Medication Errors Essays (Examples)



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Medications Errors and the Nurse's Role in Preventing These Errors

Words: 839 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51205155

medication errors by nurses. There are six references for this paper.

Health care professionals are responsible for the welfare and safety of their patients. One of the most dangerous and preventable mistakes a nurse can make is a medication error. It is important to understand how errors occur, their repercussions and ways to prevent a medication error.

In order to prevent a medication error, a nurse must first understand how it is defined. A medication error is "any preventable event that may cause or lead to inappropriate medication use or patient harm while the medication is in the control of the health care professional, patient, or consumer. Such events may be related to professional practice, health care products, procedures, and systems, including prescribing; order communication; product labeling, packaging, and nomenclature; compounding; dispensing; distribution; administration; education; monitoring; and use ("


There are a number of factors which can contribute to…… [Read More]


Cohen, Hedy. (01 July, 2004). "Pediatric medical errors part 3: safety strategies: medication use system to analyze errors." Pediatric Nursing, pg 33.

Meadows, Ginny. (01 July, 2002). "Safeguarding patients against medication errors." Nursing


(Medication errors defined. (accessed 04 September, 2005).
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Medication Error Disclosure Ethics and Legalities

Words: 1011 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14281761

There is a common saying that nobody is perfect. No human being is immune to errors and mistakes from time to time. Not even trained professionals in the course of discharging their duties and roles. In a medical setting, the cost of even the simplest of errors could be immense. For this reason, it would be prudent to assess/examine the legal and ethical implications of disclosure and non-disclosure of a personal error and the course of action that would be most appropriate when medication errors are detected. Further, it would also be prudent to evaluate strategies and approaches to minimize education errors.
One of the most important considerations, from an ethical perspective, that health practitioners ought to make with reference to the disclosure of medication errors is whether or not they (or their loved ones) would like to be notified if they were to find themselves in a similar scenario.…… [Read More]

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Medication Reconciliation Evidence-Based Practice and the Procedural

Words: 6404 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3318945

Medication econciliation

Evidence-Based Practice and the Procedural Education of Nurses

Medication reconciliation is a critical issue in healthcare reform. Today, improvement in this area of treatment could have a transformative effect on the current practices of nursing and medicine administration. The discussion, literature review and research tests that are conducted hereafter will outline the implications of medication reconciliation; justify the call for improvement in this treatment area; and offer support for the resultant recommendations using the Quality and Safety Education for Nurses (QSEN) template as a guide. The discussion will provide a background discussion on the three primary procedural steps by which medication reconciliation is defined: Verifying Medications by Collecting an Accurate Medication History; Clarifying Information by Ensuring Medications and Doses Are Appropriate, and; econciling and Documenting Change. Additionally, the discussion will offer a literature review as a means of providing some comprehensive knowledge of current practices in the field.…… [Read More]


Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ). Medication Reconciliation. U.S.

Department of Health and Human Services.

Alabama Universal Medication Form, Retrieved April 28, 2012 from:

American Association of Colleges of Nursing (AACN). (2008). The Essentials of Baccalaureate Education for Professional Nursing Practice. Quality and Safety
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Errors in the ICU

Words: 1240 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20109837

Medication Errors

One of the major challenges impact healthcare providers is medical errors. These issues are challenging, as they will have an adverse impact on quality and safety. In the case of the ICU, these challenges are becoming more pronounced. This is because of the different conditions and large number of patients they are working with. A good example of this can be seen with insights from Orgeas (2010) who said, "Although intensive care units (ICUs) were created for patients with life-threatening illnesses, the ICU environment generates a high risk of iatrogenic events. Identifying medical errors (MEs) that serve as indicators for iatrogenic risk is crucial for purposes of reporting and prevention. We describe the selection of indicator MEs, the incidence of such MEs, and their relationship with mortality. We selected indicator MEs using Delphi techniques. An observational prospective multicenter cohort study of these MEs was conducted from March 27…… [Read More]


Data and Statistics. (2014). CDC. Retrieved from:

Marcucci, L. (2012). Avoiding Common ICU Errors. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.

Marino, P. (2012). ICU Book. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

McClean, S. (2011). Intelligent Patient Management. New York, NY: Springer.
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Technology in Nursing Impacting Medication Administration

Words: 1541 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38427021

Medication changes with technology: A description and detailed review of five clinical electronic systems that correlate with the process of medication administration technology.

Computerized physician / prescribed order entry (CPOE)

In 2000, following the huge spate of accidental death (approximately 2 million) that occurred nationwide, the Department of Health Services (DHS) surveyed hospitals in California regarding the nexus of patient safety and technology and which technological system they had it in mind to procure by 2005.

46% of the hospitals surveyed rated the computerized physician / prescribed order entry (CPOE) as their preferred technological system since it helps the prescribing clinician enter the medication order directly into the system (Spurlock, et al., 2003). The CPOE, moreover, can instantly detect any error in the prescription as well as employing various levels of decisions support to detect errors to situations that could have led to an error in the prescription (such as…… [Read More]


Spurlock, B. et al. (2003) Legislating Medication Safety: The California Experience. Convergence Health Consulting.

Health Information Technology (2009) Electronic medication administration records improved communication and decision-making in nursing homes

Institute of Medicine (2001). Crossing the Quality Chasm: A New Health System for the 21st Century. The National Academies Press.
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Accuracy in Medication Practice Improvement

Words: 1923 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50817797

Medication Practice Improvement Episode

Medication Intercept

An intravenous antibiotic Benzylpenicillin (Benpen) course was prescribed for a child to treat acute osteomyelitis. The 30mg/kg dose calculation was duly followed. The child weighed 28kg and so 840mg Benpen dose was to be given every six hours and this was charted accordingly. The chart showed these times: 06:00, 12:00, 18:00 and 24:00. Dose number two was to be taken at 14:00 and two Ns -registered nurses - that administered the dose signed on the column of 12:00 and indicated 14:00 above the signatures. At the time of the handover, no communication was made to the fresh team that the antibiotics had been administered late. When it reached 18:00, me and my colleague went to ready the patient for the next Benpen dose; since it is a requirement that two nurses check an intravenous medication. I discovered that the last dose had been administered…… [Read More]


Evans, J. (2009). The prevalence, risk factors, consequences and strategies for reducing medication errors in Australian hospitals: A literature review. Contemporary Nurse: A Journal for the Australian Nursing Profession, 31(2), 176-189.

Teunissen, R., Bos, J., Pot, H., Pluim, M., & Kramers, C. (2013). Clinical relevance of and risk factors associated with medication administration time errors. American Journal of Health-System Pharmacy, 70(12), 1052-1056. Doi:10.2146/ajhp120247

Jones, S.W. (2009). Reducing medication administration errors in nursing practice. Nursing Standard, 23(50), 40-46.

Volpe, C.R.G., Pinho, D.L.M., Stival, M.M., & de Oliveira Karnikowski, M.G. (2014). Medication errors in a public hospital in Brazil. British Journal of Nursing, 23(11), 552-559.
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Legal Aspects of Medical Errors Various Factors

Words: 1275 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27766872

Legal Aspects of Medical Errors

Various factors in the health care system are reported to be contributors to medication errors. This work reviews a case study discussed in 'Hospital Pharmacy' (Smetzer and Cohen, 1998) which provides a clear example of the complex nature of the health care system and the process of medication use and how this interrelates to medication safety and quality. The nurse made the decision to administer the medication by IV. The syringe was labeled IM use only. The administration of the medication by IV would prove to be lethal since the drug is insoluble and obstructs blood flow the lungs needed for transferring oxygen to the individual's airways. The baby after it had died was found to not be in need of the treatment after all.

There were 50 latent and active failures that had occurred during the medication-use process and the majority of these failures…… [Read More]


ASHP Technical Assistance Bulletin on Hospital Drug Distribution and Control (2011) Drug Distribution and Control: Distribution -- Technical Assistance Bulletins. Retrieved from:

Institute of Medicine. (2007). Understanding the causes and costs of medication errors (Case on the death of the day-old infant). In P. Aspden, J.A. Wolcott, J.L. Bootman, & L.R. Cronenwett (Eds.), Preventing medication errors: Quality chasm series (pp. 43 -- 4-5)Retrieved from

Pharmacist's Manual Section IX -- Valid Prescription Requirements (2012) Office of Diversion and Control. DEA. Retrieved from:
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Barcode Scanning Medications the Case

Words: 747 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30317827

According to the BWH study, in some cases an increase of potential adverse drug events was possible, especially when every dose of medications was not scanned. For barcode scanning technology to work as designed, every medication dose would have to be scanned before it reached the patient (BWH, 2002). Given the current shortage of nurses available to perform routine tasks in hospital care settings, it is likely that multiple errors might occur from a nurse not having time to or forgetting to scan every dose a patient would take before medicating the patient.

Some reports acknowledge that technological systems as barcode scanning are "cumbersome" and may "cause an unreasonable increase in time needed to administer medications" with some hospitals reporting an 8-second delay in medication recognition when nurses used a database instead of manual methods (Cipriano, 2002).


The use of barcode scanning for medication processing and administration is not…… [Read More]


Bayley, C. & Berlinger, N. Who is responsible? The Hastings Center Report, 36(3): 11.

BWH. (2005). BWH study finds using bar code technology in a hospital pharmacy dramatically reduces dispensing errors and potential adverse drug events." Brigham and Women's Hospital. February, 2005. Accessed 7, May 2007:

Cipriano, P.F. "Statement of the American Academy of Nursing and the American

Organization of Nurse Executives regarding barcode labeling." July 26, 2002. Accessed 7, May, 2007:
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Lived Experience of Nurses With Medication

Words: 1988 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37696917

Nurses Medication


The Lived Experiences of Nurses with Medication

Nurses are tasked with the proper distribution of medications. Unfortunately, they sometimes are unable to perform that task properly due to various factors. This paper presents five separate studies, two qualitative and three quantitative or mixed, which researched how nurses commit medication error, what the antecedents are, and how they can be avoided. The studies are examined according to research design, sample size and whether the study could be extrapolated to the broader population.

The Lived Experiences of Nurses with Medication

This is a literature review which focuses on nurses who make medication errors and what importance is placed on those errors in relation to patient safety. Five studies were examined with the express purpose of determining what types of studies are being conducted to alleviate this issue, what research designs they are using, and whether…… [Read More]


Hofmann, D.A., & Mark, B. (2006). An investigation of the relationship between safety climate and medication errors as well as other nurse and patient outcomes. Personnel Psychology, 59(4). 238-249.

Kim, J., An, K., Kim, M.K., & Yoon, S.H. (2007). Nurses' perception of error reporting and patient safety culture in Korea. Western Journal of Nursing Research, 29(7). 827-844.

Jones, J.H., & Treiber, L. (2010). When the 5 rights go wrong: Medication errors from the nursing perspective. Journal of Nursing Care Quality, 25(3). 240-247.

Schelbred, A.-B., & Nord, R. (2007). Nurses experiences of drug administration errors. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 60(3). 317-324.
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Progress Made in Medication Safety Practices

Words: 1205 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29199720

Medical Safety

Poor medical safety practices result in over 40,000 deaths per year, of that 7,000 deaths are attributed to medication-related medical errors. There is no excuse for negligence when it comes to human lives. It is imperative that the medical community introduce sound medication safety best practices to eliminate adverse outcomes related to medication prescriptions. Best practices include the implementation of standardization and protocols in addition to the use of technology to reduce errors.

Medical Safety Practices

Medical practitioners are relied upon to provide solutions, acting as the first and many times, last hope of those in dire need. But despite this great responsibility to patients whose lives are entrusted in medical staff studies show that out of every 100 patients admitted to a medical facility 2 patients will experience a medical error due to incorrectly prescribed or administered medication. The results can be mild but can also be…… [Read More]


Bates, David W.; Spell, Nathan; Cullen, David J., et al. (1997).The Costs of Adverse Drug Events in Hospitalized Patients. JAMA. 277:307 -- 311.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (National Center for Health Statistics). (1999). Births and deaths: Preliminary data for 1997. National Vital Statistics Reports.

Grissinger, M., Globus, N.J. (2004). How Technology Affects Your Risk of Medication Errors. Nursing2004. 34(1), 36-41.

Institute of Medicine. (2000). To Err Is Human: Building A Safer Healthcare System.
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Nurses' Practice Environments Error Interception Practices and

Words: 469 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41843841

Nurses' Practice Environments, Error Interception Practices and Inpatient Medication Errors (2012)

Null hypothesis: There is no significant relationship between nurses' error interception practices and their practice environment.

Alternative hypothesis: There is a significant relationship between nurses' error interception practices and their practice environment.

Two frameworks were used in developing the theoretical foundation of the study: Error Theory and Nursing Organization and Outcomes Model.

Error Theory is a framework developed to explain errors that occur in different organizational settings. In the hospital/medical setting, errors are identified as medical errors, defined as "any preventable event that may lead to inappropriate medication use or patient harm" (Flynn et al., 2012, p. 181). In essence, error theory posits that in preventing errors from occurring within an organization, there must be a system established and implemented that could detect, determine, and deter any preventable errors/events. Further, the theory's proponent, J. eason, posited that within the…… [Read More]


Flynn, L., Y. Liang, G. Dickson, M. Xie, and D. Suh. (2012). "Nurses' Practice Environments, Error Interception Practices and Inpatient Medication Errors." Journal of Nursing Scholarship, Vol. 44, No. 2.
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Enhancing Nursing Service Delivery and Minimizing Errors

Words: 1202 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45892444

Role of Nursing Staff in Eliminating Medical Errors

The article focuses on the role that nurses play in eliminating errors in various medical situations. The research focused on the relationship between the number of nurses and the prevalence of medical errors. The study unveiled many reasons why medical errors occur. Some medical errors are caused by interruption of the nurses while working or understaffing in various healthcare facilities. The study reveals that the nurses play an important role in reducing the medical errors because they are responsible for administering the medication and monitoring the progress of the patients. Major medical errors are common when few nurses are made to handle many patients. The study shows that when the workload is high, the nurses tend to take short cuts to ensure they deliver the service. As a result, medical errors result from omission of some steps, missing the proper order of…… [Read More]

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How to Avoid Medical Errors When Filling Prescriptions

Words: 753 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27644206

Ethics and Legalities of Medication Error Disclosure

As Philipsen and Soeken (2011) note, it is the nurse's duty and ethical responsibility to inform the patient of any medical error in treatment, even if the error is "insignificant." The patient still has a right to know, as do all individuals who are impacted by the error (staff as well). This allows the medical community to remain transparent, which is a foundation of trust in the staff-patient relationship. Thus, the ethical implications of disclosure and non-disclosure are clear: to not disclose a medical error is to act unethically and without the transparency and loyalty that is owed the patient as well as the members of the staff. The legal implications of disclosure vs. non-disclosure are also clear. The severity of the error is what is most likely to affect the outcome if the error becomes known and there was no disclosure made…… [Read More]


Anderson, P. (2010). Medication errors: Don't let them happen to you. American Nurse Today, 5(3).

Edwin, A. K. (2010). Non-disclosure of medical errors an egregious violation of ethical principles. Ghana Medical Journal, 43(1): 34-39.

Kentucky Revised Statutes. (n.d.). Kentucky Board of Nursing. Retrieved from

Philipsen, N. C., Soeken, D. (2011). Preparing to blow the whistle: A survival guide for nurses. The Journal for Nurse Practicioners, 7(9): 740-746.
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Nursing Bar Code Medication Administration Bcma Is

Words: 673 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71020514


Bar code medication administration (BCMA) is one of the keys to minimizing medical errors in a manner consistent with evidence-based practice (Poon et al., 2010). However, universal embrace and utilization of BCMA remains stagnant. easons for resisting the transition to BCMA include nurse perceptions. Holden, Brown, Scanlon, & Tzion-Karsh (2012), for instance, found nurses reporting low perceived usefulness of BCMA in spite of the wealth of evidence supporting the technology. Perceived ease of use of BCMA was moderate, suggesting that it is mainly attitude factors preventing nurses from implementing BCMA in their institutions. When perceptions of the usefulness of BCMA increase, then compliance with BCMA standards can become more widespread. Any program that attempts to increase the utilization of BCMA must focus first on human factors including attitudes. This requires that all nurse leaders, as well as nurse educators, prepare advance practice nurses for using BCMA as a matter…… [Read More]


Duffield, C.M., Roche, M.A., Blay, N., & Stasa, H. (2011). Nursing unit managers, staff retention and the work environment. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 20(1-2), 23-33.

Roberts, B.R. (2013). Doctor of nursing practice: Integrating theory, research, and evidence-based practice. Clinical Scholars Review, 6(1), 4-8. doi:
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Health Care Situation Medical Error Due to

Words: 2468 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27484220

Health Care Situation: Medical Error Due to Doctors' Bad Handwriting

Identify a health care news situation that affects a health care organization such as a hospital, clinic or insurance company.

I have identified the following health care news situation as the topic of my paper: "Poor Handwriting of Doctors and its implied risks for the Patient, Hospital and Medical Malpractice Insurance." Poor handwriting of physicians resulting in poor legibility of entries into patients' medical records carries very dramatic risks for all above-mentioned interest bearers. It can result in severe health danger for the patient and - in extreme situations - even cause a patient's death. Doctors' bad penmanship has long been seen a problem within organized medicine and the patient safety movement. Three American Medical Association (AMA) policies dating back to 1992, urge doctors to "improve the legibility of handwritten orders for medications" and review all orders for accuracy and…… [Read More]


Berwick, Donald M. & Winickoff, David E. (1996). The truth about doctors' handwriting: a prospective study. BMJ Vol. 313 (21-28 December 1996). 1657-1658., accessed 21 August 2011.

Bruner, Anne & Kasdan, Morton.L. Handwriting Errors: Harmful, Wasteful and Preventable.

1-4., accessed 22 August 2011.

Gallant, Al. (22 November 2009). For a secure electronic health record implementation, user authentication is key. 1-2)., accessed 24 August 2011.
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Procedure for Dispensing Meds

Words: 1247 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83803268

Medication Administration Tech

Policy and Procedure Change Bar Code eader System for Medication Administration

Though the Utah State Hospital has an integrated electronic prescription system there is no evidence that the institution utilizes bar code reading technology either on the unit or in the pharmacy itself. This is evidenced by the lack of such information in the institutions policies and procedures manual, and specifically in their policies and procedures associated with controlled drugs, which is an area where inventory controls, accountability and patient safety are particularly important. Such a system would serve the patient population well, helping to ensure that fewer errors were made and more observation of possible conflicts between medications as well as other issues could be more closely monitored. This work will describe in detail from the literature both the types of systems available, their use and the research effects associated with them to aide in the…… [Read More]


"ASHP statement on bar-code verification during inventory, preparation, and dispensing of medications: developed through the ASHP Section of Pharmacy Informatics and Technology and approved by the ASHP Board of Directors on April 15, 2010, and by the ASHP House of Delegates on June 6, 2010." (2011) American Journal of Health-System Pharmacy 68(5), 442. Gale Power Search. Web. 24 Oct. 2011.

Agrawal, A. (2009). Medication errors: prevention using information technology systems. British Journal Of Clinical Pharmacology, 67(6), 681-686. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2125.2009.03427.x

Fowler, S.B., Sohler, P., & Zarillo, D.F. (2009). Bar-Code Technology for Medication Administration: Medication Errors and Nurse Satisfaction. MEDSURG Nursing, 18(2), 103-109.

Prusch, A.E., Suess, T.M., Paoletti, R.D., Olin, S.T., & Watts, S.D. (2011). Integrating technology to improve medication administration. American Journal Of Health-System Pharmacy, 68(9), 835-842. doi:10.2146/ajhp100211
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Medical Errors in the Healthcare

Words: 1266 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31330309

Large health care systems with multiple facilities can track as many as 1,000 events each month" (Berntsen, 2004, p. 44). That is an amazing number of cases that came extremely close to becoming medical errors, and they were only stopped by caregiver response or sometimes by chance. Near misses are an extremely important part of the healthcare facility's treatment program, because they can indicate just how accident and error-prone a facility is, and they can even indicate which departments and individuals may be the most error-prone.

How does a staff effectively reduce medical errors in their facility? Authors Turner and Kurtz believe debriefing of the team is key to reducing errors. They write, "Effective debriefing is the key to long-term sustainable improvements in patient safety and care. It is only through debriefing that an organization, team, or individual will improve consistently over time" (Turner, and Kurtz, 2008). Debriefing, the authors…… [Read More]


Berntsen, K.J. (2004). The patient's guide to preventing medical errors. Westport, CT: Praeger.

Turner, S.H., and Kurtz, W.D. (2008). Debriefing for patient safety. Retrieved 28 Nov. 2008 from the Patient Safety & Quality Healthcare Web site:
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Adjusting to Medical Errors in Contemporary Medicine

Words: 2376 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45854186

educing Medical Errors in the Modern Healthcare Setting

One of the biggest challenges impacting healthcare providers are the total number of medical errors that occur on a regular basis. These areas are problematic, as they are adversely effecting the safety and quality of care provided. This is because nurses are often overwhelmed from the increasing number of responsibilities and regulations. (Orgeas, 2010)

For example, a study that was conducted by Orgeas determined that the most critical departments (such as: the ICU) are facing these challenges with him saying, " Identifying medical errors (MEs) that serve as indicators for iatrogenic risk is crucial for purposes of reporting and prevention. An observational prospective multicenter cohort study of these MEs was conducted from March 27 to April 3, 2006, in 70 ICUs; 16 (23%) centers were audited. Harm from MEs was collected using specific scales. Fourteen types of MEs were selected as indicators;…… [Read More]


Boyle, D. (2011). How Medical Errors Effect Physicians Emotionally. AAOS. Retrieved from:

Cole, B. (2009). Overworked Nurses are Hurting Patient Care. Health Related Media. Retrieved from: Are-Hurting-Patient-Care- and-Outcomes##

Davis, D. (2011). The Adult Learner's Companion. Boston, MA: Wadsworth.

Encinosa, W. (2008). The Impact of Medical Errors. Health Service Residential, 43 (6), 2067-2085.
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Patient Handoffs Majority of the Medical Errors

Words: 2315 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67770180

Patient Handoffs

Majority of the medical errors take place in the patient's handoffs. A shift among the doctors is a common practice. There are a number of old patients who approach around 16 different doctors in a year, while young patients who are healthy refer to normal physicians and to specialists as well (Philibert, 2008). In a hospital normally, less attention is given to the patient by his primary doctor, while the trainees and the hospitalists are more involved in that patient. Patients are rotated to different doctors with an average of fifteen times in a five day stay at the hospital. Young doctors often accept appointments of more than 300 patients in a month, in their initial training period just because of time pressure (Chen, 2009, p. 1).

Alteration that have been brought about in the patients care have increased the quality of the services that are offered to…… [Read More]


Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services. (2010). Electronic health records overview. Retrieved from

Chen, P.W. (2009, September 3). When patient handoffs go terribly wrong. The New York Times. Retrieved from 

Decision support systems may reduce inappropriate medical tests. (2011). Retrieved from / article:decision-support-systems-may-reduce-inappropriate-medical-tests-/

Encinosa, W.E., & Bae, J. (2011). Health information technology and its effects on hospital costs, outcomes, and patient safety. Inquiry, 48, 288-303. doi:10.5034/inquiryjrnl_48.04.02
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Identifying and Fixing Errors

Words: 1135 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54820449

Statistics in Healthcare

The author of this report has been presented with a case study scenario that involves one Ben Davis and another man named Juan de Pacotilla. The former is a young student who has just completed a Statistical Thinking for Business Improvement course and the latter is a pharmacy manager who is ostensibly about to lose his job due to a glut of errors relating to the dispensing of medications that are either the wrong drug or the wrong dosage of the right drug. Juan has spoken to another statistician but the person has been less than helpful in relation to this problem and Juan is now desperate. He sees Ben as a closer ally because Ben actually works in the pharmacy and thus sees thing first-hand. The ostensible task that Ben has been given is to nail down precisely what is going wrong using statistical data and…… [Read More]


HRSA. (2015). How does e-prescribing work?. Retrieved 31 October 2015, from

THA. (2015). Prescription Verification Tips for the NEW Pharmacist or Student -- The Honest Apothecary -- . Retrieved 31 October 2015, from

Appendix -- Process Map
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Job Aid That Reduces Human Error and

Words: 795 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93116594

job aid that reduces human error and lack of attention to detail by providing a list of policies, procedures, or items that are needed to produce a consistent job or product. There are checklists used in transportation to ensure the vehicles are ready, in clinical medical practice to organize charting and patient history, in software engineering to check process compliance and code, in litigation to deal with the complexity of discovery, in biology/science to list standardized practices and names, and even in everyday hobbies and life to organize materials, shopping, or contents. This tool of organization and operation may seem simple, but it provides a template and framework for innumerable tasks in almost endless ways (Gawande, 2007). It is interesting to note that this simple tool -- so logical and valuable, has saved so many lives in medical care (e.g. surgery, medication, etc.) by simply trying to understand a multistage…… [Read More]


Felder, K. (1996). One of these things is not like the other. Retrieved from:

Gawande, A. (December 10, 2007). The Checklist. The New Yorker. Retrieved from:

Gopalan, P. (April 29, 2011). Avoiding the checklist monkey. On Product Management. Retrieved from:
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Healthcare Addressing the Issue of

Words: 8204 Length: 30 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34819035

Stated to be barriers in the current environment and responsible for the reporting that is inadequate in relation to medical errors are:

Lack of a common understanding about errors among health care professionals

Physicians generally think of errors as individual that resulted from patient morbidity or mortality.

Physicians report errors in medical records that have in turn been ignored by researchers.

Interestingly errors in medication occur in almost 1 of every 5 doses provided to patients in hospitals. It was stated by Kaushal, et al., (2001) that "the rate of medication errors per 100 admission was 55 in pediatric inpatients. Using their figure, we estimated that the sensitivity of using a keyword search on explicit error reports to detect medication errors in inpatients is about 0.7%. They also reported the 37.4% of medication errors were caused by wrong dose or frequency, which is not far away from our result of…… [Read More]


Discussion Paper on Adverse Event and Error Reporting In Healthcare: Institute for Safe Medication Practices Jan 24, 2000

Patient Safety/Medical Errors Online at the Premiere Inc. page located at:

Medstat / Shortell, S. Assessing the Impact of Continuous Quality Improvement on Clinical Practice: What It Will Take to Accelerate Progress.

Health Policy Monitor (2001) A Publication of the Council of State Governments Vol. 6, No. 1 Winter/Spring 2001 PO18-0101
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Chang Proposal - Milestone 4 Type Text

Words: 3361 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33303137

Chang Proposal - Milestone #4

[Type text] [Type text] [Type text]

N 451- Capstone Project Milestone #4: Design for Change Proposal

Christopher D'Ambrose

N 451 Capstone Course

Quality of patient care is a paramount concern of healthcare professionals. When nurses experience interruptions while they are working, the quality of care patients receive can be negatively impacted. Interruptions have been shown to disrupt working memory, disrupt on-duty focus, induce frustration and stress, contribute to accidents, and lead to patient care errors (Bennet, et al., 2010). Interruptions that occur when nurses administer medication to patients are a particular concern. The incidence of interruptions is higher than might be surmised; according to Day (2010), 19.8% of all procedures did not have any disruptions or clinical errors. Biron, et al. (2009) reviewed 14 observational studies of nurses providing patient care, in which they found that 6.7 interruptions occurred each hour during mediation administration. This…… [Read More]


Bennett, J. (2006). Effects of interruptions to nurses during medication administration.

Nursing Management (Harrow), 16(9), 22-3.

PMID: 20222227 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Biron, A., Lavoie-Tremblay, N., and Loiselle, C.G. (2009). Characteristics of work interruptions during medication administration. Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 41(4), 330-336. doi: 10.1111/j.1547-5069.20009.01300.x
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Intravenous Nursing Implementation of an

Words: 2934 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54111199

The second purpose was to explore the association of demographic variables and nurses' perceptions of pump implementation to ratings of the management team and job satisfaction. Data was collected via a survey given to 1056 nurses at a tertiary Magnet hospital. The first section of the questionnaire pertained to demographic characteristics, while the second section consisted of thirty questions on a 5-point Likert scale based on both STS Theory and the Life Patterns Model conceptual framework.

The researchers conclude that generalizations cannot be made based on just one study. They did state however that the findings of this study give credence to the importance of technological changes in clinical nursing practice. ecommendations were made for future studies in that there is a need to analyze the degree to which technology affects the environment, patient acuity as well as overall nursing satisfaction. Carrying out this study in more that one hospital…… [Read More]


Advantages and Disadvantages of the Survey Method. (2011). Retrieved from

Bowcutt, Marilyn, Rosenkoetter, Marlene M., Chernecky, Cynthia C., Wall, Jane, Wynn, Donald

and Serrano, Christina. (2008). Journal of Nursing Management, 16(2), p.188-197.
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advance practice nursing ethics disclosure

Words: 1100 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92725613

An estimated 1.5 million “preventable adverse drug events” occur each year in the United States alone; the number of medication errors that did not lead to adverse effects but remained undisclosed is unknown (Jenkins & Vaida, 2007, p. 41). The scenario is this: You are working as an advanced practice nurse at a community health clinic. You make an error when prescribing a drug to a patient. You do not think the patient would know that you made the error, and it certainly was not intentional.

Disclosure is an ethical and legal prerogative, showing respect for the patient and a willingness to accept professional responsibility. Consequentialist ethics do not apply to situations like these, because the broader issue is about changing advanced nursing practice and ensuring a culture of safety for all patients. Likewise, disclosure empowers the patient to make informed choices about reactions to the medical error while…… [Read More]

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Nurses Relate the Contributing Factors

Words: 582 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26022565

448). However, due to the recent introduction of the CPOE system (Computerized Physician Order Entry), the authors surmise that this system will help to eliminate up to 80% of all medication errors (Tang, Sheu, Yu, Wei and Chen, 2007, p. 448).

Third, the authors make it abundantly clear that nurses themselves must accept the bulk of the responsibility when it comes to transcribing, dispensing and administering medications to patients. Of course, if the prescription itself, almost always filled out by a physician, is inaccurate, then the responsibility falls upon the prescribing physician, a situation which then leads to nurses dispensing and administering the wrong medication. In addition, the authors provide an analysis related to nurses failing to report their medication mistakes to the proper hospital/clinic authorities, due perhaps to "shame, guilt and the fear of punishment" from their superiors when informed of medication errors on the part of nurses (Tang,…… [Read More]


Tang, Fu-in, Sheu, Shuh-Jen, Yu, Shu, Wei, Ien-Lan, and Ching-Huey Chen. (2007).

Nurses relate the contributing factors involved in medication errors. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 16, 447-457.
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Managing an Effective Quality Assurance

Words: 1092 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 78384819

eports from medical center services and committees concerning patient incidents are used to develop appropriate interventions.

Trended data of patient incidents can point to shift and date where most incidents occur.

Desired Outcome

A 50% reduction in the number medication errors of all types over the next 12 months.

Goals and Objectives to Facilitate Outcome

The overarching goal of this program would be to reduce the number of medication errors in general and among those wards/shifts with the highest numbers of medication errors over the past 12 months. The objectives in support of this goal include:

1. Developing awareness campaign materials such as locally prepared newsletter articles, posters and brochures concerning the goal to reduce medication errors.

2. Conduct a medication error theme seminar that provides basic guidelines for avoiding medication errors (the "5 Ps").

Translation of Goals and Objectives into Policies and Procedures

The above-described goals and objectives would…… [Read More]


Jorm, C.M. & Dunbar, N. (2009, August). Should patient safety be more patient centered?

Australian Health Review, 33(3), 390-395.

Tillman, P. (2013, January 7). U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs. Retrieved from http://www.
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Stetina Pamela Michael Groves &

Words: 581 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65255130

Flexible medication times were the norm amongst these nurses. Even experienced nurses felt that late medications were not critical during busy times, stressing the need to prioritize when giving care (Stetina, Groves & afford 2005:4). Nursing judgment was another justification for flexible medication time, as noted by one "relatively new labor and delivery nurse" who described two situations arising on a specialty unit. The first situation related to purposely omitting a drug because of possible harm to the patient: 'Like with itocin[R] we have an (pause) orders to increase it by so much every 20 minutes, but if the baby's not tolerating it, we don't do it. And that's nursing judgment [not an error]" (Stetina, Groves & afford 2005:4). A perhaps more candid experienced ER nurse admitted that the risk of error increases when emergences occur" as a fact of hospital life (Stetina, Groves & afford 2005:4).

A medical-surgical nurse…… [Read More]

Previous studies suggested that the top three causes of medication errors were failure to check the patient identification band with the prescription, nurse fatigue and illegible doctor handwriting. Another study suggested that nurses did not identify what most would call a medication error, such as giving medicine late. It was "discovered that nurses believed it was not an error if the nurse could correct the situation safely, if the patient status required a change, or in emergency situations" it did not 'count' as an error if the medication was given late (Stetina, Groves & Pafford 2005:1).

The authors embarked upon a new phenomenological study of nurses working in wide variety of clinical settings and levels and types of experience reporting (Stetina, Groves & Pafford 2005:3). Flexible medication times were the norm amongst these nurses. Even experienced nurses felt that late medications were not critical during busy times, stressing the need to prioritize when giving care (Stetina, Groves & Pafford 2005:4). Nursing judgment was another justification for flexible medication time, as noted by one "relatively new labor and delivery nurse" who described two situations arising on a specialty unit. The first situation related to purposely omitting a drug because of possible harm to the patient: 'Like with Pitocin[R] we have an (pause) orders to increase it by so much every 20 minutes, but if the baby's not tolerating it, we don't do it. And that's nursing judgment [not an error]" (Stetina, Groves & Pafford 2005:4). A perhaps more candid experienced ER nurse admitted that the risk of error increases when emergences occur" as a fact of hospital life (Stetina, Groves & Pafford 2005:4).

A medical-surgical nurse provided a different perspective, saying that her hospital's methodology of double-checking charts was helpful in preventing errors. However, reliance upon hospital-imposed assistive system, including medication administration records (MARs) and automated medication dispensing machines (AMDMs) can also increase the risk of errors, if patient allergies and drug interactions are not recorded in the system. In addition to variance from standard practices, "nurses showed an increased reliance upon computerized and systematic checks put into place in health care systems. Nurses viewed the systems as infallible and as a relief from the duty of systematic checking against error" (Stetina, Groves & Pafford 2005:4). However, the author's studies express considerable concern about the nurses' willingness to suspend their own judgment and leave themselves and their patients at the mercy of automated systems, as well as the nurses' lack of concern about correct dosage times when busy or fatigued.
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Is Pitocin Induction a Factor in Postpartum Hemorrhage

Words: 1697 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 22038954

Pitocin Induction and Postpartum Hemorrhage


Is Pitocin Induction a Factor in Postpartum Hemorrhage?

The induction of oxytocin injection has been a bane of contention in the medical community not only because it has been listed as a high-alert medication, which incurs serious risks to the patient, the fetus and the institution. It is also used frequently to manage postpartum hemorrhage. This quantitative correlational study analyzes and presents the findings of five updated and authoritative sources on the subject and answers the questions surrounding the induction of oxytocin in postpartum hemorrhage and its appropriateness, efficacy and safety.

Postpartum hemorrhage occurs when there is blood loss greater than 500 ml during spontaneous vaginal delivery or 1,000 ml during a cesarean section delivery (Yiadom, 2010). Fortunately, in most cases, healthy females can tolerate much blood loss of more than 500 ml without incurring adverse conditions. The two types are early…… [Read More]


Balci, O. et al. (2011). Comparison of induction of labor with vaginal misoprostol plus

Oxytocin vs. oxytocin alone in term primigravidae. Vol. 2 # 9, Journal of Maternal

and Neonatal Medicine: Informa Healthcare Publishing Technology. Retrieved on January 12, 2014 from

Clayworth, S. (2000). The nurse's role during Oxytocin administration. Vol. 25 # 2, The
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Authors Y H Lin and S M

Words: 2768 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16276987

B. This study used cross-sectional design and may tend to under-select individuals who have been exposed. This is known as "late-look bias." The possibility of nurses recalling MAEs over their careers may result in reporting of, or remembering information that is not accurate.

C. The instrument developed by authors used expert validity, but more research is needed to determine the construction validity and use the appropriate interventions to decrease MAEs (Lin & Ma).


esearch questions

ather than a hypothesis, the Lin and Ma (2009) study was guided by the following research questions:

A. What is the self-reported incidence of MAEs throughout a nurse's career in Taiwan?

B. What is the willingness of nurses to report MAEs?

C. What factors are related to nurses' willingness to report MAEs?

The first research question, though, differs from the authors' stated purpose which was to "explore the prevalence of MAEs and the willingness…… [Read More]


Gebhart, F. (2008, May 12). N.C. hospital loses CMS certification over drug and other errors.

Drug Topics, 152(6), 12.

Lin, Y-H & Ma, S-n. (2009). Willingness of nurses to report medication administration errors in southern Taiwan: A cross-sectional survey.

Wakefield, B.J., Uden-Holman, T. & Wakefield, D.S. (2005). Development and validation of the medication administration error reporting survey. In Advances in patient safety: From research to implementation. Henriksen, K., Battles, J.B., Marks E.S., et al. (eds).
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Workflow Analysis of a Healthcare Organization

Words: 1450 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43434292

Workflow Analysis

Workflow is a term that is utilized to refer to processes or steps undertaken to complete a specific task (Mastrian & McGonigle, 2015). In a healthcare organization, this concept refers to initiatives undertaken to provide patient care services. This essentially means that workflow is crucial towards the achievement of organizational goals since it plays a critical role in the accomplishment of desired tasks/activities. Given its significance to realization of organizational objectives, organizations conduct workflow analysis to help identify workflow patterns that maximize effective resource utilization and reduce those that do not add value. Workflow analysis process is carried out using several tools to examine workflow processes and shed light on potential areas for removing waste. This paper provides a workflow analysis through flowcharts of medication administration in a community health center.

Common Event in My Organization

The organization I work for is a community health center that provides…… [Read More]

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Using Health Information Technology as a Source of Evidence-Based Practice

Words: 681 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39716188

In seeking to administer drugs, nurses ought to be guided by the five medical administration rights. These are patient, time, dose, drug, and route (You, Choe, Park, Kim, and Son, 2015). One issue that I consider to be of great concern in my practice is medicating patients late leading to noncompliance. This happens to be one of the more significant errors in the administration of medications in a healthcare setting, with the other errors being wrong dose and wrong medication. When nurses fail to administer drugs to patients as prescribed – in the right dosage and at the right time - such an action gets in the way of the full realization of drug benefits. According to Stokowski (2012), the rule of the thumb when it comes to the administration of medications has been within half-an-hour before or after the time scheduled for administration.

In seeking to locate evidence-based practices…… [Read More]

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System Design Considerations and Workarounds Implementation of

Words: 1718 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98284601


Design Considerations and Workarounds

Implementation of an informatics system in nursing

The nursing profession continues to evolve with the advancing technology, ensuring that it maintains standards of quality in service. In the endeavor to facilitate quality healthcare, the profession endorsed the use of medical informatics systems. The nursing informatics integrates the three subjects of nursing science, computer science and information science. The practice employs these facilities in managing and communicating data and information while in line of duty. The informatics in nursing facilitates integration of information and knowledge to support the patients, nurses and doctors in decision making roles and administering of care (McGonigle & Mastrian, 2012). Information technology is essentially the significant aspect of the informatics; thus, it is necessary for hospitals to consider the quality of the technology they employ.

Medical informatics systems

The medical informatics systems support a variety of activities in the hospital or clinic…… [Read More]


Australian National Health Informatics Conference, Maeder, A., & Martin-Sanchez, F.J.

(2012). Health Informatics: Building a healthcare future through trusted information;

selected papers from the 20th Australian National Health Informatics Conference (HIC

2012). Amsterdam: IOS Press Inc.
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Technology and Health Information Usage

Words: 6821 Length: 25 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66338022

" (MediLexicon International, Ltd., 2006).

The PCIP was formed from the recognition that high costs and low quality inherent in the Healthcare system of the U.S. is largely due to a system that is antiquated and fragmented (DOHMH, 2006a). The inability to properly collect and use health information is one of the primary problems associated with proper health care maintenance. The PCIP. was formed in response to this need. The primary care physician acts as the conduit between the patient and the healthcare system. However, the physician often has no means to effectively transmit the information that they collect to other entities within the system. The PCIP grew out of a need for the primary health care Physician to be able to transmit the needed information to others in the Healthcare system.

There are three essential parts to the PCIP. The first is the Primary Care Health Information Consortium (PCHIC).…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Department of Health and Mental Hygiene. (DOHMH) 2006. PCIP. Retrieved August 30 at

DOHMH 2006b. Primary Care Health Information Consortium (PCHIC). Retrieved August 30 at

MediLexicon International, Ltd. (2006). 1,000 New York City Doctors Will Get Electronic Health Records Systems. Retrieved August 30 at

The American Health Quality Foundation (AHQF)(2006). Quality Improvement Organizations and Health Information Exchange. March 6, 2006. Retrieved August 30 at
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Wired Hospital in Today's Time

Words: 2249 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93861590

This is exactly where the problem usually starts.

There are a number of reports published which revealed that even the physicians are not so keen into attending more seminars and trainings to learn the new systems (Ball, 1992). Physicians are expectedly always busy. They sometimes work from hospital to hospital. They are always on call hence they really find it hard to squeeze in their thigh schedule the time for further training and semi-are regarding the system. At some point in time, physicians will also worry about their income that will be affected if they will get a time off just to attend the training.

In the same manner, most of the administrators, who will manage the new systems for the hospitals, also show signs of hesitance regarding the training. It must be noted that the being considered as a 'wired hospital' the institution must have uniform data standards (Aspden…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Aspden, P., J.M. Corrigan, J. Wolcott, and S.M. Erickson. 2003. Patient Safety: Achieving a New Standard for Care. Washington, DC: National Academies Press.

Ball, M. 1992. "Computer-Based Patient Records: The Push Gains Momentum." Health Informatics 9 (1): 36-38.

Bates, D.W., J.M. Teich, J. Lee, D. Seger, G.J. Kuperman, N. Ma'Luf, D. Boyle, and L. Leape. 1999. "The Impact of Computerized Physician Order Entry on Medication Error Prevention." Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association 6 (4): 313-21.

Benefits of it to Medical Profession September 25, 2006
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Smart Health Card Role in Rational of Medicines Use

Words: 919 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71878438

Smart Card Health Role in Rational Use of Medicines

The objective of this study is to examine the role of smart cared in health and their role in the rational use of medicines. Smart cards are very small and very secure and serve to protect patient privacy. Smart cards contain digital logs with location, date, time, and the individual's stamp to record every transaction. Smart cards also may contain digital prescriptions therefore mistakes made with prescriptions that are handwritten are eliminated and specifically as to the "quantity or quality of medications." (HealthOne, 2011)

How the Smart Card Works

The smart card uses technology that stores a patient's personal health information on a microprocessor chip embedded in the card that is the size of a credit card but that has a "small metal contact plate on the front which is how the reader accesses the medical information stored on the chip"…… [Read More]


Benjamin, DM (2003) Reducing Medication Errors and Increasing Patient Safety: Case Studies in Clinical Pharmacology. J Clin Pharmacol 2003 Jul;43(7):768-83.

Hsu, MH (2011) Online detection of potential duplicate medications and changes of physician behavior for outpatients visiting multiple hospitals using national health insurance smart cards in Taiwan. Int J. Med Inform. 2011 Mar;80(3):181-9. Epub 2010 Dec 22.

Hsu, MH, Li, YC, and Liu, CT (2006) ADRs and Smart Health Cards. CMAJ Aug 15, 2006 Vol. 175 No. 4. Retrieved from: 

Runciman, WB et al. (2003) Adverse Drug Events and Medication Errors in Australia. Int J. Qual Health Care 2003, Dec;15 Suppl 1:i49-59.
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Pancreatic Cancer

Words: 916 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31029482

Pancreatic Cancer


The most common cause of pancreatic cancer is smoking which accounts for 25 -- 30% of cases (urveillance, Epidemiology and End Results Program). Other factors include hereditary pancreatic cancers, adults with diabetes of minimum duration two years, hereditary pancreatic, and a history of other family cancers (GUT. Guidelines for the management of patients with pancreatic cancer periampullary and ampullary carcinomas). The Consensus Guidelines of the International Association of Pancreatology advises that patients with a genetic history of pancreatic cancer should be referred to specialist centers where they can receive diagnosis of pancreatic diseases, genetic counseling, and advice on secondary screening (Ulrich et al., 2001).


Most pancreatic cancers (about 90%) originate in the ductal region and are usually discovered when they are locally advanced. They are called ductal adenocarcinoma. Others (80-90%) occur in the head of the gland (GUT). Lymph node metastasis is common as well as…… [Read More]


Doheny, K ( July 2, 2012) Medication Errors Affect Half of Heart Patients WebMD 

GUT. Guidelines for the management of patients with pancreatic cancer periampullary and ampullary carcinomas 

Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results Program.

Neoptolemos JP, Dunn JA, Stocken DD, et al. (2001) Adjuvant chemoradiotherapy and chemotherapy in resectable pancreatic cancer: a randomised controlled trial. Lancet;358:1576-85
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Worked a Number Years Office a Family

Words: 828 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67663966

worked a number years office a family physician retired. You a position a busy surgical floor a local, acute-care hospital. You frequently hear references JCAHO requirements documenting a patient's pain assessment treatment, documenting medication administration, documenting verbal telephone orders.

Documenting patient's pain assessment and treatment

Pain assessment is the first step in managing pain. The suggested method of improving pain care essentially requires that the following procedures are followed properly and meticulously.

a) The pain and its intensity must be measured using an appropriate tool. There are many tools but the best is self reporting by the patient for the pain.

b) The second important thing to be followed is to repeat the assessment consistently and record the same at varying intervals to record the process of the progress of pain. The tool or format for this must be chosen before hand and the same record structure must be maintained…… [Read More]


Aspden, Philip; Institute of Medicine (U.S.) Committee on Identifying and Preventing

Medication Errors. (2007) "Preventing Medication Errors" The National Academies Press.

Joint Commission Resources. (2004) "A guide to JCAHO's medication management

standards" Joint Commission Resources.
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Nursing Clinical Placement Report -

Words: 921 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94611128

Studies suggest that more computerized order entry of medications helps reduce errors by limiting interpretation errors due to handwriting (Meadows, 2003). Thus more order entry is involving computers to protect patients. A culture that supports safety and safe practices has also been adopted to provide nursing staff and patients information about drug therapy and medication to ensure that everyone is aware of the need for safe practices when utilizing and dispensing medications.

Describe the strategies used to ensure nursing practice is performed within legal requirements and ethical frameworks

Nurses now "live and work in a world where there is no single reality but many coexisting realities among which they must choose" (Johnston, 1999:1). Given that through more and more nurses are forced to make legal and ethical decisions and take steps that will determine the best processes to adopt to ensure that moral and legal processes are adopted and followed.…… [Read More]


Campbell, D.W. & Sigsby, L.M. (1995). "Nursing interventions classification: A content analysis of nursing activities in public schools." Journal of Community Health Nursing, 12(4): 229.

Caretto, V.A. & McCormick, C.S. (1991). "Community as Client: A Hand's on experience for baccalaureate nursing students." Journal of Community Health Nursing, 8(3): 179.

Johnston, M.J. (1999). Bioethics: A nursing perspective. Sydney: Harcourt Saunders.

Lumby, J. & Picone, D. (2000). Clinical challenges: Focus on nursing. St. Leanords:
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Care Needs Concerns and Treatment

Words: 4512 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58816657

Furthermore, one of the pillars of collaborative care that will need to be firmly established is the fostering of clear dialogue and a means for strong communication within the care management planning. For instance, there needs to be a clear decision and communication of all tests ordered and when the test results will be available. One of the most important aspects of this collaborative care will be the nursing interventions which can have significant impact on the patient's health and stabilization (Allen, 2010). In fact, strategic nursing care can even minimize readmission rates of Margaret and other patients with comparable conditions (Chen et al., 2012).

Prioritize the Nursing Care Needs of Margaret

The prioritization of nursing interventions is essential, and the way in which a nurse determines this priority is going to be something unique and distinct. "Trials reviewed demonstrated a beneficial impact of nursing interventions for secondary prevention in…… [Read More]


Adler, H.M. (n.d.). Toward a biopsychosocial understanding of the patient -- physician relationship: An emerging dialogue. (2007). J Gen Intern Med,22(2), 280 -- 285.

Afilala, J. (n.d.). Frailty in patients with cardiovascular disease: Why, when, and how to measure. (2011). Curr Cardiovasc Risk Rep, 5(5), 467 -- 472.

Allen, J.K. (2010). Randomized trials of nursing interventions for secondary prevention in patients with coronary artery disease and heart failure: Systematic review.

Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing,25(3), 207-220.
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Characteristics of a Nurse

Words: 1907 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23304487

Nurses are considered the backbone of the medical care-giver community. Good quality patient care centers on having a competent educated nursing labor force. There is a wealth of empirical evidence that has demonstrated Baccalaureate (BSN) nurses are associated with fewer medication errors, lower mortality rates, and greater overall positive patient outcomes than nurses at lower levels of educational achievement. For example, Brady, Malone, and Fleming (2009) performed an extensive literature review and found that BSN nurses made fewer medication errors than their less educated counterparts. Aiken and associates (2003) found a strong link between N education level and patient outcomes. Their findings indicated that for every ten percent increase in the proportion of BSN nurses in a surgical unit there was a four percent decrease in the risk of death to patients. In a large study of nearly 47,000 patients conducted at the University Toronto it was found that hospital…… [Read More]


Aiken, L.H., Clarke, S.P., Cheung, R.B., Sloane, D.M., & Silber, J.H. (2003). Educational levels of hospital nurses and surgical patient mortality. Journal of the American Medical Association, 290, 1617-1623.

Brady, A.M., Malone, A.M., & Fleming, S. (2009). A literature review of the individual and systems factors that contribute to medication errors in nursing practice. Journal of Nursing Management, 17(6), 679-697.

Friese, C.R, Lake, E.T., Aiken, L.H., Silber, J.H. & Sochalski, J. (2008). Hospital nurse practice environments and outcomes for surgical oncology patients. Health Services Research, 43(4), 1145-1163.

Profetto-McGrath, J. (2003). The relationship of critical thinking skills and critical thinking dispositions of baccalaureate nursing students. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 43(6), 569- 577.
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Managing Quality Safety and Risk

Words: 2671 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69475225

He or she is also entitled to proper medication to deal with the disease.

It's not just the responsibility of medics to offer health care but the family members of the sick too play a very important role in caring about health. y accompanying the sick person to hospital and administering the prescribed medicine at home. As well, family members offer support by praying and giving the sick member company. Did you know that even loneliness is a health hazard.

Quality health care is individual responsibility. Every individual is supposed to make sure they have the best health always. Contagious diseases should be avoided at all costs, however, should we contact them then we should care for ourselves. A sick person should maintain bodily cleanliness and eat the right foods. Ones health should not also cause harm to neighbors at home and in public. Global concerns are also rising quickly…… [Read More]


Baum F (1998).The new public health: an Australian perspective, Oxford University Press,


Mannion R, Konteh F, Davies H (2008) Measuring culture for quality and safety improvement: a national survey of tools and tool use, Quality and Safety in Health Care (in press).

Mannion R, Davies H, Marshall M (2005) Cultural attributes of 'high' and 'low' performing hospitals. Journal of Health Organization and Management 19(6):431-9.
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Pharmacist In This Case the Pharmacist

Words: 1583 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 11882532


A reflection on the case shows me that ethical and moral guidelines must be instilled in pharmacy as a profession. It is therefore necessary for the pharmacies to collaborate with other key stakeholders in ensuring that proper guidelines are put in place together with polices aimed at ensuring an ethical and moral pharmaceutical practice. Case esolution Model (CM) (Brincat & Wike,1999) is therefore an important model since it has taken me through all the necessary steps that can allow me to effective conclude this case amicably.


World Health Organization (2001). The ole of the Pharmacist in Self-Care and Self-Medication.Available online at

Brincat, C.,Wike, vs (1999). Morality and the Professional Life: Values at Work. Pearson; 1st ed.

Passmore P, Kailis SG (1994).In pursuit of rational drug use and effective drug management: clinical and public health pharmacy viewpoint. Asia Pac J. Public Health. 1994;7(4):236-41.

outledge, PA., O'Mahony, MS., WoodhouseKW…… [Read More]


World Health Organization (2001). The Role of the Pharmacist in Self-Care and Self-Medication.Available online at 

Brincat, C.,Wike, vs (1999). Morality and the Professional Life: Values at Work. Pearson; 1st ed.

Passmore PR, Kailis SG (1994).In pursuit of rational drug use and effective drug management: clinical and public health pharmacy viewpoint. Asia Pac J. Public Health. 1994;7(4):236-41.

Routledge, PA., O'Mahony, MS., WoodhouseKW (2003).Adverse drug reactions in elderly patients. Br J. Clin Pharmacol. 2004 February; 57(2): 121 -- 126. doi: 10.1046/j.1365-2125.2003.01875.x PMCID: PMC1884428