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Effective Media elations Campaign -- Particularly since the events of 9/11, Emergency Management and Disaster elief organizations are in clear view of the media and public. People have viewed first-hand the actions of New York City Fire Fighters and Police; they saw numerous agencies work the Katrina disaster, and they have certain expectations of transparency and information during crisis situations. While Emergency Management has been a part of urban civilization for thousands of years, most people in the United States grew up during the Cold War Era, in which Emergency Management was based on the Civil Defense paradigm, even though it dealt with natural disasters, weather and other civil issues. Emergency Management is visible when events occur (hurricanes, flooding, bombs, etc.) but is really only as powerful and effect as its pre-Crisis planning and risk reduction management allows (Haddow, 2004, 2-4).
A Media elations plan for a disaster…
Boyes, J. (2010). How to Put Together a Crisis Management Plan. Suite101.com. Retrieved from: http://suite101.com/article/how-to-put-together-a-crisis-management-plan
Devlin, E. (2006). Crisis Management Planning and Execution. Boca Raton, FL: Auerbach Publications.
Fink, Steven. (2002). Crisis Management: Planning for the Inevitable. Lincoln, NE: IUniverse Publishers.
Haddow, George. (2007). Introduction to Emergency Management, 3rd ed. New York: Butterworth.
Ted’s current conflict with George highlights a relatively common conflict in media relations and communications in general. While Ted could have done a better job communicating his position to his ally, George, he was not “wrong” in any way, and neither was George. George could have done a better job as a communications specialist and finance journalist by asking more probing questions that might have enabled or encouraged Ted to open up more. Likewise, Ted could have done a better job as the firm’s media relations specialist by presenting ABC’s position more comprehensively. Ted certainly needed a more comprehensive media relations strategy, but George is simply displacing his own responsibility for a poor job by blaming Ted.
Salvaging Ted and George’s relationship will require compassion and emotional intelligence on both their parts. Ted needs to understand George’s position. George risks serious repercussions for losing the story by being outdone by…
Salzman, M. (2016). Media relations: still important. Forbes. Retrieved online: https://www.forbes.com/sites/mariansalzman/2016/06/03/media-relations-still-important/#30f1241727f0
Zoch, L.M. & Molleda, J.C. (2010). Building a theoretical model of media relations using framing, information subsidies, and agenda-building. In Botan, C.H. (Ed.) Public Relations Theory. Routledge.
measures taken by governments and concerned authorities in disseminating information about impending natural calamities is a laudable gesture. It shows the care of the authorities towards its subjects appreciably. These communiques passed on through the many media are useful to not only take preventative measures and warding off more casualties when forewarned but also undertake rapid rescue actions where a calamity has struck. Natural calamities have both immediate as well as long-term effects. The personnel manning such communication facilities have to take split-second decisions in choosing the most effective way of passing on the risk situations that they receive. The issue discussed here is "what are the constituents of natural risk communication and also how such information should be meaningfully, economically, and securely delivered (Ahmad, et al., 2011).
In recent times, the environmental disaster is not a thing in passing. They are occurring with increasing frequency worldwide. It has started…
Ahmad, F., Mustafa, N., Rahim, S., Basri, F.K., Ahmad, A.L., & Aziz, J. (2011). Confronting Environmental Risk via Communication. The Innovation Journal: The Public Sector Innovation Journal.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. CDC Learns from Katrina, Plans for Pandemic. 22nd November, 2006. Retrieved from: http://www.cdc.gov/news/2006_11/katrina.htm
Department of Homeland Security. Plan and Prepare for Disasters. 27th December, 2013. Retrieved from: http://www.dhs.gov/topic/plan-and-prepare-disasters
Facebook.2011. "Statistics."Retrieved December 29, 2011, from www.facebook.com/press/info.php?statistics
Media Control in Egypt
The media in Egypt is much more controlled than in many other countries, including the United States. That control began with President Gamal Abdel Nasser, moved through Anwar Sadat, and then on to Hosni Mubarak. During that time, the television and newspapers were strictly controlled, and only what the president wanted people to see was placed in them. There is significant evidence that the control of the media in Egypt was done largely to oppress the people, and to make sure they were only hearing and seeing what the government wanted them to hear and see. Social, political, and economic factors are all significant in the control of the Egyptian media, which many believe should be uncontrolled and independent. That would allow it to provide actual, factual information, instead of only what the government agreed that the people were allowed to know.
The Egyptian media…
Amin, Hussein, and I- Chapter One: General Status. "Report on the State of the Media in Egypt." The Arab Center for the Development of the Rule of Law and Integrity Project Title: Strengthening the Rule of Law and Integrity in the Arab World Report on the State of the Media in Egypt Second Draft Author: Dr. Hussein Amin. Arab Rule of Law. (n.d.). Web.
"Egypt." Freedom House. 2012. Web.
Elmasry, Mohamed Hamas. Journalism with Restraint: A Comparative Content Analysis of Independent, Government, and Opposition Newspapers in Pre-Revolution Egypt. 2012. Web.
El Zahed, Hala. "Egyptian Press and the Transition to Democracy." Egyptian Press and the Transition to Democracy: A Study of the Conditions and Challenges Facing National Print Media Post. 2011. Web.
Vietnam films have rewritten the winners and the losers of that saga and action-adventure films reinforce cultural norms of violence and power (175). Despite the increased real presence of women in positions of power, often media representations of women and other formerly disenfranchised groups remain stereotyped or relegated to marginal or token roles, although this is changing. Still, certain outlets like women's magazines often function as advertisements that perpetuate corporate images that make women feel worse, rather than better about themselves (188). Furthermore, a hegemonic ideology is implied by supposedly mainstream news organizations. Consider the construct of 'economic news.' This implies that the 'economy' is in a neat little box, and that social issues of race and political disenfranchisement, limits on wealth and access to education and power, have no role in who possess wealth and who lacks wealth in society. Economics as separate from other issues is essentially an…
Media Presentation Analyzation: Design & Ethical Relationships
The war in the Middle East is an example of an on-going media presentation that is covered in the radio, television and on the Internet. More recently covered are the accounts of the beheadings of those kidnapped and in yesterday's news, of numerous people killed or wounded in the Iraqi car blasts in Najaf, Iraq. This paper will examine the design and ethical relationships of the media's presentation of the war in Iraq using the attached article downloaded off the Internet for the analysis. It will examine television and the new media environment of the Web, for both have become central in determining both the design and ethical dimensions of the media's coverage of the war in the Middle East.
Turning on the television means establishing a connection with the place of broadcasting and being literally and continually present at the birth of…
Bruce, B.C. (2000), "Credibility of the Web: Why we need dialectical reading," Journal of Philosophy of Education, vol. 34, no. 1, pp.97-109.
Design -- Media Presentation Analysis
Glasser's, Awad's, and Kim's study analyzes how four newspapers have written from different points-of-view relating to the same event. Two of the newspapers have written professionally, without attempting to influence the readers in any way. In contrast, the other two newspapers have written so that the public would get a wrong idea of the incident. Just as in the present case, it is normal for media services from within a local community to write differently than bigger, more specialized, media services. The journalists from the two newspapers which have distorted reality and have written the articles from their own points-of-view belong to the community involved in the incident discussed. The respective journalists have turned an ordinary conflict (between the officials and their community over the building of a mall) into a cry for help from a community presumably discriminated for years.
It is of no relevance whether or not the…
Glasser, T.L. & Awad I. & Kim J.W. (2009). The Claims of Multiculturalism and Journalism's Promise of Diversity. Journal of Communication, 59: 57-58.
A in millions)
Current in millions)
Provided by Federal ureau of Investigation as of September 18, 2006. www.whitehouse.gov/goodbye/3ae6b1ac94aa97e6650780f280890a7c81100e47.html"
CHART: National Correctional Populations
National Correctional Populations
The number of adults in correctional population has been increasing.
A in millions)
Current million in millions)
Provided by ureau of Justice Statistics as of November 30, 2006. (Social Statistics riefing Room, 2006)
Violence in the Media
Huston and colleagues have estimated that the average 18-year-old will have viewed 200,000 acts of violence on television (Huston, a.C., Donnerstein, E., Fairchild, H. et al. ig World, Small Screen: The Role of Television in American Society. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press, 1992.)
41% percent of American households have three or more televisions (Nielsen Media Research, 2000).
56% of children ages 8-16 have a television in their rooms (Annenberg Public Policy Center, 2000. Media in the Home 2000)
Percentage of television-time children ages 2-7 spend…
Alter, Jonathan. "Moving Beyond the Blame Game. (Panel Discussion)," Newsweek, May 17, 1999.
Beyer, John. "PERSPECTIVE: How movie and TV violence hits children; Is there too much violence on television and is it time to curb it? John Beyer, director of the organization mediawatch-uk argues that media viol," Birmingham Post, March 21, 2007.
Chatfield, Joanne E.. "Influence of Media Violence on Children." American Family Physician, February 15, 2002.
Children's Hospital Boston. "Teen-Rated Video Games Loaded With Violence;
Thirdly, the growing up-to-the-minute exposure of the journalists to the physicality of the war detracted from the big picture and instead exaggerated the importance of singular happenings and specific events.
It is in the loss of the big picture that the Bush regime is most able to capitalize on its military's control of the press. While in the 1990s, the President's father struggled with "pooled" journalists and the lack of coherent and stable eye witness accounts, the current President instead embedded an army of over 700 journalists inside the United tate's military campaign as they waged war on the unsuspecting Iraqis.
There is a pretty fine line between being embedded and being entombed," observed Dan Rather in response to the Gulf War of the 1990s.
With the American journalists and those internationally desiring the protection of the winning force fully embedded with the American soldiers at war, the military operation…
Sides, Hampton. "Unembedded." The New Yorker. March 24, 2003.
Jamail, Dahr. "Fallujah: How not to Handle Insurgency." The Arab-American News, April 27th.
Morford, p. 2.
But Martin Lawrence bugs out his eyes a little and he's a coon. It makes no sense.'7
The defense seems somewhat warranted. After all, if all characters in the sitcom Martin were white, and acted the same way, such behavior would be attributed to the standard stupidity showcased on television. Much like the quote earlier about sitcoms and stereotypes leveling things, television in general fails to showcase the brightest and most sublime of human endeavors.
Lawrence is not alone in criticisms aimed at contemporary black actors. In her essay, "Stereotypes of History: Reconstructing Truth and the Black Mammy," Jennifer Kowalski claims, "actors such as Martin Lawrence, Eddie Murphy, and Tyler Perry, have once again recycled the first existence of the Mammy/Aunt Jemima character." The "mammy" stereotype is "represented as full-figured women with strong and defensive attitudes, especially toward men who may bring harm to their loved ones." Lawrence recently starred…
Aristotle. "Poetics." The Norton Anthology of Theory and Criticism. Ed. Vincent B.
Leitch. New York. W.W. Norton and Company, 2001, 90-117.
"Blackboard Jungle Fever." Martin. By John Bowman. Martin Lawrence, Tisha
Campbell-Martin, Carl Anthony Payne II, Thomas Mikal Ford. The WB. January
One reporter for the New York Daily News rants, "Come on, let's be serious…if anything is clear, it is that the trip of the famous couple to Havana has exposed the travel ban as what it is: a senseless, anachronistic and anti-democratic policy, contrary to U.S. interests and values," (uiz, 2013).
What was done to resolve the controversy?
There has yet to be a clear resolution to the controversy, but the expression of symbolic free speech on the part of Beyonce and Jay-Z has deepened the discourse about the purpose and effectiveness of the Cuba embargo. The celebrity visit has caused new dialogue about Cuban-American relations and the meaning behind the ongoing travel ban Many Americans do not give much thought to the travel ban; but Cuban-Americans take the ban personally. Now that the Cold War is over, it does not seem to make much sense to have an embargo.…
Boesveld, S. (2013). Beyonce and Jay-Z's Cuba jaunt sparks uproar as U.S. politicians accuse Obama of breaking tourism embargo. National Post. April 9, 2013. Retrieved online: http://news.nationalpost.com/2013/04/09/beyonce-and-jay-zs-cuba-jaunt-sparks-uproar-as-u-s-politicians-accuse-obama-of-breaking-tourism-embargo/
Brown, H. (2013). How the GOP response to Beyonce's Cuba trip highlights broken policy. Think Progress. April 9, 2013. Retrieved online: http://thinkprogress.org/security/2013/04/09/1838661/rubio-beyonce-cuba/?mobile=nc
Hudson, D.L. (n.d.). Posts tagged 'nonverbal expression.' Inside the First Amendment. Retrieved online: http://www.firstamendmentcenter.org/tag/nonverbal-expression
Peralta, E. (2013). Treasury: Jay-Z and Beyonce Traveled to Cuba on U.S.-Approved Trip. NPR: The Two-Way. Retrieved online: http://www.npr.org/blogs/thetwo-way/2013/04/09/176732458/treasury-jay-z-and-beyonce-travelled-to-cuba-on-u-s-approved-trip
Yes, the Oedipus complex aspect of Shakespeare it gives us and which in turn invites us to think about the issue of subjectivity, the myth and its relation to psychoanalytic theory. (Selfe, 1999, p292-322)
Hemlet and Postcolonial theory
Postcolonial theory was born as a result of the publication of the famous work of Edward Said, Orientalism (1978). This theory claim that some authors (Paul Gilroy, Achille Mbembe, Francoise Verges, etc.) and that seem so elegant in its formulation, in my opinion raises three fundamental problems: At a time when we are witnessing the emergence of new expressions of colonialism (colonialism, cultural, political and economic globalization, neo-colonialism nestled in the relationship between the hegemonic colonial past and their old colonies, colonialism in disguise that structure the relationship between international institutions and developing countries, institutions from the rest behest of the former colonial powers according to their interests), speak of post-colonial era…
Aragay, Mireia, and Gemma Lopez. 2005. "Inflecting Pride and Prejudice: Dialogism, Intertextuality, and Adaptation." Books in Motion: Adaptation, Intertextuality, Authorship. Ed. Mireia Aragay. Amsterdam and New York: Rodopi, p201-19.
Aragay, Mireia, ed. 2005. Books in Motion: Adaptation, Intertextuality, Authorship. Amsterdam and New York: Rodopi, p88-96.
Baetens, Jan. 2007. "From Screen to Text: Novelization, the Hidden Continent." The Cambridge Companion to Literature on Screen. Ed. Deborah Cartmell and Imelda Whelehan. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, p226-38.
Balides, Constance. 2000. "Jurassic Post-Fordism: Tall Tales of Economics in the Theme Park." Screen 4 I .2: p139-60.
Media Negatively Affects the Body Image Concerns of Adolescent Girls
Among adolescent girls, body image concerns are not uncommon. The hypothesis of this paper believes that media negatively affects the body image concerns of adolescent girls. The independent variable is the adolescent girls and the dependent variable is the media. This is because adolescent girls can be affected by a lot of other things when it concerns body image, this can come in the form of their peers, society and even history. These variables can affect the concerns on body image of adolescent girls in both a positive and a negative way. However, this paper will only discuss the negative affects which body images are supplied by media to adolescent girls with.
The theoretical approach which best suits this study is the Psychodynamic Approach. This is because the concerns regarding body images are implanted in the minds of these adolescent…
Anschutz, D.J., Van Strien, T., & Engels, R.C. (2008). Exposure to Slim Images in Mass Media: Television Commercials as Reminders of Restriction in Restrained Eaters. Health Psychology. 27(4); 401-408.
Cheng, H.L. & Mallinckrodt (2009). Parental Bonds, Anxious Attachment, Media Internalization, and Body Image Dissatisfaction: Exploring a Mediation Model. Journal of Counseling Psychology. 56(5); 365-375.
Clark, L., & Tiggemann, M. (2008). Sociocultural and Individual Psychological Predictors of Body Image in Young Girls: A Prospective Study. Developmental Psychology. 44(4); 1124-1134.
Dohnt, H. & Tiggemann, M. (2006). The Contribution of Peer and Media Influences to the Development of Body Satisfaction and Self-Esteem in Young Girls: A Prospective Study. Developmental Psychology. 42(5); 929-936.
The ad also says that it is America's #1 weight loss patch. Says who? Just them. There does not appear to be any proof that backs up any of the claims that they make in regards to this product.
Advertising is an essential part of marketing. The intention of an ad campaign is to reach a lot in order to increase the demand for the products being endorsed. In this campaign the advertisers used Highlighting Features. The features of the product should be clearly stated. An advertisement campaign that talks on and on about a product without affirming its features will fail to do any good. A high-quality weight loss product campaign should start by discussing about that the weight loss product has been designed to help people lose weight fast, or lose weight safely or lose weight without regaining the lost weight. People who are troubled about losing weight…
Advertisement Techniques: Creative Advertising Techniques and Tricks. (2010). Retrieved May
1, 2010, from Buzzle Web site: http://www.buzzle.com/articles/advertisement-techniques-creative-advertising-techniques-and-tricks.html
Baker, Sherry and. Martinson, David L. (2001). The TARES Test: Five Principles for Ethical
Persuasion. Journal of Mass Media Ethics.16 (2&3), p, 148 -- 175.
Media portrayals of nurses and the nursing profession influences public perceptions. In fact, many viewers will have spent more time watching fictionalized accounts than actual interactions with nurses. Media portrayals affect how nurses are treated, and how their roles and status are negotiated in their professional life. Some of the most problematic portrayals of nurses on film and television include the show Scrubbing In, which depicts nurses as “self-centered, uncaring, unprofessional, and unintelligent,” (Berkowitz, n.d., p. 1). The negative view of nurses as coldhearted extends also from the film One Flew Over the Cuckoo’s Nest, in which Nurse Ratchett is one of the main antagonists.
Nurses have alternatively been positioned in subordinate roles, without reference to their education, training and competencies (Muehlbauer, 2012). In some media accounts, nurses are turned into sexual fetishes or in a “demeaning role,” (Talesnik, 2015). The situation may even be worse for male nurses, highlighting…
Therefore the pubic relations specialist has to be conscious and fully aware of his or her role as intermediary between the organization and the public. This is particularly true of P specialists who work for government and organizations affecting health and the environment.
An example of social responsible P marketing is marketing that;
Identifies areas where the firm can make a positive difference.
Makes sure local media are aware.
Informs and involve employees.
Invests in advertising and public relations to highlight the firm's efforts.
Public elations, egulations and Sponsorship Programs)
In terms of the external responsibilities and functions of the P officer in an organization, media relations often take priority. The P specialist is trained to communicate and to enable the media to write and present the organization in a light that is conducive to the good image of the company.
In order to achieve these functions the public relations…
Public Relations Specialists. Retrieved 18 February, 2007, at http://www.bls.gov/oco/ocos086.htm
Public Relations, Regulations and Sponsorship Programs. Retrieved 18 February, 2007, at http://126.96.36.199/search?q=cache:eLqM0aWlAxgJ:www.cob.sjsu.edu/vitale_r/clowch13Selected.ppt+social+function+of+Public+relations&hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=35&gl=za
Virtual Communities - Social Implications of Public Relations. Retrieved 18 February, 2007, at http://wiki.media-culture.org.au/index.php/Virtual_Communities_in_Public_Relations_-_Social_Implications
American Corporations and the Media, 1890-1940
American corporations have never been reticent to use available media to reach their goals, and in the years between 1890 and 1940, there are impressive examples of how U.S. corporate interests have utilized various media to realize additional profit and power -- sometimes employing unorthodox and unethical methods. This paper delves into instances of corporate use of media, and points to the dynamics that allowed those associations to flourish.
"Today's critics of media conglomerates fail to grasp the reality that corporate power, in league with the state, [has] made a mockery of prospects for a democratic global media system… [and it's vital to recognize that] the U.S. radio industry subsequently followed a similar pattern of monopolization in the 1920s…" (Peterson, 2004, p. 86).
Author James Schwoch points to the fact that the American radio industry had a profound impact on Latin American activities between…
Belrose, John S. (1994). Fessenden and the Early History of Radio Science. The Radioscientist,
Forrest, Wilbur. (1925). Political Notes: Ford Speaks. Time Magazine. Retrieved June 17,
2011, from http://www.time.com/time/printout/0,8816,720534,00.html .
promotional strategy may be defined as a way to optimize sales advertising, public relations, personal selling, and sales promotion. Promotion is one critical component of the overall marketing mix of price, place, promotion, and product. Promotional mixes today include social media as well as traditional advertising. Promotional strategies must effectively communicate the competitive advantage that can be secured by using the product, including quality, speed of delivery, low prices, or other unique features.
Although promotion can seem like a mysterious, complicated process, it is essentially about communicating effectively. Promotional messages can be communicated individually, as in the case of a personalized sales pitch, or on a mass level. The communications process in all instances is defined as sending; encoding the message; sending the message through a message channel; decoding the message; and receiving the message. The receiver and sender are on a continual feedback channel although 'noise' can obfuscate the…
Authors explain: "hen software is usable it is easy and efficient to use, easy to remember, has few errors and is subjectively pleasing" (Silius, Kailanto, and Tervakari 506).
Other categories are equally important. The added value assesses whether there is anything new or special for the user. Accessability is important because social media outlets are designed for individuals who contribute content in different contexts. Privacy and security deals with protecting the users, while the motivating factors looks at how rewarding the participation for the user is, whether it takes into account all users (beginners, advanced users, etc.), whether it provides personalization and maintaining of interest, and whether it makes it easy to follow the development in the media. The web tool evaluates information reliability by assessing "accuracy, authority, objectivity, currency, and coverage" (Silius, Kailanto, and Tervakari 506).
The approach presented by Silius, Kailanto, and Tervakari is a good example of…
Gayo-Avello, Daniel. "Don't Turn Social Media into another 'Literary Digest' Poll." Association for Computing Machinery.Communications of the ACM 54.10 (2011): 7. ProQuest Research Library. Web. 28 Nov. 2011.
Silius, Kirsi, Meri Kailanto and Anne-Maritta Tervakari. "Evaluating the Quality of Social Media in an Educational Context." 2011 IEEE Global Engineering Education Conference. 4 Apr. 2011. Web. 26 Nov. 2011
Pauline Howes, et al. "An Examination Of The Role Of Online Social Media In Journalists' Source Mix." Public Relations Review 35.3 (2009): 314-316. Academic Search Premier. Web. 27 Nov. 2011.
YORK, JILLIAN C. "The Revolutionary Force Of Facebook And Twitter." Nieman Reports 65.3 (2011): 49. MasterFILE Premier. Web. 26 Nov. 2011.
Safeguarding the privacy of the respondents is vital. Setting a certain criteria to guarantee the security and privacy of the respondents will be useful like informing the respondents that their names will be kept confidential, their location and company will be mentioned only if they give their consent, participation is completely voluntary, and it cannot be imposed. In any way, no such information will be publicized that can help to identify or recognize the respondent unless the respondent himself ask for publicizing his personal info.
1. How would you describe the current balance of social media vs. traditional advertising and marketing?
2. Are the types of consumers targeted with online vs. traditional advertising different and if so in what way?
3. Have you considered using social media for advertised your business and if so what do you see as some of the benefits?
4. Do you think social…
Bryant, J., & Zillmann, D. (2002). Media Effects: Advances in Theory and Research. Mahwah: Lawerence Erlbaum Associate.
Curran, J. (2002). Media and Power. London: Routledge.
Bryant, J., & Zillmann, D. (1994). Media Effects: Advances in Theory and Research. Hillsdale: Lawerence Erlbaum Associates.
Franklin, B. (1999). Social Policy, the Media, and Misrepresentation. London: Routledge.
1) A great idea to introduce a company to social media websites like Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, Pinterest, and YouTube?
It is hard to imagine a business surviving without some social media presence. Introducing a business to social media is important for several reasons. The first and most obvious is that social media is a marketing tool, and a flexible one. Various forms of social media, or social media platforms, allow the company to deliver a cohesive, consistent message using multimedia. For example, Pinterest and Instagram rely primarily on visuals like video and photos. Companies can use Pinterest and Instagram to promote their products visually on these platforms. The company can use visual platforms to ensure their imagery and logos are consistent with their brand image and identity. Twitter and Facebook use visual and video data, too, but also offer opportunities for verbal discourse. Companies can use these sites to reach…
Public Relations in Lebanon
his study described and analyzed the perceptions and practices of public relations in Lebanon. It focused specifically on media relations and was based on Grunig's (1984) theoretical framework of four models of public relations: press agentry, public information, two-way asymmetrical, and two-way symmetrical.
A review of the literature was conducted that revealed a debate about whether public relations can be practiced the same way all over the world (Gruban, 1995) or if certain localized practices should be considered for each nation (Sharpe, 1992).
he research design was a triangulated method. Data were collected using a written survey questionnaire and telephone interviews with Lebanese public relations practitioners. he results showed that all four of the Grunig models were practiced in Lebanon, with the two-way symmetrical model the most popular. Evidence collected from this research supported the hypothesis of this study that public relations can be globalized despite…
The Republic of Lebanon is located on the eastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea, surrounded by Israel from the south, Syria from the east and the north, and the Mediterranean Sea from the west. Lebanon is one of the smallest sovereign countries in the world. The length of the whole country is 220 kilometers (135 miles) from South to North and varies between 20-55 miles from East to West. The area is 10,425 square kilometers (3,950 square miles) (Embassy of Lebanon, 2002). Lebanon is a democracy based on a parliamentary democratic political regime. Similar to Western democracies, the government consists of three branches: an executive, a legislative, and an independent judiciary.
The economy is a liberal capitalist one.
Lebanon's population of four million
media / favorite form media. You choose . Analysis
In my opinion, the most preferable form of mass media is the fairly conventional compact disc. CDs are an excellent sociological tool in learning about one's environment and the relevant issues that affect society today. Additionally, CD's allow for a highly limited form of intervention between the message that the music artist is attempting to convey and its reception by the listener. Conversely, I believe that one of the least preferable forms of media is the internet. Despite the fact that there are vast amounts of information accessible to users on it, there are a number of ways in which using the internet inherently impinges on the privacy of a particular user. Cookies and other sorts of intelligence metrics track the particular activity of people. Moreover, this capability of the internet, when combined with aspects of data governance, data stewardship, and…
Godwin, Allotey. "Libertarian V. Social Responsibility." Allotey Godwin. http://alloteygodwin.blogspot.com/2009/05/libertarian-v-social-responsibility.html
No Author. "Introduction to Mass Communication." Zeepedia.com. No date. Web. http://www.zeepedia.com/read.php?media_theories_libertarian_theory_social_responsibility_theory_introduction_to_mass_communication&b=78&c=39
No author. "Theories of Communication." www.peoi.org. 2012. Web. http://www.peoi.org/Courses/Coursesar/mass/mass2.html
Naveed, Fakhar. "Normative Theories of Mass Communication." Ask For Mass. 2012. Web. http://mastermasscommunication.blogspot.com/2012/02/normative-theories-of-mass.html
New Media Implications
The improvement of internet and other technology and its ready availability to more and more people has revolutionized the structure and population of the media around the world. People that would normally be members of the audience have become the creators of news and vice versa. The lines that separate news makers and people that normally would be making news or expected to make news have blurred significantly and in several different ways. There are many examples of countries that could be focused on for this subject but one of the best is the United States.
There are multiple ways in which the structure of news creators has changed and evolved over recent months and years. One way in which the idea regarding audience and news sources has been altered significantly is the corporate structure of the people that are providing the news. The companies…
Babad, E. (2005). The Psychological Price of Media Bias. Journal of Experimental
Psychology. 11 (4), 245-255.
Barkow, J., O'Gorman, R. & Rendell, L. (2012). Are The New Mass Media Subverting
Cultural Transmission. Review of General Psychology. 16 (2), 121-133.
media is playing a major influence in determining how the general public will look at what is occurring. In the case of the Arizona immigration law, (a.k.a. Arizona S 1070) it is giving the authorities the power to arrest, detain and deport illegal immigrants. To fully understand the media coverage of this issue requires: examining the message they are portraying, the way it is affecting public perceptions, how it is impacting the U.S. economy and what inclusion strategies could be utilized to moderate the effects of the media. Once this occurs, it will provide the greatest insights as to how this law could be redefining the overall scope of the debate on this issue based upon the coverage that it is receiving. (Archibald, 2010)
What message does the media piece try to portray? Is it biased? Was it sensationalized or objective?
The message that media is trying to portray is…
Archibald, R. (2010). Arizona Enacts Stringent Law. New York Times. Retrieved from: http://www.nytimes.com/2010/04/24/us/politics/24immig.html
What does Arizona's Immigration Law Do? CNN. com. Retrieved from: http://articles.cnn.com/2010-04-23/politics/immigration.faq_1_arizona-immigration-law-reform-sb1070?_s=PM:POLITICS
media consumption and subsequent behaviour?
Profiling the criminal behavior of rampage perpetrators is one of the main areas of focus in the social science research community. Gender, mental health issues, social exclusion, genetic susceptibility or predisposition, and ultimately, violent media, are most of the factors that guide researchers in the field, seeking to develop broader frameworks of understanding rampage violence. Over the past three decades, 78 cases of public mass shootings have been registered by the Congressional Research Service (2013). An FI report indicated a rise in typical mass shootings, from 6.4 incidents occurring between 2000 and 2007 to an average of 16.4 incidents between 2007 and 2013 (2013). Most of these public mass shootings have been found to occur either at workplaces or at schools across the United States.
The proliferation of mass shootings over these past few decades has further brought into the public and academic's attention the…
Anderson, C.A., Berkowitz, L., Donnerstein, E., Huesmann, L.R., Johnson, J.D., Linz, D., Malamuth, N.M. And Wartella, A., 2003. The influence of media violence on youth. Psychological Science in the Public interest, 4(3), pp. 81-110.
Berkowitz, L. And Geen R.G., 1966. Film violence and the cue properties of available targets. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 3(5), pp. 525-530. [pdf]
Bjorkqvist, K., 1985. Violent films, anxiety, and aggression. Helsinki: Finnish Society of Sciences and Letters.
Bushmann, B.J. And Huesmann, L.R., 2001. Effects of televised violence on aggression. In D. Singer and J. Singer, eds. Handbook of children and the media. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. pp. 223-254.
The topic of the proposal is related to media psychology and reality television. Media psychology is an interdisciplinary field that works in collaboration with fields such as neuroscience, computer science, international relations, and philosophy. Media psychology seeks to understand the perceptions, interpretations, uses, responses, and relationships among media and media consumers. Media psychology identifies both the benefits and the drawbacks of media consumption. Media psychology reads media as a text and as an entity with behaviors, relationships, and cultures. Media psychology receives increasing attention in the 21st century as the media landscape of the times is much more rich, diverse, and abundant than other periods in human history. Media is a much larger fixture in more people's lives around the world in the 21st century. The growing consensus among media critics, researchers, theorists, producers, consumers, and distributors is that media affects human behavior and attitudes. Therefore, the…
Bagdasarov, Z., Greene, K., Banerjee, S.C., Krcmar, M., Yanovitsky, I., & Ruginyte, D. (2010) I Am What I Watch: Voyeurism, Sensation Seeking, and Television Viewing Patterns. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 54(2), 299 -- 315.
Giles, D. (2003) Media Psychology. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates: Mahwah, New Jersey.
Hall, A. (2009) Perception of Authenticity of Reality Programs and Their Relationships to Audience Involvement, Enjoyment, and Perceived Learning. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 53(4), 515 -- 531.
Reiss, S, & Wiltz, J. (2004) Why People Watch Reality TV. Media Psychology, 6, 363 -- 378.
The argument being advanced is that since, the Muslim extremists were responsible for the 9/11 disaster, the construction of the Muslim religious center would inculcate the jihad teachings and dishonor to the memory of the 9/11 victims. The question one would ask is this, what about the strip clubs, bars and other activities that are zero blocks away from the hallowed ground, do they honor the victims of the attacks. Consequently, it can be argued that Politicians and anti-Muslim groups found an easier way to agitate the crowds by exploitation of their Islamophobic instincts with the aid of the media framing of the issue. In same the interview, what comes out clearly is that Pamela fights against what she perceives as Islamization of America as opposed to Americanization of Islam. he later describes the center, which she refers to as ground zero mosque as a war memorial against the Americans…
Stone, D.A. (2002). Policy paradox: The art of political decision making. New York: Norton.
Payser, a (May 13, 2010).Mosque madness at Ground Zero.
Consumers often do not know that, for example, Disney owns ABC, when they are watching ABC present an ostensibly objective business story about the children's entertainment industry. Consumers may have the illusion of choice because they are watching different channels, without realizing that they may be watching many channels, all owned by the same network or media mogul.
Fewer media outlets means less diversity in terms of the range of news stories that is covered, not simply ideology. A narrower range of what is deemed 'important' and 'newsworthy' limits consumer awareness about the world. Although channels have proliferated, watching more channels does not necessarily translate into a new perspective, or even more knowledge. Gaining an audience is an expensive and daunting task for new media companies and FCC regulations that would allow for more mergers, permitting consolidation of up to 45% control in a geographic market, would make it all…
Blosser, Larry (2010l). Introduction. The case against media consolidation: Evidence on concentration, localism and diversity. Edited by Mark Cooper. Retrieved May 5, 2010 at http://www.fordham.edu/images/undergraduate/communications/caseagainstmediaconsolidation.pdf
The Fairness Doctrine. (2003). PBS. Retrieved May 5, 2010 at http://www.pbs.org/now/politics/fairness.html
This makes using the Internet much more desirable for advertisers, who may soon be unwilling to advertise in newspapers at all, especially as the current age demographic of news readers begins to taper off with the inevitable consequences of aging.
Of course, it could be argued that people have always had access to free content in the form of libraries, which did not result in the demise of paid, print media. The convenience of reading a book, however, has become less of a factor as laptops grow more streamlined and because of innovations like Amazon's Kindle, which enables users to access printed content on a small, easily transported computer device. In fact, even libraries themselves are becoming more digitally-based, as college students can research journals online from their dorm bedrooms, and many academic journals, facing small subscription pools and high costs of production, are shifting to an online format.
More Americans turning to the web for news." (1 Mar 2008). Reuters. Retrieved Jul 9, 2008 at http://www.reuters.com/article/technologyNews/idUSN2824760420080301
Greenspan, Brian, Theodore Olsen, & Brian Tierney. (28 Apr 2008). "The future of print media:
How to adapt to the digital age." Global Conference 2008. The Milken Institute. Retrieved Jul 9, 2008 at http://www.milkeninstitute.org/events/gcprogram.taf?function=detail&eventid=GC08&EvID=1356
Nakashima, Ryan. (7 Jul 2008). "Digital threat prompts movie industry downgrade." AP News
aising Media-Savvy Kids." (November/December 2004)
"Every one' knows the 'common sense' cliche -- television is bad, the mass media is bad, anything learned over the Internet is especially bad and of doubtful truth, and today's children would be better off in a technology free-zone, locked in stimulation-free rooms that are lit by candlelight and filled with nothing but volumes of the collected works of Shakespeare and perhaps conduct books from the past century.
Not so, says the author of "aising Media Savvy-Kids." The media, like so many things, must be approached with a 'use it or lose it' strategy by parents and educators. Use the media to your advantage, parents and educators, or lose children to the media's worst excesses. Disdain the media at your own risk!
ather than viewing the media with hostility and attempting to eradicate its presence from children's environments -- a Quixotic quest, at best…
Rather than viewing the media with hostility and attempting to eradicate its presence from children's environments -- a Quixotic quest, at best -- children must learn how to become good consumers of the media, and to use media strategies in intelligent and proactive ways, such as deploying positive public relations posters for good causes like 'Earth Day.'
In the article, one educator even compares media 'protections' of children as a kind of book burning, or censorship. Rather, she encourages critical and creative approaches to media consumption in her students. For example, she purchased a 1919 conduct book over eBay for young women of the turn of the century. The teacher read from it to the class, and encouraged students to critique this historical artifact.
This book, of course, was a media representation in and of itself. The implication is not simply, that one cannot stand against the changing technological tides of history -- but perhaps the good old days before the Internet and the mass media weren't as good or pure either, of misinformation and stereotypes!
New Media and Politics
Digital media has been extremely instrumental in the organization and expression of political protest. This case study will examine the impact of digital media and social networking and the importance it plays in contemporary political movements.
In the work entitled "New Media and Development Communication," stated is that modern mobile phones "…are transforming civilians into journalists." Columbia University, ITU Report, 2005, p.1) The report states that a critical role was played by mobile phones in the world receiving information about the pro-democracy protests in Myanmar" which involved 1,000 individuals being arrested and 30 to 40 monks and 50 to 70 civilians being killed. The report states specifically:
"Dissent turned into outrage as mobile phones transmitted grainy images of Myanmar's revered monks being beaten by junta security forces, 'Citizen Journalists' -- everyday citizens in Myanmar -- began surreptitiously recording video and taking photos of the…
Cagaptay, Soner (2012) Can Dictators Survive New Media. CNN Special Report. Retrieved from: http://globalpublicsquare.blogs.cnn.com/2012/02/10/can-dictators-survive-new-media/
Cottle, Simon (2011) Cell Phones, Camels, and the Global Call for Democracy (2011) Open Democracy. 27 Sept. 2011. Retrieved from: http://www.opendemocracy.net/simon-cottle/cell-phones-camels-and-global-call-for-democracy
New Media and Development Communication (2005) Columbia University, ITU Report, 2005.Retrieved from: http://www.columbia.edu/itc/sipa/nelson/newmediadev/Citizen%20journalism.html
Preston, Jennifer (2011) Social Media Gives Wall Street Protests a Global Reach. The New York Times. 15 Oct 2011. Retrieved from: http://mediadecoder.blogs.nytimes.com/2011/10/15/social-media-gives-wall-street-protests-a-global-reach/
Moreover, adolescence and young adulthood are periods of both increased anxiety about appearance and social acceptance as well as of greater dependence on the opinions and perceptions of others (Jones, Vigfusdottir, & Lee, 2004). That would seem to suggest that exposure to media images associated with beauty would have the greatest influence on the individual. This proposal is designed to test the relationship between exposure to images and other visual representations associated with physical beauty and the development of self-perception in the individual.
It is hypothesized that self-perception among adolescents and young adults with respect to relative physical attractiveness will vary directly in proportion to their degree of interest in and exposure to media images of beauty. The independent variable will be the exposure of subjects to various forms of media associated with a high degree of emphasis on physical attractiveness. The dependent variable will be the measure of…
Gerrig R. And Zimbardo P. (2008). Psychology and Life. Upper Saddle River, NJ:
Henslin JM. (2002). Essentials of Sociology: A Down-to-Earth Approach.
However, most financial experts think that given the need to further stimulate the economy to decrease unemployment, the Obama Administration has little choice but to continue to spend at a deficit. Unless there is job growth, income derived from taxation will continue to go down, and the vicious cycle of debt will continue. "Many finance experts say that Obama's basic strategy" of stimulus and middle-class tax cuts for Americans who are more likely to spend than save the additional revenue "is the right one for a nation still mired near the trough of a deep recession. But the effort carries economic risks. Investors could demand higher interest rates on Treasury debt because of worries that ashington will never act to bring deficits down. The recent debt crisis in Greece is a reminder of the kind of troubles that can arise -- and large nations like the United States are not…
"Current account deficit." Peterson Institute for International Economics. 2010. February 3, 2010
Trumball, Mark. "Obama budget." The Christian Science Monitor. February 1, 2010.
February 3, 2010
Cyberterrorism, illegal (and legal) espionage, piracy, and cybercrimes differ from their pre-digital counterparts in serious and meaningful ways. For one, the nature of online social interactions diverges from that of face-to-face or even voice-only interactions due to the shields of anonymity. Second, technological prophylactics ranging from encryption to skillful network architecture can add multiple levels of protection to shield perpetrators while exposing the weaknesses in a less advanced consumer public. Third, the rapid advancement of artificially intelligent systems creates new possible realities and problems, as non-human actors become part of increasingly complex systems. Finally, digital media has enabled formal and informal surveillance and other forms of illicit behavior, transforming the relationship between actors and objects in ways that could alter political and social realities. Actor-network theory is an ideal lens and process by which to better understand the complex gamut of cybercrime. Developed initially in the 1980s and solidified…
shifting seas of global social consciousness and worldwide political hierarchy have only recently brought the word 'terrorism' to the quotidian mind of Americans, it has long enjoyed a cemented place in the construct of civilization. Daily associations between the word terrorism and the frightening images of gore and destruction rampant on the 24-hour news networks affirm the complicated understanding of terrorism in the modern world; bombings on an Israeli bus, explosions outside a Pakistani supermarket, and subway atrocities mingle with recent memories of the World Trade center and recollections of the bloody IRA, Black Liberation Army, and Basque independence movements. Personal reaction and affiliation to the events, movement, and goals of each group's paradigm resonates inside a loose definition of political violence, while governmental response is chiseled, monochromatic, and decisive. While the motives and end-results always differ, the path to terrorism is marked by similar goal posts. These similarities and…
O'Brien, Sean P. "Foreign Policy Crisis and the Resort to Terrorism: A Time-Series Analysis of Conflict Linkages." The Journal of Conflict Resolution. Vol. 40, No. 2. (Jun., 1996.) p. 329.
Ibid, p. 330.
China and the Korean War
The fall of China to Communism in 1949 came about because of many different reasons. One, Mao Zedong was popular with the people, and this helped him overpower Jiang Jieshi and his government. Mao also had territory and Japanese military items left over from World War II, which Jiang did not. Mao had more military might, and he was simply more popular than Jiang with the Chinese people. China fell to Communism because of Mao's popularity more than his power. He was a farmer like most of the population of China, and he spoke to their needs and wants. The Chinese civil war did not result from the National Security Council's Memorandum 68; it had been going on for years before and after World War II.
However, NSC-68 did have far-reaching consequences in American foreign policy with China and the Soviet Union and regarding the…
"China, Korea, and the Cold War in Asia."
Fakiolas, Efstathios T. "Kennan's Long Telegram and NSC-68: A Comparative Theoretical Analysis." East European Quarterly 31.4 (1998): 415+.
Jian, Chen. China's Road to the Korean War: The Making of the Sino-American Confrontation. New York: Columbia University Press, 1994.
Pierpaoli, Paul G. "Beyond Collective Amnesia: A Korean War Retrospective." International Social Science Review (2001): 92+.
Media & Society
The author of this report has been asked to offer a brief summary and review of several topics pertaining to media, modern technology and the overall paradigm that has been formed by the combination of the two. The author of this report will touch in several topics. These topics will include the historical and contemporary roles of media in society, how the chemical and electronic technology of photography, recording and transmission has advanced from its initial discover to the present, how the mass media makes use of these technological innovations, how the development of this digital technology has affected the content, distribution and style of electronic media and how the role of mass media has changed with these overall developments. The author will make use of at least two peer-reviewed sources along the way. While there is much more to life than the media and technology, these…
Carpenter, S., Hoag, A., Grant, A.E., & Bowe, B.J. (2015). An Examination of How
Academic Advancement of U.S. Journalism Students Relates to Their Degree
Motivations, Values, and Technology Use. Journalism & Mass Communication
Educator, 70(1), 58-74. doi:10.1177/1077695814551834
Free Are American Media
Events occur and become news, news circulate all around the globe. In early times it was almost impossible to convey these happening with in short period of time but with the advent of time technology grew exponentially and gave a fast source of communication called "media."
Media has played a very important role throughout. Any event occurring in one side of the globe gets to the other side within a span of minutes. They cover events such as politics, sports, entertainment etc. And telecast it to the other regions. Every event that had occurred in the past has been covered by the regions local and international media. The point lies in the contradicting news telecasted by the media i.e. one event coverage contradicting to the same event covered by another channel.
The process of broadcasting consist of many events such as coverage, filtration, etc. A channel…
Czitrom, Daniel J. Media and the American Mind: From Morse to McLuhan. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1982. Questia. Web. 28 July 2012.
Davis, Richard, and Diana Owen. New Media and American Politics. New York: Oxford University Press, 1998. Questia. Web. 28 July 2012.
Entman, Robert M., and Kimberly A. Gross. "Race to Judgment: Stereotyping Media and Criminal Defendants." Law and Contemporary Problems 71.4 (2008): 93+. Questia. Web. 28 July 2012.
Fox, Julia R., and Byungho Park. "The "I" of Embedded Reporting: An Analysis of CNN Coverage of the "Shock and Awe" Campaign." Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media 50.1 (2006): 36+. Questia. Web. 28 July 2012.
Super-violence is a new term that defines violence in a grand and exaggerating way. (Klare 16) Seen as an era of constant warfare and violence, it has made its way into entertainment and media. hether it is chopping the heads of people and seeing the blood from their bodies gush like champagne fountains or seeing throats slit by children, today's media has taken on a new level of violence that thanks to visual effects and special effects makeup, shows just how intense the public has become in their quest for savagery. But why does the public desire more and more violence in their stories? hat turn will this take in the future?
The recent invention and use of virtual reality just may be the way people will participate in the increasingly violent nature of media. Through virtual reality people can feel as though they are right in the middle of…
Cornell University, Are Moral Actors Moral, Or Does Moral Action Make An Actor Moral? 1st ed. Cornell University, 2016. Print.
1st ed. Cornell University, 2016. Print.
Klare, Michael T. "The Era of Super-Violence." MERIP Reports 111 (1983): 16. Web.
Lee, Tae Kyoung and Michael A. Shapiro. "The Interaction of Affective Dispositions, Moral Judgments, And Intentionality In Assessing Narrative Characters: Rationalist And Intuitionist Sequences." Communication Theory 24.2 (2014): 146-164. Web.
he function of marketing communications is also the integral part of any new product introduction process in a company as well. In fact, oshiba America, known for their laptop computers, has the product launch and introduction managed as a project inside marketing communications to provide for greater coordination and synchronizing with other departments. Marketing communications acts in many companies as the activity hub for all strategies, as this department is often serving the sales force, product management, product marketing, service, finance, and very often the executive managers who are the spokespeople for strategies and products.
Societal functions of Public Relations
In a sense government agencies and their constituents, the citizens of a given region or nation, are "customers" of the services of the societal institutions and governments. he only difference is of course that to shop between governments is to have to move, while consumers can choose between organizations by…
Two functions that define the societal role of public relations are consumer relations and community relations.
Perhaps no other set of nations in the world has a more thorough set of laws to protect its citizens from shoddy and unsafe merchandise, services schemes that defraud them or foods that don't pass certain health criteria than the United States and several other westernized nations. The reason is that the laws surrounding products, services, foods, drugs and even transportation have been created to protect the consumer. In the context of public relations, the societal function that influences the most amounts of people is consumer relations.
From a societal context, consumer relations fulfills the role of both coordinator of information flow between manufacturers, the government, and the consumer, ultimately looking out for what's best for the consumer and their well-being. This is a critical step in many countries as the function can expose risks to consumers of unsafe products. During the 19th century for example, Upton Sinclair (2002) and his classic book, the Jungle, showed the many practices in the meat processing and packing industry that needed overhauling to
Functions of Public Relations
The line between organizational and societal functions of public relations is increasingly becoming blurred. For the purposes of this assignment, marketing communications and employee relations have been grouped into the organizational function while social responsibility and community relations have been grouped into the societal function. These segmentations have been derived primarily be examining direct links to profits and how much a company has focused on either inward or outward activities. However, companies that seek better profits are now realizing that they are tied to what they can do for the welfare of the members of society. Along with this realization comes a tighter linkage between organizational and society functions of public relations to achieve a new business vision called corporate social responsibility (CSR).
Marketing communications is more aligned with organizational functions because it helps meet the internal needs of promotion to advance sales of products and…
Global Alliance For Public Relations And Communications Management. Retrieved August 13, 2005 from Web site: http://www.globalpr.org/news/features/csr_statement_280604.asp
Pantelleva, M. Public relations and public responsibility. Retrieved August, 13, 2005 from Web site: http://188.8.131.52/search?q=cache:fwlnzBXEQdAJ:www.eprn.org/EuropeanPRNews2/Milena_Panteleeva.pdf+%22public+relations%22+%22social+responsibility%22& hl=en
Public relations FAQ. Retrieved August 13, 2005 from Web site: http://www.personal.psu.edu/faculty/a/m/amm17/pr.html
Riesterer, T. Accountability marketing. Retrieved August 13, 2005 from Web site: http://www.marcommwise.com/articlecat.phtml?c=Marcomm%20Measurement
Children and Media
Technology surrounds everything that children participate in nowadays. From using computers to watching television, the media influences children in just about every activity that they are a part of. The mainstream and social media have had a great impact on the behavior of children, as they are consistently exposed to numerous forms of the media at all times. As technology advances and children are more and more prone to watching television and participating in activities over the Internet, children will always be affected by how the media is presented to them. It can be difficult to shelter children from the growing media influence, however, the effects of this phenomenon on both the psychological and cognitive development of children need to be analyzed and considered (Christakis & Zimmerman, 2009).
Social life has been completely revolutionized due to the existence of the Internet and the development of social media.…
Anderson, D.R. & Hanson, K.G. (2009). Children, media, and methodology. American Behavioral Science. 52(8), 1204-1219.
Bargh, J.A. & McKenna, K.Y.A. (2003). The internet and social life. Annual Review of Psychology. 55, 573-590.
Chau, C. (2010). YouTube as a participatory culture. New Directions for Youth Development. 2010(128), 65-74.
Christakis, D.A. & Zimmerman, F.J. (2009). Young Children and media: Limitations of current knowledge and future directions for research. American Behavioral Science. 52(8), 1177-1185.
Media in America [...] How does mass media affect American values? American media is pervasive in nearly every aspect of society today. Newspapers, magazines, online Web sources, television, radio, and film all create a sense of commonality, and often a sense of how to behave, think, and react to social and societal situations.
Today, Americans rely on a variety of media for most of their news, information, and values, whether they know it or not. While this may seem like a recent occurrence, experts and researchers have been seeing this trend in media influence for decades. Two experts note, "Over a half century ago, Lippmann (1922) also noted this role of the news media in defining our world, not just the world of politics during and between elections, but almost all of our world beyond immediate personal and family concerns" (Bryant and Zillmann, 1994, p. 2). Thus, the media has…
Arant, M.D., & Meyer, P. (1998). Public journalism and traditional journalism: A shift in values? Journal of mass media ethics, 13(4), 205-218.
Brown, A. (1996). Economics, public service broadcasting, and social values. Journal of media economics, 9(1), 3-15.
Coleman, A.W. (2000). "Calvin and Hobbes": A critique of society's values. Journal of Mass Media Ethics, 15(1), 17-42.
Gomez, D.S. (2001, April). Sex, peers, media -- and family values: The NEA health information network's 'can we talk?' program helps thousands of parents talk with their kids, in English or Spanish. NEA today, 19, 29.
Similarly, women today feel the need to appear beautiful and perfect all the time in order to be a part of a class in society. According to what Kilbourne suggests, women use their bodies as masks or objects that need to be taken care of all the time and kept in perfect shape and condition. The media and the advertisements program their minds to think that their appearance is not perfect and they need to change themselves in a particular manner (Kilbourne, 2002).
One of the main roles that media has played in this subject is to make an individual perceive themselves from the eyes of others and to take it as a responsibility to be appealing to the eyes of the audience instead of what they themselves want to do. Advertisements today sell the bodies of women, not in the literal sense but metaphorically speaking, all advertisements have women…
Dahlberg, J. (2008). Sexual Objectification of Women in Advertising. Journal of Advertising Research .
Galician, M. (2004). Sex, Love and Romance in the Media: Analysis and criticism of the unrealistic portrayal of women in mass media. Lawrence Elbaum Associates.
Gammel, I. (1999). Confessional politics: Women's self representations in life writing and popular media. Southern Illinios University Press.
Hall, a.C. (1998). Delights, Desires and Dilemmas: Essays on Women and the Media. Praeger Publications.
Media on the U.S. Society
Some years ago, if someone asked us to name the sources of media present in our society, we would easily be able to do so. However, today media has extended and become much more widespread than it was before. ith the process of globalization that has encompassed the entire world, came the concept of media and the need to stay in touch as the infrastructure and mediums of communication grew. e can name a couple of media sources that have come to influence us the most which are firstly the internet and the social networking that has now become an integral part of our society and our lives. It is absolutely essential to be a part of the social media networking (Perse).
Another type of media has been the television which has existed for quite some while now but its implications and its fame is…
Bell, Steve. "Impact of Global Media Revolution." USA Today (1999).
Bennett, Tony. Culture, Society and the Media. Routledge Publications, 1990.
Burton, Graeme. Media and Society: Critical Perspectives. Open University Press, 2005.
Gonzenbach, William J. The media, the president and public opinion: a longitudinal study on drug issue. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1996.
Advertising and public relations serve to communicate ideas and convince the audience of something. Politicians are among the most prolific advertising spenders during election campaigns and can have enormous public relations machines. This is especially true of Presidential candidates, who must first run for their party's nomination and then must run for President. We know that Hillary Clinton went from frontrunner to loser in the race for the Democratic Presidential nomination in 2008. There are lessons to be learned about the different factors that contribute to selling an idea, in this case Clinton as President, to different audiences. This case study will evaluate Clinton's campaign leading up to the Democratic primary using the OSTE model. The OSTE model focuses on research, objectives, strategies, tactics and evaluation.
The Hillary Clinton campaign at the time of the case was a large organization. It featured both extensive advertising and public relations, backed…
Cree, C. (2008). Hillary Clinton's approach to social media killed her campaign. Success Creations. Retrieved November 7, 2013 from http://successcreeations.com/339/hillary-clintons-approach-to-social-media-killed-her-campaign/
Gawiser, S. & Witt, G. (2012). 20 questions a journalist should ask about poll results. National Council on Public Polls. Retrieved November 7, 2013 from http://www.ncpp.org/?q=node/4
Murray, M. (2008). The primary vs. general election fallacy. NBC News. Retrieved November 7, 2013 from http://www.nbcnews.com/id/23591347/
OpenSecrets.org. (2008). Hillary Clinton. Retrieved November 7, 2013 from http://www.opensecrets.org/pres08/summary.php?cid=N
Popularity of Social Media Marketing Among Businesses
Viral Marketing (social media)
Social Media Marketing
Social media are a shift in the way people read, share and discover information and related contents. This is taking place through the internet in the form of social networks (example Myspace, Facebook), blogs, music and video portals (example YouTube), micro blogging (example Pluk, Twitter) and news aggregators. The possibility brought through Web 2.0 is an evolutionary convergence allowing two way communication platform that harnesses collective intelligence. Social media marketing caries potential similar to a double-edged-sword (Trusov, Bucklin, & Pauwels, 2009).
easons for Exceedingly Popularity of Social Media Marketing Among Businesses
Outwardly, communication activities by businesses of all sizes have changed owing to growth of social media globally (Martin, 2009). Unlike the traditional channels of communication, social media provides a platform for existing and potential consumers to share opinions virtually. This transfers power to build or…
Dailey, P.R. (2009). Social Media: Finding Its Way into Your Business Strategy and Culture. Burlington, MA;: Linkage.
Donna, L., Hoffman, & Fodor. M. (2010). "Can You Measure the ROI of Your Social Media Marketing?",. MIT Sloan Management Review, 52(1), 41-49.
Joel, M. (2009). Six Pixels of separation. New York: Grand Central Publishing
Martin, T. (2009). Social Media is Meant for conversion, not "Marketing" Advertising Age, 80(6), 11-12.
When you really think about the P blunders over the past 25 years, it strikes me that more accurately we should be calling them failures in management, not failures of P," says Professor Broom, co-author of the books, "Effective Public elations" and "Using esearch in Public elations." Surely, the failures have the effect of damaging an organization's relationships with its publics but the P function often is not part of management," says Broom (Garcia, 1990)."
It will be important to measure the constant success or failure of this new strategy. Using all of the above methods to reach new members and reassure current members will provide the church with a solid growth foundation. This will allow the church to move forward and work toward expanding its building program in the next five years.
The Differences Between Marketing, Advertising, and Public elations.(Industry Trend or Event)
OfficeSolutions; 12/1/2000; Hart, ebecca
The Differences Between Marketing, Advertising, and Public Relations.(Industry Trend or Event)
OfficeSolutions; 12/1/2000; Hart, Rebecca
Search for more information on HighBeam Research for "public relations" and strategy.
PR bloopers. (failed public relations programs) (International Association of Business Communicators: 1970-1990: Section 3: A Era Ended)
Representation of Women Through Media Has Changed From 1960s
How representation of women through media has changed from the 1960s
Susan Douglas suggests that fifty years ago, mass media existed in the form of music, television, and magazines. However, she suggest that the journey has been tough owing to the manner in, which the media represents women. The media used a sexist imagery to represent women, especially women who took part in music. Although researchers suggest that the media is a powerful tool, she suggests that the public had an option to resist the media by turning off their television, or ignoring advertisements in the magazines (Douglas 1995). Mass media had substantial influence on the social, cultural, economic, spiritual, political, and religious phases of the society as well as personal level thinking, feeling, and acting. Notably, mass media has both a good side and a bad side; it is insidious…
Adams, Carol J. 2004. The Pornography of Meat. Continuum. New York/Continuum.
Ames, Jonathan. 2011. "I Guest Directed a Porn Shoot." New York Press. 27 Nov. http://nypress.com/i-guest-directed-a-porn-shoot/
Belkin, Lisa. 2008. "The opt-out revolution." New York Times Magazine. 26, 42 -- 47, 58, 85 -- 86.
Brewer, Chad. 2005. "The Stereotypic Portrayal of Women in Slasher Films: Then vs. Now." Master Thesis, Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College.
The media outlets that participated in discussing important race relations included such media giants as ABC News, ESPN, and the New York Times. But in Woods analysis also, there are disturbing trends. As he explains, for instance, many media outlets erroneously conflate the "Hispanic" with the word "immigrant." Some media commentators easily describe Mexican-Americans as "them" who could be contrasted with "us" (a code word for White Americans). These are but a few examples of how media misrepresents the realities of American diversity.
To improve diversity in the media, it is important to become proactive. First, we need to expose negative stereotyping and misrepresentation by responding to them in the media. We can contact the media stations and their sponsors and warn that we will withdraw our viewership and support unless they present American diversity in a balanced way. Second, we can pressure media stations to increase their ethnic staff,…
Diversity in the media and entertainment industries. (n.d.). Ethnic Majority. Retrieved from http://www.ethnicmajority.com/media_home.htm
Media activism. (n.d.). National Organization for Women. Retrieved from http://www.now.org/issues/media/index.html
Woods, K. (2001). The essence of excellence: Covering race and ethnicity (and doing it better). The Poynter Institute. Retrieved from http://www.poynter.org/content/content_view.asp?id=5048
Bosch Company and Social Media
The Bosch Company appears to have a strong and comprehensive presence within the world of social media. This is crucial as social media is a truly powerful and invasive tool that can be used to build relationships with new customers and strengthen already existing relationships with old customers. "Building a social strategy takes time and careful attention, but the point is: you need one. Many of my friends don't watch TV, don't read magazines or newspapers, and get most of their news from Twitter and Facebook. So where will brands have the best chance of engaging my friends? On Twitter and Facebook. Social media builds brand awareness in ways that no other form of media can and reaches customers who would be otherwise unreachable" (Barbara, 2012). The Bosch Company appears to have an acute understanding of this and has worked hard to create a truly…
Barbara, J. (2012, November 11). Is Social Media Bad For Business? Retrieved from Forbes.com: http://www.forbes.com/sites/julietbarbara/2012/11/11/is-social-media-bad-for-business/
Bosch.com. (2004). Basic principles of social responsibility at Bosch. Retrieved from Bosch.com: http://www.bosch.com/media/com/sustainability/archive_1/issues/corporate_leadership/Basic_principles_of_social_responsibilities.pdf
Bosch.com. (2012, May 22). Sustainable use of rain forests. Retrieved from Bosch.com: http://www.bosch.com/en/com/sustainability/current/news/2012/regenwald_nachhaltig_nutzen.html
Bosch.com. (n.d.). Energy-efficient products. Retrieved from Bosch.com: http://www.bosch.com/en/com/sustainability/issues/products_customers/energieeffizienz/energyefficientproducts.php
Social Media Has Had on Society
Social Media has had a particularly influential power over society during recent years as more and more individuals start to guide themselves in accordance with principles put across by such devices. However, it is difficult to determine whether social media has had a positive influence or a negative influence on the social order, taking into account that many are unable to filter information they are bombarded with and end up having a distorted understanding of the world as a whole.
Internet has revolutionized the way information is being sent across the world and this means that it would be impossible for particular events happening in the past to happen in the contemporary society. By simply looking at how the radio and the television have brought significant change to particular environments, one is more likely to understand the degree to which internet can bring change…
Blossom, John, "Content Nation: Surviving and Thriving as Social Media Changes Our Work, Our Lives, and Our Future," (John Wiley & Sons, 14.09.2011)
Duhe, Sandra C., "New Media and Public Relations," (Peter Lang, 2007)
Nunns, Ales and Idle, Nadia, "Tweets from Tahrir: Egypt's Revolution as it Unfolded, in the Words of the People who Made it," (OR Books, 2011)
Social Media/Workplace Conflict
Every day, most of us create permanent records of our lives and the things we do through our Internet use, emails, texts, tweets, blogs, and similar technology. Information intended for friends and family can sometimes be disseminated more widely than expected or planned. Unless one avoids these technologies altogether -- a difficult feat in today's society -- one can no longer be assured that a private life is truly private. Further complicating the issue is the use of these technologies in the workplace. The line between our public and private selves continues to blur. Current legislation is aimed at protecting privacy rights of employees in balance with employers' concerns about the use of social media during work hours and, in some cases, with the use of employer-owned devices. Legal issues can quickly become complex and there is not sufficient practical guidance to help employers navigate an increasingly…
Dorsch, M. (2012). Tweeting the election. State Legislatures (38)4, pp. 28-30.
Folger, J.P., Poole, M.S., and Stutman, R.K. (2001). Working through conflict: strategies for relationships, groups, and organizations, 4th ed. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
Freifeld, L. (2012). Social media at work. Training 49(6), p. 7.
Hearing, G.A., and Ussery, B.C. (2012). The times they are a changin': The impact of technology and social media on the public workplace, part I. Florida Bar Journal 86(3), pp. 35-39.
At Google, areas of interest include their intensive sustainability commitment to promote eco-friendly buildings and energy efficiency, the company's approach to managing the Chinese government relationship and messaging, and the torrent of new applications they produce. In conclusion, the organizations I'd seek out to work for after graduation would have brands that were global and could use my skill set of globally-based coordination and intercultural collaboration while also being highly creative with a pace that made programs challenging yet attainable.
Upload a 300-500-word persuasive essay that describes what you understand to be the fundamental role of public relations in society. Illustrate your commentary by citing a recent example (good or bad) of strategic public relations at work from an area of the field that is of particular interest to you.
At its most strategic, public relations seeks to unify the messaging and communications across a company while ensuring accuracy, authenticity…
Hamilton, J., Knouse, S., & Hill, V. (2009). Google in China: A Manager-Friendly Heuristic Model for Resolving Cross-Cultural Ethical Conflicts. Journal of Business Ethics, 86(2), 143-157.
James S. O'Rourke IV, Brynn Harris, & Allison Ogilvy. (2007). Google in China: government censorship and corporate reputation. The Journal of Business Strategy, 28(3), 12-22.
Public relations is how an organization interacts with staff, clients and the general public. P defines how you are perceived. P campaigns put you in direct contact with your target audience through public appearances, publicity and community outreach. Publicity, an important element of P, is the art of building favorable interest in your product or service through the media (Cohen, 2003).
The IP Definition of Public elations:
The IP's definition of public relations is quite simplistic. It begins and ends with one of the most important facets of how well an organization interacts with others, its reputation. They state, "Public relations is about reputation - the result of what you do, what you say and what others say about you" ("What is public relations," n.d.). Public relations involves actions that influence the opinion of others regarding the organization, and the actions that are necessary to form a favorable opinion. These…
Cohen, S. (28 Jul 2003). Public relations: It's all that and more. Westchester County Business Journal, 42(30). Retrieved February 17, 2005, from MasterFILE Premier database.
Official PRSA definition. (No date). Retrieved February 17, 2005, at http://www.prsa.org/_Resources/Profession/index.asp?ident=prof1.
What is public relations? (No date). Retrieved February 17, 2005, at http://www.ipr.org.uk/direct/looking.asp?v1=what .
Terrorism Media in a minimum pages ( including title reference pages): Discuss broadcasting terrorist activities successes psychologically impacts individuals (e.g., victims, recovery teams, responders, general population).
Terrorism is one of the most discussed subjects in the last ten years. A terrorist attach that takes place in one place of the world usually captures the headlines in the next day's main newspapers and television broadcasts. This is largely due to the fact that terrorism is a phenomenon that can affect in an instant thousands of people and the futures of even more.
Given the importance of the subject, the media usually plays a key role in the relationship between terrorism and its target public. Through the media in particular terrorist activists send their message across to decision makers, to the public, and most importantly, through the immense coverage terrorism receives on all media channels, it has become an even more global…
Al Jazeera. (2010) "U.S. kills al-Qaeda 'number three'." Around the world . Retrieved from http://english.aljazeera.net/news/asia/2010/06/20106143751105245.html
Homeland security (2008). "Assessing the Nuclear Attack Threat" Testimony of Under
Secretary for Intelligence and Analysis Charles E. Allen before the Senate Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs Retrieved from http://www.dhs.gov/xnews/testimony/testimony_1207151676007.shtm.
Joyner, J. (2006) "Media Coverage Fuels Terrorism." Outside the beltway. Retrieved from http://www.outsidethebeltway.com/media_coverage_fuels_terrorism
Business Use of Social Media
Social Media Marketing
Social media refers to the countless Internet-based sites and tools that facilitate and promote social interaction and networking through digitized means (Bulik, 2008). Social media marketing includes sites such as Facebook, Twitter, and YouTube, and should always be included in an organization's business plan in some capacity. Each platform leverages the power of the Internet to facilitate social interaction and allow people to keep up-to-date with hundreds of others instantaneously (Fredericks, 2012). Social media as a marketing genre has the power to bridge distances and communication obstacles in a highly personalized and direct way.
It is estimated that 75% of the global consumers who use the web regularly visit social media websites (Libert, 2011). Visitors are reported as spending anywhere from 3 to 6.5 hours a day on sites such as Facebook. Subscriptions for social media sites are growing by leaps and…
Bulik, B. (2008). Wait…Isn't This the Same as Social Networks?. Advertising Age, 79(11), 47.
Fredericks, R. (2012). We Facebook. Do You?. Journal of Housing & Community Development, 69(4), 20-21.
Libert, B. (2011). Go Beyond Facebook and Twitter. CRM Magazine, 15(2), 19-24.
McCafferty, D. (2011). Brave, New Social World. Communications of the ACM, 54(7), 19-21. doi:10.1145/1965724.1965732.
social media strategies for business through the works of published commentators on the phenomenon (Mendelson, Haydon) and through two case studies, one a New York publishing house (Saint Martin's Press) and the other a South Carolina-based jewelry design firm (eece Blaire). The paper argues that social media strategy for business is dependent to some extent on building a social media presence independent of the business (or at least independent of an instant monetizing strategy) as a way of building the face of the brand, and also with an awareness that the different social media platforms reach different audiences, so therefore a unified strategy will not ultimately work.
Social media is, in terms of the business world, an extremely new phenomenon. Of the big six social media platforms that exist in 2014 -- Facebook, Twitter, Tumblr, YouTube, Instagram and LinkedIn -- only one (LinkedIn) actually existed as a public Internet platform…
Blaire, K. (2014, April 9). Email interview with W. Todd.
Bosman, J. (2013, November 6). A fisherman in New York's sea of faces: Humans of New York by Brandon Stanton. The New York Times. Accessed 12 April 2014 at: http://www.nytimes.com/2013/11/07/business/media/humans-of-new-york-by-brandon-stanton.html
Coffey, M. (2013, October 25). Humans of New York storms bestseller list. Publisher's Weekly. Accessed 12 April 2014 at: http://www.publishersweekly.com/pw/by-topic/industry-news/bookselling/article/59713-this-week-s-bestsellers-october-28-2013.html
Haydon, J. (2013). Facebook marketing for dummies. Hoboken: Wiley.
aid Mr. Harris: "We are always looking at new ways to reach our customers through innovative digital platforms." Mobile works well since "There is rapid growth in mobile devices supporting more and more of the everyday tasks that people want to perform."
Another highly successful mobile application has been that of American Express' Android version of its free mobile app, which has had more than 1 million views since 2011. The mobile apps are free as are the apps that AE has implemented via social media (ibid.)
The American Express (AE) Credit Card Company markets itself in various ways. avvy with its promotional and publicity performance, it has put together a variety of tools -- some of them innovative -- that it uses for its own promotional ends. These include extensive featuring of celebrities, innovative media campaigns, cause activity promotional ends, innovative use of social media, as well as…
CNN Money "World's Most Admired Companies 2011." Fortune. http://money.cnn.com/magazines/fortune/mostadmired/2011/full_list/
Facebook Members Project from American Express
Gillin, Stephen (September 7, 2011) Altruism drives AmEx small-business strategy http://www.btobonline.com/article/20110907/SOCIAL05/309079998/altruism-drives-amex-small-business-strategy#seenit