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The potential relationship between media violence and actual aggression comes to the forefront of public discussion, but unfortunately this discussion rarely takes into account the science related to the relationship between media violence and aggressive behavior. In particular, there is a widespread assumption that media violence directly causes aggression and aggressive behavior, and this assumption has become so common that even secondary scholarly discussions of the evidence have taken to relying on it despite the fact that there is no evidence for a causal relationship between the consumption of media violence and aggressive behavior. hile there is evidence suggesting a link between the two, correlation does not equal causation, and examining this evidence in detail will help make the case that there is no direct cause and effect relationship between media violence and aggressive behavior while simultaneously demonstrating the fallacy inherent in the counter arguments that have been…
Boxer, Paul, et al. "The Role of Violent Media Preference in Cumulative Developmental Risk for Violence and General Aggression." Journal of Youth and Adolescence 38.3 (2009): 417-
Freedman, Jonathan L. Media Violence and Its Effect on Aggression: Assessing the Scientific
Evidence. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2002. Print.
This source is particularly important for the topic of media violence because it proves how children are vulnerable to every example of violence they witness, even those which are apparently harmless.
Sparks G.G. & Sherry, J. & Lubsen, G. (2005). The Appeal of Media iolence in a Full-Length Motion Picture: An Experimental Investigation. Communication Reports 18.1-2 .
iolence is mostly present in the media because of its marketing potential, as it appeals to most of the audience, regardless of one's age, ethnic background, or the respective person's ability to understand a certain figure of speech. This article looks into the results of an experiment in which two groups of young people watched the same movie and while one watched the un-edited part (the one including violence), the others watched the edited part (the one where violence was no longer present). It turned out the movie was equally enjoyable in its…
Violence is mostly present in the media because of its marketing potential, as it appeals to most of the audience, regardless of one's age, ethnic background, or the respective person's ability to understand a certain figure of speech. This article looks into the results of an experiment in which two groups of young people watched the same movie and while one watched the un-edited part (the one including violence), the others watched the edited part (the one where violence was no longer present). It turned out the movie was equally enjoyable in its edited form. When the author's of this article looked into another study, it was found that "children between the ages of 2-11 years preferred to watch situation comedies rather than violent cartoons" (Sparks & Sherry & Lubsen, 2005) thus meaning that children are habitually reluctant to watch violence.
Stomfay-Stitz, A. (2002). Teachers and Media Violence. Childhood Education 79.1.
Stomfay-Stitz's article is important for this paper because it relates to how an adult can get involved in influencing a child's behavior and prevent him or her from "imitating the violent actions and anti-social behavior that has a prominent role in television sitcoms and kiddie cartoon shows" (Stomfay-Stitz, 2002). The article starts off by explaining the vulnerability of children and the traumas they are predisposed to when watching violence cleverly disguised as entertainment. In addition to emphasizing the effects violence in the media can have on children, this article also presents the fact that tutors play an essential role in providing the young ones with education in regard to how they should filter the information they have access to.
Rather, most studies point to a correlation between exposure to media violence and aggressive behavior. For example, . James Potter concludes that "Long-term exposure to media violence is related to aggression in a person's life," and that "Media violence is related to subsequent violence in society," (26). Potter also suggests that certain socio-economic and ethnic groups might be more at-risk for developing aggressive symptoms related to exposure to media violence because of the amount of exposure to television (29). However, most, if not all, studies demonstrate correlation rather than causality. The only causal relationships that can be determined through research are those studies that show short-term, immediate effects of exposure to media violence. According to the Media Awareness Network, "Exposure to violent imagery is linked to increased heart rate, faster respiration and higher blood pressure. Some think that this simulated "fight-or-flight" response predisposes people to act aggressively in the real…
Facts about Media Violence and Effects on the American Family." 1997 Baby Bag. Online at http://www.babybag.com/articles/amaviol.htm.
Jones, Gerard. Killing Monsters. New York: Perseus, 2002.
Nikolaos, Ioannidis. "Media Violence: Video games and desensitization to violence. Are they correlated?" 2000. Online at http://homoecumenicus.com/essay_ioannidis_media_violence.htm .
Potter, W. James. On Media Violence. Thousand Oaks: Sage, 1999.
A Study on Youth Exposure to Media Violence
In a 2005 study by Kronenberger et al., researchers enter into the oft-discussed subject of media violence and its impact on youth behaviors and tendencies. Published in the Journal of Clinical Psychology, the article makes its focus the degree to which media violence exposure may impede both cognitive and behavioral abilities. These characteristics are captured in the dependent variable of executive function.
The overarching hypothesis of the study in question is a common one and one that has received a great deal of crucial scrutiny both in empirical and rhetorical settings. The matter of youth exposure to media violence is highly debated. The primary hypothesis here proceeds from this debate, asserting that while there is a correlation between exposure to media violence and diminished executive functioning, this is substantially impacted by the behavioral tendencies innate to the subject.
Kronenberger, W.G. et al. (2005). Media Violence Exposure and Executive Functioning in Aggressive and Control Adolescents. Journal OF Clinical Psychology, 61(6), 723-737.
Because thee was not the time o means to get a vey divese population of individuals, thee may be some limitations when it comes to social class as well as pevious levels of aggession in the childen and youths. Thee ae only two gils compaed with the eight boys. This may be consideed a limitation as well, but moe paents of boys answeed the ad and this may be because the paents ae aleady awae that thei boys ae paticipating in violent video games o watching violent movies. In geneal, it could be assumed that boys have a tendency to be dawn towad violent media -- much moe so than gils. But again, this may be consideed a limitation.
Anothe limitation was that thee wee not means to hie a docto to take heatbeat o pulses befoe the childen went in to watch the violent media and afte they had…
references, symptoms of psychological trauma, and violent behaviors among children who watch television. Journal of the America academy of child and adolescent psychiatry,37,(10), 1041-48.
Smith, S.L., & Donnerstein, E. (1998). Harmful effects of exposure to media violence: Learning of aggression, emotional desensitization, and fear. Human aggression: Theories, research, and implications for social policy. London:
Academic Press, Inc.
Stossel, Scott. (1997). The man who counts the killings. The Atlantic online.
Retrieved from http://www.theatlantic.com/past/docs/issues/97may/gerbner.htm
In contrast, Cline, Croft and Courrier, writing in "Desensitization of Children to Television Violence," reports that the facts bear out the truth of the problem, namely, that children who watch too much television become insensitive to real violence and see it as a way to solve personal conflicts with friends, schoolmates and their siblings. Likewise, D.G. Singer in "Does Violent Television Produce Aggressive Children?" declares that "Most researchers conservatively estimate that between 10 and 15% of aggressive behavior in children is attributable to high levels of media violence. The media's influence on more serious forms of antisocial and criminal behavior is even greater" (809). Also, Judith Lightner in "Television and the Collapse of Childhood Innocence" sums up her argument with "While there may be disagreement among researchers as to the exact contribution of media violence to real-life violence, there is no disagreement that it makes a significant contribution" (258).
Berkowitz, Leonard. "Situational Influences of Reactions to Observed Violence." Journal of Social Issues. (1992). 42, 3: 93-106.
A and Edward Rawlings. "Effects of Film Violence on Inhibitions Against Subsequent Aggression." Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology. (1995). 45: 345-52.
Cline, V.B., R.G. Croft and S. Courrier. "Desensitization of Children to Television Violence."
Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. (1991). 28: 360-65.
The role of media content in the violent activities has been found to be prominent in the real life events and it has been observed that the individuals tend to adopt the violent acts by means of their cognitive learning and social process. There exists stimulus which makes individuals to indulge in the media illustrations and cause them to replicate these actions in the real life. Moreover, the existence of guideline for the accessibility of specific media towards specific audience has made it possible to discontinue the exposure of violent media towards the vulnerable audience.
Theories -- Analysis and Evaluation
Types of Violence
The thematic illustration of violence in media-content has become a trend in the mass-media and entertainment industry and has created the notion of making its target audience aggressive…
Bandura, A. (1978). Social learning theory of aggression. Journal of communication, 28(3), pp. 12-29.
BBFC. (2014). BBFC Guidelines: Age Ratings You Trust. Available from: http://www.bbfc.co.uk/sites/default/files/attachments/BBFC%20Classification%20Guidel ines%202014_5.pdf
Blumer, H. (1933). The Movies and Conduct. New York: The Macmillan Company.
Browne, K.D., & Hamilton-Giachritsis, C. (2005). The influence of violent media on children and adolescents: a public-health approach. The Lancet, 365(9460), pp. 702-710.
In 1999, the average person in England and ales watched 26 hours of television and listened to 19 hours of radio per week - this amounts to 40% of their waking life, and the figures are higher for youth and in particular working class youth (Young). Not only has the quantity of media usage increased, but the level of violence depicted in the media has increased dramatically, due in part to the luring of a youth audience (Young). For example, in the 1950's television series, Dragnet, there were a total of fifteen bullets fired during an entire season, compared to the multiple killings in a typical television series today. The hero in the 1987 movie, Robocop, killed 32 people, while in the 1990 Robocop II, he killed 81, and the 1989 Rambo III killed roughly twice as many in the 1985 original Rambo, and then there is Bruce illis' Die…
Barak, Azy. "Internet pornography: a social psychological perspective on internet sexuality." The Journal of Sex Research. November 1, 2001. Retrieved December 23, 2006 from HighBeam Research Library.
Benenson, Blanche S. "Exposure to violence and psychosocial adjustment among urban school-aged children." Journal of Developmental & Behavioral Pediatrics. December 1, 2003. Retrieved December 23, 2006 from HighBeam Research Library.
Comstock, George. "A Sociological Perspective on Television Violence and Aggression." Syracuse University. January 2004. Retrieved December 23, 2006 at http://220.127.116.11/search?q=cache:z3S3CFmvDTAJ:www.sidos.ch/method/RC28/abstracts/George%2520Comstock.pdf+Media+Violence+and+Social+Deviance&hl=en&gl=us&ct=clnk&cd=20
D'Andrea, Michael. "Comprehensive school-based violence prevention training: a developmental-ecological training model. Journal of Counseling and Development. June 22, 2004. Retrieved December 23, 2006 from HighBeam Research Library.
The report noted that, of 10,000 hours of broadcast programming reviewed by the National Television Violence Study, 61% portrayed interpersonal violence, much of it in an entertaining or glamorized manner."
According to Lavers the highest violence proportion occurred in children's programming with 100% of animated films produced in the United States between 1937 and 1999 portraying violence. (Lavers, 2002, p. 68)
Media violence and actual violence can be linked as causative forces.
Murder rates doubled 10 to 15 years after the introduction of television in the United States, Canada, and virtually every country where 'free' television was launched -- truly a troubling anecdote." (Lavers, 2002, p. 68) negative relationship between media consumption and various conceptualizations of social satisfaction or contentedness or "affective equilibrium" has long been noted." (oberts, Foehr, ideout & Brodie, 2003, p. 165)
Given the pervasiveness of media violence, it would be surprising if it had no…
Felson, R.B. (1996). Mass Media Effects on Violent Behavior. 103.
Lavers, D. (2002, March). Media Violence: Ugly and Getting Uglier. World and I, 17, 68.
Prothrow-Stith, D., & Spivak, H.R. (2004). Murder Is No Accident: Understanding and Preventing Youth Violence in America. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Roberts, D.F., Foehr, U.G., Rideout, V.J., & Brodie, M. (2003). Kids and Media in America: Patterns of Use at the Millennium. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Forty-eight percent of commercials that had violence in them were advertisements for movies; 38% were advertisements for television programs. The conclusion that Tamburro comes up with is that "parents should remain present during commercials" or alternatively should institute technology that allows commercials to be skipped (Tamburro, p. 1662). Moreover, the authors believe that "efforts should be made that promote television shows and movies on the basis of the hour at which the sporting event is aired" (Tamburro, p. 1662). One good reason for these recommendations -- besides the obvious reasons -- is that "injuries are the leading cause of death in children," and it has been shown empirically that exposure to media increases children's risk-taking behavior (Tamburro, p. 1662).
A research project published in the journal the Future of Children reports that people who begin drinking alcohol at age fourteen or younger are approximately "four times as likely to become…
American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry. (2002). Children and TV Violence.
Retrieved Dec. 22, 2010, from http://www.aacap.org .
Borzekowski, Dina L.G., and Robinson, Thomas N. Viewing the Viewers: Ten Video Cases
of children's Television Viewing Behaviors. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media.
Violence in Media and Violence in Youth
There are many factors responsible for youth violence. Hereditary predisposes some individuals to aggression and violence more than others; interpersonal dynamics within families, and parenting styles can contribute to negative behaviors, and of course, the developmental period of adolescence is characterized by psychological insecurity, poor decision making, emotional instability, and the yearning for peer approval, sometimes for negative behavior. However, in contemporary society, the media also play an important role in influencing the behavior of young people.
Already in the earliest era of electronic media, it was readily apparent that the transmission of messages via public airwaves held tremendous potential for influencing human behavior. Advertisers relied heavily on radio commercials in the period between the two world wars; the Nazis demonstrated the power of media propaganda during the orld ar II period; and media advertising exploded into a very powerful industry in the…
American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP). "Media Violence" Pediatrics Vol. 108.5
Bandura, A., Ross, D., and Ross, S.A. "Transmission of Aggression through Imitation
of Aggressive Models." Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, Vol. 63,
laming Social Violence on the Media
Violence in the media has statistically increased in the last decade, yet incidences of societal violence have not risen along with it. This contradicts the claim by many that violence in television shows, the movies, video games, and music has greatly contributed to the depravity of those exposed to such violence, including children. While increased exposure to the media presents increased exposure to its contents, and thus subjective violence, if present, theoretical implications depicting media as the primary stimuli to the committing of criminal acts has not been objectively proven.
Prior to evaluating evidence for or against causative violence in the media, the concept of violence must first be analyzed. According to the National Television Violence Survey (NTVS), violence can be defined as the "overt depiction of a credible threat of physical force, or the actual use of such force intended to…
Felson, Richard B. (1996) "Mass Media Effects on Violent Behavior." Annual Review of Sociology, 22, 103-128.
Levine, Judith (2000). Shooting The Messenger: Why Censorship Won't Stop Violence. New York, NY: The Media Coalition, Inc.
Potter, W. James (2002). The 11 Myths of Media Violence. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage
Phillips asserts that his study shows that prize fights provokes imitative, aggressor behavior which results in an increase in homicides.
However, Phillips does not appear to have proven a full-blown cause and effect relationship as claimed for a number of reasons. Perhaps people who watch or read about violent events are more inclined to violence than others, meaning that watching the prize fight wasn't what really caused the homicide. The research makes a huge leap of faith that the perpetrators of the homicides had actually been exposed to media coverage of the fights. This is perhaps the largest flaw of the study. and, even if the people committing homicides had been exposed to media coverage, there's absolutely no way of knowing what sequence of events the people committing the homicides were exposed to between the media coverage and the homicide and if these events were the real influencer of the…
Media Violence on Youth
Damaging effects harm society's future adults
Young people have the opportunity to respond negatively if provided violent material
How Violent Print Media Affects Youth
"Tweens" and teens are among the most influential group to market to, and are on the search for their true identities
Magazines campaign for teenagers "to be cool"
Posters and advertisements display sexuality, thin bodies, and beautiful self-images
Famous clothing advertisers use adult sexuality to advertise to teenagers
esults are detrimental: Self-hatred, eating disorders, self-loathing
How Violent Movies Affect Youth
Educational and entertainment source turned to violence source
Easy to market violent and action movies more so than other genres
Desensitization of real life violence
Increased aggressive behavior and fear
How Violent Music Affects Youth
Often considered less problematic than other media sources; underestimated
Provides as an gateway to violence, drug abuse, early sexual activity, and alcohol abuse
4.3 Can be a…
Dahl, G., & DellaVigna, S.. (2009). Does Movie Violence Increase Violent Crime? The
Quarterly Journal of Economics, 124(2), 677. Retrieved February 14, 2011, from http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=1728327681&sid=4&Fmt=2&clientId=77774&RQT=309&VName=PQD
Journal of Youth and Adolescence. (2010, December 17). Violent video games don't predict aggressive behavior. Retrieved February 14, 2011 from http://health.usnews.com/health-news/family-health/brain-and-behavior/articles/2010/12/17/violent-video-games-dont-predict-aggressive-behavior
Kirsch, S.J., & Olczak, P.V. (2002). The effects of extremely violent comic books on social information processing. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 17(11), 1160-1178.
Beington, E., Honkatukia, P. (2002). An Evil Monste and a Poo Thing: Female
Violence in Media. Jounal of Scandinavian Studies in Ciminology and Cime Pevention, 3(1): 50-72.
Beington and Honkatukia examine patiachal constucts of Bitish news media using case of Rosemay West as an example and compaing by way of contast to the Finnish epoting on Sanna Sillanpaa, anothe female "kille." The ways in which media epesentations of these two women diffeed suggest that the cultual societies in which they lived espoused diffeent views egading women and violence.
This aticle is inteesting because it suppots what the study by Naylo (2002) shows, which is that media epesentations ae gende-skewed in the Bitish news. Women who commit violent acts ae descibed in monstous tems as though they wee the epitome of evil, wheeas in othe counties thee is moe sympathy o sensitivity expessed in the media and theefoe felt by the…
references a lot of data and statistics but the entire article is badly dissociated and comes across as unfocused. I would not recommend this article to anyone looking for a qualitative assessment of prostitution and stigma in London, though someone looking for quantitative data on the subject might find it helpful.
A in millions)
Current in millions)
Provided by Federal ureau of Investigation as of September 18, 2006. www.whitehouse.gov/goodbye/3ae6b1ac94aa97e6650780f280890a7c81100e47.html"
CHART: National Correctional Populations
National Correctional Populations
The number of adults in correctional population has been increasing.
A in millions)
Current million in millions)
Provided by ureau of Justice Statistics as of November 30, 2006. (Social Statistics riefing Room, 2006)
Violence in the Media
Huston and colleagues have estimated that the average 18-year-old will have viewed 200,000 acts of violence on television (Huston, a.C., Donnerstein, E., Fairchild, H. et al. ig World, Small Screen: The Role of Television in American Society. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press, 1992.)
41% percent of American households have three or more televisions (Nielsen Media Research, 2000).
56% of children ages 8-16 have a television in their rooms (Annenberg Public Policy Center, 2000. Media in the Home 2000)
Percentage of television-time children ages 2-7 spend…
Alter, Jonathan. "Moving Beyond the Blame Game. (Panel Discussion)," Newsweek, May 17, 1999.
Beyer, John. "PERSPECTIVE: How movie and TV violence hits children; Is there too much violence on television and is it time to curb it? John Beyer, director of the organization mediawatch-uk argues that media viol," Birmingham Post, March 21, 2007.
Chatfield, Joanne E.. "Influence of Media Violence on Children." American Family Physician, February 15, 2002.
Children's Hospital Boston. "Teen-Rated Video Games Loaded With Violence;
Television remains the single most influential medium in the lives of young people. However, a three-year National Television Violence Study found: "two-thirds of all programming contains violence; children's programs contain the most violence; the majority of all entertainment programming contains violence; violence is often glamorized; and the majority of perpetrators go unsanctioned" (Muscari 2002).
Television violence is graphic, realistic and involving, shows inequity and domination, and portrays most victims as women, children and the elderly (Muscari 2002). Children tend to focus on the more intense scenes, such as violent moments, rather than story components, and these "aggressive acts lead to a heightened arousal of the viewer's aggressive tendencies, bringing feelings, thoughts and memories to consciousness and can cause outwardly aggressive behavior" (Muscari 2002).
hen video games were introduced in the 1970's, they quickly became a favorite pastime for children, and now make up a $10+ billion industry. Today, children average…
Chory-Assad, Rebecca M. (2005 December 01). Effects of affective orientation and video game play on aggressive thoughts and behaviors. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media. Retrieved January 16, 2007 from HighBeam Research Library.
Kirn, Timothy F. (2006 September 01). Nature and media's nurture spawn girl violence.
Family Practice News. Retrieved January 16, 2007 from HighBeam Research Library.
Muscari, Mary. (2002 November 01). Media violence: advice for parents.
media is an extremely powerful tool which can be used to change people's opinions regarding issues. However the effectiveness of media generally depends on how people use it. The two stories given to the news director are on completely diverse subjects. oth of the stories hold relevance to the society. The one about the celebrity death holds people's interest while enlightening the public about the park story is crucial to creating awareness in people's minds. In today's world, media ratings have become the most important part to media producers (Croteau & Honyes, 2001). Channels don't show news items for public welfare rather they concentrate on stories that make higher profits for them (Daily Source Org, 2005-2012). Keeping in mind the current media landscape, the news director should choose to air the park story as the lead story.
The role of media in the contemporary society has been restricted to the…
Croteau, D., & Hoynes, W. (2001). The Business of Media. California: Pine Forge Press.
Tompkins, A. (2003, December 14). The physcological effects of media violence on children.
media consumption and subsequent behaviour?
Profiling the criminal behavior of rampage perpetrators is one of the main areas of focus in the social science research community. Gender, mental health issues, social exclusion, genetic susceptibility or predisposition, and ultimately, violent media, are most of the factors that guide researchers in the field, seeking to develop broader frameworks of understanding rampage violence. Over the past three decades, 78 cases of public mass shootings have been registered by the Congressional Research Service (2013). An FI report indicated a rise in typical mass shootings, from 6.4 incidents occurring between 2000 and 2007 to an average of 16.4 incidents between 2007 and 2013 (2013). Most of these public mass shootings have been found to occur either at workplaces or at schools across the United States.
The proliferation of mass shootings over these past few decades has further brought into the public and academic's attention the…
Anderson, C.A., Berkowitz, L., Donnerstein, E., Huesmann, L.R., Johnson, J.D., Linz, D., Malamuth, N.M. And Wartella, A., 2003. The influence of media violence on youth. Psychological Science in the Public interest, 4(3), pp. 81-110.
Berkowitz, L. And Geen R.G., 1966. Film violence and the cue properties of available targets. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 3(5), pp. 525-530. [pdf]
Bjorkqvist, K., 1985. Violent films, anxiety, and aggression. Helsinki: Finnish Society of Sciences and Letters.
Bushmann, B.J. And Huesmann, L.R., 2001. Effects of televised violence on aggression. In D. Singer and J. Singer, eds. Handbook of children and the media. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. pp. 223-254.
Media and the role it plays in shaping society
The media plays an essential role in shaping socially-acceptable behaviors in U.S. society, taking into account the way it succeeds in making people consider that it would be important for them to take on certain attitudes. TV media in particular tends to be biased in presenting the masses with information. By concentrating on sensational stories and on concepts like violence and sexuality, the media has the tendency to put across a false portrayal of society and thus influences people to believe that they need to uphold particular ideas.
In many areas violence rates remain constant, but the media has been seen to introduce more stories related to violence in these respective territories. This is largely because ideas like violence and sex make the masses more interested in wanting to become acquainted with the news. There is a relationship of…
Barker, M., & Petley, J. (2013). "Ill Effects: The Media Violence Debate." Routledge
Fourie, P. (2008). "Media Studies: Media history, media and society." Juta and Company Ltd.
.....media contribute to violence?
Some research has shown that the media contributes to the emergence and exhibition of violent behavior in young people, or at least the desensitization to violence. The American Psychological Association summarizes the body of literature and claims that at the very least, extensive exposure to violent imagery can desensitize a child to violence ("Television and Video Violence," n.d.). Other research may reveal a more causal relationship between exposure to violence in the media and violent behavior. For example, a meta-analysis of 15 different studies has shown "evidence strongly suggests that exposure to violent video games is a causal risk factor for increased aggressive behavior, aggressive cognition, and aggressive affect and for decreased empathy and prosocial behavior," (Kaplan, 2012). This does not mean that all people who are exposed to media violence will exhibit violent behavior or aggression, but that care must be taken when children are…
violence in the media can create violent behavior in children and teens. Many studies show that watching violent media, such as video games, films, and even the television news can cause violent behavior in children and teens, and that behavior can continue into adulthood.
Several different studies have indicated that violence in the media can produce violent and aggressive behavior in children and teens. Two researchers note, "In the past decade, media-effects researchers have progressively reached consensus that exposure to television violence can result in aggressive behavior" (Greene & Krcmar, 2005). In addition, a fifteen-year study by the American Psychological Association (APA) also showed that both men and women are affected by media violence, and that adults who watched this media as children tended to be more violent, and convicted of more violent crimes (Partenheimer, 2003). In the past decade, violence has become much more common in the media, as…
Attraction to Violence in the Media
Violence on Films and in Television
Filmmakers Technique to Grab the Audience
Violence Made to Swindle the Viewers
Making Violence Funny
It is clear that one of the worthy changes in the social environment today is the advent and fullness of television. In this new setting, television, radio, videos, movies, computer networks and video games, have presumed central roles in people's day-to-day lives. Rather it be good or bad, it seems that the mass media are having some kind of a huge impact on people's standards, beliefs, and behavior. Regrettably, the consequences of one specific element of the mass media exposure has for the most part damaging effects on those that are watching' and others' health. There is much Research evidence that has been accumulating over a lot of ears that being exposed to violence on television and in video games does…
Bishop, R. A P.J., 2006. Violence. Theory, Culture & Society. Theory, Culture and Society, 23(3), pp. pp.377-385..
BJ., B., 2007. Moderating role of. Journal . Pers. Soc.Psychol, 23(4), p. 950 -- 60.
Bushman BJ, H.L., 2008. Effects of televised violence on aggression.In Handbook of Children and the Media. In: Thousand Oaks: Sage, p. 223 -- 54.
Bushman, B. A A.C., 2001. Media violence and the American public: Scientific facts vs. media misinformation. American Psychologist, 56(7), pp. pp.477-489..
In the novel, Howad is foced to seve as an U.S. secet Agent by the Blue Faiy, a caee that eventually led to his own death.
Mothe Night epesents the fictional memois of Howad W. Campbell J., an Ameican who seved as a secet agent fo the Ameican Amy duing the Second Wold Wa. Giving that the actual autho of the novel seved himself as a soldie duing the same wa, the question of whethe o not the autho esembles the potagonist in the novel is undestandable. Pehaps one of the visions they shae is the eality of facts, Mothe Night being Vonnegut's only novel that does not featue fantastic elements. Vonnegut wote "We ae what we petend to be, so we must be caeful about what we petend to be," as the final moal fo his novel and one thing Campbell and Vonnegut shae afte all is thei vocation…
references to such stories like "Jack the Giant Killer" and uses the image of some demons and serpents to create the background. The tone of the play is quite humourous and ironic, thus explained by the existence of the Fool. However, the King himself is quite intelligent, even though Shakespeare uses his insanity to address nonhuman objects. Like in many of his other writings, Shakespeare's style of writing is poetic, using iambic rhythms and free verse.
Therefore, it is quite interesting to observe that such aspects of human nature depicted in King Lear resemble other works like that of Vonnegut's and his Mother Night. The technique used by the later is ultimately different from that of Shakespeare's, less dramatic, but tragic nonetheless, written in a first-person journal style. This confessional style is bound to credit the protagonist-narrator because we only get his version of the events. Interesting enough though, it seems as though Campbell discovers more things about himself as the story unfolds than does the reader.
Vietnam films have rewritten the winners and the losers of that saga and action-adventure films reinforce cultural norms of violence and power (175). Despite the increased real presence of women in positions of power, often media representations of women and other formerly disenfranchised groups remain stereotyped or relegated to marginal or token roles, although this is changing. Still, certain outlets like women's magazines often function as advertisements that perpetuate corporate images that make women feel worse, rather than better about themselves (188). Furthermore, a hegemonic ideology is implied by supposedly mainstream news organizations. Consider the construct of 'economic news.' This implies that the 'economy' is in a neat little box, and that social issues of race and political disenfranchisement, limits on wealth and access to education and power, have no role in who possess wealth and who lacks wealth in society. Economics as separate from other issues is essentially an…
Injustice and the Media
There was a point in the not-too-distant past when it was reasonable to perceive the media as a force collectively aimed at informing the public, exposing corruption, surfacing scandal and general performing the responsibility of protecting the people's right to know. However, several forces have permeated the so-called 'fourth estate,' diluting the media's acceptance of this responsibility. At one end of the spectrum, the growth in value of cable news such as CNN or MSNBC has created a highly monetized and commercially-motivated form of news. At the opposite end of the spectrum, the increasing visibility of social media such as Facebook and Twitter in spreading news stories has removed much of the accountability or professionalism from our media outlets.
The result is that our media outlets rarely have the motivation to ensure that a well-informed public is made aware of injustice in all its forms.…
Boettger, B. (2012). The Social Responsibility of Social Media. Media Post.
Chiyamwaka, B. (2008). Media Ethics: A Call To Responsible Journalism. Hippo Lodge Liwonde.
Christians, C.G. (2007). Utilitarianism in Media Ethics and Its Discontents. Journal of Mass Media Ethics, 22(2-3), 113-131.
Daily Graphic. (2009). Ethical, Responsible Journalism Essential for Media's Success. Modern Ghana.
Media eview Project
The 1993 film "What's Love Got To Do With It" presents many of the classic symptoms and effects of domestic violence. As such, it provides a great deal of insight into this phenomenon, both on the part of the abuser and on the one who is receiving the abuse. The film is a musical biography of Tina Turner, who was one of the late 20th century's most popular singers. The movie opens up with Tin Turner as a young girl singing in a church choir. Even at this early age her prowess as a singer, the power of her voice and the zeal she expresses through her musical performance, become readily apparent. It is crucial to note that despite such an enthusiastic performance, Tina Turner (who is going by her true name at this point, Anna Mae Bullock), is enduring a tumultuous home life. Her mother eventually…
Center for Substance Abuse Treatment. (1997. Substance Abuse Treatment and Domestic Violence. Rockville (MD): Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK64430/
Ebert, R. (1993). "What's love got to do with it." www.rogerebert.com. Retrieved from http://www.rogerebert.com/reviews/whats-love-got-to-do-with-it-1993
Maslin, J. (1993). "What's love got to do with it film review." The New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/movie/review?res=9F0CE4D71539F93AA35755C0A965958260
17). He is disgusted that news executives that direct what should be covered are less interested in "what's happening in Afghanistan" but more interested in "Michael Jackson and Laci Peterson" (Fenton, p. 20).
hat are the excuses TV executives, editors and producers give for focusing on scandal, sexual trysts, and embarrassing situations for celebrities? Fenton claims that those "gatekeepers of the news" will tell anyone listening that "the average [viewer] simply cannot absorb that much hard news, especially about events abroad" (p. 20). The CBS veteran insists that the media power brokers believe that "Americans are too broadly under-informed to digest nuggets of information that seem to contradict what they know of the world" (p. 20). That would seem to be a very condescending, elitist attitude on the part of the TV industry in particular.
Fenton (p. 22) asserts that because of the very real threats of terrorism on the…
Dorfman, Lori, Woodruff, Katie, Chavez, Vivian, and Wallack, Lawrence. "Youth and Violence
On Local Television News in California." American Journal of Public Health 87.8 (1997):
Downie, Leonard, and Schudson, Michael. "The Reconstruction of American Journalism."
Media Negatively Affects the Body Image Concerns of Adolescent Girls
Among adolescent girls, body image concerns are not uncommon. The hypothesis of this paper believes that media negatively affects the body image concerns of adolescent girls. The independent variable is the adolescent girls and the dependent variable is the media. This is because adolescent girls can be affected by a lot of other things when it concerns body image, this can come in the form of their peers, society and even history. These variables can affect the concerns on body image of adolescent girls in both a positive and a negative way. However, this paper will only discuss the negative affects which body images are supplied by media to adolescent girls with.
The theoretical approach which best suits this study is the Psychodynamic Approach. This is because the concerns regarding body images are implanted in the minds of these adolescent…
Anschutz, D.J., Van Strien, T., & Engels, R.C. (2008). Exposure to Slim Images in Mass Media: Television Commercials as Reminders of Restriction in Restrained Eaters. Health Psychology. 27(4); 401-408.
Cheng, H.L. & Mallinckrodt (2009). Parental Bonds, Anxious Attachment, Media Internalization, and Body Image Dissatisfaction: Exploring a Mediation Model. Journal of Counseling Psychology. 56(5); 365-375.
Clark, L., & Tiggemann, M. (2008). Sociocultural and Individual Psychological Predictors of Body Image in Young Girls: A Prospective Study. Developmental Psychology. 44(4); 1124-1134.
Dohnt, H. & Tiggemann, M. (2006). The Contribution of Peer and Media Influences to the Development of Body Satisfaction and Self-Esteem in Young Girls: A Prospective Study. Developmental Psychology. 42(5); 929-936.
The Content Dominance of Reality TV
Few forces have emerged with greater dominance or less artistic appeal than that of reality television, which has largely defined primetime content for the last decade. hat at one time appeared to be a fad, or a phenomenon at worst, ultimately reached a crescendo as the best path to high ratings, bid advertising dollars and household names. This is the pattern of media content which perhaps best reflects certain cultural qualities distinct to our time and place. Indeed, our collective embrace of this form of television, which allegedly depicts real individuals living real lives or facing real problems in front of national viewing audiences, suggests both a desire to see ourselves on the screen and, simultaneously, a desire to feel better about ourselves by observing the lurid, embarrassing and pathetic moments experienced by the 'stars' of reality television.
This idea is…
Elite Daily. (2012). The Detrimental Effect Of Reality TV On Our Society. Elitedaily.com
Fahner, M. (2012). The real effects of reality TV. USA Today College.
Miller, A. (2013). Hook, Line and Sinker: Reality TV and Its Impact In Our Culture. In the Mix.
However, this is not a reason to treat the entire religion as a terrorist organization itself. After 9/11, many Americans and media outlets have begun to treat all Muslims, and even the concept of Islam as a terrorist organization. No other controversies show this strong enough as the controversy concerning the building of the mosque near the site of 9/11. In this case, there is a lot of public outcry regarding a huge mosque that was being proposed to be built beginning in 2009. he film here highlights both media sources and individual survivors of 9/11 and how they are threatened with the presence of the mosque being so close to the site of the twin towers of the World rade Building. o many survivors it is a really emotional time still because the deaths of loved ones and friends are still very real in their minds. Yet, these individuals…
There are a number of things the media can do when being threatened by terrorist threats in order to stop the wave of fear the terrorists are looking to spread within American society. First, removing terrorists' access to the media will help decrease the media's relationship with spreading terror. Media outlets should refuse to print or highlight the terrorists own explanations of attacks and threats, as many terrorists often accompany threats with tapes or other sorts of verbal statements. This decreased attention will not continue to increase public fear as much, therefore not serving the terrorists on a silver platter.
Yes, there have been some radical Muslims that have taken extreme terrorist acts against the United States. However, this is not a reason to treat the entire religion as a terrorist organization itself. After 9/11, many Americans and media outlets have begun to treat all Muslims, and even the concept of Islam as a terrorist organization. No other controversies show this strong enough as the controversy concerning the building of the mosque near the site of 9/11. In this case, there is a lot of public outcry regarding a huge mosque that was being proposed to be built beginning in 2009. The film here highlights both media sources and individual survivors of 9/11 and how they are threatened with the presence of the mosque being so close to the site of the twin towers of the World Trade Building. To many survivors it is a really emotional time still because the deaths of loved ones and friends are still very real in their minds. Yet, these individuals are making the mistake of assuming all Muslims are anti-American, and even terrorists.
Many people are directly correlating Islam with the terrorists that were responsible for 9/11. Yet, this is simply not true. The terrorists who were responsible were a small fraction of fundamentalist radicals, not representatives of larger Islam itself. Those who were responsible for the extreme violence and pain that was 9/11 were not representative of the Islamic world as a whole. They were an extremist group that harbored political differences with the United States that had been building for generations. Thus, the act of terrorism was not necessarily religiously based. In this sense, blaming the religion for the act of terror would be a huge mistake. Muslims living in this country are still Americans. Therefore, they need to be able to experience the same rights to freedom of religion as other members of religious faiths do.
Violence in Video Games
The cultivation of violence in video games: causal or correlational?
Studies on media effects have always included the influential role that television and new media technologies such as the computer and Internet (ICTs). With the proliferation of both mass media, there is greater penetration of its content to children and the adolescent youth, who are frequent TV watchers and ICT users. Among the concerns of parents and scholars about the proliferation of this mass media is its unintended effects -- the cultivation of violence and development of violent behavior of the child through TV and ICT content. Focus is especially given to the youth who actively engage in video gaming, either through the TV, computer, or Internet. Parents and mass media research claim that video games harness an individual's violent behavior, resulting to aggressiveness and development of hostile attitude towards other people.
In this paper, the…
Brody, M. (2001). "Playing with death." Brown University Child and Adolescent Behavior Letter, (16)11.
Gaziano, C. (2001). "Towards a broader conceptual framework for research on social stratification, childrearing patterns, and media effects." Mass Communication & Society, (4)2.
Lynne Eagle, L., S. Bulmer, and A. de Bruin. (2003). "Marketing communications implications of children's new electronic media use: a survey of parental opinions and perceptions." Journal of Marketing Communications, (9)3.
Wagner, C. (2004). "Aggression and violent media." Futurist, (38)4.
Violence in Video Games
Guiding Question: Should the government have to be involved in legislation regarding video game content?
Proof 1: Explain how First Amendment ensures freedom of speech, including video game content.
"It is not the government's job to forbid content in media. It is the responsibility of the parents to decide what their children should play.
Body Paragraph 1: Music censorship case and ratings system for video games
Body Paragraph 2: Research evidence
Body Paragraph 3: Sociological implications and blaming
The First Amendment to the United States Constitution insists that citizens of the U.S. have the right to free speech. This Amendment has been utilized by artists from a wide variety of genres and talents to preserve their right to express themselves and prevent any form of censorship. Most calls for legislation regarding censorship have actually come from the parents of America's youth. Rather than take responsibility for…
Anderson, Craig (2003). "Violent Video Games: Myths, Facts, and Unanswered Questions."
Psychological Science Agenda.
Benedetti, Winda. (2008). "Playing the Blame Game." MSNBC. Retrieved from http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/23204875/
Chalk, Andy. (2007). "Inappropriate Content: a Brief History of Videogame Ratings and the ESRB." The Escapist.
Given that people engage in sporting events for a wide range of reasons, the authors assert that it is time for athletes to develop a moral code that embraces higher standards of conduct that will help reverse these recent trends and once again provide American sports with a sense of fair play and respect.
Fredenburg, Karen, Rafer Lutz, Glenn Miller et al. (2005). "Dismissals and Perceptions of Pressure in Coaching in Texas High Schools: Similarities and Differences with Previous Studies Show the Contemporary Face of Coaching Pressure." JOPERD-- The Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance 76(1):29.
In this essay, the authors report that there have been a number of recent studies and reports that suggest that the pressure in high school sports is growing, rather than declining. The authors cite an article in Sports Illustrated that described the alarming trends of parental misbehavior at youth sport events. The president…
Attitudes and practices varied by age of the child and the gender of the parent.
Colorito, Rita. (2002) "Violence on elevision News Programs is a Serious Problem." Is Media Violence a Problem? Ed James orr San Diego: Greenhaven, 2002. 24- 30.
Colorito says that even though rates of crime decreased in the 1990s, television news coverage of violent crime increased. V news shows like 20/20 and Dateline frequently show stories on horrible crimes, sometimes with bloody crime scenes and re-enactments of the crime. his makes people think that there is more violent crime than there really is.
Felson, Richard. "Mass Media Effects on Violent Behavior." Annual Review of Sociology 22. 1996. [Electronic Version]
he topic of violence in the media has been continually debated over the past several decades. here are a lot of empirical studies that show the effects of V on aggression. However, no review looked at the…
The topic of violence in the media has been continually debated over the past several decades. There are a lot of empirical studies that show the effects of TV on aggression. However, no review looked at the criminal aggression. The author concluded that even though the possibility of TV and film violence can lead to violent crime remains, most of the studies show that viewing violence does not cause crime.
Kirsh, Steven. Children, Adolescents, and Media Violence. A Crtical Look at the Research. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 2006
This book gives a very good overview of variety of studies about media violence and children and adolesence. The book includes information on what is aggression and different theories about aggression and human behavior. Kirsh wants readers to be critical of the studies they read and make sure they are scientific. Although he does not believe that violence in the media is harmful based on the studies, he does say that it should not be ignored. He concludes by saying that there should be more positive media for younger children when they will be effected most.
By examining violence and women in both Sin City and the Tekken series, one is able to see how seemingly similar representations of gender and violence actually create wildly different meanings depending on the particular medium. While Sin City and Tekken participate in the visual language of gender, when it comes to the relationship between gender and violence, Sin City focuses on the victimization of women's bodies at the hands of men while Tekken disavows any connection between the violence committed and the gender of those committing it. This analysis reveals an important distinction between violence committed by or against gendered individuals and violence committed because of gender, because as Tekken demonstrates, the former situation actually offers the possibility for a more expansive representation of gender.
Bryce, J.O., & utter, J. (2003). Gender dynamics and the social and spatial organization of computer gaming. Leisure Studies, 22(1), 1-15.
Bryce, J.O., & Rutter, J. (2003). Gender dynamics and the social and spatial organization of computer gaming. Leisure Studies, 22(1), 1-15.
Funk, J.B., Baldacci, H.B., Pasold, T., & Baumgardner, J. (2004). Violence exposure in real-life, video games, television, movies, and the internet: is there desensitization? Journal
of adolescence, 27(1), 23-39.
Namco Bandai (2009). Tekken 6 [videogame]. Tokyo: Katsuhiro Harada.
Video Violence: Assessing and Curbing the Effects of Television
Violence within Youth Programming in the United States of America
In today's day and age, technology has become a cornerstone of the American existence. With each passing day, new and improved technological devices turnover in order to bring the outside world into the individual American home, but the television has remained unaffected. The television and its programming have remained a constant yet changing staple in the country that brings with it an unparalleled ability to shape its watchers, with the most affected being the children and youth of America. While so many individuals immediately connect the phrase "children's programming" to harmless programs like Sesame Street and Mr. Rogers' Neighborhood, the truth remains that along with this wholesome educational programming, violence has also become a constant in many of the television programs geared toward children today. In viewing the research that is…
Hesmann, L.R. et al. "Early Exposure to TV Violence Predicts Aggression in Adulthood."
Developmental Psychology, 39(1): pp. 201-221.
Keer, Gregory. "The Effects of Seeing TV Violence." Parenthood. 2010. Web. 8 November
Children: Exposure to Violence Through the Media
The extent to which exposure to violence creates violent children and/or aggressive behavior is a subject which has been debated in a comprehensive manner. However, the fundamental research findings are consistent. The research continues to demonstrate that exposure to violence creates negative manifestations in the behavior of children. "While violence is not new to the human race, it is an increasing problem in modern society. With greater access to firearms and explosives, the scope and efficiency of violent behavior has had serious consequences. We need only look at the recent school shootings and the escalating rate of youth homicides among urban adolescents to appreciate the extent of this ominous trend" (Beresin, 2010). Given the fact that children are manifesting violent behavior in more and more disturbing ways, making places like schools -- previously dens of safety -- into places where children feel unsafe…
Beresin, V .E. (2010). The Impact of Media Violence on Children and Adolescents: Opportunities for Clinical Interventions. This article examines the biophysiological impact of violent images on children and how those exact dynamics work. Retrieved march 25, 2013 from http://www.aacap.org /cs/root/developmentor/the_impact_of_media_violence_on_children_and_adolescents_opportunities_for_clinical_interventions
Grayson-Mathis, C.E. (2005, June 10). Media violence may affect children's minds.
Offers a thorough appraisal on how violent media images impact the minds of children using relevant literature to support the case.
Retrieved from http://www.webmd.com/parenting/news/20050610/media-violence-may-affect-childrens-minds
The extreme power of this new cultural tool is the very nature -- it depends on nothing but an electronic connection. it, like many things in the modern world, is instantaneous, satisfying the 21st century need to have both dependence and independence based on our own decision or whim. Therein lies the confusion for many -- just how real is an electronic friendship that can exist without really "knowing" the person physically? How robust are virtual relationships except in the mind of those participating? and, how do we know with whom we are actually chatting or forming a bond -- could the mother of three living in Scotland be something quite different on the Internet? and, specifically, what impact might these social networks from a psychological perspective? (Gross, 2004).
Besides community, technology has changed entertainment for teens. Violence in the entertainment genre is not something that is new to the…
Ahn, J. (2011). Digital Divides and Social Network Sites: Which Students Participate in Social
Media. Jounral of Educational Computing Research, 45(2), 147-63.
Anderson-Butcher, D., et.al. (2010). Adolescent Weblog Use: Risky or Protective. Journal of Child and Adolescent Social Work, 27(2), 63-77.
Anderson, B. (1999). Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism. London: Verso Publications.
causes of teen violence, "Missing the Mark" by Jackson Katz and Sur Jhally, and "Stop Blaming Kids and TV" by Mike Males. Katz and Jhally argue that teen violence is a male-centric occurrence caused by socialization that promotes violent masculinity. Males provide a gender-neutral view of teen violence that he believes is caused by parents who engage in domestic violence.
Because of the obvious differences in these theories, it's tempting to try to advocate one premises over the other, but further thought shows that these two theories are complimentary because the family plays such a large part in the male socialization process.
Both articles deal with the subject of teenage violence and avoid placing blame on teens for their troubled behavior. Instead, these articles present the idea of imitation as a cause of teen violence, but they differ on who the kids are imitating. Males states that teens are copying…
In contrast, TV influences children in abandoning the theories they were taught and embrace other concepts, most related to violence. Also, after being exposed to TV violence children feel that it is perfectly natural for them to behave similar to the characters on TV (Langone, 1984, p. 48).
It is extremely important for a child to be assisted by an adult when watching TV. Studies have shown that children are influenced by the way adults perceive TV programs, meaning that a child is likely to gain a better understanding of right and wrong when he or she is supported by a mature individual. Even with that, TV violence can negatively influence children, as they will merely hide their aggression in the cases when they are assisted by an adult who disapproves of violent behavior in watching TV (Langone, 1984, p. 56).
Children are generally willing to do anything in ordered…
1. Barker, M. & Petley, J. (2001). Ill Effects: The Media/Violence Debate. New York: Routledge.
2. Hoffman, A.M. (1996) Schools, Violence, and Society. Westport, CT: Praeger.
3. Josephson, W.L. (1995). "Television Violence: A Review of the Effects on Children of Different Ages." Retrieved August 16, 2010, from the Media Awareness Network Web site:
As we are exposed to more and more sex and violence, these things begin to mean less to us, and indiscriminate and uncaring behavior appears to be one of the major results of this. In order to change the situation without impinging on this country's basic freedoms, media producers will need to shoulder the responsibility and provide content that is more conducive to a happy, well-adjusted, and more neighborly society.
Freedman, Jonathon L. Media violence and its effect on aggression: assessing the scientific evidence. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2002. 1-272.
otrla, Bowie. "Sex and Violence: Is Exposure to Media Content Harmful to Children?." Children & Libraries: The Journal of the Association for Library Service to Children 5.2 (Summer/Fall2007 2007): 50-52. Library, Information Science & Technology Abstracts. EBSCO. [Library name], [City], [State abbreviation]. 5 July 2009 .
Yount, William R. "Transcendence and Aging: The Secular Insights of Erikson and…
Kotrla, Bowie. "Sex and Violence: Is Exposure to Media Content Harmful to Children?." Children & Libraries: The Journal of the Association for Library Service to Children 5.2 (Summer/Fall2007 2007): 50-52. Library, Information Science & Technology Abstracts. EBSCO. [Library name], [City], [State abbreviation]. 5 July 2009 .
Yount, William R. "Transcendence and Aging: The Secular Insights of Erikson and Maslow." Journal of Religion, Spirituality & Aging 21.1/2 (Jan. 2009): 73-87. MasterFILE Premier. EBSCO. [Library name], [City], [State abbreviation]. 5 July 2009 .
Millner, Denene. "Messages in the Music." Essence 36.6 (Oct. 2005): 240-242. MasterFILE Premier. EBSCO. [Library name], [City], [State abbreviation]. 5 July 2009 .
With the technology available in today's economy, it is probable that education could go back to the days when students received more individualized instruction. There is no refuting that technology will continue to alter education (Cornell, 2007).
Socialization is the development of a sense of being self connected to a larger social world by way of learning and internalizing the values, beliefs, and norms of one's culture. During socialization people learn to carry out certain roles as citizens, friends, lovers and workers. In the course of internalization our culture becomes second nature. People learn to behave in socially suitable and adequate ways. Some social institutions have precise roles in socializing the young and others have less deliberate but still powerful roles in the process. The mass media is a very influential socializing force. Media affects how people learn about the world and interact with each another. People often base most…
A Guide to Critical Viewing for Parents and Children. (n.d.). Retrieved July 30, 2010, from Family Values Television Network Web site: http://fvtvn.com/articles/taking-charge-of -your-tv/
Bolen, Jackie. (2006). TV's Effect on the Family. Retrieved July 30, 2010, from Web site:
Cornell, K. (2007). How Technology has Influenced Education. Retrieved July 30, 2010, from Writing Web site: http://www.writing.com/main/view_item/item_id/1322931-How -
Additional research showed that those who were frequently exposed to these movies were also inclined to develop risk-taking behavior (Greene and Kromar).
Vulnerable young women who had long-term exposure to sexually objectifying media could suffer from decreased self-esteem, according to another study (Aubrey 2006). A group of 149 female undergraduates in a big mid-Western university was surveyed for their responses after having been exposed to such media. The study revealed that the exposure could dent their global self-esteem if they already possessed the vulnerability to these media materials. An example is Seventeen Magazine, which is an example of a sexually objectifying medium (Aubrey).
The media are an effective instrument of war (Payne 2005). Recent conflicts clearly demonstrate that the transmission of information plays a significant part in warfare. Winning a war is considered as decisive as actually beating the enemy at the battlefield. Winning the medial war is, therefore, a…
Aubrey, J. S, (2006). Exposure to Sexually Objectifying Media and Body Self-Perceptions Among College Women.16 pages. Sex Roles: a Journal of Research: Springer
Greene, K.and Kromar, M. (2005). Predicting Exposure to, and Liking of, Media Violence. 17 pages. Communication Studies: Central States Speech Association
Holts, S. (2005). Establishing Connections. 2 pages. Communication World: International Association of Business Communicators
Kariithi, N. (2007). Connecting the Continent. 4 pages. Communication World: International Association of Business Communicators
The major concern is the effect of violence, due once again, to studies that show a connection between watching violence and participating in it. For example, Bushman and Anderson (2002) conducted as study in which they determined that playing violent video games can "engender hostile expectations, leading one to expect that others will respond aggressively" (p. 1679).
The Grand Theft Auto series of video games has undoubtedly been a major instigator in the backlash against the gaming industry. Not surprisingly, most parents are not too thrilled about the idea of their children taking on the persona of a character who commits crimes to earn rewards, and runs over prostitutes so he doesn't have to pay them. There was also a major parental backlash against the PS2 game Bully before it was released, because parents assumed that it would glorify bullying. The frenzy turned out to be unfounded as the game…
Bushman, B.J., & Anderson, C.A. (2002). Violent video games and hostile expectations: A test of the general aggression model. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 28, 1679 -- 1686.
Gunter, B., Harrison, J. & Wykes, M. (2003) Violence on television: Distribution, form, context, and themes, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates
Rekulak, J. & Spangler, B. (2006) Let's Paint the '90s, Quirk Books
Imagine being caught in the middle of a crossfire with two students shooting and you are right in the middle of it. Well that is exactly what students and teachers in Littleton, Colorado went through. On April 20, 1999, at approximately 12:20am, two students armed with semi-automatic handguns, shotguns and explosives conducted an assault on the Columbine High School and the people inside. A total of 12 students, 1 teacher and 2 suspects were killed; 24 students were transported to six local hospitals; and 100 students were treated at the scene (www.Littleton.org).Isthis what is happening inside the walls of where America's youth is suppose to be learning and in a safe environment. What can we do to prevent events like this from happening? It is a question we are constantly searching for answers to. There seems to be no concrete answers or solutions just certain explanations.
Bibliography. Joan Nordquist; Santa Cruz, CA: Reference and Research Services, 1994.
Violence Prevention: Totally Awesome Teaching Strategies for Safe and Drug-Free Schools. Linda Meeks and Philip Heit; Meeks Heit, 1994.
STRESS THIS ENOUGH).
The Media industry has a severe influence on the masses and people often end up being unable to differentiate between normal attitudes and attitudes that they take on because the media wants them to do so. The way that women and men are shown in television commercials has drawn significant attention from the general public and has made it possible for many to acknowledge that advertisements can generate provocative arguments. hile most people realize that it is essential for the media industry to use gender roles as a tool to encourage particular viewers to buy products, it is surely difficult to look away as some commercials tend to be discriminatory and to induce certain thoughts in individuals watching them.
In order to gain a better understanding of gender roles and their relationship with the media industry, one first needs to consider advertised products and the concept of…
Calvert, Sandra L. And Wilson, Barbara J.," The Handbook of Children, Media and Development" (John Wiley & Sons, 2010)
Gunter, Barrie, "Media Sex: What Are the Issues?"( Routledge, 2002)
Kirsh, Steven J. "Children, Adolescents, and Media Violence: A Critical Look at the Research," (SAGE, 2006)
Lindberg, Sara, L. "Gender-role Identity Development During Adolescence: Individual, Familial, and Social Contextual Predictors of Gender Intensification"( ProQuest, 2008)
Computer Games esearch
When considering the short history of computers, video and PC gaming are very recent on the timeline of technology. This is one of the reasons why there have not been many conclusive studies on the negative and/or positive effects of electronic games on children and young adults -- the most formative years. With the ever-increasing interest and involvement of children in this activity, much concern has been expressed about the impact of these games, especially ones of a more violent nature, on physical and psychological development. At the crux of the debate is the question of whether they are detrimental to a young person's health. There are specific concerns about such factors as aggression, addiction, criminal activity, obesity and reduced academic achievement.
Studies thus far show both positive and negative results from playing video and PC games. Some research finds that the playing or observing of violent…
Anderson, C.A., and K.E. Dill "Video Games and Aggressive Thoughts, Feelings, and Behavior in the Laboratory and in Life. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 2000, 78, 772-790.
Ask, A., Autoustinos, M., and A.H. Winefield, "To kill or not to kill: Competitive aggression in Australian adolescent males during videogame play." Children in the New Media Landscape. C. van Feilitzen and U. Carlsson (Eds.). Goteborg, Sweden: UNESCO International Clearinghouse on Children and Violence on the Screen, 2000.
Bowman, R.P. And J.C. Rotter. "Computer games: Friend or foe?" Elementary School Guidance and Counselling, 1983, 18, 25 -- 34
Calvert, S.L., and S. Tan, (1994). "Impact of Virtual Reality on Young Adults' Physiological Arousal and Aggressive Thoughts." Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 1994, 15, 125-139.
Rap Music: The Result of Violence
Rap music is a phenomenon that is unparalleled in America, at no other time has a music form risen in such a way and gripped a nation as fully. While, rap music has its roots in the ghettos of the U.S.A. And black culture, it is now a full scale industry that caters to the disenfranchised youth of America and bridges all gaps of culture and social level. Indeed, one of the currently most famous rappers, and relevant to this topic, is white, as are most of the current buyers and listeners to rap music. Violence and rap music are interwoven in such a way that it is impossible to completely untwine them but looking at the cause and results of violence is a different topic that needs going into as it has far reaching implications, including the government control of the music industry.…
Villani, Susan. "Impact of Media on Children and Adolescents: A 10-year review of the research," Publication: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, April 1, 2001.
The National Media Violence Study, Federman, 1996, 1997, 1998, 1995 "Preventing and Producing Violence: A Critical Analysis of Responses to School Violence." Harvard Educational Review.
Bayles, Martha. Hole In Our Soul: The Loss of Beauty and Meaning in American Popular Music, by, New York: The Free Press, 1996.
Doherty, Brian. Listen up! Eminem gives a voice to his generation, February 18, 2001, issue of the Detroit News
There is plenty of anecdotal evidence to support this theory -- several prominent school shootings have been ostensibly linked to video game playing -- but real scientific evidence is also emerging that suggests a more subtle but similar effect. In one study, college-age participants who had spent time playing olfenstein 3D, a first person shooter computer game, "punished" their opponents by subjecting them to loud noises of high intensity more frequently and for longer periods of time than participants that had played a non-violent computer game. In the words of Dr. Craig Anderson, one of the psychologists and researchers who conducted the study, "violent video games provide a forum for learning and practicing aggressive solutions to conflict situations."
Basically, time spent playing violent video games is time spent learning life skills that could be detrimental and counter-productive in real world situations, and could even replace more socially valuable skills sets…
American Psychological Association. "Violence in the Media - Psychologists Help Protect Children from Harmful Effects." Accessed 13 July 2009. http://www.psychologymatters.org/mediaviolence.html
Gunter, Barrie. The Effects of Video Games on Children. Wiltshire: Sheffield Academic Press Ltd., 1998.
Jenkins, henry. "Congressional Testimony on Media Violence." Accessed 13 July 2009. http://web.mit.edu/comm-forum/papers/jenkins_ct.html
Kirsh, Steven J. Children, Adolescents, and Media Violence. London: Sage Publications, 2006.
media / favorite form media. You choose . Analysis
In my opinion, the most preferable form of mass media is the fairly conventional compact disc. CDs are an excellent sociological tool in learning about one's environment and the relevant issues that affect society today. Additionally, CD's allow for a highly limited form of intervention between the message that the music artist is attempting to convey and its reception by the listener. Conversely, I believe that one of the least preferable forms of media is the internet. Despite the fact that there are vast amounts of information accessible to users on it, there are a number of ways in which using the internet inherently impinges on the privacy of a particular user. Cookies and other sorts of intelligence metrics track the particular activity of people. Moreover, this capability of the internet, when combined with aspects of data governance, data stewardship, and…
Godwin, Allotey. "Libertarian V. Social Responsibility." Allotey Godwin. http://alloteygodwin.blogspot.com/2009/05/libertarian-v-social-responsibility.html
No Author. "Introduction to Mass Communication." Zeepedia.com. No date. Web. http://www.zeepedia.com/read.php?media_theories_libertarian_theory_social_responsibility_theory_introduction_to_mass_communication&b=78&c=39
No author. "Theories of Communication." www.peoi.org. 2012. Web. http://www.peoi.org/Courses/Coursesar/mass/mass2.html
Naveed, Fakhar. "Normative Theories of Mass Communication." Ask For Mass. 2012. Web. http://mastermasscommunication.blogspot.com/2012/02/normative-theories-of-mass.html
The argument being advanced is that since, the Muslim extremists were responsible for the 9/11 disaster, the construction of the Muslim religious center would inculcate the jihad teachings and dishonor to the memory of the 9/11 victims. The question one would ask is this, what about the strip clubs, bars and other activities that are zero blocks away from the hallowed ground, do they honor the victims of the attacks. Consequently, it can be argued that Politicians and anti-Muslim groups found an easier way to agitate the crowds by exploitation of their Islamophobic instincts with the aid of the media framing of the issue. In same the interview, what comes out clearly is that Pamela fights against what she perceives as Islamization of America as opposed to Americanization of Islam. he later describes the center, which she refers to as ground zero mosque as a war memorial against the Americans…
Stone, D.A. (2002). Policy paradox: The art of political decision making. New York: Norton.
Payser, a (May 13, 2010).Mosque madness at Ground Zero.
Violence in American Schools
(a & b) Columbine High School is in Jefferson County in Littleton, Colorado. In the spring of 1999, two male senior students executed a plan to commit a brutal series of violent acts against their fellow students, teachers, and staff. In essence, they took the school by siege and they took every person within the school hostage. There were several aspects to the plan. These domestic terrorists definitely premeditated this attack, which included specific activities to block or hinder the fire department that was bound to arrive on scene. They ignited explosions in the school (such as the cafeteria and parking lot), but what people mostly remember are the shootings. They killed 12 students and 1 teacher. Dozens of other students were injured because they tried to flee the scene to save their lives. Eventually, the two attackers turned their guns upon themselves and committed…
NBC News. (2007). Worst U.S. shooting ever kills 33 on Va. campus. NBC News, Web, Available from: http://www.nbcnews.com/id/18134671/ns/us_news-crime_and_courts/t/worst-us-shooting-ever-kills-va-campus/ . 2013 June 25.
Shen, A. (2012). A Timeline of Mass Shooting in the U.S. since Columbine. Think Progress, Web, Available from: http://thinkprogress.org/justice/2012/12/14/1337221/a-timeline-of-mass-shootings-in-the-us-since-columbine/?mobile=nc . 2013 June 25.
Toppo, G. (2009). 10 years later, the real story behind Columbine. USA Today, Web, Available from: http://usatoday30.usatoday.com/news/nation/2009-04-13-columbine-myths_N.htm?POE=click-refer . 2013 June 25.
Gender stereotyping is a pernicious and pervasive practice. The media reinforces already existing gender norms, thereby perpetuating structural inequalities and gender inequity. However, the media can also be instrumental in transforming gender norms by combatting stereotypes and depicting gender in unconventional ways. Gender stereotypes can confirm unconscious biases and beliefs about the role and status of men and women. Likewise, the portrayals of gender in the media reinforce behavioral norms. Research shows that “constant exposure to the same dated concepts in the media” can lead to adverse effects that can “last a lifetime,” (Knorr, 2017, p. 1). Therefore, it is critical to become active, engaged consumers of media and to increase media literacy throughout the society.
Gender portrayals in the media will differ according to media type, such as news media versus advertisements, or children’s programming versus programming for adults. Similarly, gender stereotypes vary from culture to culture. Although gender…
Addiction to Violence in Sports
Violence is a part of human nature. Violence is a natural part of existence. Human beings have some of the greatest tendencies and great potential for abuse of violence as a means of communication or action. Each person is capable of violence, but that possibility does not mean that that person overall is violent. There are a number of ways in which humans beings can exercise their urges for violence in healthy and productive ways. Participating in sports and sporting events is one such activity where humans can demonstrate violent behavior(s) within specific parameters (game rules) and there be no grave consequences. By the very nature of sports, successful and exceptional players demonstrate at least a moderate level of violence as part of their participation; the violence displayed need not be upon opposing players, though that is a facile example. Violence is sports can…
Hardcastle, J. (n.d.) Sports Violence. Available from: www.cyber-spy.com/ebooks/ebooks/Sports-Violence-(ebook).pdf. 2012 July 17.
James, M., & McArdle, D. (2004) Player violence, or violent players?: Vicarious liability for sports participants. The Tort Law Review, 12(3), 1 -- 12.
Jewell, T., Moti, A., Coates, D. (2011) Chapter 2: A Brief History of Violence and Aggression in Spectator Sports. Violence and Aggression in Sporting Contests: Economics, History and Policy, Sports Economics, Management and Policy 4. Jewell, R.T. (ed) Springer Science+Business Media, LLC: TX.
Also stated in their findings was that exposure in the laboratory of video games that were 'graphically violent...increased aggressive thoughts and behavior (2000:1) Also stated in this report is that other studies conducted by Anderson and Gentile give indication that videogames "have a strong effect on aggression..." particularly in children.
3. Coleman, Loren (2004) The Copycat Effect Paraview Publishing. Online available at http://www.paraview.com/coleman/index4.htm.
According to Coleman, the copycat effect has been a result of media coverage of events such as school shootings. Coleman brings to light how media affects culture within a society.
4. The Culture of Commercialism (2006) Media Awareness Network Online available at http://www.media-awareness.ca/english/resources/educational/handouts/ethics/rr_culture_commercialism.cfm.
This work states that "advertising projects false images commercialism distorts our culture by turning every event into a reason to consume.... [and that]...advertising perpetuates stereotypes..."
5. Digital Beginnings: Young Children's Use of Popular Culture, Media and New Technologies Popular Culture and Media Literacy: Research…
..This perspective is from the U.S.A.; in Europe, violence in school and the concern about violence may not be at similar levels, but it is undoubtedly a topic of major concern (Smith, 2003, p. 1).
This article also makes the important point that school is intended as a developmental and educational environment and that violence in its various forms negatively effects and detracts from the goals of education.
Another general work that adds to the underlying body of knowledge on this topic is Stealing the Show? Crime and Its Impact in Post-Apartheid South Africa by Mark Shaw and Peter Gastrow (2001). Among others, this study makes a cogent assessment of the way that crime and violence is measured and reported in South Africa.
Most researchers assume that official crime statistics -- that is, those collected and released by the South African Police Service -- provide a poor indication of levels…
Abbink, J. & Kessel, I.V. (Eds.). (2005). Vanguard or Vandals: Youth, Politics, and Conflict in Africa. Boston: Brill. Retrieved January 3, 2009, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=114080610
Bility K.M. (1999) School Violence and Adolescent Mental Health in South Africa: Implications for School Health Programs. "http: Sociological Practice, Vol. 01, No, 4, pp. 285-303 www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5002024684
Carton, B. (2003). The Forgotten Compass of Death: Apocalypse Then and Now in the Social History of South Africa. Journal of Social History, 37(1), 199+. Retrieved January 3, 2009, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5002024684
Center for Justice and Crime Prevention. Retrieved January 2, 2009, at http://www.cjcp.org.za/
2. I agree wholeheartedly with the author. Random acts of kindness do make the world and our society a better place. We need to become more aware of the connections between people. We do need to smile more, treat others with deep respect, and recognize the impact our actions have on other people. Instead of walking around angry all day, we need to develop a positive frame of mind and speak and act with kindness.
Universal health care would reflect a deep change in our culture. We have become so focused on our independence that we forgot the value of sharing and caring. Our selfishness and greed has led to a situation in which most Americans cannot afford adequate healthcare. Yet Americans are afraid of making small sacrifices that could benefit our society such as paying slightly more taxes to fund a truly universal system…
Clashes between tribes were almost continual, but an actual Civil ar escalated to the capital in Mogadishu in 1990, causing the world press to flee and media attention given to the area. Certainly, from the 1980s on, the willingness of the Somalis to rebel may be explained by the general conditions of poverty in the area.
From 1950 to the early 80s the economy was fairly stable, but then began a downward spiral. Urban workers had no jobs, rural families had no markets, and discontent was becoming endemic. As domestic food production failed, Somalia was forced to rely on foreign aid and importation to subsist. Even with that influx, infant mortality and life expectancy remain flat, worse in some sectors of the country. This may be best expressed in using the overall paradigm of structural violence in the conflicts coming from clan rivalry and the competition for the bare essentials…
Galtung, J. (1969). Violence, Peace, and Peace Research. Journal of Peace Research, 6(3), 167-91.
Gurr, T. (1970). Why Men Rebel. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Kivimaki, T. (2001, June). Explaining Violence in Somalia. Retrieved April 2011, from Conflict Transformation Service: http://www.conflicttransform.net/Somalia%20report.pdf
Walker, I., & Smith, H. (2001). Relative Deprivation: Specification, Development and Integration. New York: Cambridge University Press.
violence against non-combatant populations to increase the psychological effects of warfare has been a mainstay of human aggression for millennia. As Russian revolutionist eon Tolstoy once said: "kill one, intimidate one thousand." In the modern world, the idea of terrorism has moved from the overt spark that caused World War I to the events of September 11, 2001. Just after 9am Eastern Standard Time, most of the world watched in horror as the global media replayed the events surrounding four passenger planes that were high jacked in the United States. Two of these aircraft were flown into New York's Twin Towers, one into the Pentagon in Washington, D.C., and the final one crashed into a field in Pennsylvania. Even though the damage was confined to the physical and geographic area of the United States, the image and aftermath of the attacks were global. American conservative columnist George Will, never a…
Looking at the photographs or reviewing the footage, of the Twin Towers is highly emotional and symbolic; likely exactly the point of using them as targets. The Twin Towers represented not just New York or America, but capitalism, international business, the human spirit in almost defying gravity and using human ingenuity to build something grand. However, grand though it may have been, just like December 7, 1945 and Japan's attack on Pearl Harbor, the very soul of modernity was ripped away, making individuals feel vulnerable, unsafe, and quite frankly -- terrified in a hostile world.
Whatever motives the al-Qaida sect might have had are less important than the capability of adapting to such an evil and nefarious purpose. This of course, is the great conundrum that 9/11 reminds us: we are a species capable of the most ardent dichotomies imagined. Even examining only the 20th century, we find that humans have produced some of the most beautiful works of art imaginable: the sublime works of T.S. Eliot, the controversial yet intriguing works of Aaron Copland and Igor Stravinsky, the disturbingly emotional Salvador Dali, and architectural masterpieces that dwarf anything built, and more technological advances than can be adequately chronicled here. Then, we have also had the Holocaust, Stalin's Purges, the excesses of Pol Pot and Idi Amin; vast populations starved, displaced, and several disease vectors that have wiped out significant populations. From the perspective of an extraterrestrial anthropologist, we would seem a confusing species at best; a clear dichotomy of values, morals, and actions.
Yet the images of 9/11 also remind us that while a dichotomy exists, it is that very capacity for evil that allows us to rise above and produce good. New York City is certainly a different place than it was on September 10, 2011; and the world has grown even closer since the attacks -- partially due to technology, but also due to a true desire and vision that when all external trappings are gone, the kernel of the individual is indeed the human spirit.