this for…… [Read More]


Bartky, S.L. (1990). Femininity and domination: Studies in the phenomenology of oppression. New York: Routledge.

Calogero, R.M. (2004). A test of objectification theory: The effect of the male gaze on appearance concerns in college women. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 28, 16-21.

Cusumano, D.L., & Thompson, J.K. (1997). Body image and body shape ideals in magazines: Exposure, awareness, and internalization. Sex Roles, 37, 701-721

Fredrickson, B.L., & Roberts, T. (1997). Objectification theory: Toward understanding women's lived experiences and mental health risks. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 21, 173-206.
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Art and Mathematics Are Related

Words: 2688 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96643501

Note the distinct similarities.

An examination of Escher's Circle Limit III can thus tell us much about distance in hyperbolic geometry. In both Escher's woodcut and the Poincare disk, the images showcased appear smaller as one's eye moves toward the edge of the circle. However, this is an illusion created by our traditional, Euclidean perceptions. Because of the way that distance is measured in a hyperbolic space, all of the objects shown in the circle are actually the same size. As we follow the backbones of the fish in Escher's representation, we can see, then, that the lines separating one fish from the next are actually all the same distance even though they appear to grow shorter. This is because, as already noted, the hyperbolic space stretches to infinity at its edges. There is no end. Therefore, the perception that the lines are getting smaller toward the edges is, in…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Corbitt, Mary Kay. "Geometry." World Book Multimedia Encyclopedia. World Book, Inc., 2003.

Dunham, Douglas. "A Tale Both Shocking and Hyperbolic." Math Horizons Apr. 2003: 22-26.

Ernst, Bruno. The Magic Mirror of M.C. Escher. NY: Barnes and Noble Books, 1994.

Granger, Tim. "Math Is Art." Teaching Children Mathematics 7.1 (Sept. 2000): 10.
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Static Learning in the 21st

Words: 12488 Length: 45 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64826198

Millions of dollars are spent on test-prep manuals, books, computer programs and worksheets (Gluckman, 2002). Static/captive learning can help teachers around the nation prepare their students for standardized testing.

Significance of the Study to Leadership

A principal is the leader of the campus. The challenge for the principal is to know his or her district's mandated curriculum and make sure teachers are able to deliver it (Shipman & Murphy, 2001). As the key decision-maker for the use of time and space, principals must be aware of how the use of time and space affects instruction. Principals need to know how best to use assessment data based on relevant content standards with teachers, school communities. Improved student learning is always the focus of assessment.

ecause of high stakes testing, teachers are always assessing to monitor student progress and plan the scope and sequence of instruction. Principals can work to structure school…… [Read More]


Anglin, Gary J., Vaez, Hossein, and Cunningham, Kathryn L. (nd) Visual Representations and Learning: The Role of Static and Animated Graphics. Visualization and Learning. Online available at: 

Arnold, T.C., & Dwyer, F.M. (1975). Realism in visualized instruction. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 40, 369 -- 370.

de Melo, H.T. (1981). Visual self-paced instruction and visual testing in biological science at the secondary level (Doctoral dissertation, Pennsylvania State University, 1980). Dissertation Abstracts International, 41, 4954A.

Dwyer, F.M. (1969). The effect of varying the amount of realistic detail in visual illustrations designed to complement programmed instruction. Programmed Learning and Educational Technology, 6, 147 -- 153.
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Training and Development at XYZ

Words: 1035 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23865712

They can provide remedial basic skills tutoring in reading and math for employees before training them, or use video or on-the-job training, both of which emphasize learning by watching and practicing rather than by reading.


Personality factors include conscientiousness, goal orientation, and anxiety. Personality is a good predictor of individual behavior across a wide variety of situations.


Conscientious individuals are dependable, organized, persevering, thorough, and achievement oriented.

Goal Orientation

Goal orientation may be considered the individual's mental framework, which influences interpretation and behavior in learning activities.


This is an acquired or learned fear that can result in physical arousal and a disruption in cognitive functioning and performance. While anxiety is frequently the result of the type of instructional environment being used, certain individuals have a predisposition to reacting anxiously in learning contexts.


Older employees have been found to demonstrate less learning and participation in training programs…… [Read More]


Kraiger, K. (2002). Creating, implementing, and managing effective training and development:

State-of-the-art lessons for practice. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Sonnentag, S. (2002). Psychological management of individual performance. New York: John

Wiley & Sons.
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Minority Students the Color of

Words: 2219 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76134204

This encouragement and the ability to have opportunities are at the heart of what Conchas (2006) is trying to say.

There are many individuals who are for the tracking system, and many who are against it. They all have their reasons, and while most of them are good ones, both sides cannot always be correct. One case raised in favor of tracking is based on the research information that students who are low achievers or have low abilities often benefit from being in a class where other individuals are of the same ability level. While some opponents argue that this does not allow children who are doing poorly to have meaningful interaction with those that are doing well, the research findings state that children who are doing poorly often improve when they are placed in classes that are designed for remedial students. In other words, they need to be involved…… [Read More]


Chaddock, G.R. (2000). Mixed messages on math as 12th graders falter. Christian Science Monitor.

Conchas, G. (2006). The Color of Success: Race and High-Achieving Urban Youth. Teacher College Press.

Denevi, E. (2003). Helping White Students and Educators Understand Their Role in a Multicultural Society. National Association of Independent Schools. _id=1.

Gorman, L. (2003). School style can raise achievement. National Bureau of Economic Research. .
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Business General Please List Sections According to

Words: 7827 Length: 25 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81408071

Business (general)

Please list sections according to instructions

Exercise 1.1: eview of esearch Study and Consideration of Ethical Guidelines

Option 1: Stanford Prison Experiment

Go to:, the official site for the Stanford Prison Experiment.

What do you think the research questions were in this study? List 2 or 3 possible research questions (in question format) that may have been the focus of this experiment.

What happens when you put good people in an evil place? Does humanity win over evil, or does evil triumph? Does natural or innate evil exist, or is evil situational? Are certain people simply born "bad apples" or are they made evil by "bad barrels"?

What is "reality" in a prison setting? This study is one in which an illusion of imprisonment was created, but when do illusions become real? How quickly and easily will 'ordinary men' adjust to the roles as prisoners, guards and…… [Read More]


Asby, M.D. And S.A. Miles (2002). Leaders Talk Leadership: Top Executives Speak their Minds. Oxford.

"Frederick W. Smith: The Entrepreneur Who Created an Industry." (2003). IBS Center for Management Research. 

Holstein, W.J. (2007). "Fred Smith's Golden Rule for CEO's." BNet, November 19, 2007.

Lussier, R.N. And C.F. Archua (2010). Leadership: Theory, Application and Skill Development. South-Western Cengage Learning.
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Benefit of Mindfulness on Pain Attenuation

Words: 1203 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66941530

Mindfulness Meditation Training on Experimentally Induced Pain" by Zeidan et al., (2010), published in the Journal of Pain, presents the results of research to investigate

The research addresses a gap in the research examining the benefit of meditation in attenuating pain symptoms. The research problem is clearly articulated, with the title clearly stating the content of the paper and the introduction expressing and justifying the issue. Past research has demonstrated that meditation programs, such as mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBS) programs have been correlated with positive health outcomes, including pain attenuation. The most common form of program is the MBS. In the context of pain management the eight-week length of the program renders it difficult for some patients, such as suffers of chronic pain, as they may not have the ability, or the time, required to complete the course. The research undertaken by Zeidan et al. (2010) addresses this problem, implementing…… [Read More]


Zeidan, Fadel, Gordon, Nakia S., Merchant, Junaid, Goolkasian, Paula, (2010), The Effects of Brief Mindfulness Meditation Training on Experimentally Induced Pain, The Journal of Pain, 11(3), 199-209
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Prioritized Items That I Would

Words: 888 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 59682967

More so, were entries to incorporate theoretical ideas on multi-disciplinary fields too -- the entire better.

5. The math book: written for students conveying a broad-based general overview of finite and infinite math in an accessible and practical manner. Statistics, probability, and logic would be involved, each covered in a comprehensive manner.

. Why it is important.

1. The letters: whenever I am down or feeling dispirited with myself, I can, over and again, return to these letters for solace and for comforting memories. These are people who know me best, who have seen different facets of my personality, and care most for my welfare. They can, therefore, afford me glimpses of myself that I may not be accessible to.

2. The laptop- I love writing, and my aim is to continue developing my writing, using it to formulate my thoughts, and to develop some original theory that is helpful…… [Read More]

Curtis, W.J., & Ciccheti, D. (2007). Emotion and resilience: A multilevel investigation of hemispheric electroencephalogram asymmetry and emotion regulation in maltreated and nonmaltreated children. Development & Psychopathology, 19, p811-840.

Davidson, R.J., Kabat-Zinn, J., Schumacher, J., Rosenkrantz, M., Muller, D., Santorelli, S.F., Urbanowski, F., Harrington, a., Bomus, K., & Sheridan, J.F. (2003). Alterations in brain and immune function produced by mindfulness meditation. Psychosomatic Medicine, 65, 564-570.

Winget, L. (2009). People are idiots and I can prove it . NY: Gotham
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Student Profile John Is a

Words: 1152 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 5317822

Such assistance allows him to focus more clearly on his school work and lessens his tendency to be distracted by others and by the classroom activity. The presence of the paraprofessional also seems to enable him to be more confident in his interactions with the other students in the classroom. Since the beginning of the school year, John has been participating in a contract (behavioral plan) that was drafted in an attempt to provide him with some structure. For the moment, John continues to have occasional problems but, overall, he has done well within the confines of the contract and a continuation of the contract terms would seem to be in his best interests. At the present time, there is no compelling need to adjust the contract.


As has been already mentioned, John functions best under the guidance of his paraprofessional. The presence of the paraprofessional appears to provide…… [Read More]

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Perfect Peace & the Lover

Words: 2187 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71824029

.. [and after they removed the bandages from his face] I saw a fearful sight...It wasn't him. I knew it. A few minutes later his breathing stopped" (The Lover 23). She still had not searched the upper floor, but the emotion of her search, the suffering of the men on those awful wards, was too much, and so she "left the building."

Dafi describes that when a math teacher is killed in the war, students were suffering over the loss, but, "it's impossible to be only sorry, but we really were stunned and shocked because we remembered him living and standing beside the blackboard not so long ago, writing out the exercises with endless patience...[and though many students went to sleep because of how boring he was] in the middle of all this drowsiness, in the cloud of chalk dust flying around the blackboard, the formulas used to penetrate. And…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Oz, Amos. A Perfect Peace. Orlando, Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1985.

Yehoshua, Abraham B. The Lover. Orlando: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1977.
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Philosophy of Sports but IT's

Words: 2208 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46917024

Even the much despised soccer is popular amongst American youths. Yet Americans cheer on their favorite individual stars in all of these sports, especially if the starts engage in charity efforts to justify their bloated salaries. The tension remains about what good sports do for both the individual or society, and Americans today are clearly using sports as a means of practical self-improvement like the Greeks as well as a means of collective identification like the English: "in the 1950's or 1960's, few people exercised; baseline fitness-consciousness was just above zero. Today, 20% of the U.S. population works out on a regular basis, while an additional 60%+ can be classified as...'Consciousness III' -- those persuaded of physical fitness, but who by their own admission, don't get enough exercise. As behavior lags enlightened attitudes, 4 out of 5 adult Americans are true believers in exercise and fitness." But the protests remain…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Ancient Olympic Events," Peruses Digital Library Project, Edited by Gregory R.

Crane, 2007, Tufts University, 29 May 2007,

Dillon, Sam. "Schools Cut Back Subjects to Push Reading and Math." The New York

Times. 25 Mar 2006. 29 May 2007.
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Accessibility in the Performing Arts

Words: 5546 Length: 19 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26349929

18). Assessing the economic impact of the arts on these communities allowed the researchers to then produce a national impact estimate, the results of which were stated above.

Ultimately, the researchers found that when communities "support the arts, [they] not only enhance the quality of community life but also invest in their economic well-being" (Cohen, Schaffer, & Davidson, 2003, p. 30). The researchers concluded by noting that while "the very legitimate question remains as to whether economic impact should be the rationale for increasing funding and access opportunities for the arts […] at this time in history, economic development is perhaps the most persuasive message when making the case for arts support to local, state, and national leaders" (Cohen, Schaffer, & Davidson, 2003, p. 31). To understand why the researchers presumed that the economic argument in support of the arts is the most persuasive, one must consider the second attitude…… [Read More]


Alper, N. (2003). Kevin McCarthy, arthur brooks, julia lowell and laura zakaras: 2001, the performing arts in a new era. Journal of Cultural Economics, 27(3-4), 294-298.

Brighouse, H. (1995). Neutrality, publicity, and state funding of the arts. Philosophy and Public

Affairs, 24(1), 35-63.

Brooks, a. & Lowell, J. (2001). The performing arts in a new era. Santa Monica, CA: RAND
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Cognitive Counseling This Is a

Words: 5805 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29574321

Another person reading this information might think, "Well, this sounds good but I don't think I can do it." This person feels sad and discouraged. So it is not a situation which directly affects how a person feels emotionally, but rather, his or her thoughts in that situation. When people are in distress, they often do not think clearly and their thoughts are distorted in some way (eck).

Cognitive therapy helps people to identify their distressing thoughts and to evaluate how realistic the thoughts are. Then they learn to change their distorted thinking. When they think more realistically, they feel better. The emphasis is also consistently on solving problems and initiating behavioral change (eck).

Thoughts intercede between some sort of stimulus, such as an external event, and feelings. The motivator (stimulus) brings out a thought -- which might be a weighted judgment -- which turns into to an emotion. In…… [Read More]


American Heritage Dictionary. "Medical Dictionary: "mind." 2009. 15

May 2009 .

Beck, J.S. "Questions About Cognitive Therapy." n.d. 15 May 2009 .

Biggs, D. And G. Porter. Dictionary of Counseling. Charlotte, N.C.: IAP, 2000.
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IQ Discrimination the Concept of General Ability

Words: 3541 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 22745648

IQ Discrimination

The concept of general ability or intelligence has in the past been the most important single way of accounting for individual differences. IQ (Intelligence quotient) is usually assessed by measuring performances on a test of a number of different skills, using tasks that emphasize reasoning and problem solving in a number of different areas. Early assessments of IQ were done in France by Alfred Binet in 1905, as part of an attempt to identify children who needed specialist help to make educational progress. Interest in IQ testing continued in the U.S. By researchers such as Louis Terman.

IQ was thought to be fixed in these early years and so was often used in education in an attempt to predict children's future academic progress with different levels of measured intelligence being taken to imply the need for different forms of educational experiences. More able children are supposed to need…… [Read More]


Bates, Steve. (2002). Personality counts: psychological tests can help peg the job applicants best suited for certain jobs. HR Magazine. Feb. 2002

Flynn, Gillian. (2002). A legal examination of testing. Workforce. June 2002

Newitz, Annalee. (2000). The personality paradox. Industry Stand. October, 2000.
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Teaching That Play a Role

Words: 9261 Length: 30 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69308031

Multicultural education researchers and educators agree that preservice teachers' attitudes, beliefs, and understandings are important: foci in multicultural education coursework (Cochran-Smith, 1995; Grant & Secada, 1990; McDiarmid & Price, 1993; Pohan, 1996). Teacher attitudes and beliefs influence teaching behaviors, which affect student learning and behavior (Wiest, 1998)."

1996 study used 492 pre-service teachers to try and gauge the attitudes and beliefs among the group when it came to understanding diversity and cultural differences in students (Wiest, 1998).

A decade earlier leading education experts Hollingsworth was able to identify a method for helping students of teaching to challenge their convictions and apply them to their careers.

Many advocates of multicultural education suggest that field experiences be included in preparing teachers to work with diverse student populations (Pohan, 1996; Sleeter, 1995; Tellez, Hlebowitsh, Cohen, & Norwood, 1995). Sleeter (1995) describes some investigations, such as miniethnographies, that her students conduct: I regard extended…… [Read More]

ZEICHNER, K.M., & GRANT, C.A. (1981) Biography an social structure in the socialization of student teachers, Journal of Education for Teaching, 7, pp. 298-314.

Assessing the consistency between teachers' philosophies and educational goals.

Education; 9/22/1995; DeSpain, B.C.
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Song of Love Music Is a Universal

Words: 2036 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51174357

Song of Love

Music is a universal language shared and understood across all countries and cultures. It can help express emotions and create an array of reactions, ranging from relaxed feelings to the most motivated ones. Apart from this, music can be used therapeutically for people who face difficulties physically, emotionally, cognitively or socially (Bodner). There is some difficulty when defining the concept of music therapy because there are numerous definitions out there concerning to this practice. According to the American Music Therapy Association (AMTA) "Music therapy is an established health profession in which music is used in a therapeutic relationship to address physical, emotional, cognitive and social needs of individuals" (Ronna). This includes addressing mental and physical problems such as: self-awareness, spiritual enhancement, social and interpersonal development, and motor skills (Ronna). This type of therapy is used in many settings, such as schools, hospitals, nursing homes, rehabilitation centers, and…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bodner M, M.. "Music Therapy." American Cancer Society., 2008. Web. 19 Apr 2013..

Darnley-Smith, Rachel, and Helen Patey. Music Therapy. London: SAGE Publications Ltd., 2003. Print.

Davis, William Charles, Kate Gfeller, and Michael Thaut. An Introduction to Music Therapy: Theory and Practice. 2nd . Boston Burr Ridge: The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 1999. Print.

Oak, M.. "Effects of Music on the Mind and Brain." Buzzle., 2012. Web. 19 Apr 2013. .
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Students With ADHD

Words: 3380 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 24285863

ADHD (what it is this disease) and what are the symptoms and result of this disease. The paper also discusses the affects of ADHD on patients. In this paper the treatment of ADHD is also discussed and explained.

All the details relating to this condition and its symptoms and treatments are explained and supported by the use of literature review.

ADHD in Children

ADHD (attention deficit hyperactivity syndrome) is a chronic condition that affects the children and continues till their adulthood in many cases. This disease results in the combination of a number of problems such as difficulty in focusing on something and paying attention, 'hyperactivity and impulsive behavior'. (Mayo Clinic, 2013)

In the children, the children suffering from ADHD also experience lack of confidence and self-esteem, trouble in relationships and bad performance in school. The disease is usually preceded by behavioral and learning problems and lack of attention in…… [Read More]


Australian Psychological Society (APS). (2013). Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children. APS Webpage. Retrieved from

DuPaul, G.J., Jitendra, A.K., Volpe, R.J., Tresco, K.E., Lutz, J.G., Junod, R.E., Cleary, K.S., Flammer, L.M., & Mannella, M.C. (2006). Consultation-based Academic Interventions for Children with ADHD: Effects on Reading and Mathematics Achievement. J Abnorm Child Psychol. 34 (2006), 635-648.

Duvall, S.F., Delquadri, J.C., & Ward, D.L. (2004). A Preliminary Investigation of the Effectiveness of Homeschool Instructional Environments for Students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. School Psychology Review. 33(1). 140-158

Frazier, T.W., Youngstrom, E.A., Glutting, J.J., & Watkins, M.W. (2007). ADHD and Achievement: Meta-Analysis of the Child, Adolescent, and Adult Literature and a Concomitant Study with College Students. Journal of Learning Disabilities. 40(1), 49-65.
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Leadership and Social Advocacy

Words: 5374 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42281879

Social Advocacy in Counseling

Social advocacy has been described by some counseling theorists as a "fifth force" paradigm that should be considered to rival if not replace other major counseling psychology paradigms regarding behavior and mental illness (atts, 2009). This paper briefly discusses what social justice/advocacy is, the debate regarding its status as a paradigm in counseling psychology, and how social advocacy can enhance both the client's experience and life and the professional counselor's personal, professional, and ethical obligations to helping others.

Social Justice

Social justice is fairness or impartiality exercised in society, specifically as it is implemented by and within different levels of social classes of a society. A truly socially just populace would be based on the principles of solidarity and equality, would consider and maintain values, human rights, and the dignity of every person in the society (Bell, 1997). Social justice/advocacy theories have in recent years been…… [Read More]


American Counseling Association. (2005). ACA code of ethics. Alexandria, VA: Author.

Bell, L. (1997). Theoretical foundations for social justice education. In M. Adams, L. Bell, & P. Griffin (Eds.), Teaching for diversity and social justice (pp. 3-16). New York: Routledge.

Betancourt, J.R., Green, A.R., Carrillo, J.E., & Park, E.R. (2005). Cultural competence and health care disparities: Key perspectives and trends. Health Affairs, 24, 499 -- 505.

Carlson, N. (2011). Foundations of behavioral neuroscience (8th ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson
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Children of Alcoholic Parents it Is Generally

Words: 1017 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 24374496

Children of Alcoholic Parents

It is generally accepted that alcoholism tends to run in families and that compared with children of non-alcoholics, children of alcoholic parents have approximately four time greater risk of becoming alcoholics themselves (Reich Pp). However, the causal factors that determine the development of alcohol abuse and dependence have not yet been conclusively determined (Reich Pp).

Studies from the 1950's and 1960's generally emphasized psychosocial explanation, such as "poor parenting, lack of good role models. And impoverished home life" (Reich Pp). Beginning in the 1970's, research has investigated heritable components in the familial transmission of alcoholism" (Reich Pp). Adoption studies analyses of half-siblings and studies comparing identical and fraternal twins have all provided evidence that genetic factors play a crucial role in the etiology of alcoholism (Reich Pp). Although there is strong evidence for a genetic contribution, few researchers would deny the influence of environmental factors in…… [Read More]

Work Cited

Nishioka, Elaine. "Helping children of alcoholics."

Journal of School Health; 11/1/1989; Pp.

Chassin, Laurie. "Academic Achievement in Adolescent Children of Alcoholics."

Journal of Studies on Alcohol; 1/1/1999; Pp.
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Is Ability Grouping the Way to Go or Should it Go Away

Words: 4187 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62027342

Ability Grouping

Is ability grouping the way to go, or should it go away?

Whether or not ability grouping is an effective strategy for the instruction of students of different academic abilities is a hotly debated issue, with divergent evidence. Some research has indicated that grouping students according to ability promotes increased achievement, while other research has demonstrated that stratifying students according to achievement has detrimental effects. This study aims at evaluating whether students in grouped vs. non-grouped learning situations differ in academic and personal factors, and whether differences also exist within the grouped situation between low and high-ability students.

Introduction and Literature eview

Ability grouping in schools has been a continuously debated topic among teachers, administrators and researchers. Whether it is beneficial or not to separate students according to aptitude or ability level has been extensively discussed and researched, and evidence has been provided in support of both sides…… [Read More]


Benson, L. (2002). Serving gifted students through inclusion: A teacher's perspective. Roeper Review, 24(3), 126-8.

Borland, J., Horton, D., Subotnik, R., Shiang-Jiun, C., Miran, C., Freeman, C., Goldberg, S., Yu, J. (2002). Ability grouping and acceleration of gifted students: Articles from the Roeper Review. Roeper Review, 24(3), 100-2.

Borland, J., Horton, D., Subotnik, R., Shiang-Jiun, C., Miran, C., Freeman, C., Goldberg, S., Yu, J. (2002). Grouping the gifted and the talented. Roeper Review, 24(3), 103-8.

Cheung, C. & Rudowicz, E. (2003). Academic outcomes of ability grouping among junior high school students in Hong Kong. Journal of Educational Research, 96(4), 241-55.
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Risks and Consequences of Incorporating

Words: 8869 Length: 30 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80774472

0 tool has little to do with its overall effectiveness in getting attaining learning goals and objectives for example. Controlling for the informality or formality of Web 2.0 tools use is required, as many instructors are relying on the conversational and broadcast functionality of social networks as a substitute for e-mail. Still, the informal aspects of social networking applications including Web 2.0 tools and their anticipated benefits as a learning tool must be indexed or evaluated from their actual effectiveness in assisting learned to gain mastery of subjects. Creating this link between Web 2.0 tool effectiveness and their relative perception of value with respondents to this study will require a research design that can isolate attitudinal and effectiveness measures while not introducing sampling bias or error.

Fifth, the risks that Web 2.0 tools might create for formal learning in educational institutions also faces the same dilemma from a methodology standpoint…… [Read More]


Ayala, G, and Yano, Y (1998). A collaborative learning environment based on intelligent agents. Expert Systems with Applications, 14, 129-137.

Bill Ashraf. (2009). Teaching the Google-eyed YouTube generation. Education & Training, 51(5/6), 343-352.

Barros, B., and Verdejo, M.F. (2000). Analysing student interaction processes in order to improve collaboration. The DEGREE approach. International Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education, 11, 221-241.

Bereiter, C. (2002). Education and mind in the knowledge age. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.