Mentally Retarded Essays (Examples)

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teaching profoundly mentally retarded people. The writer explores historic methods and also discusses current methods of teaching such students. There were 10 sources used to complete this paper.
For the past four decades there have been many changes to the world of special education. Mentally retarded students used to be shuffled off to the classroom down the hall and kept away from the general population. If they were profoundly retarded they never even entered school and in many cases were instead institutionalized. Today, there are laws and federal mandates in place that protect the profoundly mentally retarded from being abused in such manners. Today the mentally retarded, along with other disabled residents of America are encouraged to live full lives as well as be educated to the best of their ability. Over the past years the styles, methods and pedagogical strategies for teaching profoundly mentally retarded people have changed dramatically….

Execution of the Mentally Retarded: How the Law Was Changed
Jim Ellis a hero to some people. You can't say he got the law changed single-handedly, but without him and his strategy, it might never have happened. Ellis is a law professor at University of New Mexico and the former president of the American Association on Mental Retardation. He has worked for nearly 30 years on behalf of people with mental disabilities. He believed it was immoral and grossly unfair to execute people who are mentally retarded.

Ellis went from state to state where capital punishment exists, organizing the parents of mentally retarded children and adults. The parents, in turn, formed citizen lobbying groups and brought pressure to bear on the States to eliminate the death penalty for those who are mentally retarded. Ellis argued that "capital punishment is generally reserved for the 1% or 2% of murderers who deserve the….

Capital Punishment (Death Penalty) and Mentally Retarded
In July 2002, the United States Supreme Court ruled it unconstitutional to execute mentally retarded prisoners. This ruling reflects a shift in the Court's previous position, when it ruled in 1989 that such executions did not entail "cruel or unusual punishment" nor did they violate the Constitution's Eighth Amendment.

Despite the ruling, however, the debate about the death penalty and mental retardation continues. Human rights activists have hailed the decision as a triumph for the rights of the disabled. Critics, however, contend that the task of assessing a retarded defendant's culpability belongs to a jury.

This paper examines both sides of the argument regarding the death penalty for mentally retarded prisoners, focusing particularly on death penalty cases in Texas. The first part of the paper looks at the legal standards for mental retardation. In the second part, the paper details the criticism against these standards and….

Thus, execution of the mentally retarded is not only illegal, but immoral as well. Sue Gunawardena-Vaughn of Amnesty International wants to expand this logic to include the mentally ill, stating, "Severely mentally ill people are not the worst of the worst" (eigl 2006).
orks Cited

Hansen, Liane; Siegel, Robert. (2002 June 20). Analysis: Supreme Court rules it unconstitutional to execute mentally retarded people who've committed crimes.

All Things Considered: National Public Radio. Retrieved December 10, 2006 from HighBeam Research Library.

eigl, Andrea. (2006 November 12). Clemency sought for delusional murderer: The North Carolina inmate is part of a national debate on the executions of those with severe….

Specifically, Singleton's case was denied review by the U.S. Supreme Court in 2003, and he was executed in Arkansas on January 6, 2004. As noted in the lower court's dissent: "Treating the prisoner may provide short-term relief but ultimately result in his execution, whereas leaving him untreated will condemn him to a world such as Singleton's, filled with disturbing delusions and hallucinations." Simply put: The Court found it in the state of Arkansas' best interest for Singleton to be forcibly treated and executed rather than left untreated but alive."
The U.S. Supreme Court has been consistently clear since the decision in Gregg v. Georgia that the Constitution does not prohibit execution as long as procedural safeguards are established, but the Court's jurisprudence concerning the mentally ill as opposed to the mentally retarded has been less clear. In 2002, the Court ruled that it is unconstitutional to execute the mentally retarded….

For example, they should be required to complete at least 20 hours of training on brain disorders. It is ideal if consumers and family members become part of the activity and process. It must also be emphasized that, in most cases, dangerous or violent acts committed by persons with these brain disorders are the consequence of neglect, inappropriate or inadequate treatment of their illness (NAMI).
The Alliance also contends that the unpopular insanity defense should be retained and should be tested according to both volitional and cognitive criteria or standards (National Alliance of Mental Illness 2006). At the same time, the Alliance opposes the adoption of laws or position on "guilty but mentally ill. Instead, it advocates systems, which will provide comprehensive, long-term care and supervision in hospitals and the community where such individuals are found who are "not guilty by reason of insanity," "guilty except for insanity," or similar….

Supreme Court's recent decision to ban the execution of mentally challenged individuals raises important ethical issues. Judges must be able to determine if a person is indeed mentally challenged. hile the legal system and psychology have made important insights into this issue, there is still some inconsistency in the definition and application of mental retardation in the judicial system. Accordingly, an analysis of the ethical principles underlying the issue is useful. Ultimately, a combination of both deontological and teleological approaches may provide the best ethical guidelines for such a complex issue.
The ethical factors involved in handing down any death sentence are complex. This is especially true when the accused is a mentally challenged individual. In the American criminal justice system, the court must be assured that an accused individual is fully responsible for their actions in order to hold responsible for their crime. In other words, in order to….

Vocational training can help place within the adolescent mind the strategies they will need to adapt to life as an adult.
Further research is needed within the field of adolescents with the condition. According to research, "Unfortunately, most psychiatrists are ill-equipped to handle this situation, having received little or no formal training in this area," (Sebastian 2008). Therefore, more research can only open up new information to psychiatrists and physicians who work with families to make the most comfortable life for the adolescent dealing with mental retardation.

eferences

Biasini, Fred J.; Grupe, Lisa; Huffman, Lisa; & Bray, Norman W. (2010). Mental retardation: A symptom and a syndrome. Comprehensive Textbook of Child and Adolescent Disorders. New York: Oxford University Press. etrieved March 10, 2010 from http://www.uab.edu/cogdev/mentreta.htm

Collins, H. (2004). Children who are mentally retarded. American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. etrieved March 10, 2010 from http://www.aacap.org/cs/root/facts_for_families/children_who_are_mentally_retarded

Daigneault, obert. (2007). Mental retardation / adolescent issues….

WESLEY J. SMITH'S
TRUTH BOUT SSISTNCE"

Wesley J. Smith's analysis of euthanasia and assisted suicide is logically flawed in several ways. First, rather than discussing the main arguments supporting the idea in principle, Smith attacks the most extreme scenarios imaginable, and presents unethical and completely unconscionable applications of assisted suicide to which even its staunchest proponents object as strongly as do those opposed to it.

Likewise, his concern that the concept of duly appointed surrogates of patients no longer capable of expressing their wishes will send ethicist down the "slippery slope" leading to euthanizing "lzheimer's patients, mentally retarded people and, perhaps, children" is reminiscent of Tom Swift's " Modest Proposal." The only difference is that Swift's ridiculous proposal was intentionally satirical, whereas

Smith's hysterical concern that "an HMO doctor [might recommend] suicide as the best 'treatment'... [because] the doctor could be fired or lose bonus income for providing...too much care but would be….

ethical dilemmas surround surrogacy and the donation of egg and/or sperm? Because surrogates are paid, is this a practice that exploits the poor, such as surrogate mothers in ndia? Why or Why not?
Egg donation and surrogacy raises ethical dilemmas on all four basic principles of medical ethics: autonomy, justice, beneficence, and non-maleficence.

Autonomy -- .

Consent has to be given freely and with full volition of the surrogate mother. Yet, most times, intense pressure is involved aside from the fact that poor women in ndia may capitulate to the need for money and be taken in by the huge sums offered. The emotional and medical pressures are immense, but these women are often grossly misinformed about the situation that they are bound to undergo. Their poverty hampers them from making the clear, informed decisions that they would otherwise need to in order to undergo the procedure. Whilst most egg donors in….

Moreover, in Perry v. Louisiana, 498 U.S. 38 (1990), the Court used that decision to bolster Louisiana's attempts to forcibly medicate a prisoner in order to make him death-eligible. If one agrees that the death penalty is a just penalty for one who has committed a capital crime, and that the reason that mentally ill defendants should not be executed is because they lack competence, then it does not seem unethical to allow them to be forcibly medicated in order to be competent. After all, in that scenario, avoiding medication could be likened to any other attempt to avoid punishment. Moreover, an organic physical disorder that arose after conviction, but that would have prevented a defendant from committing a crime, would not be sufficient reason not to execute a person on death row.
However, forced medication, especially for court appearances, may violate a defendant's Fifth Amendment right to present a….

It appears that they were not aware of the situation with illiams when it came to the mental illness and the child abuse, but it is also possible that they kept silent about the issue against an attorney that they knew to be incompetent in order to get a conviction. Speculation is all that is available on that issue where the prosecution is concerned since accounts of what happened to Alexander illiams do not indicate whether the prosecution had knowledge of the mental health problems that illiams had and/or the abusive home that he came from.
THE ATTORNEY'S INVESTIGATION

Perhaps this section should be more appropriately called 'the attorney's lack of investigation,' as that is largely what took place. There were many mitigating circumstances that surrounded Alexander illiams and the murder that he committed, but the incompetent attorney that was assigned to him failed to investigate any of them (Juvenile, 2002).….

In the opening paragraph, his detailed physical description of Jewel and him walking on the path exhibits what we soon see is a strong faith that language makes memory, perception, and action real. (Lockyer 74)
She also notes that Darl is the character who speaks the most in the novel, thus showing his adherence to the value of language in his actions as well as his words. In doing so, she says, "he displays the omniscience, verbal range, and responsibility for interpretation that we associate with a narrator" (Lockyer 74). hat Darl says also solidifies the view that Addie has been isolated and has also been deceived by her former faith in words. Faulkner develops a range of views of language and its use and of the degree to which different characters express their own relationship with language.

Lockyer discusses this further and cites Mikhail Bakhtin on the novel to the….

They may know what they have done and freely confess to it, but a true understanding of what they have done is not really present.
It is somewhat like the difference between knowing that jumping off the roof and hitting the ground will hurt, and actually making the jump and understanding what it feels like to hit the ground that hard from 10 or 15 feet up. The concept of what it really means to take another human being's life is not there; nor is the concept of being executed by the state for the taking of that life.

Third, the person must have an IQ that is significantly below average. There are quite a few people out there who do not have an 'average' intelligence score, (around 100 to 110, as previously mentioned), but that does not make them mentally retarded to the point that their reasoning and abilities are….

A good example is the 1985 murder of convenience store clerk Cynthia Barlieb, whose murder was prosecuted by a district attorney bent on securing execution for Barlieb's killer (Pompeilo 2005). The original trial and all the subsequent appeals forced Barlieb's family, including four young daughters, to spend 17 years in the legal process - her oldest daughter was 8 years old when Cynthia was first shot, and 25 when the process ended without a death sentence (Pompelio 2005). During those 17 years, Cynthia Barlieb's family was forced to repeatedly relive her murder.
hen a person is murdered, it is understandable that American society demands justice, particularly on behalf of the victim's family and loved ones. But we can not advocate capital punishment under the guise of protecting the interests of victims' families, and then cut those members out of the process when they do not support the death penalty. and,….

Challenging Societal Attitudes Towards Disability for Inclusivity
Societal attitudes towards disability often perpetuate stereotypes, discrimination, and exclusion. To create a truly inclusive society, it is crucial to challenge these preconceptions and foster a culture of acceptance and equity. Here are several strategies to achieve this goal:
1. Education and Awareness:
Integrate disability education into curricula from a young age.
Promote media representations that portray people with disabilities authentically and inclusively.
Organize community events and workshops to raise awareness about disability rights, issues, and perspectives.
2. Disability Representation and Participation:
Increase the visibility of people with disabilities in all aspects of society, from leadership....

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8 Pages
Term Paper

Teaching

Challenges and History of Teaching Kids Who Are Mentally Retarded

Words: 2592
Length: 8 Pages
Type: Term Paper

teaching profoundly mentally retarded people. The writer explores historic methods and also discusses current methods of teaching such students. There were 10 sources used to complete this paper. For…

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4 Pages
Term Paper

Criminal Justice

Processes That Led to Making the Execution of the Mentally Retarded Illegal

Words: 1327
Length: 4 Pages
Type: Term Paper

Execution of the Mentally Retarded: How the Law Was Changed Jim Ellis a hero to some people. You can't say he got the law changed single-handedly, but without him…

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7 Pages
Term Paper

Criminal Justice

Death Penalty for the Mentally Retarded

Words: 1976
Length: 7 Pages
Type: Term Paper

Capital Punishment (Death Penalty) and Mentally Retarded In July 2002, the United States Supreme Court ruled it unconstitutional to execute mentally retarded prisoners. This ruling reflects a shift in the…

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1 Pages
Term Paper

Criminal Justice

Legal to Execute Mentally Retarded

Words: 371
Length: 1 Pages
Type: Term Paper

Thus, execution of the mentally retarded is not only illegal, but immoral as well. Sue Gunawardena-Vaughn of Amnesty International wants to expand this logic to include the mentally…

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10 Pages
Term Paper

Criminal Justice

Executing the Mentally Ill The

Words: 2626
Length: 10 Pages
Type: Term Paper

Specifically, Singleton's case was denied review by the U.S. Supreme Court in 2003, and he was executed in Arkansas on January 6, 2004. As noted in the lower…

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7 Pages
Term Paper

Psychology

Punishing the Mentally Ill Criminal

Words: 2231
Length: 7 Pages
Type: Term Paper

For example, they should be required to complete at least 20 hours of training on brain disorders. It is ideal if consumers and family members become part of…

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10 Pages
Term Paper

Criminal Justice

Supreme Court's Recent Decision to Ban the

Words: 3326
Length: 10 Pages
Type: Term Paper

Supreme Court's recent decision to ban the execution of mentally challenged individuals raises important ethical issues. Judges must be able to determine if a person is indeed mentally…

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5 Pages
Term Paper

Children

Mental Retardation in Adolescences Mental

Words: 1756
Length: 5 Pages
Type: Term Paper

Vocational training can help place within the adolescent mind the strategies they will need to adapt to life as an adult. Further research is needed within the field of…

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4 Pages
Term Paper

Family and Marriage

Wesley J Smith's Truth About Assistance Wesley

Words: 1261
Length: 4 Pages
Type: Term Paper

WESLEY J. SMITH'S TRUTH BOUT SSISTNCE" Wesley J. Smith's analysis of euthanasia and assisted suicide is logically flawed in several ways. First, rather than discussing the main arguments supporting the…

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5 Pages
Essay

Children

Ethical Dilemmas Surround Surrogacy and the Donation

Words: 1670
Length: 5 Pages
Type: Essay

ethical dilemmas surround surrogacy and the donation of egg and/or sperm? Because surrogates are paid, is this a practice that exploits the poor, such as surrogate mothers in…

Read Full Paper  ❯
image
7 Pages
Term Paper

Criminal Justice

Death Penalty and Mental Illness

Words: 2519
Length: 7 Pages
Type: Term Paper

Moreover, in Perry v. Louisiana, 498 U.S. 38 (1990), the Court used that decision to bolster Louisiana's attempts to forcibly medicate a prisoner in order to make him…

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4 Pages
Term Paper

Business - Law

Alexander Williams the Death Penalty

Words: 1305
Length: 4 Pages
Type: Term Paper

It appears that they were not aware of the situation with illiams when it came to the mental illness and the child abuse, but it is also possible…

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5 Pages
Thesis

Family and Marriage

Dying William Faulkner Is a

Words: 2326
Length: 5 Pages
Type: Thesis

In the opening paragraph, his detailed physical description of Jewel and him walking on the path exhibits what we soon see is a strong faith that language makes…

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9 Pages
Thesis

Criminal Justice

Abolition an Argument to Abolish

Words: 3203
Length: 9 Pages
Type: Thesis

They may know what they have done and freely confess to it, but a true understanding of what they have done is not really present. It is somewhat like…

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20 Pages
Term Paper

Criminal Justice

Death Penalty Anti Historically Much

Words: 5884
Length: 20 Pages
Type: Term Paper

A good example is the 1985 murder of convenience store clerk Cynthia Barlieb, whose murder was prosecuted by a district attorney bent on securing execution for Barlieb's killer…

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