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Maus and its sequel Maus II are among the most significant graphic novels to ever be published. They are semi-autobiographical tales about the author and his father, a Holocaust survivor. Art Spiegelman attempts to capture the psychic and physical horrors of the Holocaust in a way that transcends documentary evidence as well as mere fictionalization. Desensitization to the issues of mass murder has permeated popular culture, to the point where it becomes necessary to distance the horror entirely from the human experience and depict humans as animals. This way, Spiegelman acknowledges the problem of documentary evidence, the persistence of memory, and the subjectivity of personal experience. Maus is effective because it uses a unique medium, the graphic novel, to capture a uniquely macabre event in history.
As the subtitle of Maus I suggests, the story is not just about Spiegelman's father. "My Father Bleeds History," the subtitle reads. The imagery…
Spiegelman, Art. Maus. Pantheon, 1986.
Spiegelman, Art Maus II. Pantheon, 1992.
The problem occurred with the New York Times Book Review as well, criss-crossing the Fiction and the Non-Fiction Best Seller Lists (69). Spiegelman responded with a letter to the editor:
'if you list were divided into literature and non-literature, I could gracefully accept the compliment as intended, but to the extent that 'fiction' indicates a work isn't factual, I feel a bit queasy. As an author, I believe I might have lopped several years off the thirteen I devoted to my two-volume project if I could have taken a novelist's license while searching for a novelist's structure' (Doherty 69).
The New York Times obliged and took Maus off the Fiction Best Seller List and moved it over to the Non-Fiction Best Seller List.
In his 1998 article, "The Holocaust as Vicarious Past: Art Spiegelman's Maus and the Afterimages of History," author James E. Young states that Maus embodies an "aesthetics…
Doherty, Thomas. "Art Spiegelman's Maus: A Graphic Art and the Holocaust."
American Literature,68(1), 1996, pp. 69-84.
Spiegelman, Art. Maus I: A Survivor's Tale: My Father Bleeds History. Pantheon; 1st
Maus 1, Maus
Art Speigelman's works Maus 1 and Maus 2 serve as an exploration of the father and son bond after an traumatic event, the Holocaust and how it influences relationships. These works act as a way to explore such stereotypes about Jews and the aftermath of the Holocaust especially exploring how it affects the next generation.
Such a situation creates many dilemmas for the offspring of the survivors such as guilt, remorse, jealousy and envy. In the case of young Artie, he seems obsessed by the past as if it will shed some light on his father's thoughts and actions. He is plagued by the shadow of an older brother he never knew yet envies because his parents cannot let him go. It seems ironic, almost sarcastic that such a story should be presented in the form of comics but in this method of storytelling Speigelman is able…
Spiegelman, Art. Maus, A Survivor's Tale. New York: Pantheon Books, 1991.
Spiegelman, Art. The Complete Maus. CD-ROM. New York: The Voyager Company, 1994.
Maus vols. I and II
Maus: The 'cat and mouse' game of Art Spiegelman's Maus
One of the most striking aspects of the graphic novel Maus by Art Spiegelman by is the way in which it uses animal cartoon characters to illustrate one of the most tragic periods of human history. The animals create a visual expectation of playfulness that is undercut by the horrors the book chronicles. The victims of the Holocaust are mice while the Nazi perpetrators are cats. This strikingly illustrates the vulnerability of Jews: it also stresses the Nazi's perception of Jews as vermin. However, the Jewish characters, although all mice, are strikingly and powerfully drawn in very unique ways -- Artie, for example, has a very different personality than his father.
Given that the 'real' Nazis often pictured the Jews as uniformly rodent-like, the choice of the cartoon image of a mouse also suggests a…
Spiegelman, Art. Maus: Vols. I & II. New York: Pantheon, 1986, 1991.
Before they and their families are sent to Auschwitz, Art's father is a practical young businessman, who is set up with his own factory by his prosperous and generous father-in-law. Elie's father is less practical and more of a dreamer. He is a spiritual leader of his community before the Holocaust, and as such, he often seems more concerned about his community than even his family or himself. Art's father, on the other hand, is a devoted and very demonstrative husband and father to Richieu.
Both of these types of Holocaust memoirs, despite their being much different from one another, have had very strong and profound effects on readers. Elie Weisel's book Night, a relatively short book written over 40 years ago, is considered to be one of the most powerful and influential of all Holocaust memoirs, and is still read today, worldwide. Similarly, both of the Maus books have…
As similarly suggested by Wally Hastings (1998), in his online article about Maus,
y distancing the reader from the experience, the talking animals enable us to bear the horror implicit in the Holocaust memory."
Art Spiegelman made use of different animals to depict the different nationalities in the story because he perhaps found that the use of animals is the easiest and simplest way to characterize the people in the Holocaust. For instance, he made use of the mice to represent the Jews. The Jews, similar to mice, can become weak and vulnerable victims. The Germans, who without heart had massacred the Jews during the Holocaust, was represented by Spiegelman as the cats; for the cats' malevolence characteristic, in which after capturing a mouse plays with it first then brutally killing it, is similar to what the Germans did to the Jews.
Another reason, perhaps, on Art Spiegelman's usage of…
Hastings, Wally. Art Spiegelman's Maus. 1998. http://www.northern.edu/hastingw/maus.htm
Art Spiegelman's Maus II, a continuation of the story in Maus I, is part of a new approach to the telling of the story of the Holocaust. The form selected is the comic book format, and it has a number of powerful advantages. First, it is a fresh approach to a much-told story. Second, the use of the mouse characters interestingly humanizes and personalizes the tragedy much more than might a dry narrative. Third, the choice of a comic format serves the particular understanding of a visual society and a generation more attuned to the image than to the word. Fifth, the format may actually be a more palatable means of addressing such difficult subject matter for some people. Sixth, Spiegelman accomplishes all of this in an ironic fashion, utilizing the methods of the comic book to tell a very un-comic story.
hile the main characters may be mice, this…
Spiegelman, Art. Maus II. New York: Pantheon, 1991.
Art Spiegelman's Father Vladek and Vladek's ords in Maus -- Volume I: My Father Bleeds History (and does not crave cheese)
The Jews, both Polish and German, are mice, the Nazis take the guise of cats, and the gentile Poles play a subsidiary role in the Holocaust narrative of Maus as pigs. In Art Spiegelman's graphic novel depicting his generations' reaction to the orld ar II suffering of Jews and other persecuted groups, animals take on human characteristics and personas, and humans take on animal guises even while they retain their human qualities of speech and reflective thought. Such is the verbal and visual logic of the world of Maus. This is done from the onset of the narrative, so the pretext of animals behaving like humans, located in a human world, is not jarring once the reader has accepted it, although the iconography of Jew as mouse remains most…
Art Spiegelman's Maus a traditionally comic book familiar . How elements including theme, plot, conflict alike works? How successful Spiegelman conveying message unfamiliar format graphic ? You include abstract.
"Maus" vs. "Watchmen"
While many are likely to think about children's books when coming across the idea of a 'comic', some comics can actually put across very complex messages and are likely to induce intense feelings in individuals reading them. Art Spiegelman's graphic novel "Maus" is one of the most impressive examples of a graphic novel that is much more than a 'comic'. This book discusses with regard to the Holocaust and about Spiegelman's attempts to introduce various ideas learnt from his parents into a concepts that manages to get readers to acknowledge the horrible effects that the event had on society as a whole and on the writer's father in particular.
"Watchmen" is a more conventional graphic novel written by…
Moore, A. (2013). Watchmen: The Deluxe Edition. Dc Comics.
Spiegelman, A. (1986). Maus. Pantheon Books.
The function of myth in social cultures is explored by Mary Barnard in her the Mythmakers in which she investigates the origins of ritual in folklore, history, and metaphor.
In addressing such a wide scope of material, she came to the conclusion that the origins of many mythical personas/deities related to a single familiar theme: intoxication (4). Her discoveries became offshoots of CG Jung's definition of mythology:
Myths are original revelations of the pre-conscious psyche, involuntary statements about unconscious happenings, and anything but allegories of physical processes (32).
Highly visual conceptions, myths involve superheroes/heroines in out-sized feats that integrate the essence of a culture. They have intrigued listeners and audiences for eons -- comics have
Spiegelman's Maus 7
simply provided them with a modern iconographic dimension. Graphic Novels may well be a route back to the beginnings of our species. Personification is enthralling and begs the question: have dramatizations (or…
Aleixo, Paul, Buillon, Murry. Biological Psychology: an illustrated survival guide. West Sussex, England: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2008.
Augenbaum, Harold. The Graphic Novel and the Literary Canon. Electronic Liter-
Barnard, Mary. The Mythmakers. Athens, Ohio: The Ohio University Press, 1996.
These events have found their way into the lives of the survivors' families and those who have been exposed to the horrors of war and prejudice. Understanding that the Holocaust lives on in the human experiences of millions of people each day is something that is not often talked about or brought up in classrooms, but is something that is very real and hurtful for the people who have been touched by it.
Spiegelman's hope that, through his own works and everyday living, people will better understand the true human impact of the Holocaust and of the basic human interactions that are precursors for future events that could mirror the Holocaust is quite apparent. The fact illustrated in Maus that humans band together and help each other, even stand up for each other in horrible conditions is also worth exploring. hen Anja catches a package thrown over the fence by…
Spiegelman, Art. Maus I and II. New York: Pantheon, 1986.
The United Kenya Club was founded in 1946 and was the first multi-racial social organization in Kenya; the organization sponsored concerts and cultural events open to all ethnicities (if you could afford a ticket price). The liberal paternalists pressed for programs that would introduce "profit-making crafts to landless laborers," would "encourage the growth of a prosperous rural elite" and also would encourage progressive agricultural practices among poor peasants. Moreover, the liberal paternalists (Kennedy 248) wished to "instill estern principles of hygiene and child care" among African women and their daughters.
Missionaries were traditionally among the liberal paternalists, Kennedy points out, and when Sir Philip Mitchell became governor of Kenya, he "sought to invigorate the peasant agricultural sector" in order to build a more diversified economy (Kennedy 249). Mitchell also believed "with some justification" that a few of the white leaders among the British settlers "could be persuaded to cooperate in…
Clough, Marshall S. 1998. Mau Mau Memoirs: History, Memory, and Politics. Boulder, CO:
Lynne Rienner Publishers.
Edgerton, Robert B. 1989. Mau Mau: An African Crucible. New York: The Free Press.
Elkins, Caroline. 2005. Imperial Reckoning: The Untold Story of Britain's Gulag in Kenya.
Alternative Properties Using Multi-Attribute Utility Model
Charlestown, West Virginia based on great benefits that the agency can obtain in terms of price and land.
Since the agency will only require one location, the model evaluates the four alternatives to select an appropriate location for the agency.
Identify Evaluation Criteria
The memo uses the following attributes for the evaluation:
room for future expansion,
facility safety and security,
workforce quality of life,
workforce convenience, and
proximity to the Capitol and U.S. Congress and Capitol Hill
Moreover, the purchase prices, distance or nearness of the new office from the government and to other agencies are other criteria used for the evaluation. The outcome of the evaluation is provided in Appendix 1. Some of the criteria used for the evaluation as follows:
a PG County
12 miles b
NW D.C. 2…
This 'floating' use of body parts and fluid use of human and mouse anatomical characteristics is another distinct feature of the graphic style of Maus.
In this frame, we discover the source of the father's displeasure with Mala. Mala was putting Artie's coat on a wire hanger. The petty nature of this tantrum indicates the stress under which Artie's father labors. He is angry about small things, despite having recently suffered some permanent tragedies (heart problems and the suicide of his wife) and tragedies in the past. This suggest that the father projects his frustrations and anger about the past into the present and gets angry at relatively minor matters because of his inability to deal with his past experiences. It also is a clue as to why he has heart trouble.
The father's irascible character traits are underlined in the explanatory voice-over by the narrator Artie, who…
Spiegelman, Art. Maus: A survivor's tale. New York: Penguin, 2003.
This is not stated directly, but is demonstrated by their individual reactions to the challenges of life.
The most important concept to remember about Mala is that she is a holocaust survivor too. Mala understands the reasons for Vladek's behavior better than anyone does, because she experienced the horrors herself. She may feel a sense of camaraderie with Vladek that others do not. She may see his reaction to society for what it is: a reasonable adaptation to what he experienced. This may make her much more tolerant than average regarding his behaviors. The complexities of Vladek's relationships are not revealed through conversation, but through how they get through the struggles that they face. This is symbolic of the silence that many holocaust survivors exhibited regarding their inner fears and feelings about the trauma that they experienced.
Spiegelman, Art. Maus: a Survivor's Tale. I: My Father Bleeds History. New…
Spiegelman, Art. Maus: a Survivor's Tale. I: My Father Bleeds History. New York: Pantheon Books, 1986.
Spiegelman, Art. Maus: a Survivor's Tale. II: And Here My Troubles Began. New York: Pantheon Books, 1992.
Although the movie does concentrate on saving the black people on being stereotyped there is a contradiction, it doesn't defend their violent nature. Again the audience is faced with a raw clan which commits murder. lack, violent, illiterate people it is negative image that has been presented several times through the media. In spite of this it is worth considering that the director desire was not at all to depict black people as being very cult people, but he wanted to show two different perspectives about black people, one of them is that some are smart and educated and others have a more furious nature due to the fact that they lack education. The media in any case should not present an elementary part of the black culture. It is rather dazzling to see on the screen such a complex black character as Delacroix. The reviews revealed that people…
Rux, Carl "Eminem the new white negro," Everything but the burden: what white people are taking from black culture, Greg Tate. Broadway Books, 2003
Dyson Michael, "Race rules: navigating the color line, http://www.amazon.com
Bamboozled, Wikipedia, The free Encyclopedia; http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bamboozled
Rux, Carl "Eminem the new white negro," Everything but the burden: what white people are taking from black culture, Greg Tate. Broadway Books, 2003
Kenya: A Case Study in Reform
From its rough beginnings, Kenya has instituted a series of economic reforms in an attempt to raise the condition of the Kenyan people. They are an attempt to bring the Kenyan people out of a state of poverty and repression to one of stability and security about their ability to sustain themselves. Each reform has been better than the last, but they are still far from solving these issues in their country. This paper will cite the reasons for this as being a need for the people to regain the feeling of nationalism echoed in the early years of independence.
Prior to1800 Kenya consisted of groups of small tribal governments. Kenya is grouped into more than 70 ethnic groups, Some of the ethnic tribes are large e.g. The Agikuyu who form a majority of the population within their homeland in the central…
Africa Guide. World of Information Sessional Paper No. 2 of 1997 on Industrial Transformation
Amoako, Dr. K.Y. Claiming the 21st Century: Africa's Agenda (Speech). Executive
Secretary of the United Nations Economic Commission for Africa at the National
Summit on Africa, (Washington D.C., 17 February 2000)
MAU Models, explain the similarities and differences between the concepts you learned in multiple-criteria decisions and using a MAU model.
The similarities and differences are that multiple-criteria decisions and MAU model allow for criteria to be examined an analyzed by assessing their impact on a decision. But with MAU model, the impact of "Pareto dominance" becomes a factor and specific criteria can be selected or dismissed based on the needs analysis of the particular decision that needs to be made. What is obtained becomes the "Pareto efficient," which makes the possibility of analysis that much simpler (Lecture Notes, 2016). The subjective process is also involved in this decision making process and therefore needs to be examined in as objective a manner as possible.
The lecture discusses four reasons why decisions are hard. For each of the reasons, explain a personal experience you have had making a decision related to the…
" James a.S. McPeek
further blames Jonson for this corruption: "No one can read this dainty song to Celia without feeling that Jonson is indecorous in putting it in the mouth of such a thoroughgoing scoundrel as Volpone."
asserts that the usual view of Jonson's use of the Catullan poem is distorted by an insufficient understanding of Catullus' carmina, which comes from critics' willingness to adhere to a conventional -- yet incorrect and incomplete -- reading of the love poem. hen Jonson created his adaptation of carmina 5, there was only one other complete translation in English of a poem by Catullus. That translation is believed to have been Sir Philip Sidney's rendering of poem 70 in Certain Sonnets, however, it was not published until 1598.
This means that Jonson's knowledge of the poem must have come from the Latin text printed in C. Val. Catulli, Albii, Tibulli, Sex.…
Alghieri, Dante Inferno. 1982. Trans. Allen Mandelbaum. New York: Bantam Dell, 2004.
Allen, Graham. Intertextuality. Routledge; First Edition, 2000. Print.
Baker, Christopher. & Harp, Richard. "Jonson' Volpone and Dante." Comparative
Since gang-related crimes fall within the jurisdiction of state, this research will give an insight on the need to find solutions that increasingly include all levels of government. Congress needs to pass legislation that will change immigration enforcement laws and make more aliens deportable. In addition, the federal government should take a more active participation in helping local and state jurisdictions develop anti-gang responses. The local, state and federal governments must take a stand, and combine forces to combat the immigration problem that continue to plague this country into the next generation.
Importance of the Study
The die has been cast, there is no turning the clock back now and the Mara Salvatrucha and 18th Street Gang have established themselves in the United States and far beyond. The origins of the current situation with MS-13 and the 18th Street Gang date back to the late 1980s and early 1990s…
Armstrong, W. (2009, February 16). 'Sanctuary cities' protect murderous illegal aliens. Human Events, 64(37), 8.
Bansal, M. (2006) Chertoff: Street Gangs a Threat to National. Retrieved November 12,
2006 from http://www.CNSNews.com .
Barber, B. (1996). Jihad vs. McWorld: How Globalism and Tribalism are Reshaping the World. New York: Ballantine Book.
Horus History Of the Egyptian God, Horus
Horus is one of the most important Egyptian gods and the Pharaoh was seen to be his earthly embodiment. At the same time, the Pharaohs were the followers of Ra and so Horus became associated with the sun as well and was seen as the son of the God, Osiris. In the common perception of Egyptian mythology, Horus is known as one of the offspring of the original pair of Egyptian gods, Ra and Rhea. Horus' siblings were Set, Isis, and Nephthys.
The mythological story continues with Osiris succeeding Ra as king of Egypt. Osiris is credited with bringing civilization to the Egyptians. Among the things he taught them were the uses of corn and wine, weaving, sculpture, religion, music and law. Set slew Osiris, and dismembered the body; but Osiris' consort, Isis, reassembled the body and brought Osiris back to life. Osiris…
1911 Encyclopedia. Horus. May 23, 2004. http://www.1911encyclopedia.org/H/HO/HORUS.htm
Acharya, S. The Christ Conspiracy: The Greatest Story Ever Sold. 2004. Accessed May 23, 2004.
Egyptian Myths. Ancient Egypt: the Mythology. May 24, 2004. http://www.egyptianmyths.net/horus.htm
Horus: He who is above. May 24, 2004. http://members.aol.com/egyptart/hormyth.html
S. were not "hostile" to evangelicalism (Bebbington, p. 367). After II, the Church of Scotland and British Methodism launched "sustained evangelistic thrusts" and in Britain the "National Young Life Campaign" got involved in evangelical activities, Bebbington continued.
The American Presbyterian denominations announced in 1946 that they were to become "a crusading organ for evangelical religion" (Bebbington, p. 367). And when Billy Graham began preaching and healing in the post-II era he did "almost as much" to bring the evangelical movement strength in Britain as he did in the United States, Bebbington asserts. Even in the staid, conservative Church of England there was a "new evangelical revival" by 1959; further promoting the movement was the fact that the British and American evangelical movements linked their talents and strengths across the Atlantic Ocean.
Bebbington notes that the charismatic movement in Britain during the 1960s was in part inspired by the writings of…
Bebbington, David. 1994. Evangelism in Its Settings: The British and American Movements
Since 1940. Eds. Mark a. Noll, David W. Bebbington and George a. Rawlyk, in Evangelicalism: Comparative Studies of Popular Protestantism in North America, the British Isles, and Beyond, 1700-1990. New York: Oxford University Press.
Bebbington, David W., and Bebbington, Davi. 1989. Evangelicalism in Modern Britain: A
History from the 1730s to the 1980s. New York: Routledge.
George Knox, director of the National Gang Crime esearch Center, teaches law enforcement officers how to search WebPages to pick up on gang member's lingo, territories, and rivalries. He also asserts it is crucial for officers to learn how to "read between the lines" when searching gang members' WebPages. Time on the Web, similar to time on the streets, gives gang investigators the ability to read the hieroglyphics of wall graffiti, and understand Web clues. In addition, "gang identifiers, such as tattoos, graffiti tags, colors and clothing often are embedded in each site" (Gutierrez, 2006, ¶ 27). According to Gutierrez, by studying gang blogs for several hours, one can pick up on subtle word choices, which the gang members consider to be almost holy words. Knox contends that some gangs use the Internet to recruit new members.
Other Efforts to Deal with Gangs
Suppression techniques may be one of the…
ARISE as a gang prevention program. (2007). ARISE Foundation. Retrieved November 6, 2009
from http://www.ariselife-skills.org/Home/Gangs.aspx ARISE foundation. (2009). Retrieved November 6, 2009 from http://www.ariselife-skills.org/Home/Home.aspx
ARISE life-management skills program. A five-year evaluation. (N.d.). University of Miami.
Retrieved November 10, 2009 from http://www.ariselifeskills.org/docs/pdf/5yearevalexecsummary.pdf
What has been determined to date is Machaut's masterful use of language and syntax to help amuse and entertain his intended audiences, and in an era absent the Internet, cable television and the popular press, it is not surprising that his works were well received. For instance, as De Looze points out, "Guillaume de Machaut gravitates toward equivocal signs: insomnia, colors that can have diametrically opposed meanings, plays on words, and so on" (1997, 13). This point is also made by Leach, who reports that Machaut was titillating without being vulgar about it: "In middle French courtly lyric the word merci signifies a broad range of favors that the lady may grant her lover; its meaning overlaps with 'pity,' but it also carries the sense of remuneration, reward or even salary -- the pay-off in the economy of noble love. Within Machaut's usage it has a specific resonance and range…
The demonstration in Tiananmen Square showed that there were alrge semgnets of the population that wanted change, but Deng's response was to crush the movement with violence and to assert the supremacy ofm centalzied rule once more..
These actions show some of the difficulties of independence and of developing a new political structure when many adhere to older political structures and ideas. One response is to try to wipe out the old with violence, but regimes tend to become reactionary about their own ideas as well and to crush any opposition, real of perceived.
9. Arab unity has not materialized for a number of historical reasons related to the different ways in which the countries of the region have developed so that the leaders of some of the states are wary of other leaders, because of differences in economic structures in the various countries, and because of different reactions to…
Although "Midsummer" is a shot work, in keeping with more of the original modernistic style of poetry writing, it is no less poignant in the message it conveys.
In many ways, DH Lawrence is a visionary that offers the reader imagery and creativity that engulfs the reader into the world in which he creates with his words. As with Walcott, it was not necessary for Lawrence to achieve cadence in his writing though the use of rhyme. There is a balance that is struck that clearly reads as poetic. Lawrence's expressive language and use of interesting characters helps to tell the stories of dehumanization that only comes with man's lack of recognition for the power of nature, and moving too fast in directions unknown under the call for modernization.
"If one thinks a poem is coming on… you do make a retreat, a withdrawal into some kind of silence…
Baugh, Edward. Derek Walcott. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2006.
Burnett, Paula. Derek Walcott: Politics and Poetics. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2001.
Eagleton, Terry. The English novel: an introduction. Willey-Blackwell, pp. 258-260, 2005.
King, Bruce. Derek Walcott, a Caribbean life. Oxford: OUP, 2000.
Cause of Terrorism
Despite the fact that terrorism has been with us since the beginning of recorded history, there exists no clear cut definition of this phenomenon. Definitions that have thus far been given take into account the aspects of tactic and strategy; fulfillment of holy duties; reaction to oppression; and inexcusable abomination. Definitions therefore take into account the point-of-view that is represented. When a conflict arises between a weaker side and a militaristically endowed entity, the weaker side always resorts to terrorism (Transnational Terrorism, 2008). The secretive nature of terrorist organizations and their size does impact their "aggressors" negatively because of absence of a clear organization to defend against. Terrorism therefore means systematic use of terror with a view to coercing an opponent (Transnational Terrorism, 2008). This paper explores whether there is a main cause of terrorism. It also details the importance of categorizing terrorist groups into one…
Ahmad, E. (2001). Terrorism: Theirs & Ours. NY: Seven Stories Press.
Transnational Terrorism. (2008). Concepts of Terrorism: Analysis of the Rise, Decline, Trends,
and Risk. Retrieved from http://www.transnationalterrorism.eu/tekst/publications/WP3%20Del%205.pdf
Post-Memory and Marianne Hirsch
Marianne Hirsch discusses an important concept in Holocaust/Memory studies, post-memory. What kind of experience/process does post-memory refer to? Why did Hirsch need to invent such a concept? What is the importance of memory, family, and photography in order to understand post-memory?
Marianne Hirsch introduces the concept of "post-memory" in her 1992 essay Family Pictures: Maus, Mourning, and Post-Memory. According to Hirsch, post-memory "is the relationship of children of survivors of cultural or collective trauma to the experiences of their parents, experiences that they 'remember' only as the stories and images with which they grew up, but that are so powerful, so monumental, as to constitute memories in their own right….secondary or second-generation memory…." (1992). Post-memory is based on the recollections of the storyteller rather than the lived experience of the listener (Tal, 1996). Hirsch came to this understanding as a result of her own childhood experiences…
Goertz, K. (1998). Transgenerational representations of the Holocaust: From memory to 'post-memory'. World Literature Today, 72(1), 33.
Hensley, T. (2012). On Listening to Holocaust Survivors: Beyond Testimony. Oral History Review, 39(1), 132-136.
Hirsch, M. (1992). "Family Pictures: Maus, Mourning, and Post-Memory." Discourse, 15(2):3-29.
Tal, Kali. Worlds of Hurt: Reading the Literatures of Trauma. (1996) Accessed Online, 8/12/2012. http://www.kalital.com/Text/Worlds/index.html .
Global usiness Cultural Analysis: Singapore
The objective of this study is to answer the questions how the major elements and dimension of culture including religion, ethics, values, attitudes, manners, customs, social structures, and organizations integrated in Singapore by local conducting business. As well, this work will answer how these elements and dimensions compare with United States culture and business. Finally, this work will examine the implications for United States businesses that wish to conduct business in Singapore.
The work of Abeysinghe and Choy (2009) reports that the economy in Singapore has been undergone a transformation that has turned it into "…an Asian powerhouse…" due to the "far-sighted economic policies. The economy of Singapore is proof of the outcome of a market-driven economy taking place during fast development of high per capita income, and an environment free of corruption in which the workforce is both motivated and educated. The financial infrastructure…
Abeysinghe, T. And Choy, Meng Choy (2009) The Singapore Economy: An Econometric Perspective. New York: Routledge, 2009.
Abeysinghe, Tilak. 1996. Electronics and Growth Cycles in Singapore. National University of Singapore, Department of Economics and Statistics, Econometrics Studies Unit, Mid-Year Review of the Singapore Economy.
Asian Wall Street Journal. 1994. "Singapore Unveils Plans for Performing Arts Center," July 22 -- 23: 1.
Bachtiar, I. 2002. The conservation story. In Skyline, Commemorative Edition 2002. Singapore: Urban Redevelopment Authority.
Decision making in institutes have been depicted as a progression of conduct with the full amount of level-headedness at individual excessive, as well as absolute illogicality at the other excessive. The depiction entails that no more than illogical decision making brings about individual morals priority in excess of economic principles. There must be a way of finding some focal point amid these ends, as it is obvious that any of this set of values can be overlooked. Many a times, managers have been brazen out with the responsibility coming up with stern, objectionable, as well as obnoxious slashes of workers along with services in a speedy approach, for the reason that, in a way, they botched to pay attention to the earlier decisions as per economic values. In the same way, institutions have also been pushed to decision retracting as well as acting in a more confusing way…
Hopefully, regardless of what happens in the rest of the communication world and media, such magazines either in print, electronic or digital form will continue to amaze children.
nfortunately, most young adult books have hit rock bottom, dealing with death, abuse, divorce, sexuality and all the other topics that these youth are bombarded with day after day. It is recognized that youths need to deal with the problems that are facing them, and living in a fantasy world is not helpful. However, do they ever have a time to "chill" as they say it? However, the Twilight Vampire Series is really not the answer to this. It has, what is said, little "redeeming value."
It's difficult deciding on a best YA book and not going back to the classics. The best bet is finding a book that offers imagination, education and entertainment. There are few, but Rebecca Stead's When You…
Unfortunately, most young adult books have hit rock bottom, dealing with death, abuse, divorce, sexuality and all the other topics that these youth are bombarded with day after day. It is recognized that youths need to deal with the problems that are facing them, and living in a fantasy world is not helpful. However, do they ever have a time to "chill" as they say it? However, the Twilight Vampire Series is really not the answer to this. It has, what is said, little "redeeming value."
It's difficult deciding on a best YA book and not going back to the classics. The best bet is finding a book that offers imagination, education and entertainment. There are few, but Rebecca Stead's When You Reach Me comes close. It combines the best elements of recent classics, such as A Wrinkle in Time as well as fun TV game shows like the $20,000 Pyramid, and a story about a girl, Miranda, whose structured world becomes a little more interesting. Miranda's bestest friend Sal stops talking to her he is beat up by Marcus. Marcus then challenges Miranda with arguments about her favorite book, A Wrinkle in Time, and finds flaws in L'Engle's time-travel narrative. Next, Miranda starts receiving notes from someone who seems to know the future. The book's earlier setting in 1980 gets away from all the heavy themes of today and back into "easier" life with Mom on the $20,000 Pyramid.
This is a book that can be enjoyed by readers and nonreaders alike and can be utilized in a variety of different ways for book reports. The teen and pre-teen readers can rely on many different visual arts, TV/film and drama to convey what they have learned from the book. It is also a great book for smaller groups of students to work together for a team project. Forget the horrible Twilight and instead focus on multithematic books like When You Reach Me.
76). As automation increasingly assumes the more mundane and routine aspects of work of all types, Drucker was visionary in his assessment of how decisions would be made in the years to come. "In the future," said Drucker, "it was possible that all employment would be managerial in nature, and we would then have progressed from a society of labor to a society of management" (Witzel, p. 76). The first tasks of the manager, then, are to coordinate an organization's resources and provide a viable framework in which they can be used to produce goods and services effectively and efficiently. The second set of tasks concern guidance and control. In Drucker's view, this role is almost entirely proactive: "Economic forces set limits to what a manager can do. They create opportunities for management's action. But they do not by themselves dictate what a business is or what it does" (Drucker,…
Pissarro took a special interest in his attempts at painting, emphasizing that he should 'look for the nature that suits your temperament', and in 1876 Gauguin had a landscape in the style of Pissarro accepted at the Salon. In the meantime Pissarro had introduced him to Cezanne, for whose works he conceived a great respect-so much so that the older man began to fear that he would steal his 'sensations'. All three worked together for some time at Pontoise, where Pissarro and Gauguin drew pencil sketches of each other (Cabinet des Dessins, Louvre).
Gauguin settled for a while in ouen, painting every day after the bank he worked at closed.
Ultimately, he returned to Paris, painting in Pont-Aven, a well-known resort for artists.
Le Christ Jaune (the Yellow Christ) (Pioch, 2002) Still Life with Three Puppies 1888 (Pioch, 2002)
In "Sunny side down; Van Gogh and Gauguin," Martin…
Bailey, Martin. (2008). Dating the raindrops: Martin Bailey reviews the final volumes in the catalogues of the two most important collections of Van Gogh's drawings. Apollo Magazine Ltd. Retrieved February 26, 2009 from HighBeam Research:
Martin. (2005) "Van Gogh the fakes debate. Apollo Magazine Ltd. Retrieved February 26, 2009 from HighBeam Research:
http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-127058183.html . Bell, Judith. (1998). Vincent treasure trove; the van Gogh Museum's van Goghs. Vincent van Gogh's works from the original collection of his brother Theo. World and I. News World Communications, Inc. Retrieved February 26, 2009 from HighBeam Research:
This accounts for the durable popularity of the superhero -- Superman can fight Nazis during orld ar II and terrorists today. A comic hero can remain the same, yet always seem relevant to the reader's daily life, just like the daily work of a newspaper political cartoonist. The reason that this type of popularity is spurned is because of the fears of mass production of written material. McCloud agrees with Kunzle that mass production is critical to the genre. McCloud calls comics "juxtaposed pictorial and other images in deliberate sequences, intended to convey information and/or to produce an aesthetic response in the viewer" (McCloud 9). This response it elicits from all readers on a visceral level, however, should not be undervalued. Part of the reason for McCloud's trumpeting of the medium, however, may be his broader-reaching focus, while Kunzle tends to focus on more narrow historical or political works designed…
Kunzle, David. History of the Comic Strip. Volume 1: The Early Comic Strip. Berkeley:
University of California Press, 1973.
McCloud, Scott. Understanding Comics. Princeton, WI: Kitchen Sink Press, 1993.
The transition from hunting and gathering to sedentary cultivation demanded a whole restructuring of the society and enhanced the need for solidarity. Farming requires division of labor as well as gender role differentiation ("Hopi Agriculture: Introduction").
However, Sekaquaptewa describes a more egalitarian division of labor, at least regarding the corn harvest (Udall). Men were entrusted with the performance of the Snake Dance; women with heading matrilineal clans. Children also fully participated in the communal activity of corn cultivation by scaring away crows or chasing rodents (Udall). Knowledge that the survival of the community and its children depended on a successful harvest provided the firm foundation for Hopi community organization.
After contact, Hopi agriculture grew more diverse. Squash, beans, melons, and even orchards became as much a part of Hopi agricultural life as corn. In spite of the increased crop diversity the connection between agricultural bounty and rain remained central to…
Ancestral Art." (2003). Retrieved June 29, 2007 at http://www.ancestral.com/cultures/north_america/hopi
Curtis, F.G. & Boesen, V. (nd). Hopi Rain (Snake) Dance. The Curtis Collection. Vol. 12. Retrieved June 29, 2007 at http://www.curtis-collection.com/hopiraindance.html
Hopi Agriculture: Introduction." Retrieved June 29, 2007 at http://www.nau.edu/~hcpo-p/culture/agric.htm
Smith, M. (2000). Hopi. Retrieved June 29, 2007 at http://www.ausbcomp.com/redman/hopi.htm
Sally Mann's portfolio abounds of photographs of little girls, including here photographs such as the New Mothers and Sorry Game. All these, as the Easter Dress, are in black and white. In my opinion, the choice for black and white is an attempt by this modern artist to move the viewer's attention away from coloration and into the game of shapes and forms. If we compare this photograph with Dine's painting, the latter puts all emphasis on color (red in that particular case), while Mann insists exactly on everything that is not color: shapes, forms, movements.
The photograph depicts a little girl in a white dress playing/dancing in the foreground, while other characters, most likely members of her family (probably her grandparents, among others) are also present in the framework. As a modern art, photography has a characteristic that many other visual arts, including painting, do not: the ability of…
1. Gilmore, Richard. Philosophical Beauty: The Sublime in the Beautiful in Kant's Third Critique and Aristotle's Poetics. World Congress of Philosophy, in Boston, Massachusetts from August 10-15, 1998. On the Internet at http://www.bu.edu/wcp/Papers/Aest/AestGilm.htm.Last retrieved on October 9, 2006
2. Cronk, R. The Rise and Fall of (Post-)Modern. 1996. On the Internet at http://www.westland.net/venice/art/cronk/riseandfall.htm.Last retrieved on October 9, 2006
3. On the Internet at http://www.tandempress.wisc.edu/tandem/gallery/komarin/gk610.htm.Last retrieved on October 9, 2006
4. On the Internet at http://www.artline.com/associations/ifpda/ifpdafair/ifpdafair2002/nonexhibiting/Segura_Publishing_Company/index.html.Last retrieved on October 9, 2006
business culture and expansion trends that exist for American companies in India. The paper focuses on answering the following questions: 1. What are the major elements and dimensions of culture in this region? 2. How are these elements and dimensions integrated by local conducting business in the nation? 3. How do both of the above items compare with U.S. culture and business? 4. What are the implications for U.S. businesses that wish to conduct business in that region? The paper also tackles the following aspects: Dimensions of Culture, Communication. Different Meaning of Words across Languages, Verbal, Nonverbal, High Context vs. Low Context and eligion -- Christianity, Judaism, Islam, Hinduism, Buddhism, Confucianism, Shinto and Ethics; Definitions, The Issue of Corruption, Corporate Social esponsibility, Values and Attitudes, Variances in Attitudes across Cultures, Concept of Time, Dealing with Change, The ole of Gender, Social Status, Business Manners and Customs across National Cultures, Social…
Bose, P. And Lyons, L.E. (2010). Cultural Critique and the Global Corporation. Tracking Globalization, Bloomington, IN.
Butler, Patty. (2012). India Business Etiquette, Manners, Cross Cultural Communication, and Geert Hofstede Analysis. International Business Etiquette and Manners. Cyborlink http://www.cyborlink.com/besite/india.htm
Doh, J., and Luthans, F. (2009). International Management: Culture, Strategy, and Behaviour. New York: The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Doh, J., and Luthans, F. (2009). International Management: Culture, Strategy, and Behavoir. New York: The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Problem Solving in Mathematics
GCSE or the General Certificate of Secondary Education is basically a system that is present in England, Northern Ireland and in Wales. In this system, a student is awarded an academic qualification based on the grades that they attain. The qualification that a person attains is equivalent to either a level 2 or Level 1 key skills qualification. Normally, a student can uptake as many subjects as he or she wants. However, different systems set a requirement for how many subjects or GCSEs a student must take. There is present an international system of IGCSE as well and these subjects can be up taken anywhere in the world. This was just a precise history of what exactly the GCSE system is all about. Interestingly enough, the GCSE system was not the first one of its kind. Prior to this, GCE and the English Baccalaureate System were…
Anderson, J. (2009) Mathematics Curriculum Development and the Role of Problem Solving. [E-Book] The University Of Sydney. Available Through: ACSA Conference 2009 Http://Www.Acsa.Edu.Au/Pages/Images/Judy%20Anderson%20-%20Mathematics%20Curriculum%20Development.Pdf [Accessed: 11th February 2013].
Bloom, B. (1971) Handbook Of Formative And Summative Evaluation Of Student Learning. New York: Mcgraw-Hill.
Boaler, J. (2002). Experiencing School Mathematics: Traditional And Reform Approaches To Teaching And Their Impact On Student Learning. Mahwah, N.J., L. Erlbaum.
Davies, I. (1975) Writing General Objectives And Writing Specific Objectives. In: Golby, M. Et Al. Eds. (1975) In Curriculum Design . 1st Ed. Open University Books .
EFFECT OF DISCIPLINAY POLICY
Instrument to be used
Future use of study results
Over the last few decades the institution of education has undergone many changes. One of the most scrutinized areas of education currently is the area of discipline. The recent rash of violence across the nation at high school has caused the focus to turn to discipline. The Columbine killings among other violent school events have caused experts to begin looking at bullies, violence, at risk students and others to discover what the key is to turning them around in their school career. One discipline method that has been used for years is removal of the offending student from the general student population. The student who is removed is done so either through suspension or expulsion. Suspension and expulsion are used in many situations as discipline. When students break zero tolerance policies, or…
Aisha Sultan; And Holly Hacker; Of The Post-Dispatch, METRO EAST SUSPENSION RATE IS TWICE THE STATE AVERAGE: PARENTS ARE ALARMED, BUT ADMINISTRATORS SAY ORDER MUST BE MAINTAINED., St. Louis Post-Dispatch, 02-24-2002, pp C1.
Brian, Bumbarger. School Violence: Disciplinary Exclusion Prevention and Alternatives. Universties Children's Policy Partnership. 1999.
VOS Inger, Cambridge cuts suspensions., Waikato Times (New Zealand), 12-01-2001, pp 3.
Robert L. Morgan; Travis S. Loosli; Sebastian Striefel, REGULATING THE USE OF BEHAVIORAL PROCEDURES IN SCHOOLS: A FIVE-YEAR FOLLOW-UP SURVEY OF STATE DEPARTMENT STANDARDS. Vol. 30, Journal of Special Education, 01-15-1997.
Police Brutality and Race
Police Violence and African Americans
When Does the Use of Force Become Police Brutality?
Police Brutality and the Black Lives Matter Movement
Police Brutality and the Blue Lives Matter Movement
The Use of Violence: Is there a Limit to the Amount of Force Police Officers Should Use on a Suspect?
Why Just Comply Is Not the Answer to Police Brutality
Are Minorities the Victims of Higher Rates of Police Violence?
Police Brutality: Is there a War on Cops or a War by Cops?
I. Introduction - Definition
B. Racial Disparity in American Criminal Justice
C. The Black Lives Matter Movement
D. Subsequent Killings
E. Delrawn Small on July 4, 2016
F. Alton Sterling on July 5, 2016
G. Philando Castile on July 6, 2016
H. Blue Lives Matter
I. Police Brutality and Attacks on the Police are…
He applies that perspective to every stage of the design process as he works with clients. Severs (2011) claims that "the needs of users, businesses, manufacturers, suppliers, environment" are all integral to the design experience.
In fact, Severs found that working with his young daughter provided insight into the design process, informing a human-centered approach. His daughter's reactions to produces, processes, activities, and services show how design directly impacts behavior and perceptions. Severs claims that his daughter's own drawings and designs have affected his view, showing that design experts can learn a lot from children. As examples, Severs showed 3D modeling and other examples of how design affects our reactions to things.
Both McKinley and Severs focused on how design is a major part of our everyday lives. The products we use are often designed poorly, reflecting an approach that is not centered on the needs of the end user.…
Frog design (n.d.). Website retrieved: http://www.frogdesign.com/
McKinley, T. (2011). Lecture notes.
McKinley, T. (2011b). Business Week: Profile. Retrieved online: http://bx.businessweek.com/profile/turi-mckinley/tmckinley499/
Severs, J. (2011). Lecture notes.
Allard, Harry and James Marshall. Miss Nelson Is Missing. New York: Houghton Mifflin, 1977. Print.
Miss Nelson is a non-threatening instructor whose students take advantage of her gentle personality by misbehaving. One day Miss Nelson disappears and is replaced by an ill-tempered substitute, Miss Viola Swamp, who makes the children appreciate their good-natured teacher. The book is designed for primary and early elementary readers.
Beaumont, Karen. I Ain't Gonna Paint No More! Florida: Harcourt, Inc. 2005. Print.
A little boy has been caught and chastised for decorating his home with a box of paints. His mother takes the paint set away from him and tells him, "Ya ain't gonna paint no more!" He soon reacquires the box of paints and becomes busily engaged in painting himself from head to toe. Preschool children will enjoy this book.
Carle, Eric. The Very Hungry Caterpillar. New York: Collins Publishers.…
Dave, a fifth-grader, is astonished to learn in a report about India that Mahatma Gandhi spent one day of each week in silence to give his mind a rest. Dave attempts to give it a try, but being a constant talker, he finds it difficult to remain silent. He and a friend convince the entire fifth grade class to try the experiment. Despite a long-standing animosity, the boys and girls in the classroom form a bond during their periods of silence by trying to find other ways to communicate.
DiCamillo, Kate. Because of Winn-Dixie. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Candlewick Press. 2000. Print.
India Opal Buloni moves to Naomi, Florida when her father obtains a position as a preacher in a local church. Opal's mother left the family when she was only three years old and she has no friends in Naomi. One day she finds a big, ugly dog wandering around in a