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Mental health problems form a larger percentage of disability in developed countries more than other group of illnesses. Mental illness is exhibited by sustained and alterations in normal thinking, mood or behavior that is dominated with distress and impaired functioning CDC., 2012.
Care for mentally ill adults in communities is one of the biggest challenges in mental healthcare. Subsequently, the challenges are further compounded by the nature of intervention measures that are customized to manage, treat, and rehabilitate the condition of the mentally ill adults. It has been established that community care intervention programs have the potential of offering a wide array of services to mentally ill patients around the clock and this has led to the reduction in the number of patients being hospitalized. This paper discusses mental health problems in adult population and further proposes intervention measures for the group in a community setting.
Description of the Population…
Cattan, M., & Tilford, S. (2009). Mental Health Promotion: A lifespan approach. New York: McGraw-Hill International.
CDC. (2012). Mental Illness Surveillance Among Adults in the United States, from http://www.cdc.gov /mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/su6003a1.html
Creek, J., & Lougher, L. (2011). Occupational Therapy and Mental Health. London: Elsevier Health Sciences.
Harkness, J., Newman, S.J., & Salkever, D. (2004). The Cost-Effectiveness of Independent Housing for the Chronically Mentally Ill: . Do Housing and Neighborhood Features Matter Health Services Research 39 (35), 1341-1360.
One of the key healthcare issues in America as well as globally is mental health. The news article by Rinker (2017) in Kaiser News Health delineates the mental health problems experienced by college students. Based on the article, when students begin their life in college, several of them come to experience anxieties, face a difficult time to adjust to life in college, and possibly plunge into austere depression or self-destructive feelings and points of view. Owing to this issue, the Chancellor of UCLA, Gene Block, proclaimed that the college is offering charitable mental health screenings to all students entering the school including transfer students and the freshmen students. In acknowledgement of the stress that income students face as they begin their college life, UCLA purposes to screen for depression to aid in ensuring that all students are mentally healthy. The institution will also screen for traits associated with…
Mental health counseling is a field that focuses on helping people to achieve mental and emotional wellness. The treatment plan will typically consist of seeing clients continuously throughout the year. Specific areas of specialization exist in mental health counseling, such as counseling for addiction, trauma, or youth services. If a mental health counselor specializes in youth services, he could work in a variety of different settings, such as a school or a behavioral health center. This paper will define the mental health counseling profession and describe typical duties of the job, the population it serves, and the type of education needed.
Mental health counseling began to be accepted as a professional career in the 1970s. Mental health counselors had been in existence prior but their role had only been loosely defined. When the American Mental Health Counselor Association was established in the mid-1970s, it cleared the path for a more defined…
Current status in implementing the affordable care act with regard to veterans' mental health problems
The Affordable Care Act's enactment gave rise to major concerns with regard to greater healthcare expenditure and reduced benefits for the defense population. This has led to the VA (Department of Veteran Affairs), the White House and TRICARE authorities expending efforts towards public education. Veteran Affairs believes the Act (popularly called Obamacare) has no effect on military veterans' entitlement to and accessibility of the mental health services they were already recipients of, and also doesn't affect TRICARE for Life or TRICARE benefits enjoyed by households on behalf of VA. Rather, the department maintained that VA-enrolled individuals require no added insurance coverage. But the Act would provide them a chance to sign up for further insurance plans through the novel healthcare insurance exchanges which were set to open in the year 2014 (Russell & Figley, 2014).…
Consistent with this, other findings propose that women are more likely than men to take part in violence in the home whereas men are more likely than women to take part in violence in public places.
Even though there is some evidence that mental illness is associated with violence, it appears that the bigger contributing factor is that of outside influences. Substance abuse appears to be the greatest contributing factor, but it can be something as insignificant as one's living arrangements or even just their gender. Overall people with mental health problems do not appear to be at an increased risk of violence.
Appelbaum, P.S., Robbins, P.C., Monahan, J. (2000). Violence and delusions: data from the MacArthur Violence Risk Assessment Study. American Journal of Psychiatry, 157,
Cottle, C. (2004). The role of social context in the prediction and management of violence among persons with mental illness. Dissertation…
However, integrated continuum of care networks presents a viable solution to mental health care delivery that properly allocates resources a collaborative and cooperative service delivery system.
Needed, according to Mohatt (1997) is "vertical integration' in the "approaches to managed care" in networking a group of healthcare providers, at various levels of primary care and behavioral health, to form an integrated service network. They seek to develop, via cooperation, a coordinated, consumer focused, seamless continuum of care designed to improve access and availability through efficiencies gained by the elimination of redundant services or systems."
Mohatt reports just such as system being in existence and specifically the Laurel Health System in northeastern Pennsylvania "founded in 1989 with the merger of five not-for-profit organizations..." This network spans the human service gamut inclusive of primary care, nursing homes, senior housing, ambulance service, and hospital." (1997) Mohatt reports another example stating:
recent example of such…
Behar, Lenore B., Macbeth, Gary, and Holland, Joan M. (1993) Distribution and Costs of Mental Health Services Within a System of Care for Children and Adolescents. Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research. Vol. 20, No. 4, March 1993. Abstract online available at Springerlink online: http://www.springerlink.com/content/q73873hn78112345/
Hamner, Karl M., Lambert, E. Warren, and Bickman, Leonard (1996) Children's Mental Health in a Continuum of Care: Clinical Outcomes at 18 Months for the Fort Bragg Demonstration. ERIC Digest. 28 Feb 1996. Online available at http://eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/custom/portlets/recordDetails/detailmini.jsp?_nfpb=true&_&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED460476&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=no&accno=ED460476
Yager, J. (1996) Do Full Continuum of Care Services Yield Better Results? Am Psychol 1996 July. Journal Watch. Online available at http://psychiatry.jwatch.org/cgi/content/citation/1996/1001/14
Mohatt, Dennis F. (1997) Access To Mental Health Services In Frontier America
New findings show that the spouses of veterans also experience mental health disorders, and the prevalence increases with the length of deployment (Mansfield, Kaufman, Marshall, Gaynes, Morrissey & Engel, 2010). When spouses are considered to be clients of health services, the need for improved and more robust resources becomes apparent. Moreover, spouses with mental health disorders present unique issues and questions for treatment. eturning soldiers may find that they have supportive partners who can lead to a mutually beneficial treatment relationship, via couples or family therapy. On the other hand, the mental health problems of the spouse can exacerbate those of the soldier, and vice-versa. Thus, a family systems approach can be extremely helpful when addressing the multifaceted mental health concerns among veterans.
Veteran health services are at a critical juncture. The need for targeted mental health interventions, ranging from screenings and assessments to therapies and treatments, has been proven…
Britt, T.W., Greene-Shortridge, T.M. & Castro, C.A. (2007). The Stigma of Mental Health Problems in the Military. Military Medicine 172(2), February 2007, pp. 157-161(5)
Bliese, P.D., Wright, K.M., Adler, a.B., Thomas, J.L. & Hoge, C.W. (2007). Timing of postcombat mental health assessments. Psychological Services 4(3), Aug 2007, 141-148.
Hoge, C.W., Auchterlonie, J.L. & Milliken, C.S. (2006). Mental Health Problems, Use of Mental Health Services, and Attrition From Military Service After Returning From Deployment to Iraq or Afghanistan. JAMA. 2006;295(9):1023-1032. doi:10.1001/jama.295.9.1023.
Hoge, C.W., Castro, C.A., Messer, S.C., McGurk, D., Cotting, D.I. & Koffman, R.L. (2004). Combat Duty in Iraq and Afghanistan, Mental Health Problems, and Barriers to Care. N Engl J. Med 2004; 351:13-22July 1, 2004 DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa040603
Mental Health with Health Care Use and Cost: A Population Study" published in the Canadian Journal of Psychiatry written by Cawthorpe, Guyn, Li and Lu (2011).
Cawthorpe, Guyn, Li and Lu (2011) report a study with the goals of comparing the health costs of two groups: (1) those with psychiatric diagnoses; and (2) those without psychiatric diagnoses. Nine years of billing data from physicians was used in the study. The methodology reported is that the dataset that contained registration data for the patients who were in receipt of public mental health service was "constructed and subsequently matched" according to sex and age. (p.490)
Sampling in the Study
It is reported that three groups emerged: (1) a comparison patient PD group; (2) comparison patients with psychiatric disorders in physicians only; and (3) patients without PDs treated in specialized care that was publicly funded or by their physicians. (Cawthorpe, Guyn, Li and…
Cawthorpe, D., Wilkes, T.C.R., Guyn, L., Li, B., & Lu, M. (2011). Association of Mental Health With Health Care Use and Cost: A Population Study. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, Aug2011, Vol. 56 Issue 8, 490-494.
Curry, LA, Nembhard, IM, and Bradley, EH (2009) Key Issues in Outcomes Research. Circulation. 2009; 119:1442-1452. Retrieved from: http://circ.ahajournals.org/content/119/10/1442.full?viewType=Print&viewClass=Print
mental health prisoners usa. I've included outline main idea, I apply ideas questions. contact clarifications. I. Introduce define global health issue connection nursing. For, .
Mental Health in the American Prison System
There has always been much controversy regarding prisoners and their mental health, but as civilization has experienced much progress throughout this century people have become more and more concerned about making sure that prisons are able to differentiate between individuals who are mentally ill and persons who are not. Even with the fact that prisons were never design to accommodate the mentally ill, conditions are critical today as a great deal of men and women who are unable to get mental health treatment in the communities they live in are incarcerated consequent to committing an illegality. There are a great deal of people suffering from schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, or depression in U.S., thus meaning that society needs to…
Austin, W. And Boyd, M.A. (2010). Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing for Canadian Practice. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Cornwell, D.J. (2009). The Penal Crisis and the Clapham Omnibus: Questions and Answers in Restorative Justice. Waterside Press.
Finkel, M.L. (2010). Public Health in the 21st Century: [Three Volumes]. ABC-CLIO.
Videbeck, S.L. (2010). Psychiatric-Mental Health Nursing. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Mental Health Counseling
Discuss the role in relationship to the prescription and monitoring of pharmacological treatments for mental health issues.
Unique advances have been achieved in the treatment offered to clients suffering from mental illness. Mental health care providers must understand the original causes of mental health disorders in order to provide treatment to clients with these disorders. Therefore, mental healthcare providers are able to treat disorders associated with mental health. This is being done with much success as physical disorders (Madden, 2008).
The profession of mental health provision has categorized strategies of treating mental health problems as either psychotherapeutic or somatic. Somatic methods of treating mental disorders include therapies such as electroconvulsive therapy, which have the potential of stimulating the brain. Psychotherapeutic method includes behavioral therapy strategies, hypnotherapy, and psychotherapy. esearchers have established that most mental health disorders require treatment strategies that involve both psychotherapy and drugs. This is…
Madden, R.G. (2008). Legal issues in social work, counseling, and mental health: Guidelines for clinical practice in psychotherapy. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications
Palmo, A.J., Weikel, W.J., & Borsos, D.P. (2011). Foundations of mental health counseling.
Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas.
World Health Organization (2009). Mental health aspects of women's reproductive health: A
Nonetheless, people who received some level of ACRP intervention had a lower rate of criminal recidivism than people who received no intervention at all.
The study found that the case flow through the ACRP was a little slow. The amount of time between the Initial Opt-In Hearing and the Formal Opt-In Hearing averaged 74 days. While there are no hard and fast rules governing how long this process should take, the study found that that "the ACRP is performing rather well on the front-end of the admissions process (up to the initial opt-in stage) but that more could be done to work on the back end (time between the Initial Opt-In Hearing and the Formal Opt-In Hearing)."
The study found that the incentives and sanctions used by ACRP judges to promote compliance at status hearings, though standardized, were not tailored to correspond to participant progress.
Outcomes from the Last Frontier: An Evaluation of the Anchorage Mental Health Court (Alaska Mental Health Trust Authority, Ferguson-Hornby-Zeller, 2008).
Improving Responses to People with Mental Illnesses: The Essential Elements of a Mental Health Court (Thompson, Osher, Tomasini-Joshi, 2008).
Mental Health Courts: Decriminalizing the Mentally Ill. (Irwin Law, Schneider-Hyman-Bloom, 2007).
Mental Health Courts. (Wiley Encyclopedia of Forensic Science, Schneider, 2009).
Womens Mental Health and Domestic ViolenceSharma, K.K., Vatsa, M., Kalaivani, M. & Bhardwaj, D. (2019). Mental health effects of domestic violence against women in Delhi: A community-based study. Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care, 8(7), 2522-2527.Social science discipline the article represents: Psychology and Sociology.Psychology: It represents the field of psychology because it focuses on mental health processes.Sociology: It represents the field of sociology because it focuses on womens experiences of domestic violence.Summarize the tenets of the article: Domestic violence is a pervasive public health problem as it affects over one-third of women across the globe. Domestic violence occurs in various forms including physical, psychological, or sexual violence. As a result, it has varying impacts on the health and wellbeing of women or even male victims (Sharma et al., 2019). This community-based study carried out among 827 ever married women in Delhi shows that female victims of domestic violence have…
National Council for Behavioral Health (n.d.) points out, at least thirty percent of active duty military personnel suffer from a serious mental health disorder that requires treatment, but less than half of these individuals receive treatment. However, there are a variety of state and national mental health services specifically for individuals and families affiliated with the military. The state of Washington maintains a list of mental health resources including family resources for military and veteran families (Washington Mental Health Care esources, n.d.). The state of California's Department of Health Care Services (n.d.) offers a similar set of resources including suicide prevention hotlines for homeless veterans. The California Department of Veterans Affairs (n.d.) draws attention to the range of state and federal resources available, including those that are funded under the Mental Health Services Act (MHSA), Proposition 63. The primary resource for service members and their families is the Department of…
ecovery can be a difficult journey for many. The reality of having to change old habits for new ones can take a lifetime. The recovery approach/model realizes the struggle of change and transformation and makes it so that way emphasis is not placed on the destination, but rather the journey. Although other approaches like the disease/medical model aim to treat one aspect of recovery from addiction, the recovery model encompasses all aspects making it one of the most advantageous models to adopt to fight addiction.
The recovery approach/model to addiction and/or mental disorder places a strong emphasis on a support for an individual's potential for recovery. ecovery means a person undergoing a personal journey instead of determining and setting an outcome. This personal journey involves the development of hope, a sense of self, a secure base, social inclusion, meaning, empowerment, and coping skills that will take that person past the…
Barker, P. & Buchanan-Barker, P. (2012). Tidal Model of Mental Health Nursing. Currentnursing.com. Retrieved 24 July 2016, from http://currentnursing.com/nursing_theory/Tidal_Model.html
Best, D. & Lubman, D. (2012). The recovery paradigm - a model of hope and change for alcohol and drug addiction. Aust Fam Physician., 41(8), 593.
Hall, W., Carter, A., & Forlini, C. (2015). The brain disease model of addiction: is it supported by the evidence and has it delivered on its promises?. The Lancet Psychiatry, 2(1), 105-110. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s2215-0366 (14)00126-6
Hammer, R., Dingel, M., Ostergren, J., Partridge, B., McCormick, J., & Koenig, B. (2013). Addiction: Current Criticism of the Brain Disease Paradigm. AJOB Neuroscience, 4(3), 27-32. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/21507740.2013.796328
Mental Health, Prisons and Hospitals
The two videos -- the news piece on Connecticut's "purple pods" used in Hartford hospital and the Frontline special on prisons and mental health -- both indicate a problem in how society copes with and treats individuals with mental health. They also portray the two extremes of society's response to mental health issues. The Hartford hospital is on the one extreme -- in which the patient's comfort and security are top priorities (to the extent that mental health patients are given their own specially constructed rooms where safety mechanisms and soothing features have been built into the room). The prison system in Ohio described in Frontline is on the other extreme -- where prisons essentially act as mental health hospitals because the mental health facilities in Columbus are no longer able to tend to the needs of mental health patients: the patients end up being…
Gonzalez, M., Connell, N. (2014). Mental health of prisoners: identifying barriers to mental health treatment and medication continuity. American Journal of Public Health, 104(12): 2328-2333.
Harner, H., Riley, S. (2013). The impact of incarceration on women's mental health.
Qualitative Health Research, 23(1); 26-42.
Mental health services for adults and children in Florida are commonly provided by community health facilities and agencies. The use of community health agencies and facilities is providing these services are fueled by the need for an intensive care level to address the increase and impact of mental disorders. Florida State has embraced a framework of directive principles of care as the foundation for providing mental health services to adults and children. However, this framework has been insufficient to effectively deal with mental disorders for children in Jacksonville, Florida. Based on recent statistics, over 20% of children and young people experience the signs and symptoms of these illnesses during the course of a year (Goldhagen, 2006). A comprehensive, integrated community mental health service program is a suitable community-based approach this problem in Jacksonville, Florida.
Description of the Population
Mental disorders have developed to become a major health problem…
Buchanan, D. (2007). Integrating Behavioral Health into Primary Care. Retrieved from University of Nebraska -- Medical Center website: http://webmedia.unmc.edu/Community/CityMatch/EMCH/062807/DCBHS%202007.ppt
Cohen et. al. (2011). Three Models of Community Mental Health Services in Low-income
Countries. International Journal of Mental Health Systems, 5(3), 1-10. Retrieved from http://www.ijmhs.com/content/pdf/1752-4458-5-3.pdf
Flannery, F., Adams, D. & O'Connor, N. (2011, February). A Community Mental Health Service
However, more empirical studies have been published in recent years which have both reported outcomes but also have acknowledged the complexity of the interaction of the number of variables involved in predicting outcome effects on children whose parents are substance abusers (Dworkin & Hirsch, 2004). This literature is particularly important because of the large number of children affected by substance abuse of various kinds and the social policy directed toward substance abuse offenders including parents.
Although the empirical research base is growing on the relationship of parental disability to child outcome effects (Emerick & Zirpoli, 2000) there continues to be a need for research that methodologically addresses specific critical parental disability factors.
Implementing Culturally Sensitive Crisis
In conclusion, when faced with an individual who is recognizably from a culture different from the crisis worker, some modification in approach will be considered. However, there is sufficient cultural diversity present in our…
Colangelo, N. (2007). Counseling gifted students: Issues and practices. In N. Colangelo and G.A. Davis (Eds.), Handbook of Gifted Education (2nd ed.), (pp. 353-381). Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
Colangelo, N., & Assouline, a. (1993). Families of gifted children. A research agenda. Quest, 4, 1-4.
Dworkin, M., & Hirsch, G. (2004). Responding to managed care: A roadmap for the therapist. Psychotherapy in Private Practice, 13, 1-21.
Emerick, L., & Zirpoli, T. (2000). Different concerns, different needs? Perceptions of gifted children and parents of children with disabilities. Paper presented at the conference of the American Association of Gifted and Talented, Little Rock, AR.
Given this priest is able to coax and created situations where boys are with him alone is even worse. In short, the counselor in this situation has no choice but to step in and say/do something.
To make a final decision, it would normally be wise to do some information gathering and to truly find out for sure whether or not this man has offended or not. However, the only real way to do that is to prod the priest even more and/or to ask the children and/or parents what is going on, if anything, and that would probably not be the best idea, at least in the latter case. Any querying of children would have to be done with the full knowledge and consent of the parents, and this is true both ethically and legally, and even if such permission was not garnered it would get back to them…
Brown, Francesca, and Mark R. Kebbell. "Policing Indecent Images of Children. What Are the Critical Issues Surrounding Police Risk Assessment?." Sexual Abuse in
Australia & New Zealand 5.1 (2013): 52-59. SocINDEX with Full Text. Web. 5
DeYoung, Mary. "The World According to NAMBLA: Accounting for Deviance." Journal
Hughes proceeded to institute a system of "Confusing Military Structures," the www.CDNMilitary.casitecontinues. Battlefront unites were "constantly formed, disbanded, reformed and disbanded again"; and as though that wasn't enough, the Ross Rifle issue was another problem that Hughes' legacy is left with, according to the site. One army driver is quoted as saying, "To hell with the [Ross Rifle]. I'll take a club." In fact, Ross did not fully understand why soldiers objected to the use of the Ross Rifle, the military eb site claims, because even though Hughes "dressed up like a military officer while being Minister of the Militia," he was "nothing more than a civilian...and never did have to use the rifle in combat" (www.CDNMilitary.ca).
And the Ross Rifle wasn't the only snag in Hughes' pursuit of innovative wartime materials and technologies, the CNDMilitary site claims. Indeed, the "MacAdam shield-shovel" - termed a "Canadian-designed miracle" by Hughes, who…
CDNMilitary.CA. 2002. "The Canadian World War One Mobilization: A Complicated
Matter." Retrieved March 15, 2009, at http://www.cdnmilitary.ca/index.php?p=20.
Cook, Tim. 2004. "The Madman and the Butcher: Sir Sam Hughes, Sir Arthur Currie,
And Their War of Reputations." The Canadian Historical Review 85 no. 4, 695-719.
17). Likewise, left untreated, mental health problems such as anxiety disorders can result in increased healthcare utilization over the lifespan, but access to effective and proven mental health treatments remains a problem across the country (Gauthier, 2004) .
The research showed that a wide range of efficacious treatments exist for mental health disorders that can help people regain control over their lives and avoid the long-term adverse consequences of untreated mental disorders. Unfortunately, the research also showed that just a tithe of those with mental health disorders receive treatment for them because a broad array of obstacles remain in place that inhibits or prevents access to timely and effective interventions. These obstacles were shown to include the fact that mental health care is costly, services are often fragmented, and insurance is frequently nonexistent or inadequate for the mental health services that are needed. In addition, other obstacles were shown…
Allen-Kelly, K. & Charikar, K. (2010, Autumn). Social workers and occupational therapists shut out of Medicare. Impact, 17-19.
Brindis, C.D., Morreale, M.C. & English, a. (2003). The unique health care needs of adolescents. The Future of Children, 13(1), 116-117
Conyne, R.K. (2004). Preventive counseling: Helping people to become empowered in systems and settings. New York: Brunner-Routledge.
Gauthier, J. (2004). The costs of anxiety disorders and their treatment: a commentary. Canadian Psychology, 45(3), 219-221.
US Mental Health Assistance
Mental health problems or mental illnesses are among the major public health issues in the United States given their prevalence. Mental health illnesses affected nearly all populations in the United States including children and adults. However, the prevalence of mental illnesses among adults is high in comparison to other populations. Mental health problems among adults in the U.S. incorporate many different conditions whose degree of severity varies from mild to moderate to severe (National Institute of Mental Health, 2019). One of the major contributing factors to the prevalence of mental illnesses among adults in America is the rapid growth of the aging population. Adults suffering from mental illness don't always understand they are sick and are difficult to help. Our system puts them out on the street or locks them up. There is need for policy changes to address the prevalence of mental health illnesses among…
Forensic Mental Health Legislation and Policies
The current position on forensic mental health issues when it comes to legislation and policies is a strong one, but there are some difficulties that do not translate well into the probation and parole policies that are currently offered. In other words, there are issues that are not being addressed, and that are allowing individuals with mental health problems who on are probation and parole to slip through the cracks and struggle with their issues on their own (Wang, et al., 2005). Not only are they not getting the help they need in order to live productive lives, they are also more likely to reoffend, violate their probation or parole, become homeless, drink to excess, do drugs, and get involved in other unsavory behavior (Patel & Prince, 2002). The high proportion of indigenous offenders is one of the biggest issues that indicates mental health…
Australian Government (2012). Mental health services in Australia. Retrieved from https://mhsa.aihw.gov.au/home/
Demyttenaere, K., Bruffaerts, R., Posada-Villa, J., Gasquet, I., Kovess, V., Lepine, JP., Angermeyer, MC., Bernert, S., et al. (2004). WHO World Mental Health Survey Consortium. Prevalence, severity, and unmet need for treatment of mental disorders in the World Health Organization World Mental Health Survey. Journal of the American Medical Association, 291(21): 2581 -- 2590.
Keyes, C. (2002). The mental health continuum: From languishing to flourishing in life. Journal of Health and Social Behaviour, 43(2): 207 -- 222.
Munce, S.E., Stansfeld, S.A., Blackmore, E.R., & Stewart, D.E. (2007). The role of depression and chronic pain conditions in absenteeism: Results from a national epidemiologic survey. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 49(11): 1206 -- 1211.
To deal with these difficulties, several recommendations can be formulated:
1. Cross-cultural variables: Ethnic matches should be arranged between client and therapist. These will be effective in dealing not only with communication problems, but also with cultural perceptions of the disease as well as with possible social stigmas attached to the disease. The therapist, sharing similar cultural background to the patient understands the patient's concern and speaks the patient's language therefore is more able than another to 'pull' her through.
Other recommendations include items such as that Government should allocate more funding to establishing specific mental health treatments that are run by and appeal to the various ethnic minorities. In a similar manner, government should increase their funding for research and clinical training of ethnic and racial minority members (e.g. The minority Fellowship Program and the CO). Finally, general Mental health services should incorporate cross-cultural communication variables in…
Leong, F.T.L., & Lau, A.S.L. (2001). Barriers to providing effective mental health services to Asian-Americans. Mental Health Services Research, 3, 201 -- 214.
Leong, F.T.L., & Kalibatseva, Z. (2011) Cross-cultura Barriers to mental Health services in United States. Cerebrum. The DANA Foundation. http://www.dana.org/news/cerebrum/detail.aspx?id=31364
This is discussed at length by Fusick and ordeau (2004) "...school-based counselors need to be aware of the disturbing inequities that exist in predominantly Afro-American urban school districts, where nearly 40% of Afro-American students attend school in the United States" (Fusick and ordeau, 2004) This again places emphasis on the need for mental health programs in these areas of concern. This is also related to findings from a study by McDavis et al. (1995) Counseling African-Americans, which refers to research that stresses the "...widening achievement gap between Afro-American and Euro-American students." (McDavis, et al. 1995)
An important study Laura a. Nabors, Evaluation of Outcomes for Adolescents Receiving School-ased Mental Health Services (2002) refers to the particular issue and problems experience at inner-city schools. The author states that, "School mental health (SMH) programs are an important setting for providing mental health services to adolescents, especially urban youth who typically face in-…
Smith, P.B., Buzi, R.S., & Weinman, M.L. (2001). Mental Health Problems and Symptoms among Male Adolescents Attending a Teen Health Clinic. Adolescence, 36(142), 323. Retrieved December 9, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5001042308 www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5001243622
Stern, S.B., Smith, C.A., & Jang, S.J. (1999). Urban Families and Adolescent Mental Health. Social Work Research, 23(1), 15. Retrieved December 9, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5001243622 www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=77001228
Sternberg, R.J., & Dennis, M.J. (1997). Elaborating Cognitive Psychology through Linkages to Psychology as a Helping Profession. Teaching of Psychology, 24(3), 246-249. Retrieved December 9, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=77001228 www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000581383
Stock, M.R., Morse, E.V., Simon, P.M., Zeanah, P.D., Pratt, J.M., & Sterne, S. (1997). Barriers to School-Based Health Care Programs. Health and Social Work, 22(4), 274+. Retrieved December 9, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000581383
history of mental health in the United States has not always been a pleasant one. Prior to the mid-20th century those unfortunate numbers of Americans who were considered mentally ill were either ignored or placed in asylums (Philo, 1997). The asylum approach was considered to be a logical one. It protected the community for potentially dangerous or unwanted individuals; it provided families relief from the burden of having to care for a mentally ill family member; and, at least theoretically, they offered humane custodial care. The asylum system operated without question for many years in the United States. Society, as a whole, paid little attention to the concerns of the mentally ill and there was a general attitude that the mentally ill were largely undesirable.
Subsequent to the Second World War societal attitudes began to transform as the warehousing of the mentally ill in asylum was beginning to be considered…
Iglehart, J.K. (1996). Managed Care and Mental Health. New England Journal of Medicine, 131-136.
Institute of Medicine. (2005, November 1). Improviing the Quality of Health Care for Mental and Substance -Use Conditions: Quality Chasm Series. Retrieved October 30, 2011, from Institute of Medicine of the National Academies: http://www.iom.edu/Reports/2005/Improving-the-Quality-of-Health-Care-for-Mental-and-Substance-Use-Conditions-Quality-Chasm-Series.aspx
National Mental Health Act. Public Law 79-487, 79th Congress (1946).
New Freedom Commission on Mental Health. (2003). Achieving the Promise: Transforming Mental Health Care in America. Washington, D.C.: Government Publishing Office.
ole of Mental Health Group in Helping an Individual
ole Of Mental Health Group In A Helping Individual Overcome Schizophrenia In Hawaii: A Substantive Grounded Theory
ole of mental health group in helping an individual overcome schizophrenia in Hawaii: a substantive grounded theory
Schizophrenia is a brain disease that is emotionally distressing for patients and their families. In a society that has misunderstood schizophrenia for a long time, its victims have been undeservingly stigmatized. This study compares the development of social skills and coping skills of schizophrenia patients in support groups: can support groups help these patients? The purpose of this study is to analyze and compare schizophrenia patients with social skills issues and the care they receive from support groups with respect to developing these skills. Schizophrenia patients need a lot of support. They attend support groups to discuss housing, job, and family issues. This also gives them an…
Aneshensel, C.S. (2009). Toward Explaining Mental Health Disparities. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 50(4), 377-394. doi: 10.2307/20617650
Austrian, S.G. (2005). Mental Disorders, Medications, and Clinical Social Work (3 ed.): Columbia University Press.
Bateman, J., & Smith, T. (2011). Taking Our Place: Community Managed Mental Health Services in Australia. International Journal of Mental Health, 40(2), 55-71. doi: 10.2307/41345351
Dyke, C.V. (2013). Research Policies for Schizophrenia in the Global Health Context. International Journal of Mental Health, 42(1), 51-76. doi: 10.2307/42003833
One of the best things about the WAP program is the flexibility that it has. Every patient has their own individual needs that need to be met by a recovery program. Most recovery programs are very rigid and to not have much give to them. The WAP program is just the opposite. It allows each patient to recover at their own rate and using the best resources available to them.
The flexibility that the WAP program allows each patient to have helps to reinforce the idea of self-management recovery. This is so important is giving each patient the responsibility for their own recovery. Empowering each patient to design and implement their own recovery helps to ensure that they will follow through and be successful in recovering.
Davidson, Laurie. (2005). ecovery, self-management and the expert patient - Changing the culture of mental health from a UK perspective. Journal of Mental…
Davidson, Laurie. (2005). Recovery, self-management and the expert patient - Changing the culture of mental health from a UK perspective. Journal of Mental Health, 14(1), 25-35.
Dewa, Carolyn S., Hoch, Jeffrey S., Carmen, Glenn, Guscott, Richard, and Anderson, Chris.
(2009). Cost, Effectiveness, and Cost-Effectiveness of a Collaborative Mental Health
Care Program for People Receiving Short-Term Disability Benefits for Psychiatric
ather than treating their problems, the community attempts to punish them for their behaviors, placing them in systems where they rarely have access to the type of treatment that will teach them how to avoid engaging in further antisocial behaviors (Thomas & Penn, 2002). In fact, the overrepresentation of mental illness in the juvenile delinquent population as compared to the normal population suggests that the shifting of ill kids to the criminal justice system is commonplace.
Even more troubling is the idea that juveniles who are not involved in the criminal justice system but who experience significant mental health issues may not have access to mental health care. Out-of-pocket expenses for residential mental health treatment for adolescents are exorbitant, even for parents with health insurance. Copays can literally be thousands of dollars a week. However, parents who cannot afford those costs may find the state unwilling to help them; parents…
Texas Department of State Health Services. (2010, December 21). Mental health. Retrieved May 15, 2013 from State of Texas website: http://www.dshs.state.tx.us/mentalhealth.shtm
Thomas, C.R. & Penn, J.V. (2002). Juvenile justice mental health services. Child Adolesc
Psychiatr Clin N. Am, 11(4), 731-48.
detection and intervention in childhood mental health help prevent mental health problems in adult life?
Disregarding the mental well-being requirements of children is an intolerable violation of our basic undertaking to protect their well-being. Unfavorable mental disposition amidst our children is a less acknowledged difficulty that influences their literary, societal, and emotional enhancement. Mental well-being is a wide attribute to be analyzed. The mental well-being requirements of children and youth demand introspection. There is prevalent refuting that mental well-being is comprehensive of the influence on the children -- amidst all age distinct ions, variety of cultural sections, and all income sections. Such miscomprehensions are recurring, and involvement and care are unlikely to be found. Many people have the belief that children having mental well-being difficulties are just under the impact of a particular passing cloud. (Promoting Access for Children to Mental Health Screens and Assessments in Medicaid and the Children's…
AAMR. "Mental retardation: Definition, classification, and systems of supports," 9th edition (1992).
Caplan G. "Principles of Preventive Psychiatry," Basic Books, New York, 1964
Children's Mental Health: Current Challenges and a Future Direction Traditional Mental Health Services for Children: Current Arrangements and Challenges." Retrieved at http://www.healthinschools.org/mhs3.asp . Accessed on 12/08/2003
Children, Youth and Mental Disorders." The Primer May, 2003
ecent research shows that mental health problems can manifest in early childhood. As many as one in ten Australian children under five exhibit symptoms of social, emotional, and mental disorders including temper tantrums, difficulty adapting to new surroundings, problems relating to peers, and hyperactivity (Edwards & Martin, 2012). Although psychological diagnoses like clinical anxiety or depression are not typically made on populations under five, researchers do identify early childhood behaviors as risk factors for developing mental health disorders later in life. Thus, being withdrawn or inhibited has been identified as "one of the best identified risk factors for later anxiety disorders," (apee, Kennedy, Ingram, Edwards & Sweeney, 2005, p. 488). Early childhood behaviors can reveal to parents and counselors the warning signs of childhood and adolescent psychiatric problems such as Depressive Disorder, Conduct Disorder and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (Sawyer, Arney, Baghurst, et al., 2008). It is important to…
Bakermans-Kranenburg, M.J.; van IJzendoorn, M.H. & Juffer, F. (2003). Less is more: Meta-analyses of sensitivity and attachment interventions in early childhood. Psychological Bulletin, Vol 129(2), Mar 2003, 195-215.
Duncan, G.J., Brooks-Gunn, J. & Kato Klebanov, P. (2008). Economic deprivation and early childhood development. Child Development 65(2): 296-318.
Edwards, V. & Martin, S. (2012). Preschool mental health toll at 10pc. The Australian. 24 Dec, 2012.
Felner, R.D.; Stolberg, A. & Cowen, E.L. (1975). Crisis events and school mental health referral patterns of young children. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, Vol 43(3), Jun 1975, 305-310.
joy than that of serving those who need our services most. I enjoy working with patients. What drives my interest in mental health is not the salary or perks that come with jobs in this field -- rather, it is the professional satisfaction that comes with improving the lives of others.
Being a Reservist Trauma nurse in the USN, I have had the rare opportunity of serving my country in a very unique way. In addition to closely working with those actively engaged in defending our country, I have also met and interacted with civilians in diverse settings. To some extent, my growing interest in mental health has largely been informed by my interaction with individuals having a wide range of mental health problems. For instance, during my deployment to Afghanistan, I encountered, first hand, the effects of trauma and other mental health problems on the minds of those affected.…
social and psychological interventions are important in youth mental health
The most productive and creative generation of any nation are the youth, Australia included. Nations largely depend on the youth for almost everything hence the need to be in the best shape physically and more importantly psychologically. The mental health of the youth has been widely viewed as a subject of concern among the medical fraternity and one that needs constant and continuous intervention in order to have a sound mental health. This paper will delve into the prevalent mental disorder and the different ways in which they manifest themselves and the relevant social and psychological interventions that are appropriate in the intervention especially among the youth. Through understanding of these mental health conditions or disorders and the available interventions, one is able to evaluate whether the interventions have been sufficient and if not, interrogate the inefficiencies and the possible…
Lee R.S.C., et.al, (2012). Cognitive Remediation Improves Memory and Psychosocial Functioning in First-episode Psychiatric Out-patients. Psychological Medicine. Cambridge University Press.
Mario A.J., (2011). Preventing the Second Episode: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Psychosocial and Pharmacological Trials in First-Episode psychosis. Schizophrenia Bulletin Vol.37. Oxford University Press.
Mathew S. et.al., (2008). Recent Advances in the Neurobiology of Anxiety Disorders: Implications for Novel Therapeutics. American Journal of Medical Genetics. Wiley-Liss Inc.
Peters A.T & Nierenberg A.A., (2011). Stepping Back to Step Forward: Lessons From the Systematic Treatment Enhancement Program for Bipolar Disorder (STEP-BD). American Society of Clinical Psychopharmacology Corner.
Healthcare Reform Models
Health Care Reform Models
Shim and colleagues (2012) argue for taking advantage of provisions within the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) of 2010 that emphasizes preventive and integrated care. They propose that the primary care setting is ideal for screening patients for signs of mental illness and associated risk factors. A mental health wellness program could also include coaches and other experts that interface with patients on an individual basis, including at the patient's home.
Long-Term Behavioral Health Care
Bao and colleagues (2012) examined four patient populations defined by disease severity and ability to pay, and then assessed how these four groups will fare under the behavioral health provisions in the ACA. Patients with private insurance and suffering from mild to moderate mental illness will probably receive the best care at a Patient-Centered Medical Home (PCMH). The authors suggest that the presence of…
These were categorized into three aspects, which the care provider could control for the benefit of the patients. These were satisfaction with the punctuality of the caregiver; the quality of interaction between the patient and the caregiver; and the overall dependability of health care. Promptness or punctuality with care or service was rated most highly by both groups. eing on time affected their functioning and comfort throughout the day, specifically with dressing, bathing and daily activities. Promptness was considered the easiest and most controllable aspect for the provider. The quality of interaction made the patients feel safe, respected and valued. And satisfaction with the overall dependability of health care mostly involved the caregiver's following through with the patient's suggestions, especially those by the more frail patients. This last aspect was also well within the control of the health care provider (Kolodonsky, et al.).#
Champlin, L., (2004), surprising number of…
Champlin, L., (2004), surprising number of U.S. elders do not have health insurance coverage -- not even Medicare (Online). American Academy of Family Physicians.
http://www.aafp.org/online/en/home/media/releases/2004/uninsured-elders-4-1-04 (Accessed 18 August 2009).
Cummings, S.M.; Neff, J.A.; and Husaine, B.A. (2003), functional impairment as a predictor of depressive symptomatology: the role of race, religiosity and social support (Online). Health and Social Work, National Association of Social Workers. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_hb138/is_1_28/ai_n28983552 (Accessed 18 August 2009)
Kolodinsky, J.; Junghun, N.; Lee, J.K.; and Dorzewiczewski, M. (2001). Degree of frailty and elderly satisfaction with personal care services in a community setting (Online). Journal of Consumer Satisfaction, ProQuest Information and Learning Company. http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa5516/is_200101/ai_n21465985 . Accessed 18 August 2009).
mental health professionals, understanding what is impacting patients and their employees requires careful observation. This occurs through seeing if there is anything that is out of the ordinary. The situation with Eileen; is classic example of using these tools to realize when something more severe is happening. (Palmo, 2006)
In this particular case, Eileen is known as someone who is stable and reliable in organizing / managing the office. However, once she starts crying, is when she is dealing with more unusual challenges. Mental health professionals have a duty to identify the root causes of these problems and helping her to address them. (Palmo, 2006)
For Cora, she has unique responsibilities as a counselor and her employer. This is because she has to make certain that Eileen is able to work through these problems in order to perform her job efficiently. At the same time, she has an obligation to…
Palmo, A. (2006). Foundations of Mental Health Counseling. Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas.
This creates a nerve with the client that their private information is going to be unprotected and confidentiality is going to be broken . There is no safe way to keep all information private. However, all mental health professionals must take all necessary precautions to keep client information private .
As you look around the mall, classroom, church, family history, friend's family, or place of employment, you're sure to know someone with a mental illness, or someone who might of attempted suicide . Assessing and treating these disorders is essential in the mental health field, more trained mental health professionals are needed, more agencies, and more funding . Otherwise if society keeps assuming that the mind and brain are separate and that mental disorders are " different" or " bad" misunderstanding, mistreatment, and stigma will persist in this society . We need to stop seeing individuals with mental health…
American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (Revised 4th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.
American Association of Suicidology. ( 2006, February), U.S.A. suicide: 2003 official final data. Retrieved March 19, 2010, from http:/ / www.suiciodology.org.
Bonner, L. ( 2001). Rethinking suicide prevention and manipulative behavior in corrections. Jail Suicide Mental Health Update, 10(4), 7-8.
Bonner, L. (2006) . Stressful segregation housing in psychosocial vulnerability in prison suicide. Suicide and Life Threatening Behavior, 36,250-254.
Inequalities in Mental Health
Over the last several years, different theories have been utilized to explain the societal factors in the quality of mental health. The basic idea is to understand which variables will have the greatest impact on the person's ability to contribute to society. The social structure theory is taking a unique perspective in studying the problem. To fully understand its importance requires looking at the main ideas and why it was chosen. Together, these elements will illustrate how this influences mental health and the effects it is having on contemporary thinking. (Gabbidon, 2005) (Cole, 2013)
The social structure theory believes that the economic class will have a direct impact on the quality of care, treatment options and the effects on society itself. This is because poor neighborhoods face greater amounts of strain, frustrations, reduced opportunities and disorganization. These variables will influence how someone sees their surroundings and…
Cole, G. (2013). Survey of Criminal Justice. Mason, OH: Southwestern.
Gabbidon, S. (2005). Race, Crime and Justice. New York, NY: Psychology Press.
Smith, D. (1988). "Social Structure and Criminal Victimization." Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 25 (1), 27-52.
The deinstitutionalization trend that began during the 1960s was based on the notion that people suffering from mental illness would be able to receive better treatment for their disorder in community-based facilities while also saving the state and federal governmental tens of millions of dollars in the process (Lamb & Weinberger, 2019). This movement, however, ultimately backfired and the incidence of individuals with mental illness that become involved with the criminal justice system remains a serious problem for American policymakers and citizens alike today. The purpose of this paper is to review the relevant literature to determine the types of problems that are typically experienced by the criminal justice system in the provision of timely and effective treatment for incarcerated mentally ill offenders and what moral dilemmas arise as a result. In addition, an analysis concerning the costs that are associated with treating mentally ill prisoners is followed by a…
Addressing mental illness in the criminal justice system. (2009). U.S. Department of Justice. Retrieved from https://www.justice.gov/archives/opa/blog/addressing-mental-illness-criminal-justice-system .
Gilbert, M. (2015, May 5). Treatment, not jail: It’s time to step up. National Alliance on Mental Illness. Retrieved from https://www.nami.org/ .
Interventions for adults with serious mental illness who are involved with the criminal justice system. (2012, September 13). U.S. Department of Health & Human Services. Retrieved from https://effectivehealthcare.ahrq.gov/products/mental-illness-adults-prisons/research-protocol .
Ireland, J. L. & Ireland, C. A. (2011). Personality structure among prisoners: How valid is the five-factor model, and can it offer support for Eysenck’s theory of criminality? Criminal Behavior and Mental Health, 21, 35–50.
Lamb, R. & Weinberger, L. E. (2019, October 10). Deinstitutionalization and other factors in the criminalization of persons with serious mental illness and how it is being addressed. CNS Spectrums, 25(2), 173-180.
Women with Mental IllnessPart 2: Context for PracticeThe inequalities experienced by women with mental illness have been shaped by forms of oppression, such as moral exclusion (social stigmatization and marginalization) and cultural imperialism (gendered norms that do not allow women to seek help for mental illness). Moral exclusion occurs when a person is made to feel inferior to or separate from others. This happens with women experiencing mental illness because society condemns them as weak and imperfect (Boysen & Logan, 2017). In general there is a stigma of seeking help for mental health because there is too little understanding about what mental illness is, its prevalence, and why it is important to view it with understanding (Lopez, Sanchez, Killian & Eghaneyan, 2018). For women there is the idea that if they have mental illness, they are not in control of themselves and may act out in a way that harms…
ReferencesAl-Rousan, T., Rubenstein, L., Sieleni, B., Deol, H., & Wallace, R. B. (2017). Inside the nations largest mental health institution: A prevalence study in a state prison system.BMC public health,17(1), 1-9.Boysen, G. A., & Logan, M. (2017). Gender and mental illness stigma: The relative impact of stereotypical masculinity and gender atypicality.Stigma and Health,2(2), 83.Kam, P. K. (2021). From the Strengths Perspective to an EmpowermentParticipationStrengths Model in Social Work Practice.The British Journal of Social Work.Lopez, V., Sanchez, K., Killian, M. O., & Eghaneyan, B. H. (2018). Depression screening and education: an examination of mental health literacy and stigma in a sample of Hispanic women.BMC Public Health,18(1), 1-8.Maslow, A. H. (1943). A theory of human motivation.Psychological Review,50(4), 370.Nyahunda, L. (2021). Social work empowerment model for mainstreaming the participation of rural women in the climate change discourse.Journal of Human Rights and Social Work, 1-10.Rowe, R., Andrews, E., Harris, P. R., Armitage, C. J., McKenna, F. P., & Norman, P. (2016). Identifying beliefs underlying pre-drivers intentions to take risks: An application of the Theory of Planned Behaviour.Accident Analysis & Prevention,89, 49-56.Shooshtari, S., Abedi, M. R., Bahrami, M., & Samouei, R. (2018). Empowerment of women and mental health improvement with a preventive approach.Journal of education and health promotion,7.Taylor, D., & Richards, D. (2019). Triple jeopardy: Complexities of racism, sexism, and ageism on the experiences of mental health stigma among young Canadian Black Women of Caribbean descent.Frontiers in Sociology,4, 43.Tseris, E. (2019). Social work and womens mental health: Does trauma theory provide a useful framework?.The British Journal of Social Work,49(3), 686-703.
The health of women has been a subject of discussion for many years and it has been emphasized because the health of women is directly related to the health of the child and thus the health of the society (Jacobson, 1993). However, the unfortunate part is that when considering the health of the women, only her physical and reproductive health is given importance and there is no consideration of her mental health that is equally as important as her physical health. All around the world, efforts have increased to make the health conditions of the women better especially since the last decade. Women are now regularly screened for HIV and other diseases that have a vertical pattern of transmission so that the children can be saved from such diseases. Awareness has also increased over the years among the women and they realize that their health, both mental and…
Belle, D. Poverty and Women's Mental Health.American Psychologist (1990) 45:385-389.
Jacobson, J. Women's Health: The Price of Poverty. In The Health of Women: A Global Perspective, edited by M. Koblinsky, J. Timyan, and J. Gay, pp. 3-32. Boulder, CO: Westview Press (1993).
Jayarajan, Nishanth; Chandra, Prabha.HIV and Mental Health: An Overview of Research from India. Indian Journal of Psychiatry, September 2010.
WHO.Mental Health Determinants and Populations.Geneva (2000) http://whqlibdoc.who.int/hq/2000/who_msd_mdp_00.1.pdf .
Mental Health and Stigma
Stigma influences the lives of people living with serious mental illnesses in many ways, including via the experience of self-stigma, whereby a person gives intense focus to what others might think about one’s own mental illness, internalizing their conception of the illness (Link, Wells, Phelan & Yang, 2015). Stigma can also come from society, from the workplace, from one’s own family or set of peers, and even from strangers. When an illness is stigmatized in the media, a person who suffers from that illness may feel taboo, ostracized from society, isolated from the “normal” group of people who have normal lives and can function without problem (Corrigan, Druss & Perlick, 2014).
Stigma influences the lives of people living with serious mental illnesses in other ways too. They become afraid to seek medical help because of the fear of being labeled as a person with a…
The patient is a 25-year-old male, single, unemployed, living with parents. The person seeking treatment in this case has been experiencing some extreme problems that have developed somewhat rapidly over the course of six months. The problem is very severe and has interfered with all of his personal relationships. He was recently fired from his janitorial job at a school for scaring the students with his words and actions. The patient has not sought treatment before but is now due to his parent's concern and him becoming much more violent and demonstrating strange and odd behavior. The patient claims to be hearing many voices in his head urging him to do strange acts. The patient has also recently taken up a hobby of collecting dead animals and placing them in mailboxes and other public places.
History of the Problem
The patient has described his life becoming…
National Institute of Mental Health. What are the symptoms' of schizophrenia? Veiwed on 22 Feb 2013. Retrieved from http://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/publications /schizophrenia/what-are-the-symptoms-of- schizophrenia.shtml
Mental Health Disorder
The following is a close examination of the psychosocial status of mental health disorder. There is going to be an examination of the symptoms along with a comprehensive diagnosis of the case.
Mental Health Disorder- Background
Childhood mental health disorder refers to all mental health conditions that affect a person in childhood. The disorder in children is described as critical changes that affect the way a child behaves, learns or even handles emotional situations. Some of the known childhood mental health disorders include (CDC - Child Development, Children's Mental Health -- NCBDDD, n.d):
Hyperactivity disorder/attention deficit disorder (ADHD) (http://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/adhd/index.html)
Disorders related to behavior
Anxiety and mood disorders
Substance use disorders
Mental health is essential in life. Mental health disorders can persist throughout a person's life (CDC - Child Development, Children's Mental Health -- NCBDDD, n.d). The problem needs to be diagnosed early. Otherwise, children continue…
(n.d.). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. CDC - Child Development, Children's Mental Health - NCBDDD. Retrieved February 6, 2016, from http://www.cdc.gov /ncbddd/childdevelopment/mentalhealth.html
Klauck, S. (2006). Genetics of autism spectrum disorder. European Journal of Human Genetics, 14, 714-720. Retrieved February 6, 2016 from http://www.nature.com/ejhg/journal/v14/n6/full/5201610a.html
(n.d.). Medicine Net. Mental Health: Get the Facts on Common Disorders. Retrieved February 6, 2016, from http://www.medicinenet.com/mental_health_psychology/article.htm
(n.d.). MU School of Health Professions. Autism Spectrum Disorders: Case Study. Retrieved February 6, 2016, from http://shp.missouri.edu/vhct/case4108/case_study.htm
Diversity of Aging Population -- Innovative Healthcare
Over the past several decades there has been an avalanche of research and scholarly narratives focusing on the aging of millions of Americans -- among them the "baby boomers" that were born between 1946 and 1964 -- including their numbers and their health vis-a-vis the impact on the sometimes struggling healthcare system. But there has been a dearth of research on how American healthcare services will respond -- and is currently responding -- to an increasingly diverse older population when it comes to racial, cultural and ethnic identities. This paper points to the numerous issues and challenges that not only face an increasingly diverse older American population when it comes to healthcare, but also the challenges that the healthcare system itself faces as these Americans move into the twilight of their lives.
hat should be the Vision and Mission of Healthcare Professionals in…
Administration on Aging. (2010). A Statistical Profile of Black Older Americans Aged 65+.
Retrieved April 2, 2014, from http://www.aoa.gov .
Bookman, A. (2008). Innovative models of aging in place: Transforming our communities for an aging population. Community, Work & Family, 11(4), 419-438.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2007). The State of Aging and Health in America
sufficient health care for runaway teenagers is a topic of grave concern to most in the medical and social professions, both nationally and in the state of California. With limited treatment options, higher risks of STD's, HIV, and other diseases, improper prenatal care, and a lack of community care options, runaway teens receive grossly inadequate health care. This paper will address those concerns, specifically in the state of California, as well as offering possible solutions to the problem, and will examine the role of the registered nurse in the solutions presented.
It is important to note that the life of a runaway teenager is filled with health risks and danger. Marie and Cheri are just one example. They were 13 when they ran away from home in an attempt to escape a drug addicted father who sexually abused them. With only $200 between them, their food supply and housing was…
Advanced Practice Registered Nurses Council. (2004). Information on APRNs. APRNs. Retrieved from Advanced Practice Registered Nurses Council on March 03, 2003. Web site: http://www.scnurses.org/A_P_Council/aprns.asp
American Civil Liberties Union. (May 14, 2003). Letter to the House Urging Opposition to the Musgrave Amendment to HR 1925, the Runaway, Homeless, and Missing Children Protection Act. Retrieved from American Civil Liberties Union website on March 3, 2004. Web Site: http://www.aclu.org/news/NewsPrint.cfm?ID=12643&c=225
California Board of Registered Nurses. (Fall, 2003). What is the RN Scope of Practice? The BRN Report, 15(2), 7-9.
California Office of the Attorney General. (2002). 2002 Reports of Missing Children by County. Sacramento, CA: California Department of Justice.
healthcare reforms that have taken place in the past decade that have led to the re-evaluation of the quality as well as the cost effectiveness of health care providers. A specialty that has evolved with this trend is that of mental health/psychiatric advanced practice nurse. There is an increase in the number of the elderly people in society today. Depression is a common mental health condition in this age group. Age related psychological, physiological and social change have to be taken into consideration when it comes to making decisions that are related to pharmacological or psychological treatments that are to be implemented.in the article we can see that the common causes of mental health problems in the elderly are institutionalization, loss of friends and family, lack of support networks, decrease in hearing, vision and memory and so on.
The article highlights some of the benefits and risks electro conclusive therapy.one…
Human Services Intervention for the Homeless
Working with homeless people is one of the challenging tasks in the social sector. Similar to other social worker position, supporting homeless people can be very difficult and challenging because most of the homeless people are a drug addict, jobless, and suffer from mental disorders. Homelessness is a condition without having access to a regular dwelling. Thus, homeless are people who are unable to acquire safe, regular, and secure housing units. Thus, anybody cannot just work with this set of the population, social workers or other professionals ready to work with this set of people should possess interpersonal skills to work successfully with them.
The objective of this paper is to address the interpersonal skills to work homeless.
Interpersonal skills to work with Homeless
A strong communication skill is one of the interpersonal skills needed to work with homeless people. A social or health…
Finfgeld-Connett, D. Bloom, T.L. & Johnson, E.D. (2012). Perceived Competency and Resolution of Homelessness Among Women With Substance Abuse Problems. Qualitative Health Research
Finfgeld-Connett, D. (2010). Becoming homeless, being homeless, and resolving homelessness among women. Issues in Mental Health Nursing, 31, 461-469.
Mental Health Issues in Hispanic Community
The Hispanic community comprises of one of the fastest growing ethnic/racial groups within the United States. According to census results of 2000, the number of Hispanics in the United States has increased by about 60% over the last decade. This is from 23 back in 1990 to 35.5 million in 2000. In March 2002, the number of Hispanics in United States was 37.4 million. Hispanic population in the United States in 44 million now this is about 14% of the U.S. population. Nearly 805 of all the Hispanics in the U.S. are either immigrants or children of immigrants. It is expected that by 2050, the Hispanic population will be 108 million and about a quarter of the population in United States.
Sociocultural and historical factors suggest that the Hispanic community needs mental health services greatly. Hispanics in general have low economic and education status.…
Escarce, J & Kapur, K. (2008).Hispanics and the Future of America: Access to and Quality of Health Care. Retrieved August 5, 2014 from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK19910/
Talamantes, M., Lindeman, R & Mounton, C. (2009). Health and Healthcare of Hispanic/Latino-American elders. Retrieved August 5, 2014 from http://web.stanford.edu/group/ethnoger/hispaniclatino.html
Morales, L., Kington, R., Valdez, R & Escarce, J. (2007).Socioeconomic, cultural, and behavioral factors affecting Hispanic health outcomes. Retrieved August 5, 2014 from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1781361/
Vega, W. (2008). Mental Health issue affecting Latino youth and families. Retrieved August 5, 2014 from http://www.sdprc.net/wp-content/uploads/2012/11/keynoteaddress-pte.pdf
Standards of Care/Mental Health/Cultural Competence
EMEGING STANDADS OF CAE/MENTAL HEALTH/CULTUAL
Sometime in 1999, the Surgeon General released Mental Health: A eport of the Surgeon General. Inside this report, it acknowledged that not every Americans, particularly minorities, are getting the equal mental health treatment, a discovery that provoked the Surgeon General to give out a supplemental report on differences in mental health care for individuals of color (Donini-Lenhoff, 2006). The addition, which was available in 2001, sends out one obvious message: culture does actually count. Cultural competency is considered to be one the vital ingredients in closing the differences hole in health care. It is looked as the way patients and doctors are able to come together and then talk about health issues without cultural differences stopping the conversation, nonetheless improving it. Fairly simply, health care services that are deferential of and receptive to the health beliefs, practices and cultural and…
Choi, H.M. (2006). ETHNIC DIFFERENCES IN ADOLESCENTS' MENTAL DISTRESS, SOCIAL STRESS, AND RESOURCES. Adolescence, 41(126), 263-83.
Donini-Lenhoff, F. (2006). HEALTH: Cultural competence in the health professions; insuring a juniform standard of care. The Hispanic Outlook in Higher Education, 65(45), 45.
Furler, J. & . (2012). Mental health: Cultural competence. Australian Family Physician, 39(5), 206-8.
Sawrikar, P. & . (2013). The relationship between mental health, cultural identity and cultural values in non-english speaking background (NESB) australian adolescents. Behaviour Change, 21(3), 97-113.
Trauma-informed care is an approach in mental health care and nursing practice that recognises the existence of trauma in the life of patients receiving mental health care, irrespective of whether or not the trauma is known to exist (Isobel & Edwards 2017). Clinicians who employ this approach acknowledge the complexity of trauma, and integrate the principles of safety, trustworthiness, choice, collaboration, and empowerment in care delivery (Qadara, 2013). Using this approach can result in better patient outcomes as well as more effective and fulfilling clinical practice. This essay discusses how trauma-informed care informs the provision of mental health care in Australia at a policy level and for consumers. Also, the essay highlights how this approach will influence the author’s mental health nursing practice.
Before progressive further, it is important to have a comprehensive understanding of what trauma-informed care entails. Trauma-informed care involves recognising the existence of traumatic experiences in mental…
Secondly, there is a need for a Code of Ethics to interpret mental health in these settings. Third, therapists require training that consists of knowledge about the cognitive, social, emotional and psychological development of deaf people. Fourth, interpreters also need specialized training for therapeutic contexts. Finally, both therapists and interpreters need to work collaboratively with the deaf community's professional organizations to offer informative and psychoeducational workshops for deaf members and to provide them with further insights on the role that the therapist plays, the purpose of and techniques that are used in therapy and the function of the interpreters and families in the therapeutic process.
Given this found need for better training, education and understanding by healthcare professionals and interpreters, it comes as no surprise, then, that deaf individuals may be reluctant to get mental health care support when they need it or have greater fear, mistrust and frustration than…
DeVinney, J, & Murphy, S. (2002) Mental Health Experiences and Deafness: Personal and Legal Perspectives. Psychiatric rehabilitative journal, 25(3), 304-309.
Cornes, a. & Napier, J. (2005) Challenges of mental health interpreting when working with deaf people. Australasian Psychiatry. 13(4).
Dickert, J. (1988) Examination of Bias in Mental Health Evaluation of Deaf Patients.
Social Work, May-June.
Making available recovery program treatment besides collaborating with partnership to leverage resources and knowledge is a role that I perform in efforts of helping clients access care. I am also involved in continual community-based quality improvement programs that are designed to support care access and quality.
B. Veteran Centered Care
With respect to centered care, I normally assist with provision of alternatives to inpatient care for mental health linked problems. Additionally, I make CVT available for weekend and evening hours. As a MHICM practitioner, I perform various administrative and clinical functions for clients and my team. Clinical tasks entail stress and crisis management, group therapy, advocacy and treatment planning. I also ensure that patient preferences with respect to appointments and mental health care providers are maintained.
C. Performance Measures
I offer administrative and clinical supervision for my team besides facilitating cohesiveness communication, education programs and systems concerning community-based services. Given…
Committee on the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation initiative on the future of nursing.(2011). The future of nursing: Leading change, advancing health. New York: National Academies Press
Daniels, R., & Nicoll, L.(2011). Contemporary medical-surgical nursing, Volume 1. New York: Cengage Learning.
Sullivan-Marx, E.(2010). Nurse practitioners: The evolution and future of advanced practice. New York: Springer Publishing Company.
Thonicroft, G. (2011). Oxford textbook of community mental health. London: Oxford University Press.
Mental Health Treatment Approaches for Older AdultsOverview of mental health issues in the elderlyOld age is a natural occurrence for every human being, a stage in growth accompanied by several changes, which can be negative and identified as problems. Some of these problems are a rise in morbidity, mortality, hospitalization, and functional status loss. A large number of evidence associates these problems with common mental disorders to which the elderly are prone. A combination of depression and anxiety is a very common occurrence in the elderly, being so prevalent, one-half of elderly patients report significant anxiety or depressive symptoms (Parkar, 2015). The changing nature of current society has redefined the social role of the elderly within the family and community, eliminating the traditional life-sustaining and fostering influences the elderly contributed. As a result of these, the elderly are socially isolated. Many are committed to a nursing home or an institution…
ReferencesAlzheimers Association. (2012).Alzheimers Disease Facts and Figures, Alzheimers & Dementia, 131168.Craft, S., Baker, L. D., Montine, T. J., Minoshima, S., Watson, G. S., Claxton, A., ... & Gerton, B. (2012). Intranasal insulin therapy for Alzheimer disease and amnestic mild cognitive impairment: a pilot clinical trial.Archives of neurology,69(1), 29-38.Hickey, D. (2019). The impact of a national public awareness campaign on dementia knowledge and help-seeking intention in Ireland.Dublin: Health Service Executive.Hughes, J., & Common, J. (2015). Ethical issues in caring for patients with dementia.Nursing Standard (2014+),29(49), 42.Johnson, R. A., & Karlawish, J. (2015). A review of ethical issues in dementia.International psychogeriatrics,27(10), 1635.Livingston, G., Huntley, J., Sommerlad, A., Ames, D., Ballard, C., Banerjee, S., ... & Mukadam, N. (2020). Dementia prevention, intervention, and care: 2020 report of the Lancet Commission.The Lancet,396(10248), 413-446.Loewenstein, D. A., Acevedo, A., Czaja, S. J., & Duara, R. (2004). Cognitive rehabilitation of mildly impaired Alzheimer disease patients on cholinesterase inhibitors.The American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry,12(4), 395-402.Montgomery, E. B. (2020). Practice Parameter: Evaluation and treatment of depression, psychosis, and dementia in PD. American Academy of Neurology.Morris, J. C., Aisen, P. S., Bateman, R. J., Benzinger, T. L., Cairns, N. J., Fagan, A. M., ... & Buckles, V. D. (2012). Developing an international network for Alzheimer research: the Dominantly Inherited Alzheimer Network.Clinical investigation,2(10), 975.Musiek, E. S., & Schindler, S. E. (2013). Alzheimer disease: current concepts & future directions.Missouri medicine,110(5), 395.Panegyres, P. K., Berry, R., & Burchell, J. (2016). Early Dementia Screening.Diagnostics (Basel, Switzerland),6(1), 6. Parkar, S. R. (2015). Elderly mental health: needs.Mens sana monographs,13(1), 91.Perel, V. D. (1998). Psychosocial impact of Alzheimers disease.JAMA,279(13), 1038-1039.Shi, L., Chen, S. J., Ma, M. Y., Bao, Y. P., Han, Y., Wang, Y. M., ... & Lu, L. (2018). Sleep disturbances increase the risk of dementia: a systematic review and meta-analysis.Sleep medicine reviews,40, 4-16.Thomason, C. (2012). Benefits of cognitive stimulation for people with dementia.Nursing times,108(45), 23.Vossel, K. A., Tartaglia, M. C., Nygaard, H. B., Zeman, A. Z., & Miller, B. L. (2017). Epileptic activity in Alzheimers disease: causes and clinical relevance.The Lancet Neurology,16(4), 311-322.WHO, (2017, Dec. 12). Mental health of older adults. Retrieved from https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/mental-health-of-older-adults WHO, (2020, Sept. 21). Dementia. Retrieved from https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/dementia Woods, B., Aguirre, E., Spector, A. E., & Orrell, M. (2012). Cognitive stimulation to improve cognitive functioning in people with dementia.Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, (2).
Maternal Mental Health in Pregnancy and Child Behavior. This is designed to provide better insights about how parental postpartum depression (PPD) is impacting the mother and the child. The findings are determined based upon looking at different cultures and the frequency of them. It is at this point, when there is a focus on previous research and any kind of gaps in existing theories. (Lukose, 2011)
In the future, these conclusions can improve everyone's understanding of how this is impacting both the patent and child during the pregnancy process. Then, after they are born is when these factors are taken into consideration to see how this is influencing their development. Over the course of time, this will enable healthcare professionals to understand the impact PPD on the parents and their children. (Lukose, 2011)
Provide a summation of the research conducted and the research findings
The research looked at the effects…
Lukose, A. (2011). Maternal Mental Health. Indian Journal of Psychiatry, 53 (4), 351 -- 361.
Mental Health, and Welfare
Society, mental health and welfare:
A problem related to counseling (under-insurance) and a social problem (the lack of adequate healthcare coverage)
The course text Social action: A mandate for counselors discusses the ethical implications of such issues as race and social injustice in the counseling profession. However, perhaps even more important than these factors is the issue of class, specifically the affordability of counseling on an individual basis. Wealthier individuals with better insurance or who can afford to pay 'pout of pocket' often have the luxury of 'talk' therapy that poorer people, or people without adequate health insurance, lack. This creates a 'haves' versus 'have not' situation in terms of the availability and the quality of counseling. Poorer individuals with minimal insurance coverage for mental health care are often offered fewer counseling sessions, or have their psychological complaints treated as medical disorders, rather than fully addressed…
Considering some practical matters. (2011). AMHA (American Mental Health Alliance).
Retrieved June 8, 2011 at http://www.americanmentalhealth.com/index.tpl?page=10737827503031878
Harris, G. (2011, March 6). Talk doesn't pay. The New York Times. Retrieved June 8, 2011 at http://www.nytimes.com/2011/03/06/health/policy/06doctors.html?_r=1&scp=1&sq=psychiatrist%20talk%20therapy&st=cse
Mental Issue 2226
esearches indicate that poverty and mental illness are correlated with each other in a broader spectrum. This research paper is commissioned on the basis of two exhaustively researched hypotheses: H1 Poverty can cause mental illness and H2 Mental illness is subjected to poverty. Throughout this research paper, these two hypotheses have been investigated from scholarly academic resources. At the end of the proposed research it has been concluded that those, who are financially deprived, as exposed to severe mental illness due to their inability of fulfilling their basic needs, including house, education, food and employment. Likewise, evidences have also been explored on the fact that metal illness can cause extreme levels of poverty to the suffering beings. This signifies that both the research hypotheses are accepted by the research in the projected domain.
For affirming the undertaken pinching social reality, a statement…
Alegria, M., Canino, G., Rios, R., Vera, M., Calderon, J., Rusch, D. & Ortega, A. (2002).
Inequalities in Use of Specialty Mental Health Services among Latinos, African-Americans, and Non-Latino Whites. Psychiatric Services 53(12): 1547-1555.
Battle, K., Mendelson, M. & Torjman, S. (2009). Towards a new architecture for Canada's adult benefits. Caledon Institute of Social Policy, June.
Burstein, M. (2005). Combating the social exclusion of at-risk groups. Policy Research
This is when there will be a focused approach that is seeking out the best tools for addressing a host of issues.
Clearly, the field of mental health is continually changing. Part of the reason for this, is because there is emphasis on identifying new techniques for effectively treating patients. This has created a transformation in what kind of tools that are being used to address these issues. At the same time, there has been a focus on implementing supervisory procedures that will have an impact on kinds of treatment options that are being provided. This is important, because these kinds of transformations mean that they are providing effective support to mental health professionals in dealing with these issues. Once this occurs, is when there will be an emphasis on how psychologists are interacting with: patients, colleagues and supervisors. As this approach, is based upon respect, understanding, compassion and…
Clinical Supervision. (2009). Health. Retrieved from: http://www.health.qld.gov.au/qcmhl/src/superguide_2009.pdf
Bernard, J.M., & Goodyear, R.K. (2009). Fundamentals of clinical supervision. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.
Brown, L. (2008). The New Handbook of Counseling Supervision. Mahwah, NJ: Taylor and Francis.
Campbell, J. (2006). Essentials of clinical supervision. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
acism and Mental Health Issues in Juvenile Justice Systems
It seems that, not only are juvenile justice systems deficient in mental health services, and not only is there a disparity between services for whites and African-American youths - but some juvenile facilities may even be contributing to the deterioration of kids' emotional and mental well-being. This paper looks at racial prejudice in the administration of juvenile justice from the point-of-view of who gets locked up, what happens once they're in, and the built-in system cruelty.
ace: Chances of incarceration are far greater if you're a Black kid
Between the years 1985 and 1994, delinquency cases brought through the Juvenile Justice System (JJS) increased by 41%; but more disturbing is the fact that in that time period, delinquency cases involving blacks jumped 78% and cases involving other non-white youths skyrocketed by 94% (Lardiero, 1997). Another key fact illustrating the institutional bias…
Bishop, Donna M., & Frazier, Charles E. (1996). Race effects in juvenile justice
Decision-making: finding of a statewide analysis. Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology. 86, 392-414.
Glasser, Jeff (2000, May 8). And Justice for Some. U.S. News & World Report.
Lardiero, Carl J. (1997). Of disproportionate minority confinement. Corrections Today. 59, 14-16.
During this period, there was a rather dramatic paradigm shift from the rather "mechanistic-deterministic" philosophy of psychoanalysis and behaviorism to the "self-deterministism" of the humanistic philosophy that is envisioned in by Carl odgers as noted by Aubrey (1983).odger's impact on counseling as a profession, pragmatically and philosophically was great. This is because his work is what led to the birth of counseling as a separate professional entity from psychology, guidance as well as psychiatry. Therefore, the philosophical underpinnings of counseling as a profession can be traced and acknowledged on the work of odgers. Later on, the need for training professional counselors became important and then in 1958, the National Defense Education Act (NDEA) was formed. This act was created in order to prepare thousands of counselors (Aubrey,1983,p.79).later on, various professional accreditation bodies were created for the counseling profession. One such kind is the Council for the Accredition for Counseling and…
Aubrey, R.F. (1983). The Odyssey of counseling and images of the future. Personnel and Guidance Journal, 62, 78-8
Smith, HB., Robinson, GP (1995).Mental Health Counseling: Past, Present, and Future. Journal of Counseling & Development Vol.74 (2) pages 158 -- 162, November-December 1995
Myers, J.E. & Sweeney, T.J. (2001). Specialties in counseling. In D.C. Locke, J.E. Myers, & E.L. Herr (Eds.), the Handbook of Counseling, pp. 43-54. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Palmo, AJ., Weikel, WJ.,Borsos, DP (2006).Foundations of Mental Health Counseling. Charles C. Thomas Publisher.
Community Mental Health "ecovery Model"
What is the recovery orientation/paradigm model of treatment?
A mental health ecovery Model is a treatment alternative in which the service delivery is such that clients have the primary and final decision-making ability over their own treatment. This is unlike the majority of most conventional forms of treatment, in which physicians have the primary control over decisions or clients are just consulted as a formality. The underlying principle of the ecovery Model is that if a client is empowered to have greater choice and control over their service delivery, then he or she will have a greater incentive and drive to take increased initiative and control of their lives (NASW Practice Snapshot: The Transformation of the Mental Health System, 2006).
b. What is the medical model and what are the differences between the medical model and the recovery model of treatment?
A mental health medical…
(MHALA) Mental Health America of Los Angeles (2002) Retrieved 19 January 2016 from http://static1.1.sqspcdn.com/static/f/1084149/15460123/1323368260403/07theFourStagesofRecovery.pdf?token=QVu5IU26jUq7rItXobfRwvf4yW8%3D
(SAMHSA) Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (2015). Treatments for Mental Disorders Retrieved 19 January 2016 from http://www.samhsa.gov/treatment/mental-disorders
Buckley, P., M.D., Bahmiller, D., M.D., Kenna, C. A., M.S., Shevitz, S., M.D., Powell, I., & Fricks, L. (2007). Resident education and perceptions of recovery in serious mental illness: Observations and commentary. Academic Psychiatry, 31(6), 435-8. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/196531576?accountid=28844
Duckworth, K. (2015). NAMI: National Alliance on Mental Illness -- Science Meets the Human Experience: Integrating the Medical and Recovery Models. Retrieved January 19, 2016, from