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Role of Motivation and Attitudes in Adolescents' Help Seeking in Math Class," Allison Ryan and Raul Pintrich examine the motivational influences on help-seeking behavior in math classrooms in the seventh and eighth grades. The article, published in the Journal of Educational Psychology, investigates cognitive, motivational, and social influences on help-seeking behavior in math class to offer a fuller understanding of help-seeking behavior in general. The authors present the findings of their research clearly, explain their methodology well, and offer extensive background information, literature reviews, and suggestions for future research. The problem in question is clearly stated at the beginning of the article. Metacognitive skills greatly improve in adolescence, and students become more aware of when they need help with their work. However, research has shown that adolescents are not actively seeking help with their work when needed. The contradiction between the awareness of needing help and the avoidance of seeking…… [Read More]
Math Vocabulary Literature Review
The nation's public and private school systems have demonstrated that there are far too many examples where large numbers of students do not positively excel. Unfortunately, math success has become one of the more obvious shortcomings of the educational system. "Mathematics education seems particularly prone to the belief in the single new idea: do this (whether using calculators, teaching mathematics through problem solving, working collaboratively, stressing the basics, employing manipulatives, and so on), and all your math problems will be solved." (Elliot, Portia C., 11) Obviously this is not the case.
This Literature Review focuses on the fact that modern day students consistently demonstrate that they are lacking in overall proficiency, especially in areas like mathematically-based vocabulary. But is it the student's fault? The study article in the 2006 Reading Psychology by Margaret-Mary Sulentic-Dowell, Gloria D. Beal and Robert M. Capraro called "How Do Literacy Experiences…… [Read More]
In grade four white males performing "At or Above asic" math skills is stated at 90% while black males were performing at only 59% "At or Above asic" skill levels. White males in the "At or Above Proficient" skills level is stated at 49% with black males in this category stated at a mere 13%.
The following labeled Figure 2 shows the statistical report of NAEP (2005) in relation to achievement differences among African-American and White American males.
NAEP STATISTICAL REPORT: Minority Male Achievement Gaps Relative to White Males, Grade 4, 2005
Source: NAEP STATISTICAL REPORT (2005)
y the time these students reach 8th grade white males "At or Above asic Achievement Levels" totals 76% while only 43% of the African-American males are "At or Above asic Achievement Levels" the negative value in the Achievement Gap of African-American Males as relative to White Males indicates that a lower percentage of…… [Read More]
It enlivens what many people see as the isolating abstractness of mathematics
Lipsey and Pasternack).
A study of the literature on this issue brings clearly to the fore the realization of the importance of the integration and intersection between various subjects that were in the past seen to be separate and even in opposition to one another. There are an increasing number of cogent and well researched books and articles which suggest ways and means of linking mathematics and literature to the benefit and advantage of both subjects.
Books by Marilyn Burns. etrieved February 8, 2009 from: (http://home.avvanta.com/~math/burnsbooks.htm)
Clement, . (1990) Counting on Frank. Sydney: Williams Collins.
Grossman, F.J., Smith, B, & Miller, C. (1993). Did you say write in mathematics class? Journal of Developmental Education, 17, pp. 2-4.
Hutchins, P. (1986). The doorbell rang. New York: Greenwillow Books. http://www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000367948
Kolstad, ., Briggs, L., & Whalen, K. (1996). Incorporating…… [Read More]
Kindergarten Math Plan
Stage 1-Desired Results
Students will be able to count to 100 by recognizing, writing, and typing the numbers. Students will be able to count in multiples of 3, 5, and 10. Students will be able to understand how numbers represent groups of objects.
Students will be able to understand how objects, such as groups, interact with numbers and what each one means or represents.
Students will understand that numbers tell how much and how many is in a group. They will make inferences, such as how many students in the class.
Students will keep considering how many is in a group, and fewer, more, or equal to concepts.
Students will know how numbers interact with groups, fewer, more, or equal.
Students will be skilled at concepts of counting and fewer, more, or equal to.
Evaluative Criteria…… [Read More]
First, math courses are required as part of college work in the pursuit of most degrees in the health care field. The level of required achievement is different, depending on the degree sought. For example, a student pursuing an LPN may take a semester or two of college algebra. A pre-med student is often required to take one or two semesters of calculus. A student pursuing a master's degree in health care administration will take courses in statistics, finance and accounting. The master's candidate can perhaps more easily see the relevance of the required math courses toward the future career. For the nursing student studying algebra or the pre-med student struggling through calculus, the correlation between academic study and actual practice may be unclear. They may wonder why they must undertake these courses, which seem to have little to do with the work in which they will eventually be engaged.…… [Read More]
Oppression of Class And Gender
Class and gender are two separate but related concepts in the sociological analysis and understanding of inequality and oppression in society. A definition of class is "A group of individuals ranked together as possessing common characteristics; as, the different classes of society; the educated class; the lower classes." (Definition of class)
According to the sociologist Max Weber class is defined in relation to the way that goods and services are distributed or allocated in a society.
All communities are arranged in a manner that goods, tangible and intangible, symbolic and material are distributed. Such a distribution is always unequal and necessarily involves power. "Classes, status groups and parties are phenomena of the distribution of power within a community."
(MAX WEER: asic Terms)
Class therefore refers to the categories in a society of those who have access to wealth and privilege and those who do not.…… [Read More]
Considering this belief into account for the discussion of math and poetry, through the general observation and understanding, it is observed that math and poetry constitute the form of art also. The other instance of symmetry in math is proof. Math looks for an elegant proof above one which established the identical outcome through contradiction or examination of a lot of cases. The same thing is applicable in case of poetry. In case one is desirous of having a good poem, it is important that one must develop a style and follow the particular style across. Poetry as well as maths is two very distinct themes, nevertheless the same are found to be similar in formation and structure. Understanding math as a poem solves a lot of problem. When math is looked as a poem, it is observed that calculating is the same as a finding a pattern in the…… [Read More]
Education: Teaching Math to Students ith Disabilities
orking with students with disabilities (SD) can be quite challenging, especially for teachers working on a full-time basis. Almost every classroom today has one or more students dealing with either an emotional, educational, or physical disability; and teachers are likely to find themselves looking for resources or information that would enable them teach all their students in the most effective way. There are numerous special-education websites from which teachers and instructors can obtain information or lessons on teaching their respective subjects. Five websites available to the math special education teacher have been discussed in the subsequent sections of this text.
Teachers Helping Teachers: http://www.pacificnet.net/~mandel/
This online resource provides teaching information for all teachers, with a 'Special Education' segment that provides a number of activities meant specifically for instilling basic conceptual skills in learners with special needs. The activities are submitted by…… [Read More]
Fluency and Literacy in a Middle-School Math Classroom
Eyes roll at the sight of dreaded word problems. "I hate word problems," says the student. A familiar scenario for a middle school math teacher. Initially, such a math teacher might assume that the complaining student has difficulty translating words into mathematical concepts -- in other words, that the student does not understand the concept behind the math, but merely how to manipulate numbers, in imitation of the teacher, on sigh. hile this may be the case, Richard Allington also raises the provocative concept of reading fluency as an additional problem in the math classroom -- the student may understand the math, but feel so uncomfortable with the concepts he or she finds the additional manipulations required by the word problem to be tedious and time consuming. In other words, he or she has a low level of fluency, even though he…… [Read More]
Additionally, teachers provide information on upcoming math topics so tutors can come more fully prepared" (Baker, Riet & Clendaniel, 2006: 1).
The program demonstrates how an elementary school's mathematics education can be enhanced by a good tutoring program. The program helped inject fun into the discipline of mathematics, provided personalized attention to struggling students, featured 'previewing' critical material to be covered the next day in class, had less structured break/snack time so students had time to 'digest' new material (no pun intended), and the tutors worked closely with the student's regular teachers. The tutors also said that they learned a great deal that would serve them well in their own classrooms while working with the teachers, and also from their students. Supervising university observers of the tutors noted they had fewer absences in their classes than non-participants. Finally, the program made effective use of community outreach, as it merged the…… [Read More]
Examples of how-to skills include note-taking, memorization techniques and locating main ideas and supporting details in passages" (Flanagan 2001). The other educator takes responsibility for helping students apply those skills. This might be one way for a younger and an older teacher to collaborate. The older teacher could teach a conventional unit on a particular type of subject matter, such as the Civil War, while the more technologically fluent younger instructor could show students how to use the Internet and other multimedia sources to research primary sources, such as soldiers' accounts from the battlefield, which would complement but not replace the need for the lecture.
Using collaborative teaching often takes greater planning on the part of the teachers. For example, in team-teaching, the teachers must coordinate which teacher will teach what aspect of the lesson. This may be based upon content area, or the type of medium involved: one teacher…… [Read More]
Jean Anyon: Social Class And the Hidden Curriculum of ork
Is there a hidden curriculum in schools for teachers to approach their classes based on how smart the teachers perceive the students are, and what socioeconomic status teachers believe students fall into? Essayist Jean Anyon observed five elementary schools during a school year in 1980, and it is her belief that students in certain schools are "being prepared to occupy particular rungs on the social ladder," which is abhorrent to some educators and leaders since there has been a sense in American education that all students should be motivated to achieve the best they can achieve.
hat do I disagree with in her essay? In the working class schools the teachers did not make any attempt to explain the reasoning behind the math problems, but instead just drilled them on steps to take. This is somewhat familiar to me as…… [Read More]
ability of a bipolar student to learn concepts in the subjects of Math and Science in the general classroom setting
According to sources retrieved from the American Medical Journal, bipolar disorder refers to the psychiatric diagnosis for a mood disorder. Individuals who suffer from bipolar disorder undergo various symptoms such as experiencing episodes of a frenzied state whose medical term is mania (or hypomania). This medical condition typically alternates with episodes of depression. Doctor Annabel Hathaway, a senior psychologist at the University of Stanford, children suffering from bipolar disorders have high intelligence quotient and commendable talents. However, they may have difficulties in coordinating their reflexes and reaction time. They also experience difficulties making transitions, and they may as well have co-morbid syndromes that that render them anxious, inattentive, distractible, moody, argumentative, and withdrawn. Likewise, bipolar disorders may render such children acute and perfectionist.
Psychologists explain that children with bipolar disorders…… [Read More]
My children are in school full-time and the oldest is responsible enough to watch the younger for a few hours when I'm gone when they get home, so that does take one worry off of my mind. However, balancing classes with this full-time work schedule will mean a lot of late nights studying and writing papers.
A usually start my day before six, getting the kids ready for school and myself ready for work. Including my commute, I work about ten hours daily and return home around six pm.
Then I do my best to leave my work at the door and spend some time just being with my kids; hearing about their day, what they're learning in school, what the latest trends in their social circles are, and all of the details that I want to know about their lives. We cook and eat dinner together, but I'm afraid…… [Read More]
elcome sixth week class. This week, discussions. The discussion asks read articles "ho Am I?" "Gender Gap Cyberspace." After reading articles, asked compare contrast articles. Then, asked insights gained evaluation improve draft.
Comparison: "ho Am I?" And "Gender Gap in Cyberspace"
According to socio-linguist Deborah Tannen's essay "Gender Gap in Cyberspace," using the computer is a fundamentally gendered experience. Although both women and men use computers in today's society, they do so in different ways that reflect the fundamental orientations of the genders. Men are interested in getting the most powerful computer, winning at computer games and exhibiting their technical mastery by fixing 'bugs.' omen use mediums such as emails to build relationships. The Internet does offer the ability for the genders to bridge communication chasms. But the anonymity of the Internet is also more supportive of the male desire to engage in aggressive, verbally-directed combat, since common social niceties…… [Read More]
MATH Lesson Plan
Activity Name: Space and Math
Classroom, Internet, Field trips
Children should know history of the space program and its impact on science, math, history, politics and technology.
Education Standards Addressed
Combination of history, civics and math
(Specify skills/information that will be learned.)
Teach about math in terms of things like speed, rotation speed, circumference, and so forth.
(Specific skill / concept being taught in lesson)
Applying math to space-related concepts
Units of measurement, dimensions and speeds. Examples would include diameter, perimeter, speed, velocity and so forth. Nothing too complicated…just the basics.
(e.g. Web, books, etc.)
Procedure/s: (List of steps in lesson delivery) Include as applicable and in order of delivery:
Examine and Talk, Demonstrate, Model, Plan, Guide, ecord, Describe, Explore, Acquire, Practice, etc.
Explains terms and concepts in terms of numbers and measurement…… [Read More]
These exams would also tap teaching performance and other capabilities unlikely to be adequately assessed using conventional paper along with pencil instruments." (Shulman, 1986, pp. 4 -- 14)
These different elements are important, because they are providing a foundation for helping the schools to become more competitive in mathematics. As, they are working together to create a basic standard for: improving learning comprehension and provide the ability to solve more complex issues. Over the course of time, this will help to increase the student's ability to understand a wide variety of concepts. This is the point that they will be more prepared to deal with the various challenges that they are facing in the 21 century. Once this occurs, it will help them to establish a foundation for adapting to the changes that they will have to deal with from: shifts in technology and through these transformations because of globalization.…… [Read More]
Here, we can observe several of the greatest benefits of assistive technology in special education. Such is to say that many linguistic, mathematic or otherwise basic educational programs may be designed to help facilitate the special needs learner through audio assistance, special contextualization and personal customization.
Additionally, the learning disabled individual, by virtue of his interaction with the educational properties offered by an effective software program, will achieve a level of learning autonomy not otherwise afforded to him in the traditional inclusion classroom setting. This is something of an alleviation of learning obstacles for primary educational advocates as well as a boost to the student's potential for autonomy at any level, let alone in mathematics. Assistive technology software programs may also have the added benefit of helping to improve hand-eye coordination, with the use of a mixed-media approach combining physical interaction with knowledge retention and helping the learner make new…… [Read More]
LESSON PREPARATION [before the lesson]
Mathematics, Grades 5-6
Concept: Complex and Multi-fuctional word Problems
Whole class, small group, or individual? Class
State Standard [Virginia SOL or reading standard of your state]:
National Standard: Work flexibly with fractions, decimals, and percents to solve problems; Compare and order fractions; Use models, benchmarks and equivalent fors to judge fractions; develop understand of fractions as parts of unit wholes, and division of whole numbers.
Primary Objective: Students will use four basic mathematical functions (addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division) to solve multiple step, real world, word problems that require several steps for the solution involving fractions and decimals.
Classroom Diversity and Differentiated Instruction Adapted to learning issues based on pre-test; lesson is designed as culmination of unit on fractions and decimals. Differentiated instruction involves smaller groups, individual tutoring, and breaking problem down into steps prior to assigning. Advanced cognitive…… [Read More]
English in Teaching and Learning Math in Hong Kong
With the intermingling of cultures, business, and globalization in general, it is difficult to imagine that English would not be spoken or at least understood in some form in any part of the world. If nothing else, Internet communication has opened up myriad opportunities for people to learn about any amount of cultures and languages they wish. In terms of business, as mentioned, the world has also become increasingly globalized. Businesses that can expand globally tend to be stronger financially and have greater longevity than those who cannot. Often, an ability to communicate internationally is at the heart of business success. For this reason, the medium of instruction in schools, and especially non-English speaking countries, have come to the forefront of educational attention. In Hong Kong, social and political changes have given a unique dynamic to whether or not English should…… [Read More]
A Balinese gamelan ensemble from Los Angeles comprised of half Western and half Balinese musicians took my breath away but to analyze the show proved to be the most difficult class assignment the entire semester. For a student accustomed to listening to mainstream rock and pop, anything outside of a four/four meter sounded jarring. Trying to wrap my head around the complex rhythmic structure and near lack of melody made my brain feel like it was melting more than any biochemistry class came close to doing.
Western classical music concert piqued my interest in an art form I formerly felt was reserved mainly for seniors and snobs. Performing pieces by Beethoven, the orchestra included a grand piano and the deftness with which the pianist swept her fingers across the keys made me realize how all professions demand patience, careful repetition, and perfect practice. Even a creative art like music demands…… [Read More]
Theory of Knowledge
Without the assumption of the existence of uniformities there can be no knowledge.
One of the presumptions of acquiring knowledge, particularly knowledge in a scientific or mathematical context, is that there must be causal relationships that can be observed or intuited between different phenomena. Human beings base their behaviors on this presumption on a regular basis. We wake up in the morning to the sound of an alarm clock and assume we can shut off that alarm using that particular button because we did so on previous occasions. We do not assume that every experience with an alarm clock is a new encounter. Similarly, we assume that the laws of gravity will secure ourselves in place to the earth and we will not go flying off into space. In science and math, the presumption that natural and mathematical laws have a…… [Read More]
I had to listen to my heart -- and to pray hard -- to make the right decisions for myself, to know that I could still be a dutiful child without forcing myself to be a round peg in a square hole, to follow a career path that was not the right one for me.
Every person must have a moral compass, a true north stronger than the pulls of friends, society, and confusing voices that try to set us in the wrong direction. Social pressure can be overwhelming because of the desire to please others, and even when a person is living amongst friends and family, the inner path to personal truth can be a lonely one. When 'everyone else is doing it' -- drinking, smoking, or even simply acting in an inconsiderate fashion, it can be difficult to stand aside and be the one who says 'no --…… [Read More]
Dan Meyer's Ted Talk And Teaching Mathematics
Math is many students' least favorite subject -- and yet, excelling in math is vitally important for individual student's success as well as for the success of America in the future. According to teacher Dan Meyer, in today's modern math curriculum there is too much of a focus on manipulating equations and not enough of an emphasis on problem-solving. "So 90% of what I do with my five hours of prep time per week is to take fairly compelling elements of problems like this from my textbook and rebuild them in a way that supports math reasoning and patient problem solving" (Meyer 2010). By focusing on problem solving Meyer is also better able to reach math-phobic students. When math is presented in a 'real world' format, then "every student is on a level playing field of intuition" (Meyer 2010). Meyer also begins his…… [Read More]
ELLs to Learn Kinematics: A Phenomenological Assessment
This study aims to discover the effective methods of teaching English language learners (ELLs) the basics of kinematics in an introductory course to physics. The students chosen from a selective sample had no incoming knowledge of kinematics and their language skills were limited. The teacher utilized three different methods and tested them in a phenomenological manner, using qualitative and quantitative data to analyze outcomes. The methods employed were visual learning, mathematical learning and role play learning. The results were measured through direct observation, interview and testing results. Pre-trial tests and interviews were conducted, enthusiasm was monitored by the teacher in the class, and the post-trial assessment tests and interviews with students were also conducted. The students showed that with each introduction of a new method, their learning increased and when the three methods were combined over the course of a week, their schools…… [Read More]
There are almost as many different varieties of issues that can impede a child learner from succeeding in a math class as there are particular remedies to ameliorate such a problem. One of the chief reasons that certain children find mathematics difficult is because they are overwhelmed by it. They find the concept of a never ending series of numbers (as well as similarly interminable operations which one can put them through and which are taught daily and tested weekly) beyond challenging to the point where it incites anxiety and fear.
Additionally, difficulties can arise from learning differences such as dyscalculia, or situations in which students may not be familiar with the language that the class is taught in (such as English Language Learners). These two factors can exacerbate the initial feeling of anxiety that math can produce in child learners. Moreover, it is important to realize that in…… [Read More]
Overall, the classes were uneven in their approach. In part of the class, they were very traditional and used lecture style. In other parts of the class, they freely allowed participation among students. For example, one teacher, despite the fact that he is more disciplined with the students, uses comparisons when explaining the concepts and refers to book when giving examples on the board. The class is quiet during a short lecture. Afterwards, the notes are left on the board and the students are asked to take notes. A special student lays head on desk and asks no questions and takes no notes. However, the teacher does the first part of the homework together with the students, which is a quasi-Vygotsky approach. He does ask the students in this class more questions individually than the other class and helps this class a lot more on homework, which is also a…… [Read More]
School Observation: Springfield Gardens Middle School
The focus of this school observation is PS 59, Springfield Gardens Middle School in New York City. The observation was conducted in three separate settings: a math class, the cafeteria, and the school's main office. The goal of the observation was to gain insight on the relationships between different stakeholders in the school community, including teachers, students, staff, administration, and parents, and how these relationships influence the connectedness of the school environment. The assumption is that school connectedness as summarized by Blum (2004), can be measured by the presence or absence of factors such as positive student-faculty rapport, high academic expectations, and publically displayed efforts to strengthen school culture and safety. The observations of the school, thus, considered school connectedness as evidenced by student-teacher rapport, exhibition of student work, teaching methods, and classroom comportment, and interaction between staff members. In addition, student body and…… [Read More]
differentiated instruction necessary in the math class?
The reasoning behind endeavoring to find different behaviors for the math classroom education is to address the individual difficulties to learn math and differentiate the math learning disorders such as discalculia. Dyscalculia (i.e., mathematical blindness) is a specific learning disability in comprehending mathematics. The disorder could be classified as; (1) developmental dyscalculia (DD), generally described as a disorder in mathematical abilities, presumed to be due to a speci-c impairment in brain function or inherited from the family, (2) post lesion dyscalculia, caused by brain damage and head injury, (3) Pseudo-dyscalculia, environmentally caused mathematical inabilities for example uncomforting environment, having been instructed incorrectly. Most of the children and adults suffering from DD have normal social functions and abilities to deal with other subjects and succeed in the life. For example, Einstein had early difficulties with arithmetic. Benjamin Franklin passed all the subjects but mathematics…… [Read More]
My work experience and responsibilities have included retail and sales, and working at the Blackwell Hotel. The hotel is affiliated with the Fisher College of Business. In this job, I have had opportunities to meet many professors and graduate students from the College while working as a server for the Grab 'n' Go sandwich shop. This work experience has helped to increase my knowledge of service-related business practices and of people in general, professionally and personally.
In addition, I have worked in the past for my aunt, who is an accomplished, and very experienced, business entrepreneur. My aunt has taught me a great deal about the business world and about interfacing with varied and diverse groups of people in a constructive business capacity. She owns a business that focuses on helping women from all walks of life begin their careers through investing in their own businesses, and themselves.
In applying…… [Read More]
This work focuses on giving teachers concrete strategies for implementing the benchmarking and assessment techniques. It is important to develop lesson plans that include the major components of this program. Gunning gives a straightforward approach to implementing these concepts.
ithout getting into the individual strategies, let us suffice to say that these teaching methods may be the best developed over other similar experiments. Gunning's work was based on solid theory and best practices. The purpose of this research was to examine the connection between math and reading. In the first section of this study, we found that there is a high correlation between math and reading scores. Gunning's work on assessment-based teaching only discussed its use to improve reading skills. However, this same concept could also be applied to math. This is the key to improving both math and reading skills. Benchmarking will be a necessary component in the development…… [Read More]
Environmental classes could chronicle their observations of the weather, for example, and post the results of their class observations online. Creating attractive, scientifically literate material online is an important skill that students should learn. New equipment is also needed in the laboratories to conduct more accurate measures of experiments. This is necessary to improve student performances at local science fairs.
Funding for field trips to science museums and other on-site locations to supplement education:
Interacting with science and technology in a hands-on fashion; visiting science laboratories that use technology; and meeting with individuals who use science and technology in their vocations are all ways to get students excited about technology and its applications.
Hiring a part-time or full time teacher of technology
This professional would be officially in charge of acting as a facilitator between the math and science departments; teach elective courses in technology; and conduct laboratories and educational…… [Read More]
Leadership in 21st Century Support Systems
Conducting learning activities without assessing the success of those activities is like driving a vehicle without a clean windshield and a rear-view mirror. The instructor can still steer, put on the gas and brakes, but if the instructor cannot clearly see the road ahead and what is behind, this could be an exercise in futility, leaving learning by the roadside. Indeed, assessments have become a pivotal component to learning in the 21st century. Moreover, innovative technologies specifically designed to address student outcomes enhance the instructor's ability to present effective lessons. The following two units illustrate how technology can be integrated into the classroom to support 21st century learning and skills, and how innovative teaching strategies can stir interest in subjects for diverse student populations.
edesigned Lesson -- Effective Assessment
The 11th grade lesson in eligion class was originally related to learning about Hinduism, how…… [Read More]
Given the context and the fact that being a convicted criminal and a sex offender could conceivably make the risk of any type of abuse (whether or not of a sexual nature) foreseeable, that defense is unlikely to succeed. However, generally, the knowledge of one Board member who does not disclose that knowledge to the Board will not be imputed to the rest of the Board. In any case, that issue is unlikely to matter because of the school's liability in negligence even without knowledge.
Question # 3
As previously discussed, the school is likely to be found liable to Anna for Title VII discrimination by virtue of her age because it allowed Forester to create a hostile work environment by failing to discipline either Forester or DuFrane, the other male teacher who made the hostile statement. The school will argue that even under those facts, the severity and extent…… [Read More]
Activity #1: Discuss the pros and cons of testing from two perspectives: (1) as a test-taker and (2) as a test-giver
From the point-of-view of the test-taker, the 'cons' of taking a test seem obvious. Besides the nerves and the fear of being put under pressure, from the test-taker's point-of-view being tested requires subjecting something quite unique, namely their individual human mind, to an objective test that cannot take into consideration adverse circumstances, from a lack of engagement with the material, poor teaching, or an eccentric learning style. Testing can thus discourage creativity and a sense of fun in learning for the test taker. Test can also encourage students to learn how to take a particular teacher's tests, rather than to truly learn and actively engage with the material on an individual basis like a research paper.
This is also the downside of testing from the teacher's perspective as…… [Read More]
thinksI am primarily defined by my Asian identity. I am an immigrant from China, so naturally the first thing people think about me when they see me is that I am a Chinese-American. Of course, when I lived in China, this was not a part of my perceived identity. People just saw me as "normal" in respect to my ethnicity. But that does not mean that people did not prejudge me, even when I was the same race and culture as my fellow classmates.
I am very tall (5'9) so people would often ask me if I was a model. 5'9 is tall for any woman, but particularly in China. Because of my height, I always stood out. Worse, my growth spurt happened in middle school, so I looked very different from my classmates. I appeared to be much older than I actually was and people would often treat me…… [Read More]
Community Colleges in America
In 1983 and 1984, a dozen major reports on the United States' schools were published. All stressed the need for "excellence" in education. These reports are the subject of: Excellence in Education: Perspectives on Policy and Practice. The reports pertaining to higher education were published by The BusinessHigher Education Forum, and saw higher education as "unable to train skilled managers and technicians that they believed industry needed." (Altbach 32) These reports essentially claim that student achievement has declined at technical schools because schools "do not demand enough of their students, do not apply stiff criteria for promotion, do not test students enough, and particularly in high school, provide students with too many choices about what subjects they study." (Altbach 32) These reports are somewhat dated in that they compare American students with Japanese students and focus on technical proficiency vs. The intuitive grasp of problems and…… [Read More]
Benson and Newell - Critique
Which of Benson's arguments was most convincing? Why? Benson's 4th argument ("Interdisciplinary courses are shallow") has some merit albeit he cheapens it by dipping too deeply into his love of exaggeration. Probably the 2nd objection Benson presents has the most value because students who would probably receive the most benefits from interdisciplinary studies are those students who are high achievers already. Clearly Benson is on the right track when he asserts that a student needs to have a "firm hold" on one particular discipline before he or she can enjoy and profit from an interdisciplinary course. Much of the potential success for a student taking interdisciplinary classes depends of course on the academic skills and scholarly experience of the student (freshmen are often too green and undisciplined to expect them to excel in a course well outside their chosen major). But on the other hand,…… [Read More]
Special Education: Collaboration Between Teachers
The majority of special education students receive instruction in both general education classes as well as special education support classes. Most of these students are enrolled in esource Support Programs in which a special education teacher has responsibility for offering learning supports across the general education curriculum. The job of the special education teacher, or esource Specialist, is to ensure that the student's IEP is properly implemented. This requires ongoing communication and collaboration with general education teachers.
In most cases a special education student in elementary school and above will have a least two to three different teachers in addition to his or her special education support. These general education teachers need to be offered guidance and support regarding how to modify curriculum and how to properly implement any behavior plans.
The most effective way in which teachers can collaborate is to ensure that they…… [Read More]
Every time a person makes a transition into a new environment there is nervousness. I remember how anxious I was when I was going to middle school for the first time. I was leaving a small elementary school and moving into a school that had several times the number of students. Plus, I knew that I was going to be on my own much more here. I wouldn't be able to make as many mistakes or slough off on my homework assignments and projects. I found that out quickly enough when I went from classroom to classroom -- another big difference between schools, which took time management skills -- and each teacher had a different set of coursework schedules. Many of them said, "If you are a day late with homework, then you are docked." Not as lenient as elementary school!
High school was another major transition. Teachers' expectations…… [Read More]
Auto Biography and Timeline
My family is of Irish descent. My great grandfather initially came to the United States during the potato famine that devastated so many Irish people during the middle of the 19th century. He was fortunate to escape in time before he was financially ruined, and was able to meet my great grandmother in New York where he attained a position in the financial industry. My family has largely remained in the U.S. ever since then.
As the oldest child in my family, I have been saddled with responsibility ever since I can remember. My parents had my sister a mere three years after they had me, and my little brother was born approximately two years later. My childhood was eventful to say the least. I have fond memories of playing with my siblings. However, whenever we got into mischief (which was inevitable for three children, especially…… [Read More]
Pedagogic Model for Teaching of Technology to Special Education Students
Almost thirty years ago, the American federal government passed an act mandating the availability of a free and appropriate public education for all handicapped children. In 1990, this act was updated and reformed as the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, which itself was reformed in 1997. At each step, the goal was to make education more equitable and more accessible to those with special educational needs. During the last presidential term, the "No Child Left Behind" Act attempted to assure that individuals with disabilities were increasingly mainstreamed and assured of high educational results. All of these legislative mandates were aimed at insuring that children with disabilities were not defrauded of the public education which has become the birthright of all American children. The latest reforms to IDEA, for example, provided sweeping reforms which not only expanded the classification of special…… [Read More]
S. were "proficient in reading and math," Pytel explains. These statistics "loudly states that students entering high school" are simply not prepared, Pytel goes on. Moreover, U.S. students do not fare well on the international educational stage. At a time when globalization has brought much closer linkage between cultures, economies, and countries, American school children are lagging behind. The justification for focusing on strategies to keep children interested in school -- and to help them succeed in school -- is to be found in the fact that U.S. students' average scores are very poor in comparison to other students internationally.
To wit, according to the 2003 data from the Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) (in cooperation with the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, OECD), 15-year-old American students rank 24th out of 38 countries in science. U.S. students rank 12th of 38 countries in reading, and 26th of 38…… [Read More]
hy I Chose Accounting
"I hate math." Ever since I can remember people have approached me to tell me how much they loathe math, when they hear that I love it. However, I have always been fascinated by the order mathematics can bring to a chaotic world. Sometimes when life seems hard, it is very comforting to be able to look at numbers. This is not to say, of course, that accounting is not challenging. In fact, like many prospective accounting majors, I initially struggled with the discipline in my fundamentals courses ("Top 10 Easiest and Hardest College Degree Majors of 2016"). There is a reason that introductory accounting classes are often considered weeding-out, gatekeeping classes for the profession. Many people decide they want to be accountants because they think it is a lucrative profession that does not require as much additional schooling as law or medicine but then…… [Read More]
culture affects the way students learn mathematics, and how different cultures learn differently. Students in Korea and Japan learn differently than students in the United States for a number of reasons. Statistically, Asian students seem to do better at mathematics than American children do, and they way they learn their mathematics at an early age may be on reason this is so.
Identification and Investigation
US students often show lower test scores in understanding mathematics, while Asian students consistently score higher. There are many reasons for this, from different cultures to different methods of instruction. For example, one researcher found that Japanese children think of numbers differently, and see their relationships in depth. She writes, "She discovered part of the reason was the way they named their numbers. Following ten, they say, "ten 1, ten 2, ten 3" for 11, 12, 13, and say "2-ten, 2-ten 1, 2-ten 2" for…… [Read More]
classroom assessment, a teacher determines his or her current point within the instructional sequence of a unit of study and identifies the student academic learning goals to measure.
"Select one class, a content area, and a unit of study to work with as you complete this performance task. Respond to the prompts below about the unit of study and its assessment."
Content Area: Math:
Grade level: 5 Content area: Mathematics Subject matter: _Graphs, Functions and Equations
"List the state-adopted academic content standards or state-adopted framework you will cover in this unit."
Graphs, Function Probability and statistics, and Equation: Statistics, Data Analysis, and Probability:
1.1: Arranges the raw data to plot graph and interprets the meaning of the data to produce information from the graph.
1.2: Understands the strategy to produce pair correctly .
Functions and Equations:
1.1: Uses the information collected from the equation or graph to answer…… [Read More]
Of the 19 students attending that day (gender breakdown was nine boys and ten girls) the boys asked questions 9 times and answered questions (those of the teacher and/or classmates) 13 times. By comparison, the girls asked questions 4 times, and answered questions 5 times. Then, when the students split into groups toward the end of the class to check each other's previous work, the groups were split along gender lines. The focus of the students, and the atmosphere of the class overall, was more diffuse than those of either of the other two classes. One interesting thing I noticed during this small group work (which could perhaps also have a bearing on the findings of Datnow et al.) was that in these groups, the now gender-segregated girls asked for teacher help with and clarification of the task at hand a great deal more than did the boys, in their…… [Read More]
student data is vital to the student's readiness, interest, learning profile and affect. As studies have shown, the more comprehensive the data about a student, the more capable a teacher becomes in tailoring lessons to use each student's strengths and address each student's challenges. By assessing X with even a simple tool like "Learning Style Inventory" and discussing the student's strengths, weaknesses, likes and dislikes, a clearer picture is obtained for accommodating her strengths and addressing her challenges with unique lessons.
The Importance and Value of Collecting Data
Rather than relying on happenstance to discover information about our students, teachers are now consciously collecting pertinent data about students, for "research and experience in increasingly global classrooms are revealing the complex interplay of factors that influence a student's learning" (Powell & Kusuma-Powell, 2011). The goal of such data collection is "personalized learning -- to use what we find out about our…… [Read More]
Gordon Adam's petition is not only well argued and properly reasoned, but, additionally, it managed to prove that all the arguments given against his petition were based on false reasoning. From the entire set of arguments, the only one that could actually be used against his argumentation was the one stating that he needed college algebra in order to "satisfy the university math requirement in order to graduate." Something like when you ask why you have to pay all kinds of different taxes: you see no real benefit, but some higher authority, in this case the state, in Gordon's case, the educational system and the college authorities, convinces you that this is necessary because it is so required!
On the other hand, because the college authorities' argumentation is based on all kind of fallacies, clearly dismantled one by one in Gordon's argumentation, it is my opinion that Gordon should be…… [Read More]
middle school, high school, and now college, is my ability to focus on an academic task when I really need to buckle down and concentrate. I get decent grades because I can give enough focus at the last minute, some call it "cramming," to get through the test, or get the paper done in time. But because I can't bring a consistent sense of concentration in a regular pattern, I become stressed when time comes to be tested, or to turn in a research paper or essay.
When I am assigned to read a book, I have a problem concentrating on the text, and very often I have to go back and read the whole previous page over again because I have no idea what I just read. Even very interesting fiction, my mind drifts off while I'm reading. But I have come to grips with my reading problem and…… [Read More]
Case Study 2
Cherise's math-related anxiety is only partly due to her being diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorders. Many of our students demonstrate math-related anxiety and do not have any identifiable learning disability. Therefore, the plans used to help Cherise might also help other students, too. The outbursts that Cherise is exhibiting can be addressed by framing math differently for her. If it appears that Cherise needs to be taken out of the mainstream math classroom to receive specialized instruction, then that might help reduce the acute outbursts and behavioral problems. Because Cherise has become self-injurious, it is crucial to address this matter immediately and if necessary, remove her from this particular classroom.
The plan for Cherise will include assistive technologies designed for mathematics instruction. By reframing math as a fun and engaging learning activity, Cherise will eventually be less anxious in a mainstream classroom. The tools used to teach…… [Read More]
Pursuing an MS in Finance is the first step toward beginning the rest of my life. I am excited to be this close to graduating from college and taking the next step, entering graduate school. I am pleased about moving closer to launching my career and about exploring the possibilities that lie ahead. This Statement of Purpose discusses my progress to this point and my plans for the future, and considers how an MS in Finance will help me achieve my goals.
Because I understand that a Masters degree does not automatically qualify me for career advancement, I want to pursue realistic goals, and that includes personal satisfaction. Whenever I have considered my long-term educational plans, I always thought in terms of a Masters degree, and possibly even a doctorate. So obtaining a masters degree will satisfy one long-term goal and put me in position to pursue another…… [Read More]
If Mary wants to study the impact of background noise level on sixth grader learning in a math lesson, the independent variable is the background noise condition. Mary has decided to use a t-test, which means that she will only have two conditions that differ from one another (“T Test (Student’s T-Test),” n.d.). In this case, the experimental condition would be high background noise (measured by decibel level perhaps), and the control condition would be low background noise (also measured by decibel level).
The independent variable in this experiment would be learning in a mathematics lesson. Learning can be assessed using a number of different instruments appropriate to the specific lesson, with a simple quantifiable quiz the most appropriate. A quiz that had absolute right or wrong answers, whether by solving a math problem or answering multiple choice questions, would help to standardize the results and minimize bias.…… [Read More]
Students, by seeing that a concept can unite so many different aspects of an idea are better able to draw connections between what is learned in the classroom and subjects that are common to their daily lives.
For example, take the broad curricular concept of 'travel.' The most obvious application of this concept is in a literature class, where students can learn about travel from stories about other lands, or about people traveling over the course of a story. But students can also apply the concept to math class, as they learn to budget for a trip, and calculate the speeds of various modes of transportation. They can learn about the science of how trains and planes are propelled, as well as research the weather conditions and geography of a possible destination. They can learn about the different people, cultures, religions, and wildlife of a land, and even create art…… [Read More]
sight insight derive form fierce consciousness, begins a single object paying attention implications resonances idea image."Marvin Bell -statement explaining meaning Marvin Bell's observation - Bell pointing term " fierce consciousness" relate "paying attention implications idea image -demonstrate value Bell's concept fierce consciousness specific student experience examples public life "fierce consciousness" proved important knowing world accurately fully.
"Both sight and insight derives from fierce consciousness, whether it begins with looking at a single object or in paying attention to all of the implications and resonances of an idea or image." -- Marvin Bell
In this quotation, Bell is describing what is often called 'mindfulness' in the East, or an intense focus upon the present moment, rather than upon other distractions. All too often in our modern lives, our minds are engaged with one thing, while our bodies are doing something else. We talk to someone on the phone at work while…… [Read More]
Axelrod, M.I., & Zank, A.J. (2012). Increasing classroom compliance: Using a high-Probability command sequence with noncompliant students. Journal of Behavioral Education, 21(2), 119-133.
Noncompliance or the failure to complete an assignment/instruction is a problematic behavior within the school system and can result in several counterproductive outcomes for students such as poor learning, friction in the classroom, disruptive behaviors, etc. Previous research has indicated that giving a high probability command sequence prior to a low probability request has been shown to increase compliance in difficult students. High probability command sequences (HPC) are simple commands which an individual is very likely to comply with. The researchers were interested in determining if using HPCs before giving low probability requests would also increase compliance in students in special education classes or with behavioral disorders. Two special education students were tested in this study. After developing a list of HPCs and low probability commands (LPC)…… [Read More]
Higher education costs money, especially in modern day United States. Although some have parents that save to enable their college education to be an easy ride, some do not have it that easy. I had to work hard in order to gain the ability to go to college. While I have succeeded in affording classes, it did not come without some sacrifice. Dr. Martin Luther King explained the importance of critical thinking within the context of education. Critical thinking being a main objective of a Jesuit education, it shows the importance of critical thinking not just within an educational environment, but also outside one.
What is critical thinking? Critical thinking is the objective examination and assessment of a problem or obstacle in order to create a judgment. MY obstacle was paying for school. My assessment was I had to keep my grades high in order to qualify for scholarships and…… [Read More]
The website "Expect the est From a Girl - That's What You'll Get" addresses the issue of gender equity in education. Studies have shown that girls mature developmentally faster than boys do, meaning that they will talk and read earlier among other things. At young ages, females tend to score better than males on IQ tests, and to do better in school overall. One of the problems with the school system is that the methodology and philosophy of teaching is developed from a male-centered perspective, and teachers are trained to treat all students as if they were boys. One major difference in school behavior is that boys express frustration by acting out, while girls become withdrawn, yet boys are called on more often in school to participate in class. Overall, males are also more likely to take credit for achievements, while girls will not accept their own success. Adults,…… [Read More]
This skilled use of ironic prose is also observable in "A Jury of her Peers" by Susan Glaspell, as when the woman who has just committed murder tells the investigators: "after a minute...'I sleep sound.'" the tale depicts how a group of women gradually deduce, through small and simple clues, how Mrs. right killed her husband, and why. The women's observations are more astute than the male investigator's analysis, according to police protocols. The point of the story is not murder, but the fact that the murder's quiet wifely desperation has gone ignored for so long, and that only fellow female sufferers can see this sorrow after the fact. Likewise, the point of O'Connor's story, more than the lurid aspects, are the ways that families and human beings fail to connect and communicate with one another, before it is too late.
A naysayer might sniff and ask why use murder…… [Read More]