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Media Bias and Public Opinion
It is often suggested that pure objectivity in media reportage is a myth. This view has become accepted as fact and is supported by the research and experience of objectivity in the sciences and other disciplines. Experiments in physics (Heisenberg) have lent credence to the idea that there is always a subjective component in any investigation and that true objectivity is more of a myth and ideal rather than actuality. This applies as well to any media news or report.
The proliferation and extent of the influence of the media on our lives has also been extended over the past few decades and there is almost no sector of our lives that is unaffected by modern media - from news to advertising to the Internet. This also leads to the inescapable conclusion that the media has a profound and ubiquitous influence on public opinion. The…… [Read More]
A liberal society is perceived to have no existence without news media that facilitates dissemination of right information to the individuals with a view to make them aware of the pronouncements. At the moment the news media fails to deliver the truth it have distorts the perception of individuals. The autocrats have always attempted to maneuver the public opinion by steering the press coverage to their advantages. Even Hitler relied upon the government owned press for publicizing his Nuremberg and Munich rallies. Lenin depended upon his newspaper ISKA so as to popularize his Bolshevik revolution. He concentrated on discontents so as attain authority for himself. However, our media are not owned by government as was the case in Nazi Germany or the Soviet Union, we are required to presume that are not free. (Media Deception is more than Liberal Bias)
About seventy million Americans depend upon the television…… [Read More]
The spin that often surrounds war, is fundamentally damaging even if it is intended as damage control for the nation as a whole, or at the very least the leaders of the nation.
It has been hinted at within this work that the old adage, the public does not necessarily believe what it hears, but it hears what it believes is at play when it comes to media. As Jamieson & aldman pointed out by their poll results, of the Gore Bush election, post media bias survey, there is a clear sense that the public sees the opposing view as the one that is most stark in their utilization of biased reporting.
Additionally, Bernard Goldberg's op ed piece regarding the reduced viewer-ship of network news clearly states that even the commentators seem to be painfully aware that the public no longer trusts the mainstream media to offer a…… [Read More]
Although the BBC does not openly criticize the war in Iraq, as in the New York Times article, it tends to express its opinion in a more subtle use of language and presentation.
5.0 a Comparison of News Agencies
All of the news agencies explored in this analysis highlighted stories of local interest. However, concern over the H1N1 virus stood out as a key area of International concern. In coverage of this issue, a number of different journalistic styles emerged. Of these news agencies, the New York Times presented the fewest facts about the virus, its victims, or the actual toll in human lives. Its story highlighted a personal tragic account of a victim being denied services at a hospital. The stories had a high appeal due to the ability of the writers to tell a gripping story, even if the story is only a hypothetical situation, extrapolated from something…… [Read More]
Pro-Corporate Media Bias
Pro-Corporate Bias in the Media
"I believe democracy requires a 'sacred contract' between journalists and those who put their trust in us to tell them what we can about how the world really works" (Moyers, 2004). This essay examines the pro-corporate bias in media coverage as network journalism underreports corporate corruption, and analyzes how the 'sacred contract' has been violated by failures of the news media.
Any discussion of journalistic malfeasance must consider societal expectations and requirements with respect to media coverage. Over the course of time many thought leaders have sought to define the basis of a superior socio-political and economic system. Johnson's survey of social philosophy, Culture, Ideology, and Justice, (date) provides some insights into the structure of an ideal society. According to Johnson, there are five criteria that determine the essential structure of justice:
Whether persons should be self-governing or subservient to their betters?…… [Read More]
Unlike other wars, this was not against the armies of a nation, but a cohort of individuals who were driven by an ideology (Islamism). This army knew no boundaries and did not use conventional tactics of war fare. Even when the Taliban were imprisoned, the media first reasoned and then insisted that the Geneva Convention on the treatment of prisoners of war applied to these prisoners. Bill Maher, comedian, political commentator and host of the program "Politically Incorrect" called the terrorists "freedom fighters." (Landau, 2009) Many editorials were written excoriating Americans for ill-treatment of these prisoners. Some in the media even averred that these prisoners deserved the same rights guaranteed to those in correctional facilities in the United States. This meant that those imprisoned in the war on Terror could be given specific rights as afforded by the Constitution of the United States of America. The media in its insistence…… [Read More]
New Media Implications
The improvement of internet and other technology and its ready availability to more and more people has revolutionized the structure and population of the media around the world. People that would normally be members of the audience have become the creators of news and vice versa. The lines that separate news makers and people that normally would be making news or expected to make news have blurred significantly and in several different ways. There are many examples of countries that could be focused on for this subject but one of the best is the United States.
There are multiple ways in which the structure of news creators has changed and evolved over recent months and years. One way in which the idea regarding audience and news sources has been altered significantly is the corporate structure of the people that are providing the news. The companies…… [Read More]
Presence of Media Bias in News Programs
The topic of discussion revolves around bias in media, specifically in news program. The question "Are news reporters and news stations out of control?" warrants further clarification before the paper offers an answer. What exactly is meant by out of control? Are they out of control in what respect? Which news reporters and news stations are we talking about? There is a huge array of news stations around the world. Some are publically funded and some are privately funded. There is a news program on television and online for virtually every topic imaginable including technology, economics, finance, world/current events, health, education, as well as what many of us are familiar with, general news programs that cover local, domestic, and limited international news. Out of these, which are we talking about? The answers to the primary questions that the paper will argue depend…… [Read More]
Media Control in Egypt
The media in Egypt is much more controlled than in many other countries, including the United States. That control began with President Gamal Abdel Nasser, moved through Anwar Sadat, and then on to Hosni Mubarak. During that time, the television and newspapers were strictly controlled, and only what the president wanted people to see was placed in them. There is significant evidence that the control of the media in Egypt was done largely to oppress the people, and to make sure they were only hearing and seeing what the government wanted them to hear and see. Social, political, and economic factors are all significant in the control of the Egyptian media, which many believe should be uncontrolled and independent. That would allow it to provide actual, factual information, instead of only what the government agreed that the people were allowed to know.
The Egyptian media…… [Read More]
Media Bias in Crime eporting
In what ways do the media construct crime images?
In general, the media have tremendous power to influence public thought and opinion, such as by the choice of stories to report as well as by the specific manner in which they describe offenders, victims, and circumstances. When it comes to crime, the media construct images in various realms, including the relative frequency (and risk) of certain types of crimes and the public expectation about what groups of people are more likely to be offenders or victims of those crimes. For example, by choosing to report crimes featuring a white victim and a black offender, the media can portray one race as being composed of more offenders than the other and one race as being composed of more victims than the other. Similarly, by choosing to report more on particularly gruesome crimes, the media can establish…… [Read More]
As Mokoaleli-Mokoteli et al. (2009) point out, though, previous research has confirmed that while it is accurate to suggest that analysts provide optimistic reports on the majority of the stocks they include in their analytical portfolios, such recommendations do not routinely affect the market in any substantive way. According to these researchers, "After accounting for risk and transaction costs, investors do not earn better than average returns from following analysts' stock recommendations" (Mokoaleli-Mokoteli et al., 2009, p. 388). There is also the matter of the human propensity to be overly optimistic in those situations where there are complex issues involved, a tendency that has also been well documented in the scholarly research (Mokoaleli-Mokoteli et al., 2009). According to Mokoaleli-Mokoteli and his colleagues, "Both analyst overoptimism, as measured by the tone of their report, and conflicts of interest distinguish between new buy and new sell recommendations. This is consistent with the…… [Read More]
Injustice and the Media
There was a point in the not-too-distant past when it was reasonable to perceive the media as a force collectively aimed at informing the public, exposing corruption, surfacing scandal and general performing the responsibility of protecting the people's right to know. However, several forces have permeated the so-called 'fourth estate,' diluting the media's acceptance of this responsibility. At one end of the spectrum, the growth in value of cable news such as CNN or MSNBC has created a highly monetized and commercially-motivated form of news. At the opposite end of the spectrum, the increasing visibility of social media such as Facebook and Twitter in spreading news stories has removed much of the accountability or professionalism from our media outlets.
The result is that our media outlets rarely have the motivation to ensure that a well-informed public is made aware of injustice in all its forms.…… [Read More]
A college student talking to an old high school friend through Instant Messaging may send that friend a copy of an interesting article that flashed across the screen. News may not be prime reason for using the Internet but still the Internet is vital for transmitting news and opinion, even of dispatches from war torn areas, or disaster afflicted zones where the conventional media cannot penetrate. In ages past, sitting around the television watching the news may have had other purposes than information -- family togetherness, relaxation, as well, but that did not discount the information received.
Furthermore, the Internet provides a plurality of viewpoints that the three networks and the major city newspapers did not and often still do not provide. One could even make a parallel to the plethora of newspapers of the turn of the century, all biased and slanted and somewhat dubious in fact-checking perhaps (but…… [Read More]
Media epresentation of Issues in Immigration
Immigration is a fundamental element of American history. Centuries ago, immigration was not the issue that it is in the 21st century. There is a very small percentage of Americans that can trace their heritage back to the beginning of the country without at least one family member or even generation of family that are not immigrants. Around the turn of the 20th century, with the advent of industrialization and the mass exodus from numerous countries into the United States, immigration has been a white, hot point of contention in American culture and American media. The focus of this paper is a very recent article in The New York Times about President Obama's decision to allow a specific demographic of illegal immigrants to remain the country legally providing them opportunities to obtain legal documentation, attend institutions of higher education, and work without fear of…… [Read More]
In a one day diary of media consumption, it becomes evident that many of my interactions with the world are via media. I receive most of my information through media forms as well. Even when relaxing, media is something that drives the process. There is also a lot of passive consumption of media in my daily life. My media consumption will be analyzed through the lens of different media theories.
Turow argues that media and advertisers have become exceptionally adept since the 1970s at understanding audiences, their consumption patterns, and how to exploit these. For our part as audience, we have much less understanding of our own consumption patterns. This exercise was the first time that I had really given thought to my daily media exposure, only to realize that my use of media is constant, throughout the day, and sometimes very passive. I used media forms as…… [Read More]
Media Presentation Analyzation: Design & Ethical Relationships
The war in the Middle East is an example of an on-going media presentation that is covered in the radio, television and on the Internet. More recently covered are the accounts of the beheadings of those kidnapped and in yesterday's news, of numerous people killed or wounded in the Iraqi car blasts in Najaf, Iraq. This paper will examine the design and ethical relationships of the media's presentation of the war in Iraq using the attached article downloaded off the Internet for the analysis. It will examine television and the new media environment of the Web, for both have become central in determining both the design and ethical dimensions of the media's coverage of the war in the Middle East.
Turning on the television means establishing a connection with the place of broadcasting and being literally and continually present at the birth of…… [Read More]
The media is often assailed for a number of failings. These failings include focusing on the wrong things, not focusing on the right things nearly enough and focusing on the proper things in the wrong overall way. While the media certainly mishandles class issues and other problems of import, their usual goal is probably not comedy but instead pushing one worldview and viewpoint over another and specifically instead of another. While media in general is largely ineffectual and problematic on a number of levels, some of their activities border on the insidious and starkly negative.
The pull quote from the test pretty much summarizes Diana Kendall's summary of American media in a nutshell. To show the quote again and in its entirety, it was "rather than providing a meaningful analysis of inequality and showing realistic portrayals of life in various social classes, the media either play…… [Read More]
Four of his movies are still amongst the top 20 earners of all time. Making of Schindler's list and setting up Shoah foundation; which filmed disturbing tales from Holocaust survivors portrayed Spielberg as an ultra Zionist by most. The view after Munich has somewhat changed and most American and Israeli Jews criticized the movie and labeled it as portraying Israeli's as murderers while popular belief amongst Jews is that of retaliation. There is the hit squad, Bombs used in beds, in cars and even in phones with gruesome gun fights and cold blood executions by Mossad operatives representing Jews as killers.
A neutral viewer may argue that the movie lacked details on Palestinian terrorists portrayed only as targets rather than human beings with feelings.
Spielberg managed to deliver what the news media missed. No spice but reality, mistakes and regrets by both sides. He managed to explain what impact this…… [Read More]
Without taking into account these factors, strategic planning will not measure up to the requirements of planning adequately for the future.
The author also notes that the complexity of strategic planning is increased by the flexibility of the all the factors involved. Thorough analysis is therefore required to construct a viable strategy that takes into account as many factors as possible. As an example, Habegger (2009: 3) mentions the United Kingdom, whose strategic foresight has been at the root of the country's national policy since the 1960s. Beginning as a way to enhance the innovative force of the British industry, the strategy has grown to include social, ecological, technological and political aspects. One part of this improved strategy is the "Horizon Scanning Centre," established in 2004. Its two core activities include the Sigma Scan and foresight projects. The Sigma Scan involves an information basis for all foresight activities, based upon…… [Read More]
Bias in Curricula
Native American Bias in K-12 Literature
There are many artifacts used in curricula that illustrate a racial bias towards marginalized groups. American Indians are one such group adversely affected by stereotypical and offensive portrayals in educational material and literature. Native Americans are typically not even mentioned in American history textbooks past 6th grade curriculum. When they are referenced, it is often in terms of Pilgrims and Thanksgiving. Other times they are depicted as adversaries to be defeated in the "settling" of the West. As far as most Americans have been taught in the educational system, Native Americans virtually ceased to exist after 1890. In addition, there exists a very pervasive and subtle dehumanizing Native American stereotype that has become ingrained in American popular culture (i.e., sports teams, Halloween costumes, etc.). These misrepresentations -- and the misperceptions that follow - are commonly held by all Americans, and have…… [Read More]
Thirdly, the growing up-to-the-minute exposure of the journalists to the physicality of the war detracted from the big picture and instead exaggerated the importance of singular happenings and specific events.
It is in the loss of the big picture that the Bush regime is most able to capitalize on its military's control of the press. While in the 1990s, the President's father struggled with "pooled" journalists and the lack of coherent and stable eye witness accounts, the current President instead embedded an army of over 700 journalists inside the United tate's military campaign as they waged war on the unsuspecting Iraqis.
There is a pretty fine line between being embedded and being entombed," observed Dan Rather in response to the Gulf War of the 1990s.
With the American journalists and those internationally desiring the protection of the winning force fully embedded with the American soldiers at war, the military operation…… [Read More]
Meanwhile, "False Balancing" is where "both sides are seldom accorded equal prominence," Parenti asserts. As an example of this tendency, Parenti writes that when it comes to a conservative issue, NPR (National Public Radio), perceived as a liberal institution, interviews a "right wing spokesperson" alone. But when it's a liberal issue being discussed, NPR has a liberal and a conservative on together.
Endorsement / Disparagement: Some media use "labels" like "the president's firm leadership" and "a strong defense" without offering any details as to why the president's leadership is "firm" or the defense is "strong." The campaign in California (Proposition 226) against unions used the phrase "union bosses" often, to give a negative tone to unions, but corporate executives were never alluded to as "corporate bosses."
Framing: Another kind of manipulation mentioned by Parenti is "Framing": this involves "bending the truth rather than breaking it." Examples of framing include:…… [Read More]
MEDIA WORLD & CULTURE
The Media World in Today's Culture
The Media World and Today's Culture
The Media World and Today's Culture
The media is the most indispensable medium that most urbanized and developing countries have adapted to accessing first hand and vital information. It is also in the branch category of the most growing industries in today's global economy. However, the industry is faced with controversies from other sectors such as culture and politics. Implications of the social media and media personalties have always been at the limelight, especially with how the youth and children perceive what they see and hear from the media. It is therefore, necessitated to review how the current global culture allows for the continuity of the world of media.
According to Kaya and Cakmur, media has been a centre-stage in Turkey die to the linkage it has to politics. Turkish media is…… [Read More]
How Technology Shapes Society
A society is a conglomerate of people who, for some reason, are throw together in a particular bounded region. The group has to make laws that will govern their actions and they also determine how they will live together in the most productive manner. But, there are events and devices that some say can change the way this group of people behaves and what laws they will make for one another. For example, an early hunter-gatherer society subsisted on what they could kill and find. Then someone invented the hoe, and they became cultivating societies (Keel, 2011). This meant that the people did not have to roam so far afield to find they needed to exist. Thus they could stay closer together and build up societies. Small events sometimes shape great changes in society without the people within the society realizing that the invention will…… [Read More]
Q5. How will you deal with others in your workplace who feel they have no biases but you are aware that they do?
I think that sensitivity training and diversity education should be mandatory components of all workplaces. This type of training should include self-administered questionnaires like the HIAT to raise awareness about the commonness of prejudice and also role-playing and discussions about different assumptions and communication styles. I should note that I do not believe that explicitly 'calling someone out' on their prejudices and shaming them is particularly helpful; firmly presenting an alternative point-of-view or way of looking at the situation is much more effective. Organizations must also have strong and effective anti-discrimination policies to reduce bias. This can help all workers. "We have developed a "good person/bad person" paradigm of diversity. A more accurate depiction, however, is that we all have bias of one kind or another. It…… [Read More]
Government officials and elected officers become unwilling to provide limited public funds to broadcasters whose audiences are becoming smaller, forcing public service programmers to reach for larger audiences with different types of program content. "While multiple program sources -- cable, home video -- make it unlikely that these systems will move toward "mass audience programming" it is the case that the face of broadcasting is changing in these contexts" (Narrowcasting, 2012).
Digital signage networks for narrowcast advertising are becoming part of the mainstream and not some sort of on the edge experimental medium reserved for the daring and advanced. ather than being seen as a risk in the eyes of media buyers, they are becoming a vital communications path for marketers and advertisers wishing to sway consumer spending decisions at the point of purchase. It isn't particularly surprising that narrowcast digital signage networks are entering the mainstream. Advertising buyers and…… [Read More]
Media & Society
Media can have a strong influence on society. Media has the ability to shape how people view the world, how they perceive different issues and media can also have a direct influence on behavior in society as well. With political ads, the objective is direct behavioral influence, the behavior being voting, so the media role with these ads is a content-dependent relationship. The ads are intended to bring about a specific behavior, but the ads are also intended to change perspectives and dialogue, both about candidates and about the issues for which those candidates stand. This paper will examine two advertisements from the 2012 Presidential election campaign, one from each side, in order to illustrate this concept.
The Romney ad "Stand up to China" works primarily on the affective level. The copy of the ad is hilariously childish to anybody who understands anything about foreign policy…… [Read More]
Social Media in Healthcare Organizations
Social Media Social media increasingly integral part healthcare organization's website online strategy. Write a -- page (excluding title reference pages)
Using social media in healthcare organizations
Social media are a new way of co-creating and collaboration on content with others. It provides practical resources for healthcare organizations, in raising awareness of health related issues to the public, and facilitating change in behavior which will help people to live safer and healthier lives Sae Won & Choi, 2007.
With social media, they can disseminate information in real-time and link groups of people around common issues. Any website or platform that allows users to publish and share information with each other is referred to as social media. The information shared can be videos, photos, or messages. Technologies for social media are in different forms namely wikis, internet forums, social blogs, podcasts, magazines, weblogs, social bookmarking, videos, and…… [Read More]
" (Iyengar, 2001) Lastly, the manner of presentation of a news story "significantly affects its ability to set the public agenda." (Behr and Iyengark 1985; Dearing and Rogers, 1996) Concluded is that: "In the current regime, American politics is almost exclusively a mediated experience. The role of the citizen ahs evolved from occasional foot soldier and activist to spectators. Those who seek public office invest heavily in efforts to shape news coverage of their candidacy. The returns from this investment provide them with leverage over public opinion, by setting the public agenda or by projecting a general impression of competent leadership..." (Iyengar, 2001)
The report published by the "ediaatters for America' website entitled: "According to aher, CBS's "Free Speech" is a isnomer" states that Bill aher, HBO's Real Time with Bill aher show host states that "CBS rejected his request to comment on religion for his planned "Free Speech" segment…… [Read More]
Sampling Techniques eveal
The first study of focus regards perceptions of news media bias and how individual and interpersonal factors affect those perceptions. The sampling method used in this study is non-probability. The researchers worked in conjunction with an international marketing company. The company contacted a massive quantity of people via mail inquiring for participation via mail and via telephone; they had more than 500, 000 participants. The researchers and the international marketing company solicited people based on census data so as to reach intentionally reach & sample a diverse population of participants. They collected data using surveys and questionnaires. The authors were concerned with drawing participants across levels of income, gender, race, and marital status. They made more than one adjustment to their sample group before sending out the questionnaires. They used the census data to draw on populations across age, population density and household size.
The…… [Read More]
ole of Media in Disasters
The ole of Media in Affecting Public Perception of Hurricane Katrina 'Victims'
esearch conducted in the 1950s and 1960s has effectively demonstrated that the general public tends to respond to both local and national disasters in an orderly and compassionate way marked specifically by the desire of individuals to help those in need. This viewpoint contrasts sharply with the ways in which disasters, and those affected by disaster, are portrayed by the media. Tierney and colleagues' (2006) article "Metaphors Matter: Disaster Myths, Media Frames, and their Consequences in Hurricane Katrina" illustrates that the public draws much of its information about ongoing disasters from media outlets which both create and perpetuate a series of negative myths which do nothing to alleviate the suffering of those directly impacted by disaster. Hurricane Katrina serves as a strong example of the manner in which a media framework can directly…… [Read More]
By being born a man or a woman signals to bearing certain clear sexual characteristics. Socialization takes individuals through a path that inculcates certain norms and codes of conduct depending on whether one is born a male or a female. In other words, the rules that one adopts and follows are guided by whether they are biologically male or female. Therefore, one’s communication, expression and behavior is shaped by the preexisting cultural and social norms including non-verbal language. Consequently, people’s behavior may differ because they are shaped by cultural and social norms from varying socio-ethnic and cultural setups. All these forces define gender; which is effectively a social construction of one’s biological sex. It allows for the recognition and distinction between men and women. According to Lippman (1922), stereotypes were important because they were an offshoot of a people’s ideas and heritage and, thus, served important purposes. Stereotypes helped…… [Read More]
Gender Bias in Coverage of the 2016 Rio Olympics
Over the past centuries, gender bias has been one of the dominant issues in the Olympic games. hile there has been a noticeable increase in the women participation in the Olympic games, nevertheless media bias has been largely remarkable where men receive more media attentions than female counterparts. In the recent 2016 concluded Olympic game in Rio, media have been found using the sexiest languages to refer the female athletes. Based on the tone of the commentators, it is clear that women athletics are treated differently compared with the male counterpart in sport. The commentators lay emphasize on clothing and physique rather than their abilities and performances.
Analysis of more than 160 million words from academic papers, newspapers, and social media reveals that men are three times mentioned than women referring men as big, strong, fastest, or real. However, women are…… [Read More]
Mass Media & Values
The author of this report has been asked to answer a rather broad but still important question. The question at hand is whether the mass media is simply a representation of the broader cultural values, attitudes and stereotypes of a society or whether the mass media is involved with shaping the same rather than just being a reflection or representation. The author of this response does not mean to be non-committal or waffling but the answer is actually a little of both. There are some instances where mass media is simply just groveling to the masses but there are some instances where narratives are being established and cultural trends are being written. What is true in a given situation usually depends on the situation but it is not entirely hard or difficult to tell which is happening in a given instance. While mass media output is…… [Read More]
media is playing a major influence in determining how the general public will look at what is occurring. In the case of the Arizona immigration law, (a.k.a. Arizona S 1070) it is giving the authorities the power to arrest, detain and deport illegal immigrants. To fully understand the media coverage of this issue requires: examining the message they are portraying, the way it is affecting public perceptions, how it is impacting the U.S. economy and what inclusion strategies could be utilized to moderate the effects of the media. Once this occurs, it will provide the greatest insights as to how this law could be redefining the overall scope of the debate on this issue based upon the coverage that it is receiving. (Archibald, 2010)
What message does the media piece try to portray? Is it biased? Was it sensationalized or objective?
The message that media is trying to portray is…… [Read More]
media consumption and subsequent behaviour?
Profiling the criminal behavior of rampage perpetrators is one of the main areas of focus in the social science research community. Gender, mental health issues, social exclusion, genetic susceptibility or predisposition, and ultimately, violent media, are most of the factors that guide researchers in the field, seeking to develop broader frameworks of understanding rampage violence. Over the past three decades, 78 cases of public mass shootings have been registered by the Congressional Research Service (2013). An FI report indicated a rise in typical mass shootings, from 6.4 incidents occurring between 2000 and 2007 to an average of 16.4 incidents between 2007 and 2013 (2013). Most of these public mass shootings have been found to occur either at workplaces or at schools across the United States.
The proliferation of mass shootings over these past few decades has further brought into the public and academic's attention the…… [Read More]
Accounting analysis is an important step in determining the overall health and well being of a particular business organization. Accounting practices must be correctly aligned with the larger, overall business strategy as laid out by the leadership of the organization. Accounting analysis feeds into the larger financial picture of the company and provides a means to audit and improve the often difficult task of keeping track of the many exchanges and trades.
To successfully analyze Fairfax media, is ultimately necessary to perform a solid accounting analysis on the company's practices. This being an external evaluation, requires a certain amount of circumstantial inference to help fully describe the implied accounting methods used in this large company.
Fairfax must incorporate four important financial documents to fully gain an understanding of their accounting practices. The income statement, the balance sheet, the cash flow statement and the statement of changes in equity must…… [Read More]
Media in America as the Fourth Estate: From Watergate to the Present
During the 1970's, the role of the media changed from simply reporting the news to revealing serious political scandals (Waisbord, 2001). The media's role during Watergate was viewed as the mirror that reflected the most that journalism could offer to democracy: holding powers accountable for their actions. This became a trend in the American media and journalism had high credibility in the years that followed, and a great increase in journalism school enrollment followed.
However, during the 1980's and 1990's, this trend withered away. Investigative journalism is no longer rampant the firmament of American news. While the tone of the press was self-congratulatory in the post-Watergate years, the state of American journalism is currently viewed in a less positive light.
For the elite, the shift in journalism is welcomed. For example, according to John Dean, an American journalist,…… [Read More]
Media and the role it plays in shaping society
The media plays an essential role in shaping socially-acceptable behaviors in U.S. society, taking into account the way it succeeds in making people consider that it would be important for them to take on certain attitudes. TV media in particular tends to be biased in presenting the masses with information. By concentrating on sensational stories and on concepts like violence and sexuality, the media has the tendency to put across a false portrayal of society and thus influences people to believe that they need to uphold particular ideas.
In many areas violence rates remain constant, but the media has been seen to introduce more stories related to violence in these respective territories. This is largely because ideas like violence and sex make the masses more interested in wanting to become acquainted with the news. There is a relationship of…… [Read More]
media's role in the presidency, and how different newspapers portray the President. Specifically, it will analyze the way the President is being treated by the media. The media can support or detract from any presidency, and the media always has an opinion. George . Bush suffers in some media, and is championed in other media, and that is to be expected for such a public and visible figure.
The President and the Media
President George . Bush's presidency has been shrouded in controversy since the Presidential election of 2000, and the voting fiasco in Florida. After the September 11 terrorist attacks, Bush's popularity with the public soared to an 89% approval rating (Dickerson and Tumulty 30), but his popularity has dwindled as the latest ar with Iraq continues. Some of this public approval or disapproval stems from Bush's treatment in the media, for the American public knows mostly what it…… [Read More]
Gender stereotyping is a pernicious and pervasive practice. The media reinforces already existing gender norms, thereby perpetuating structural inequalities and gender inequity. However, the media can also be instrumental in transforming gender norms by combatting stereotypes and depicting gender in unconventional ways. Gender stereotypes can confirm unconscious biases and beliefs about the role and status of men and women. Likewise, the portrayals of gender in the media reinforce behavioral norms. Research shows that “constant exposure to the same dated concepts in the media” can lead to adverse effects that can “last a lifetime,” (Knorr, 2017, p. 1). Therefore, it is critical to become active, engaged consumers of media and to increase media literacy throughout the society.
Gender portrayals in the media will differ according to media type, such as news media versus advertisements, or children’s programming versus programming for adults. Similarly, gender stereotypes vary from culture to culture. Although gender…… [Read More]
British vs. American newspapers and journalistic styles
The popular stereotype that 'the British' are more erudite, well-spoken and intelligent than Americans persists, as can be seen in the tendency to bestow a British accent upon any characters who are intended to be perceived as cold, aloof, and intellectual in American sitcoms. In the world of newspapers, however, such stereotypes evaporate. The British possess some of the most widely-read newspapers in the world. However, it is often American papers like New York Times that are considered the superior newspapers of record, even more so than the London Times in the eyes of most British journalists. Despite the homogenization of the news due to the permeation of online media culture, British and American newspapers continue to have distinctly different characters. In Great Britain, newspapers are expected to be far more partisan and far less scrupulously fact-checked than their American counterparts.…… [Read More]
The author of this brief essay was asked to read the work of C. Wright Mills and then consider a question. The work of Mills is about the “promise” of sociology. The question to be answered is how the author would go about collecting and deciphering the news. The two questions might not seem related. At the very least, the specific work and verbiage of Mills and the question might not be related, at least in the eyes of some. However, they most certainly are. The people that emerge and trumpet their viewpoints in the media hold a certain amount of power. This would include what is said (or not said) in a given news story. While the statement of mills about which men and will “prevail” may seem mundane to some, it is something that absolutely explains the chaotic and often toxic news and media sphere that…… [Read More]
The media has a significant influence not only on individuals but also on the society as a whole. Media representations are not merely an echo and emulate of society but rather they are highly discerning and fabricated portrayals. It is the capability of these representations to form and structure our awareness of the world, which is taken into account in this paper. One important aspect that can be shed light on, is the representation of the minority groups or disadvantaged groups in the media (Sanson et al., 2000). This is particularly of great importance since the issues of discrimination and racism have historically and even today been deemed high-profile subject matters. It is imperative to point out that the roles in which these minority groups are portrayed and represented in the media have a tendency of emphasizing stereotypes about them (Sanson et al., 2000). The focus on this…… [Read More]
Media Presentation of Hate Crimes Against African-Americans: Annotated Bibliography
Baum, M., Potter, P. he relationships between mass media, public opinion, and foreign policy: oward a theoretical synthesis. Annual Review of Political Science, vol. 11 (2008): 39-65. Web.
Potter and Baum's paper firstly assesses the wide-ranging advances in academic knowledge with regard to foreign policy and public opinion in the course of the last decades, placing emphasis on comparatively recent researches. Subsequently, the authors propose a structure, on the basis of the market equilibrium principle, designed to synthesize the unconnected research programs which make up the literature pool on foreign policy and public opinion. For achieving this, the authors integrate mass media -- a third key strategic player -- that, in their opinion, has a crucial part to play, together with leaders and ordinary citizens, in influencing public outlook towards, and power over, foreign policy, besides considering the leader-public relationship. hey…… [Read More]
media as an extension of the human society. Toward this end, this study will conduct a review of the literature in this area of inquiry. In today's society media is linked with almost every activity and as well, media saturates the lives of individuals. Social media, including such as Facebook, Flicker, and LinkedIn are used by many individuals to keep in contact with friends and family who live both near and far away.
The word media is a Latin derivation of the word medius which means 'middle' and as such, media serves as a mediator between media individuals and institutions in society. McLuhan (nd) writes that in a culture such as the one in which American society is presently situated and in fact, which the entire world society presently exists "it is a bit of a shock to be reminded that, in operational and practical fact, the medium is the…… [Read More]
Free Are American Media
Events occur and become news, news circulate all around the globe. In early times it was almost impossible to convey these happening with in short period of time but with the advent of time technology grew exponentially and gave a fast source of communication called "media."
Media has played a very important role throughout. Any event occurring in one side of the globe gets to the other side within a span of minutes. They cover events such as politics, sports, entertainment etc. And telecast it to the other regions. Every event that had occurred in the past has been covered by the regions local and international media. The point lies in the contradicting news telecasted by the media i.e. one event coverage contradicting to the same event covered by another channel.
The process of broadcasting consist of many events such as coverage, filtration, etc. A channel…… [Read More]
Racism in Media
Television news casting has a long history of perpetuating negative stereotypes of the Black community through what the news broadcasts and how it creates images that are transformed into symbols that become associated with the African-American community. Through these images, certain signs and symbols are created that later become associated with the Black community. hile attempts to make media more inclusive have marginally succeeded, failure lies in its inability to create any sort of social change but instead continues to perpetuate stereotypes.
In "Racism and the Media," Yasmin Jiwanai describes the role the media has on people's everyday lives. Jiwani writes that the media provides "us with definitions about who we are as a nation; they reinforce our values and norms; they give us concrete examples of what happens to those who transgress these norms; and most importantly, they perpetuate certain ways of seeing the world and…… [Read More]
The media has been referred to as the fourth estate, a bedrock element of democratic society. The term has its origins referencing the critical role that media plays in society. The first three estates are taken to be the clergy, the nobility and the commoners. This concept derives from England, in particular attributed to something that Thomas Carlyle wrote in 1841 about there being three estates in parliament, but the reporters in the gallery were the fourth estate." Carlyle had written that they were the most important of all (Crichton et al, 2010).
When applied to a country's media, the terms "free" and "independent" reference privately-owned media that operate without undue interference from the government. The media is considered to be a bedrock of democracy because they are responsible for the flow of information to the populace. More specifically, this refers to organized media companies, prior to the digital…… [Read More]
Media in America [...] How does mass media affect American values? American media is pervasive in nearly every aspect of society today. Newspapers, magazines, online Web sources, television, radio, and film all create a sense of commonality, and often a sense of how to behave, think, and react to social and societal situations.
Today, Americans rely on a variety of media for most of their news, information, and values, whether they know it or not. While this may seem like a recent occurrence, experts and researchers have been seeing this trend in media influence for decades. Two experts note, "Over a half century ago, Lippmann (1922) also noted this role of the news media in defining our world, not just the world of politics during and between elections, but almost all of our world beyond immediate personal and family concerns" (Bryant and Zillmann, 1994, p. 2). Thus, the media has…… [Read More]
Every industry that exists out there serves a specific purpose for its customers. Organizations in the mass media industry offer their own content. Producing and offering content is the basic mandate of the mass media. The media deals with producing content for the electronic channels, print, and the internet. One of the main functions that the media does in its delivery of services is the selection of the content to be delivered. This is because time and space are limited resources to the media. It is a difficult decision-making process to decide what they will include and exclude from content coverage. Therefore, it means that there are some stories that never make it to the audience through mass media. Both internal and external factors influence what is to be included in the content to be covered by mass media houses. The first and most conspicuous one is the…… [Read More]
Representation of Women Through Media Has Changed From 1960s
How representation of women through media has changed from the 1960s
Susan Douglas suggests that fifty years ago, mass media existed in the form of music, television, and magazines. However, she suggest that the journey has been tough owing to the manner in, which the media represents women. The media used a sexist imagery to represent women, especially women who took part in music. Although researchers suggest that the media is a powerful tool, she suggests that the public had an option to resist the media by turning off their television, or ignoring advertisements in the magazines (Douglas 1995). Mass media had substantial influence on the social, cultural, economic, spiritual, political, and religious phases of the society as well as personal level thinking, feeling, and acting. Notably, mass media has both a good side and a bad side; it is insidious…… [Read More]
War coverage-Media obsession
To argue about the role of media in our lives would be only redundant since we already know and acknowledge the influence of media over our perception of the world. How the various news media including newspapers, television, radio and more recently Internet affect our thinking and shape our perception requires some close analysis of the way these agencies gather and present news. There is an interesting process that works behind the seemingly simple task of news presentation. For one the media is almost always biased regardless of how they defend their impartiality. We must remember that journalists are capable of molding our perception because they have a certain hidden agenda and if they were unbiased in their opinion, they would have had little impact on our thinking. In an unbiased news piece, it is up to the viewer or reader to decide whom he would side…… [Read More]
Contribution of the Media in the Disintegration of the Hispanic Community
Hispanic identity is a spectrum. There are numerous cultures and ethnicities that compose the Latin American identity. epresentations of Latinos and Hispanics on American television are limited and reflect cultural bias. There are rarely depictions of successful Hispanic business owners or as government agents/employees. Only in the past few decades has attention be formally paid to the quality and quantity of Latino representations in American media. epresentations of this group have increased since the late 20th century, yet there are still relatively scarce representations of Latinos, and many of the ones that are present are stereotypical. Stereotypical depictions of Latin Americans on television impact non-Latinos' perceptions and attitudes toward Hispanics. Hispanics are affected by media representations of their heritage that results in a reshaping of the cultural identity and potentially harming the self-esteem of Hispanic people. Other Hispanics,…… [Read More]
Safeguarding the privacy of the respondents is vital. Setting a certain criteria to guarantee the security and privacy of the respondents will be useful like informing the respondents that their names will be kept confidential, their location and company will be mentioned only if they give their consent, participation is completely voluntary, and it cannot be imposed. In any way, no such information will be publicized that can help to identify or recognize the respondent unless the respondent himself ask for publicizing his personal info.
1. How would you describe the current balance of social media vs. traditional advertising and marketing?
2. Are the types of consumers targeted with online vs. traditional advertising different and if so in what way?
3. Have you considered using social media for advertised your business and if so what do you see as some of the benefits?
4. Do you think social…… [Read More]
people internet mobile media change ways news created received? How change power relationship traditional news organisations 'audiences'?hat benefits drawbacks developments?
Internet's Effect on the News Industry
The internet is responsible for having revolutionized virtually all domains, given that more and more individuals come to break away from conventionality and embrace the internet. The media and news devices in particular have been severely affected as a result of the fact that the internet has experienced progress in the recent years. It is very important for someone who wants to succeed in the contemporary society to be acquainted with the internet, as most of today's affairs occur on the internet. People in the present are inclined to surf the internet when they want to check out the latest news, as it provides them with the opportunity to select the exact news that they are interested in, without having them watch a whole…… [Read More]
Social Media/Workplace Conflict
Every day, most of us create permanent records of our lives and the things we do through our Internet use, emails, texts, tweets, blogs, and similar technology. Information intended for friends and family can sometimes be disseminated more widely than expected or planned. Unless one avoids these technologies altogether -- a difficult feat in today's society -- one can no longer be assured that a private life is truly private. Further complicating the issue is the use of these technologies in the workplace. The line between our public and private selves continues to blur. Current legislation is aimed at protecting privacy rights of employees in balance with employers' concerns about the use of social media during work hours and, in some cases, with the use of employer-owned devices. Legal issues can quickly become complex and there is not sufficient practical guidance to help employers navigate an increasingly…… [Read More]
Multifaceted Media epresentations of Mental Illness in Australia
In the 21st century, the age of the digital and social media revolutions, as well as the age that demands information, media, and technological literacy from the average person, it is becoming common and respected knowledge that all forms of media have the power to influence behavior and attitudes. Media is a form of communication, entertainment, and education. While most media is not generally considered as contributing to normative/institutional education, media educates viewers nonetheless. Media educates viewers as to how to participate in various cultures by practicing similar beliefs, rituals, behaviors, attitudes, and preferences and more. Media teaches culture, whatever the culture may be. It is a common experience of the human condition to feel pressure to conform at various stages of life. The paper analyzes and reflects upon the messages the media sends viewers regarding attitudes of people with mental illnesses.…… [Read More]
women political candidates social media differently men? Does social media ultimately empower hurt women politics? Cite "Digital Divas" Essay 2: We 200 million girls world don't attend school.
How do women political candidates use social media differently than men?
The number of women on social networks far outnumber men. Statistics also show that women use social media as their preferred modes of communication compared to men. Generally, politics is thought to be a male dominated field. On social media, it is believed that outsiders and newcomers to politics are favored. This makes social networks to be an asset to women political candidates. This is because in the male dominated field, they are often the minority or newcomers and receive preferential treatment on social media Gelber, 2011()
Gender and communication experts suggest that social media is a better form of communication for women since they are better at writing…… [Read More]
Societal Themes and Media
Several different themes, narratives and ideas of the society are taken up by the media and presented to the masses in many different ways. In some cases, the purpose behind this adaptation is pure entertainment, meanwhile in the other cases; the media tries to put forth a message for the population[footnoteRef:1]. Media has the potential to positively as well as negatively affect the thought process of the people pertaining to any story, theme or narrative[footnoteRef:2]. In this paper, the theme or concept of having a fair skin, as a key to all kinds of success, in the Indian subcontinent and South Asia shall be discussed in its relationship with the media. [1: Barthes and Lavers 1972] [2: Eco 1982]
The preference of fair skin in the subcontinent- An Overview
Color has always created issues in the society. hen we talk about the est, we can see…… [Read More]