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Huerta was very successful in helping Madero defeat Orozco's rebellion, eventually driving Orozco into the United States. However, Madero did not show the type of respect or appreciation that Huerta was expecting for his victory. On the contrary, Madero asked Huerta to account for campaign money. It was this slight that inspired Huerta to work against Madero.
Of course, that slight alone would probably not have been sufficient to inspire Huerta's betrayal. Instead, one must look at the context of the perceived insult. First, Huerta was known to be suspicious of others, and might even have been characterized as looking for an insult. In addition, Huerta's was engaged to defeat one of Madero's former supporters in battle. Therefore, it is very likely that Huerta felt as if he would be treated in the same manner as Orozco. As a result, he may have struck against Madero as a way of…
Camin, Hector and Lorenzo Meyer. In the Shadow of the Mexican Revolution: Contemporary
Mexican History, 1910-1989. Austin: University of Texas Press, 1993.
Gaceta Consular. "The Mexican Revolution." Gaceta Consular. IV (25) (Nov. 1996).
Secor, Margaret. San Diego Looks at the Maderista Revolution in Mexico 1910-1911. The Journal of San Diego History. 18.3 (1972). 25 Oct. 2007 http://www.sandiegohistory.org/journal/72summer/maderista.htm .
In 1944, she returned to Mexico City permanently. (Ugalde, 2007).
Although American educated, renner's work demonstrates the profound influence that the Mexican Revolution has had on shaping her thinking and outlook on society. Her fundamental belief was that the revolution was inevitable due to the way the land owners and politicians were controlling the country. Thus, her sympathy was with the revolutionaries. (Ugalde, 2007).
Her most significant books, which included such titles as Idols ehind Altars and the Wind that Swept Mexico, were all set within the Mexican Revolution. During this period, she also wrote a great deal about the Mexican culture, particularly art culture, that developed as a result of the Mexican Revolution. According to renner, this period of her work is known as the "Mexican Renaissance." (Ugalde, 2007).
As can be seen, the Mexican Revolution had, and continues to have, a significant and profound affect not only…
Albers, Patricia. (2002): Shadows, Fire, Snow- the Life of Tina Modotti. Berkley: University of California Press.
Hamnett, Brian R. (2006): Concise History of Mexico. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
McLynn, Frank. (2002): Villa and Zpata: A History of the Mexican Revolution. New York: Basic Books.
Ugalde, Nadia. (2007): Anita Brenner. New York: Editorial Reverte.
Female Revolutionaries on the political battleground provided women with power and respect in terms of their mental skills as well.
As seen above, women were able to operate on the basis of their accepted roles as caregivers and teachers in order to assume new, more unorthodox tasks for the purpose of the Revolution. The most radical and prominent departure from the traditional role of the Mexican woman was that of the female soldier. In contrast to the soldadera, the women joining the columnas volantes (flying columns), tended to masculinize themselves, completely departing from their traditional roles as women (Goetze). Known as soldados rasos (privates), they not only dressed like men, and endured the hardships of the battle field along with their male counterparts; they also acted like men. These women rode horses like men, endured long marches and fought with weapons. They also had the opportunity to distinguish themselves on…
Baxman, Cindy. "Border Revolution." May 15, 1998. http://history.acusd.edu/gen/projects/border/page01.html
Goetze, Diane. "Revolutionary Women: From Soldaderas to Commandandas." March 11, 1997. http://www.actlab.utexas.edu/~geneve/zapwomen/goetze/enterpaper.html
Jandura, Tereza. "Women in the Mexican Revolution." 2006. http://www.ic.arizona.edu/ic/mcbride/ws200/mex-jand.htm
This fearlessness is exemplary in the increasing awareness of all women; even those who appeared disassociated from the evolution itself. Stephanie J. Smith (1), for example, mentions specific women from very different social backgrounds. These women became aware of new opportunities to obtain better lives by means of the judicial system. In addition, even the simplest of these persons demonstrated their considerable, although latent, intellectual prowess by arguing their cases and insisting upon their rights as citizens of the country. The Mexican evolution therefore acted as not only an opportunity, but also a catalyst for women to understand their full power and realize their potential as females and as equal citizens of the country.
Goetze, Diane. From Soldaderas to Comandantas: The oles of Women in the Mexican evolution and in the Current Zapatista Movement. 11 March 1997. http://www.actlab.utexas.edu/~geneve/zapwomen/goetze/paper.html
Jandura, Tereza. evolutionary Mexican Women. 2010. http://www.ic.arizona.edu/ic/mcbride/ws200/mex-jand.htm
Linhard, Tabea Alexa. Fearless…
Goetze, Diane. From Soldaderas to Comandantas: The Roles of Women in the Mexican Revolution and in the Current Zapatista Movement. 11 March 1997. http://www.actlab.utexas.edu/~geneve/zapwomen/goetze/paper.html
Jandura, Tereza. Revolutionary Mexican Women. 2010. http://www.ic.arizona.edu/ic/mcbride/ws200/mex-jand.htm
Linhard, Tabea Alexa. Fearless women in the Mexican Revolution and the Spanish Civil War. Columbia: University of Missouri Press, 2005.
Smith, Stephanie J. Gender and the Mexican Revolution: Yucatan Women and the Realities of Patriarchy. University of North Carolina Press, 2009.
About the Author
The author of the book, Anita Brenner, who is also the writer of Idols behind Altars along with many other books on children, was born in Mexico and lived there for quite a few years. It was during the Spanish Civil ar that she wrote dispatches from Spain for the New York Times as well as the Nation. Furthermore, for many years she even edited the magazine Mexico This Month.
About The Book
The book The ind That Swept Mexico by Anita Brenner published originally in the year 1943. This was the first book that gave a broad perspective of Mexican revolution in its numerous different phases.
The author in a brief and touching words along with many outstanding and unforgettable photographs, carry the reader with this classic book from the fake peace and loads of the D'az era through the fated administration of Madero,…
The Wind That Swept Mexico: The History of the Mexican Revolution. Hall American
Hall Biography. The Wind That Swept Mexico.
Revolution Through the Lens of Agricultural Industrialization
The revolutions in Cuba, Mexico and Brazil Bahia as described and detailed in the three text From slavery to freedom in Brazil Bahia, 1835-1900 by Dale Torston Graden, Insurgent Cuba race, nation and revolution, 1868-1898 by Ada Ferrer and The Mexican Revolution: 1910-1940 Dialogos Series, 12 by Michael j. Gonzales all tell varied stories regarding the thematic development of revolution and change. Each has a different story to tell about labor, free and slave, politics, race and freedom yet underlying each of these themes is a current that is not only consistent but largely underdeveloped. This theme is agricultural and its changing labor and production practices. This work will analyze and compare the treatment of agriculture as a theme associated with each local. Each nation demonstrates the story of profiteering through agriculture in varied ways, and the rejection of it.
In each work…
Ferrer, Ada. Insurgent Cuba: Race, Nation, and Revolution, 1868-1898. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1999.
Gonzales, Michael. The Mexican Revolution, 1910-1940. Albuquerque, NM: University of New Mexico Press. 2002.
Torston Graden, Dale. From Slavery to Freedom in Brazil: Bahia, 1835-1900. Albuquerque, NM: University of New Mexico Press. 2006.
" The revolution was also responsible for establishing "conditions for an era of economic development. Capitalist development had begun in Mexico prior to the revolution, but it had been constrained by the power of the large landholders and lacked the sponsorship of an active, development-oriented state (MacEwan)."
During the 1920s and 1930s, the modern Mexican state "came to embody the dual heritage of the Mexican revolution, representing and containing the interests of Mexico's working people and also leading a process of capitalist development by actively intervening in the country's economic life, resulting in a highly nationalist state. The revolution had in part been a reaction to the power of foreign investors, and nationalist policies struck a popular chord (MacEwan)."
In order for the country's economy to experience its total growth potential, it was essential that Mexican capital receive "support for the state and protection from foreign competition (MacEwan)."
MacEwan, Arthur. Banishing the Mexican Revolution. Monthly Review. (1991): 01 November.
The Path to Revolution. (accessed 12 October, 2004). http://www.interknowledge.com/russia/rushis06.htm ).
Unknown. India. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. (2004): 22 April.
As a reader, the setting descriptions that the author used created an atmosphere of being "present" during the war. he maps used have helped the reader follow the warriors and deal with the facts surrounding the U.S. war with Mexico. he book really represents its era, as it is today, when it comes to the political and military problems and the relationship of the two countries.
he denouement of the plot happened, when at last, the reaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo was signed on February 2, 1848 by American diplomat Nicholas rist. he United States was given undisputed control of exas and established the U.S.-Mexican border of the Rio Grande River. he present-day states of California, Nevada, Utah and parts of Colorado, Arizona, New Mexico, and Wyoming were ceded to the United States. Mexico received $15,000,000 which is less than half the amount the United States had attempted to offer Mexico…
The denouement of the plot happened, when at last, the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo was signed on February 2, 1848 by American diplomat Nicholas Trist. The United States was given undisputed control of Texas and established the U.S.-Mexican border of the Rio Grande River. The present-day states of California, Nevada, Utah and parts of Colorado, Arizona, New Mexico, and Wyoming were ceded to the United States. Mexico received $15,000,000 which is less than half the amount the United States had attempted to offer Mexico before the war had begun. The $3.25 million debts that the Mexican government owed to the United States citizens were also assumed by the United States.
What if the United States did not colonize Mexico, would there be another nation to take charge? As Mexico has gained its independence as a republic in the years after 1836, it established diplomatic ties with Britain, France, and the United States. Nearly during those years, there was an existing political dispute between the United States and Britain over the Oregon territorial boundary. Although the United States has succeeded on conquering almost 40% of its territory, not all of the Americans were in favor of what had happened. One of the country's great men, then Lieutenant Ulysses Grant, who became the 18th President of the United States, also served in the Mexican-American War (1846-1848) under Generals Zachary Taylor and Winfield Scott. He was a genius and keen observer of the war as he has learned to judge the actions of colonels and generals. As written on his memoirs, he admitted that the war against Mexico was one of the most unjust ever waged by a stronger against a weaker nation. This was just a clear indication that, aside from the citizens' belief on the Manifest Destiny, considering the territorial dispute with another super power nation (Britain), the United States did the conquest primarily because of concerns that Britain might also attempt to occupy the area.
As you have finished reading the book, your thinking will be greatly influenced by the central idea of the book - the motives of each belligerent party; how they stood for what they believe and ought to achieve; the call for personal agenda; and the discovery of unsung injustice. This is somewhat a call from the author, as he stated in the introduction that this time should not be "relegated to the attic of memory."
Tese women endured extreme ardsips in order to fulfill teir roles. Tey often ad to live in almost starvation level circumstances, since most of te food ad to be given to te battle ready individuals. Often tey would toil for ours to find food, dig roots, and oter metods to see te fruits of teir labor be provided te figting men. Tey endured te malnutrition as well as miserable living conditions in order to provide sustenance for te group. Many times tey even endured cildbearing under inospitable surroundings (Soto, 44). As nurses, tey ealed te wounded and endured te contamination of dangerous diseases as well as nursed back to ealt many of te fallen men during te Revolution. Many of tem suffered severe infections and diseases as a result of contact wit te sick, many primary records reveal tat anywere from ten to twenty percent of te soldaderas contracted serious…
http://www.mexconnect.com/MEX/austin/revolution.html [Online] 1996.
Tuck, Jim. Poncho Villa and John Reed: Two Faces of Romantic Revolution. Tucson, Arizona. The University of Arizona Press, 1984.
Resendez-Fuentes, Andres. "Battleground Women: Soldaderas and Female Soldiers in the Mexican Revolution." Americas: A Quarterly Review of Inter-American Cultural History. 1995. 52(4): 525-553.
The Story of Mexico:
Comparing Two Views on the Meaning of Mexican Independence
Modern Mexico is a collection of charming traditions, a still-burgeoning culture, a very rich history, an ever-flourishing social strata and a growing political and economic influence in the Americas. In other words, modern Mexico is a country on the verge of many successes. Yet, just as any other nation on its way to becoming a world power, Mexico has, still, many obstacles to overcome. These range from aiding the poor thorough networks of social services and thereby minimizing income inequalities, quelling drug-related violence in its northern provinces, quenching corruption throughout the nation, and implementing other related reforms for the future benefit of the country. hile it is true that Mexico has numerous challenges to undertake, the country has always been successful at overcoming even the harshest tests. This paper will undertake a discussion of how…
Krauze, E. (1997). Mexico: Biography of Power (Insurgent Priests). (New York: Harper Collins).
No Author. (2010). "Independence." Mexico 2010 (Bicentennial Website). Retrieved February 2, 2012, .
elics of the Mexican evolution
There are numerous facets of Mexican culture and civilization represented in the Mexican Teotihuacan monument. An analysis of these different elements indicates that some of the goals of the revolution are embedded within this particular work. It renders various members of Mexican society who have a critical impact on both Mexico's history as well as its future. In this regard, the monument is of immense important to Mexico, because it helps to illustrate some of that country's glorious past -- and alludes to the impact that past could have on both its present and its future.
It is critical to denote that some of the more stark representations of this monument are from Mexico's pre-Hispanic past. Numerous people, some of whom are Mexican, attribute Mexico's present existence to the work that the conquistadores pioneered in this area during their global colonial rampage. There are myriad…
Hearn, K. (2016). Who built the great city of Teotihuacan? http://science.nationalgeographic.com / Retrieved from
Latin American Revolution: New Tactical Approach
The transition in how revolution occurs in Latin America can be explained by a growing awareness of the inefficiency of modern bureaucracy and/or government. In the past, revolution has occurred primarily through the overthrow of one government and the establishment of another. Today, however, revolution is more cultural—it is rooted more in the living of lives and less in the dynamic of governmental oversight. As Holloway states, “We are flies caught in a spider’s web…We can only try to emancipate ourselves, to move outwards, negatively, critically, from where we are” (Holloway 5). What this means is that it is useless to attempt to act as the spider acts—which is what replacing one government with another essentially signifies in the modern age. The web is what needs to be avoided—and so revolution is now centered on escaping the web—the web of politics, the web of…
African-American and Mexican-American
Civil Rights in Texas
This essay discusses African-American and Mexican-American civil rights in Texas. The goal is to discover what some of the key events was in each the African-American and the Mexican-American battles for their group's civil rights. The secondary objective is to see how these movements resembled each other and how they differed from one another and if one was more effective than the other. As the United States and its individual states like Texas become more racially diverse, all new criteria will arise that may be more closely linked to India's caste system than to what we understand and take for granted here in the United States. Economic barriers and not racial barriers are gradually becoming the underlying motivator of the civil rights movement. In other words, being black or Mexican will not matter in regard to civil rights. If the respective…
Arnoldo De Leon. (1982). "The Tejano Community, 1836-1900." Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press.
Alwyn Barr (1973). "Black Texans: A History of Negroes in Texas, 1528-1971." Austin: Jenkins.
Michael L. Gillette. (1978). "The Rise of the NAACP in Texas." Southwestern Historical Quarterly. 81, April.
David Montejano (1987). "Anglos and Mexicans in the Making of Texas, 1836-1986." Austin: University of Texas Press.
In what ways was Salvador Allende's "democratic road to socialism" in Chile distinct from Mexican and Cuban revolutionary movements? In what ways was it similar? Does it seem as though a democratic alternative to political coup d'etat is a workable and useful one? hy or why not?
Salvador Guillermo Allende Gossens, or just Salador Allende for short, was the first of the South American leader to institute a Marxist form of socialism, who came to power through a democratic election. Although the election that brought Allende to power was virtually a three-way tie, the Chilean Congress eventually named him as president through a run-off process. This victory was substantial for Allende's life and he had tried on three previous occasions to win the presidency. At the time, the Chilean government had several left-leaning government factions, with some more radical than others. This movement mirrored many other movements found…
Gale Group. (N.d.). Salvador Allende Gossens Facts. Retrieved from Your Dictionary: http://biography.yourdictionary.com/salvador-allende-gossens
Guevara, C. (2005 (Originally Printed in 1965)). Socialism and man in Cuba. The Che Reader.
Harris, R. (1999). A Tale of Two Chileans: Pinochet and Allende. Chilean Supporters Abroad.
Sweig, J. (2009). Inside the Cuban Revolution: Fidel Castro and the Urban Underground. Boston: Harvard University Press.
New Technology/Changes in Warfare from End of French Revolution/Napoleonic Wars to American Civil War eginning
Warfare Change in Technology
In France, reforms began after the great Seven-Year-long war. The war ended in French calamity in1763. Evidently, it was important to have reforms to field soldiers that could fight for French interests and honor. The government suggested that light infantry should be increased. This later brought about initiatives for conventional infantry training in techniques for light infantry. This training created soldiers that could fight both in open and close order. The multiple gun calibers used by the artillery unit were taken away; and they were left with only four varieties. There were new guns, which were more portable and lighter than the earlier ones. The new guns featured standardized segments and enclosed rounds. Lidell-Hart stated that according to Jean du Teil, "light mobile guns for use in the field when used…
Gibson. "Napoleon and the Grande Armee: Military Innovations Leading to a Revolution in 19th Century Military Affairs." Accessed November 9, 2016. http://www.napoleon-series.org/military/organization/c_rma.html .
History.com. "Civil War Technology." 2010. Accessed November 9, 2016. http://www.history.com/topics/american-civil-war/civil-war-technology .
Scholastic. "Strategy and Tactics, Military." Accessed November 9, 2016. http://www.scholastic.com/teachers/article/strategy-and-tactics-military .
Zapotoczny, Walter. "The Impact of the Industrial Revolution On Warfare." Accessed November 9, 2016. http://www.wzaponline.com/yahoo_site_admin/assets/docs/Inductrialrevolution.292125935.pdf.
However, over the years, history book publishers have not followed suit and described the soladeras in a positive way. For instance, one of Casaola's most well-known photos is of a harried soldadera in a train station. The photograph's saturated colors make the scene deeply emotional and compelling, with a feeling of urgency and dynamic motion. The spontaneity of the picture and transparency of reality provide an historical accuracy and high degree of precision. Yet, the caption of one history book, for example, relates how many of the soldaderas were forced to ride on the rooftops of the trains, instead of inside the wagons. Many of the women died early deaths when the train sped through dangerous ravines and cliffs. This was anything but a supportive interpretation of the photograph and not why Casola took the photographs.
On the other hand, Casola's photographs, especially this one in the train station, did…
Coerver, Don M.. Suzanne B. Pasztor and Robert Buffington. Mexico: an encyclopedia of contemporary culture and history Santa Barber, CA: ABC-Clio.
Fuentes, Andres. "Battleground Women: Soldaderas and Female Soldiers in the Mexican Revolution." The Americas 51 no. 4 (1995): 525-553.
King, Benjamin. "Iconography and Stereotype: Visual Memory of the Soldaderas" http://www.umich.edu/~historyj/pages_folder/articles/Iconography_and_Stereotype.pdf (Accessed May 3, 2010)
Macias, Anna. Against All Odds: The Feminist Movement in Mexico to 1940 Westport CT: Greenwood Press, 1982
Porfirio Diaz "began as an activist against reaction and privilege and ended as a longtime dictator and staunch defender of the very forces he had once opposed," (Tuck). Indeed, Porfirio's life is characterized by a series of ironies. Porfirio was a Mestizo. His mother was a Native woman and his father was a working class Criollo (Mexican-born Spaniard). Some sources trace the Diaz family on both sides to Mestizo, "descended from both Mixtec Indians and Spaniards," (Mabry). In any case, Porfirio Diaz's father Jose de la Cruz Diaz died when Porfirio was three years old. Porfirio was one of eight children. Although Porfirio was "born into extreme poverty and never even reached complete literacy," and although the "early years of his life were filled with economic hardship and tragedy, the man would become one of the enemies of Mexico's poor (Minster n.d.; "Porfirio Diaz - from Military Hero…
Mabry, Donald J. "Porfirio Diaz (1830-1915)" Retrieved online: http://www.latinamericanstudies.org/mexican-revolution/porfirio-diaz.htm
Minster, Christopher. "Biography of Porfirio Diaz." About.com. Retrieved online: http://latinamericanhistory.about.com/od/presidentsofmexico/p/08pordiazbio.htm
"Porfirio Diaz" NNDB. Retrieved online: http://www.nndb.com/people/504/000097213/
"Porfirio Diaz - from Military Hero to Dictator." MexOnline. Retrieved online: http://www.mexonline.com/history-porfiriodiaz.htm
(Olivia C. Smith, 2002).
One of the leading political Chicana women today is Dolores Huerta; she is the co-founder of the First Vice President Emeritus which belongs to United Farm Workers of America. orn in April 10, 1930, she founded an organization namely Community Service Organization in 1955 and in 1960 she founded Agricultural Workers Association. Later on, she worked with Cesar Chavez and built an organization, National Farm Workers Association which name was changed to United Workers Organizing Committee and afterwards it became UFW in 1966. She made a contract between UFW and Schenley Wine Company for the farm workers who successfully bargained with an agricultural enterprise. Dolores directed a boycott the UFW's national grape for the farm workers to the consumers. In result for this boycott, California table grape industry signed a three years agreement with the United Farm Workers. She is highly politically active and against the…
Jandura, Tereza. Women in the Mexican Revolution. http://www.ic.arizona.edu/ic/mcbride/ws200/mex-jand.htm #Soldaderas
Smith, Olivia C. 2002 Chicana Feminism http://www.english.emory.edu/Bahri/chicana.html
Wikipedia.com Maria Echaveste and Dolores Huerta www.wikipedia.comPath: Maria Echaveste, Dolores Huerta.
This, of course, would represent one aspect of the resentment served to Salinas. The other aspect would be the significant impact of the economic crisis and the continued devaluation of the Peso. These things reflected on the ineptitude of a party seldom challenged as it should have been.
To most, the failures effecting the whole of the nation had marked the need for a hastening of democratic reform, which would in turn reflect quite negatively on the candidacy of the PRI candidate. In an article dated to 1988, it was characterized thusly, with report stating that "the Institutional Revolutionary Party on Sunday designated Carlos Salinas de Gortari, the budget and planning secretary in the present government, to be its presidential nominee. Getting the nomination is tantamount to being named president. The PRI, as the party is universally called here after its Spanish initials, has ruled Mexico for six decades. As…
Associated Press (AP). (1987). Inflation up 159% in Mexico. The Dallas Morning News.
Bruhn, K. (1997). Taking on Goliath: The emergence of a New Left Party and the Struggle. Penn State Press.
Camin, H.A. & Meyer, L. (1993). In the shadow of the Mexican Revolution.
Daria, J. & Santamaria, D. (2006). Oaxaca Under a State of Repression. The Narco News Bulletin. Online at http://www.narconews.com/Issue40/article1672.html
Treatment of omen in Mexican Culture
The choices for women have, across both time and space, almost always been far more constrained than the choices of men. They have in fact all too often been reduced to a single pair of opposing choices: The pure or the corrupt, the white or the black, the chaste or the sexual - the virgin or the whore.
Mexican culture is certainly not exempt from this tendency to place women on one side of this dichotomy or the other, but in the case of Mexican images of women this division of the female half of the population into the chaste, good woman and the terrible promiscuous one becomes complicated by issues of race (and racial purity), by the historical condition of colonization and post-colonization, by the partial displacement, partial incorporation of native belief systems by Catholicism.
These many complications and elaborations of this essential…
Diaz del Castillo, Bernal. Historia de Conquista de la Nueva Espana. Madrid: Espasa, 1997. http://www.findarticles.com/m2278/2_25/67532177/p1/article.jhtml http://gateway.library.uiuc.edu/mdx/malintzin.htm http://www.utexas.edu/students/cwiforum/issue1/malinche.html http://www.mexconnect.com/mex_/travel/slenchek/slmalinche.html
Paz, Octavio. The Labyrinth of Solitude. New York: Grove, 1985.
Rebolledo, Tey D, and Eliana Rivero. "Myths & Archetypes." Infinite Divisions: An anthology of Chicana Literature. Tucson: U. Of Arizona P, 1993.
evolutionary history of Mexico [...] revolutionary period/era in Mexican social development and describe the atmosphere of the period. The Mexican evolution was a period of great upheaval in the society and government of Mexico. It was an attempt to equalize class and social status and bring modernization to the country. However, ultimately the evolution failed, because Mexico remained as divided as ever after the evolution -- partly because the evolutionaries themselves could not work together and agree on just what reforms they wanted and needed. Most Mexicans still see the Mexican evolution as an almost "holy" occurrence in the country. That is why they usually capitalize the word when referring to the evolution. It did bring some reforms to the country, but not nearly enough.
The Mexican evolution began in 1910 with the initial idea of overthrowing President/dictator Porfirio Diaz. The poor people of Mexico resented the upper classes and…
Macewan, A. (1991, November). Banishing the Mexican revolution. Monthly review, 43, 16+.
Miller, Robert Ryal. Mexico: A history. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press, 1986.
Werner, M.S. (Ed.). (1997). Encyclopedia of Mexico: History, society & culture (Vol. 2). Chicago: Fitzroy Dearborn Publishers.
evolutionary history of Mexico [...] interrelationships of art and events in Mexico for the revolutionary period. It seems that revolution in a country also breeds artistic development and reform. As freedom beckons, so does the creative process and the need to document the events of the revolution. This is certainly the case in the history of the Mexican evolution and the resulting onslaught of artwork and creativity that resulted. Some of Mexico's most famous artists, such as Diego ivera, came out of the revolutionary period, and their influence on world art cannot be denied.
In the case of the Mexican muralists, the art directly reflected the events of the period; in fact, many muralists like ivera used real revolutionary figures and events as part of their subject matter. ivera painted a modern, cubistic Zapatista Guerrilla in one of his most famous paintings, and he did several murals depicting the history…
Berger, M. (Ed.). (1994). Modern art and society: An anthology of social and multicultural readings. New York: Icon Editions.
Hopkinson, A. (2004, May 3). Bread and roses: A Communist with a string of colorful lovers. New Statesman, 133, 48+.
Miller, Robert Ryal. (1986). Mexico: A history. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press.
Hector Perez Garcia has been described as "a man who in the space of one week delivers 20 babies, 20 speeches, and 20 thousand votes. He understands delivery systems in this country," ("Justice for My People: The Dr. Hector P. Garcia Story"). Trained as a physician, Hector P. Garcia became the "medical doctor to the barrios," ("Justice for My People: The Dr. Hector P. Garcia Story"). He also served in the United States Army, stationed in North Africa and Italy during the Second World War. For his service as infantry officer, combat engineer officer, Medical Corps officer, and Medical Corps surgeon, Garcia received six battle stars and a Bronze Star. As a highly decorated veteran of a war that should have united the country against its common enemies, Garcia might have expected that Hispanic-Americans like him would enjoy equal rights and social justice. He was wrong. Fed up with discrimination…
Del Valle, Aracelis. "Garcia, Dr. Hector Perez." Learning to Give. Retrieved online: http://learningtogive.org/papers/paper99.html
Holley, Joe. "Hector Perez Garcia, 82, Dies; Led Hispanic Rights Group." The New York Times. 29 July 1996. Retrieved online: http://www.nytimes.com/1996/07/29/us/hector-perez-garcia-82-dies-led-hispanic-rights-group.html?pagewanted=all&src=pm
"Justice for My People: The Dr. Hector P. Garcia Story." PBS. Retrieved online: http://www.pbs.org/justiceformypeople/
Kells, Michelle Hall. Hector P. Garcia: Everyday Rhetoric and Mexican-American Civil Rights. SIU Press, 2006.
Many are unaware that in the United States today, people are blessed with a variety of Spanish-language and other Latin American cultures that are in the midst -- which were brought to the country by individuals from numerous different parts of the hemisphere. In attempting to understand and appreciate these cultures, we can learn much from their music Mexican-American music is something that has high regards in their culture. Over the years it has been expanded crossing over into many cultures ith that said, this essay is intended to analyze the many methods and styles of music and musical cultures that have been able to make their way into the United States from Latin American nations.
Surprisingly, Latin American music is a subject where there has not been a lot written about it. There is very little research on Latin music perhaps because many are not interested.…
Gonzalez, J.P. "Third latin american conference of the international association for the study of popular music." Popular Music 20.9 (2009): 269-274.
Loza, Steven. Barrio Rhythm: Mexican-American Music in Los Angeles. University of Illinois Press, 1993.
Moehn, F. "From tejano to tango: Latin american popular Music/Musical migrations: Transnationalism and cultural hybridity in Latin/o america, volume I/Situating salsa: Global markets and local meaning in latin popular music." Ethnomusicology 49.1 (2010): 137-142.
The Mexican Revolution has always been debated upon by historians, some labeling it as a "fiesta de balas" -- a party of bullets, with minimal political aims or ideologies. Others have not disregarded the revolution and noted that although most of the conflicts were centered in the provinces of the Mexican countryside, the revolutions' leaders were politically driven and adopted clear political ideologies. How does the novel The Underdogs treat this issue? Which side does it take?
The historiographical reality of the Mexican revolution of 1910[footnoteRef:1] has been deeply fashioned by novelists like Mariano Azuela. It was novels like the "Underdogs"[footnoteRef:2] that captured the essence of the revolution. The commotion that followed the fall of Porfirio Diaz, defined the Mexican nation in a new light, and although this was not the first time the oppressed Latin American masses rose against the ruling elite, it would definitely be the…
Azuela, M. (2008). The underdogs: A novel of the Mexican revolution. United Kingdom: Penguin Publishers.
Robe, S. L. (1979). Azuela and the Mexican underdogs (Vol. 48). Univ of California Press.
Presentation Lesson Plan on "Mexico from Early ecorded Time with Influence from Outside the Country"
"Mexico from Early ecorded Time with Influence from Outside the Country"
Mexico from Early ecorded Time with Influence from Outside the Country (from 16th century till 1940 and beyond)
Before troops from the Spanish Empire set foot on Mexican soil in 1519, indigenous Indian groups that had different trade and social systems occupied majority of the lands that now form Mexico. In general, relatively small indigenous tribes that were largely involved in the hunting and gathering of food occupied the northern arid parts of the country. These tribes, were called Chichimecs, collectively, even though they were different in several cultural and linguistic aspects. By 1100, much of the central and southern parts of the country was occupied by the Toltecs. The Toltecs had their capital at Tula and were also known for their…
Cary, Diana Serra. "Mexican War of Independence: Father Miguel Hidalgo's Revolt." Military hisyory. HistoryNet, October 12, 2000. Accessed June 8, 2016. http://www.historynet.com/mexican-war-of-independence-father-miguel-hidalgos-revolt.htm .
"History of Mexico - Mexico." HISTORY.com. Accessed June 8, 2016. http://www.history.com/topics/mexico/history-of-mexico .
"Mexico, A Brief History." Http://history-World.org/mexico.htm. Last modified 2007. Accessed June 8, 2016. http://history-world.org/mexico.htm.
Palfrey, Dale. H. "The Spanish Conquest (1519-1521)?: Mexico History." Mexconnect. Last modified August 29, 2007. Accessed June 8, 2016. http://www.mexconnect.com/articles/1538-the-spanish-conquest-1519-1521 .
The research, methods will seek to establish a common basement of the U.S. President Foreign Policy Decision Making Process. Equitable regard will be accorded to the state of affairs that exist between the U.S.A. And Iran
Questionnaires are samples of structured questions that will seek directive responses from the respondents in the field of study. In order to arrive at making decisions, there are several considerations that the president of the U.S.A. needs to know from the public and the secretary of state. Such questions will be included in the questionnaires. The questionnaires will be supplied to various respondents. These respondents are thought to have consistent information as regards the U.S. President Foreign Policy Decision Making Process matters in the world. Questionnaires are relevant when it comes to exhausting on the exiting trends of management in the country.
Interviews refer to face-to-face approaches of seeking to elicit information…
Alterman, Eric. 1998. Who speaks for America?: why democracy matters in foreign policy.
Ithaca [u.a.]: Cornell Univ. Press.
Beisner, Robert L. 2003. American foreign relations since 1600 a guide to the literature.
Santa Barbara, Calif: ABC-CLIO. http://ebooks.abc-clio.com/?isbn=9781576075302 .
Dead (Dia de Muertos) is a Mexican holiday that is also celebrated around the world in other countries where Hispanics are located, such as North America, Brazil, Spain, etc. Its roots are located both in the oman Catholic observance of All Saints and All Souls Days in November and in the pagan customs of the Aztecs who celebrated worship of the Mictecacihuatl, the Queen of the Underworld. In recent times the Day of the Dead has taken on a more nationalistic meaning than the traditional associations of spirituality (Masses and prayers offered for the dead) of oman Catholicism. In fact, Day of the Dead celebrations were unheard of in Mexico before the 1900s. Prior to the evolution of the early 20th century, much of Mexico celebrated only the Catholic All Saints and All Souls Days and resisted any celebration by nationalistic or pagan sects of the Day of the Dead,…
Day, F.S. (2003). Latina and Latino Voices in Literature: Lives and Works. Westport,
Kanellos, N. (1994). Handbook of Hispanic Culture in the United States: Anthropology.
Houston, TX: Arte Publico Press.
Broken Spears: he Aztec Account of the Conquest of America, edited by Miguel Leon-Portilla (Beacon Press, 1992).
Broken Spears tells the Aztec peoples' account of the Spanish conquest of Mexico.
hroughout history, the conquest has been told from the viewpoint of the conquistadors -- the Spanish victors. Broken Spears was the first book to tell the story of the conquest from the Aztecs' perspective.
It was originally published in Spanish (in 1959), and was only published in English in the year 1962.
he book begins a few years before the conquest by telling of the Aztecs' perceived omens of the conquest, and the remainder of the book gives a chronological account of the conquest.
he primary impetus of the book is not historical data gathering but, rather, is of the storytelling and human emotion behind the Spanish conquest.
Hernando Cortes' army arrived in Mexico in the early 16th century…
The Myth of La Malinche: From the Chronicles to Modern Mexican
Theater," thesis submitted to the Faculty of Virginia Polytechnic Institute, Rosario Perez-Lagunes (2001), located online at http://scholar.lib.vt.edu/theses/available/etd-05/unrestricted/Malinche.pdf .
The Conquest of Mexico," by Peter Rashkin, located at http://www.thedagger.com/archive/conquest/conquest1.html .
Greene's the Power and the Glory
Graham Greene's The Power and the Glory is believed by some to be his finest work. The book addresses a variety of social, religious and personal issues that lay close to the heart of the author. The Mexican situation and the Catholic faith are for example two prominent issues addressed by the work. elow is then a consideration of the context and inner truths from which Graham Greene created this work.
Roman Catholicism in Mexico
Greene met the woman who would be his wife, Vivien Dayrell-rowning while he was working at the Nottingham Journal. While some say that this is his reason for converting to Roman Catholicism, it is obvious that his devotion and affection for this religion later became much deeper than the catalyst for a woman's love. The way in which the protagonist of The Power and the Glory, the priest, is…
Bloom, Harold. Graham Greene. Chelsea House Publishers, 1987.
D'Souza Santosh. "Graham Greene, Biography, His Works, Other Web Resources." 6 November 2001. http://www.geocities.com/Ahtens/Parthenon/1608/greene.htm
Greene, Graham. The Lawless Roads. New York: Viking Press, 1939.
Lenchek, Shep. "the Catholic Church in Mexico, Triumphs and Traumas." (2000): 13 November 2001. Http://www.mexconnect.com/mex_/travel/slenchek/slcatholic1.html .
Roosevelt also withdrew the U.S.A. from interfering in Mexican policy by repealing the Platt Amendment, whilst World War II further brought the U.S.A. And most of Latin America closer.
he Cold War 1945-90
he peace in certain parts f Latin America (particularly Cuba) was severed by tendency of parts of Latin America to incline towards communism, which the U.S.A. thoroughly abhorred. he Cuban Revolution led by Fidel Castro succeeded in toppling Batista government in 1959. Castro adopted a socialist-characterized series of reform, which alienated the Eisenhower administration, severed diplomatic relations between the U.S.A. And Cuba, with the U.S.A. freezing Cuban assets and placing an embargo on the country. he Kennedy administration proceeded in supporting the invasion of Cuba that promptly failed but succeed in sharpening the gap between Cuba and the U.S.A. with Cuba overly allying itself with the Soviet Union. he threat of intercontinental ballistic missiles in Cuba precipitated…
The peace in certain parts f Latin America (particularly Cuba) was severed by tendency of parts of Latin America to incline towards communism, which the U.S.A. thoroughly abhorred. The Cuban Revolution led by Fidel Castro succeeded in toppling Batista government in 1959. Castro adopted a socialist-characterized series of reform, which alienated the Eisenhower administration, severed diplomatic relations between the U.S.A. And Cuba, with the U.S.A. freezing Cuban assets and placing an embargo on the country. The Kennedy administration proceeded in supporting the invasion of Cuba that promptly failed but succeed in sharpening the gap between Cuba and the U.S.A. with Cuba overly allying itself with the Soviet Union. The threat of intercontinental ballistic missiles in Cuba precipitated the Cuban Missile Crisis of 1962. USA intervention in the rest of the county resulted in various insurrections through the country by different political groups (mostly military dictatorships) vying for power.
The post cold-war 1990 to the present.
There is growing criticism on U.S. involvement in the area, particularly sparked by the Washington Consensus which was an economic reform package promoted for developing nations during the 1980s and 1990s. Some Latin American countries have campaigned for polices contrary to the Consensus and neoliberal politics in both U.S. And Mexico have protested against U.S. interference in their national sovereignty. This has been reinforced left-wing political party rising to power that declare themselves socialists, Latin Americans, or anti-imperialists. There is ongoing debate about constraints upon the state and the expanding role of the free market.
Villasenor, Victor. Rain of Gold, 1991.
What time period does this book cover? What historical events are referenced in the story?
The book takes the reader through three generations of a Mexican-American family, beginning with the early part of the 20th century, chronicling the Mexican Revolution to the end of Prohibition. As it is a memoir, it also contains references of the author's present day.
Describe and compare the birthplaces of both Victor's mother and his father? What unusual event took place when Lupe was conceived?
Juan Salvador was born in Mexico but soon fled the nation because of the revolution. When he was a child, he found himself going to work in the mines of Arizona. Lupe was born in a mine in Mexico, where significantly gold was discovered.
Who was Lupe's first love and why? How young was she when she met him?
Lupe was still a schoolgirl…
thirteen senses is an interesting novel that traces that lives of author's parents who it appears experience rather turbulent times yet through it all, they stayed together. It is their fifty years together that offers some valuable lesions on love and trust and on the institution of marriage. The book is based on the lives of the Villasenor couple but it reads more like a guidebook on love and marriage. The book could have been subtitled, how to make a marriage last. This is because there are some many pearls of marital wisdom interspersed in the novel that one wonders if there was anything else that the Mejicanos ever talked about apart from discussing psychology of men and women.
The book opens with the author attending the 50th wedding anniversary of his parents where the couple is asked to repeat their marriage vows. This sets the tone for the rest…
Rodriguez, Rebeca, 'Thirteen Senses,' by Victor Villasenor; HarperCollins. (Knight Ridder Newspapers) Date: 12/26/2001
This leads to many false stereotypes and assumptions about cultures which most of us have never experienced.
2) When the structure of colonialism set in on Latin America, the Catholic Church established Counter-Reformation initiatives ordered by Spain's Holy Inquisition. The Counter-Reformation discouraged cultural endeavors in Latin America if they were not directly affiliated to specific Church celebrations. This resulted in much illiteracy and general ignorance of advances being made in the world during the 17th and 18th centuries, specifically the Enlightenment. Additionally, the Catholic Church, in this role, was less involved in being true missionaries, but rather functioned as a cultural censor that enforced regulatory social practices. Peninsular bureaucrats seemed to have no interest or care for the vast lands of Latin America, and developed an increasing disdain for the growing mixed Spanish and indigenous population (Mestizo). They were suspicious of indigenous and mestizo people, and also of Spanish people…
Magical Realism in Ana Castillo's 'So Far From God'
hen looking for the magical realism in Ana Castillo's So Far From God, and for those readers who know her work and her cultural background, one of the ways in which the author employs magical realism is as a skilled fiction writer. Castillo is writing about Latinos, a family of women. Her first step in employing magical realism is to set aside the Latino patriarchal cultural restrictions that would otherwise prevent the concept of "magical realism" from working in the story. Castillo had to find a way to overcome that allowed the reality to be used to advance the story past that obstacle. She also had the obstacle of Latino Catholicism, which is as equal a force with which to be confronted as is the patriarchal society. This essay is an examination of how Ana Castillo overcomes these obstacles in her…
Castillo, Ana. So Far From God. New York, W.W. Norton and Company, Inc., 2003.
Johnson, Kelli Lyon. "Violence in the Borderlands: Crossing to the Home Space in the Novels of Ana Castillo." Frontiers - A Journal of Women's Studies 25.1 (2004): 39+. Questia. 9 Dec. 2008 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5006914074 .
History of Texas
questions, (2-3 sentences each question), one page.
Explain the Empresario system. hat is it? And what is the purpose of it?
After the successful Mexican ar of Independence liberated Mexico from Spanish rule in 1821, the 1824 Constitution of Mexico joined Texas with the state of Coahuila to form the new state of Tejas y Coahuila. In order to increase the population within this unsettled frontier, and protect it from roving bands of Indians and American encroachment, the fledgling government of the Mexican Republic instituted the Empresario system. This system authorized immigration anglo agents like Stephen F. Austin to relocate large groups of colonist families to the state in exchange for land grants and settlement rights. The Empresario system granted settlers a league of land for only $100, provided the newcomers adopt Mexican citizenship, learn the Spanish language, and convert to Catholicism.
How does the Mexican Secretary…
Haley, James L. Passionate Nation: The Epic History of Texas. New York, NY: Simon & Schuster, Inc., 2006. Print.
Haynes, Sam Walter, Paterson, Thomas, & Wintz, Cary D Major Problems in Texas History: Documents and Essays. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company., 2002. Print
foreign immigrant groups California share similar struggles quest American citizens
Following the development of western countries in the nineteenth century, there emerged a prolonged immigration of Asian communities into the American society. Iran had a shock in their culture. Individual personality such as language proficiency, learning level, and job skill influences their ability to adapt. Immigration is a key life challenge, although well thought-out to be stressful, particularly for women coming from environments with observance to traditional gender roles, through the exposure, organizations of these societies disintegrate.
Shared struggles of Iranian & Mexican immigrants
Economic factors like financial resources, loses and gains in social status intimidates the immigrants. The attitude of the host country with the level of similarity of the two cultures is also an influential factor. Individual factors such as character strength, decision-making skills, declaration of feeling of loss, and the ability to endure uncertainty about gender roles…
Massey, Douglas S, Jorge Durand, and Nolan J. Malone. Beyond Smoke and Mirrors: Mexican
Immigration in an Era of Economic Integration. New York: Russell Sage Foundation,
Borjas, George J. Mexican Immigration to the United States. Chicago [u.a.: Univ. Of Chicago
Admittedly, these two teams were faced with a daunting challenge in acquiring and interpreting those works of art that were most appropriate for their exhibition goals, and interpretive efforts must use some framework in which to present the resources in a fashion that can be understood and appreciated by the targeted audiences.
Nevertheless, there is little or no discussion concerning the fusion of artistic styles in the two catalogs, with a preference for a neat and orderly, date by date, presentation of representative works that typify the points being made by the exhibition. Despite these shortcomings, both catalogs were shown to be authoritative references that were supported by relevant citations and imagery. Likewise, both catalogs provide useful overviews of the materials that are being presented preparatory to their interpretation, helping place the information in its historical context.
The research showed that interest and appreciation in colonial Latin American art…
Bailey, Gauvin Alexander. Introduction in Art of Colonial Latin America. New York: Phaidon
Paz, Octavio. Metropolitan Museum of Art: Mexico: Splendors of Thirty Centuries. Los Angeles: The Metropolitan Museum of Art.
Pierce, Donna, Gomar, Rogelio R. And Bargellini, Clara. Painting a New World: Mexican Art
We will write this law on stellas. There will be a system of police to maintain order and to ensure that trouble does not occur. There will also be a system of judges (and a legal system of sorts) that will not only answer people's questions in terms of the laws but also decide change and legal minutia during cultural changes that warrant it. The judges too will decide conflicts between people according to the minutia of the law.
The classical Mayan system of priests and shamans will be retained. There will be the same titles Ah K'uhun, Ah K'uhul Hu'n, and Ah K'uhuun (namely "he of the holy books," "keeper of the paper/headbands," and "he who worships signifying the various tasks) (Maya culture; Miller & Taube, 1993).
Good sirs, we will establish an elevated educational system based on the highest wisdom of the time and run according to wisdom…
Coe, Michael D. (1999). The Maya (Sixth ed.). New York: Thames & Hudson
Culbert, T.Patrick (Ed.) (1977). Classic Maya Collapse. University of New Mexico Press.
On February 26, Travis began to order fire power conservation in anticipation of further battle. The Texians burned more huts and were also engaged by Colonel Juan Bringas. One Texian was killed on this occasion.
On March 3, 1000 further Mexican troops reinforced Santa Anna's army, which now amounted to almost 2,400. Santa Anna began to plan a direct assault on the fort on March 4. A visit from a local woman to negotiate a Texian surrender, according to historians, is likely to have increased Santa Anna's impatience for battle. It was decided that the fort would be attacked on March 6. On the evening of March 5, the Mexicans strategically ceased their bombardment of the fort, and as planned, the Texian army fell into exhausted slumber.
Planning for the final assault began just after midnight on March 6, and Santa Anna gave the order to advance at 5:30 AM.…
Edmondson, J.R..The Alamo Story: From Early History to Current Conflicts Republic of Texas Press, Plano, Texas, 2000
Hopewell, Clifford James Bowie Texas Fighting Man: A Biography, Eakin Press, Austin, Texas, 1994.
Lindley, Thomas Ricks Alamo Traces: New Evidence and New Conclusions, Republic of Texas Press, Lanham, MD, 2003
Petite, Mary Deborah. 1836 Facts about the Alamo and the Texas War for Independence, Savas Publishing Company, Mason City, IA, 1998.
German Influences on Texas Culture
If one has lived in Texas for any length of time, they will realize immediately that the Texas culture is influenced by German culture in a number of ways. Modern day Texas culture would not exist as it does today if it were not for German influence. Today Texas culture can be described as a blending of German and Texas traditions. Though German culture is not the only culture that has impacted the Texas of today, it is often considered one of the most significant influences historically.
Whether one examines the architectural landscape of the towns and cities, examines the art and music or simply talks with many of the German descendants living in Texas, one must immediately acknowledge the significant influence the German people have had on the development of Texas as known today. In early Texas history German influence was widespread, often comprising…
Alvarez, A. (2002). "Oktoberfest in Fredericksburg." Texana Food and Events. 19, November 2004: http://texana.texascooking.com/news/oktoberfest_fred2002.htm
Butt, H.E. (2004). "Oktoberfest in Texas." 20, November, 2004: http://www.heb.com/mealtime/celeb-oktoberFestTx.jsp
Galan. (2001). [Online]. "Accordion Dreams: cultures of music and dance." Available
Santa Anna Dictatorship
In his self-described revisionist biography Santa Anna of Mexico (2007), Will Fowler has courageously taken up the defense of the Mexico caudillo, fully aware that he is all but universally reviled in the historiography of the United States and Mexico. From the beginning, he made his intention clear to vindicate the reputation of a dictator whose "vilification has been so thorough and effective that the process of deconstructing the numerous lies that have been told and retold" is almost impossible.[footnoteRef:1] Timothy J. Henderson asserted that he had a great talent for exploiting and manipulating political divisions but none for governing a country. In U.S. history and popular culture, he has always been portrayed as a corrupt megalomaniac, the 'Napoleon of the West', responsible for the massacres at the Alamo and Goliad. As John Chasteen and James Wood put it, even his autobiography was an "extraordinary work of…
"The Alamo" in William Dirk Raat (ed). Mexico from Independence to Revolution, 1810-1910. University of Nebraska Press, 1982, pp. 84-90.
Borneman, Walter R. Polk: The Man Who Transformed the Presidency and America. NY: Random House, 2009.
Eisenhower, John S.D. So Far from God: The U.S. War with Mexico, 1846-1848. NY: Random House, 2000.
Fehrenbach Timothy R. Fire and Blood. De Capo Press, 1995.
Catholic Church in Mexico underscored both its conquest and its independence. Organizationally, the church prior to the liberation theology of the 20th century has always been more cogent than the Mexican government. The church has traditionally been amalgamated with conservative interests that include the military and wealthier landowners. The institution of tithing and the role of the church as a colonizer through its missions helped to make the church the most powerful pre-revolutionary institution in Mexico. Additionally, at a time before the existence of broad-based commercial lending, the church not only acted as the principal lender in the colony and early republic, but served as the nexus for all public activity in many smaller communities. However, the influence of the church was severely limited under liberalism. Although the iaz government returned to the Catholic church some of its former glory, the 1916 Constitution ultimately spelled an end to the church's…
Despite this relatively recent accommodation, the Church has not remained quiet on the issue of poverty. Historically, as the government failed to care for the people, the Church assumed greater responsibility and became more vocal in complaining about the government's shortcomings. Today the Church, which once strove mainly to preserve its own authority, has emerged as an outspoken opponent of the government. Yet aggressive Church actions were evident early in the century, both in opposition to the anti-clerical language of the 1917 constitution and in the violent Cristero rebellion of the 1920s. From 1926 to 1929 Mexico faced strong resistance by Catholics who opposed the anticlerical component of the Constitution of 1917 that regulated the affairs of the Catholic Church. After the emergence of liberation theology among Latin American Catholic priests in the 1970s, Mexican clerics became vocal in their condemnation of oppressive government policies. In 1991 clerical officials leveled a broad range of charges against the government including torture, abuse of prisoners, political persecution, corruption, and electoral fraud. These charges were repeated by Pope John Paul II in his 1999 visit when he called for an end to "violence, terrorism, and drug trafficking." The Church has been critical of the government by supporting the rebellion in the southern state of Chiapas. Tension between church and state emerged again as recently as 1994 when the government attempted to blame the Chiapas uprising on the language and actions of various clerics.
Traditionally regarded as a woman's issue, birth control has become a mainstream political issue since the 1970s. After all, through the combined effects of cultural expectations to raise large families and the Catholic Church's ban on birth control, the population grew dramatically. Women who chose not to have children resorted to crude abortions. In 1970, the year Luis Echeverr'a became the first Mexican president to call for a reduction in the nation's population, as many as 32,000 Mexican women died from abortion complications. Although discussions of population control have long been taboo by the Catholic Church, 1972 saw a reversal when Mexican clerics called for reduced family size. Thereafter government support enabled family planning clinics and educational programs to be developed. By 1988 the Mexican annual population growth rate was nearly halved, to 1.8%.
Women in Mexico have been pushing for significant changes within the political and social arenas, and they are slowly gaining access to previously male-dominated spheres. For example, they are now elected as state governors and as representatives in the Chamber of Deputies. Increasingly they are leaving bad marriages in spite of condemnation from the Church and hostility from their own families. Indeed, there is growing liberation from the traditional roles and expectations for women in Mexican society.
It might be said that, had Lincoln not been elected, the war might have been put off by a few years, and then a solution might perhaps have been reached. However, as has been demonstrated, the country was moving inexorably toward war and no other solution would work. If the war had been put off by a few years, the result would more than likely have been even more terrible and bloody than it was. General Grant was of the opinion that the war was inevitable. "The Southern rebellion was largely the outgrowth of the Mexican war," he wrote in his Personal Memoirs, in accord with his belief that the Mexican-American War was the result of the South's attempts to extend slavery into Mexican-controlled Texas, "Nations, like individuals, are punished for their transgressions. We got our punishment in the most sanguinary and expensive war in modern times." Grant would then…
Bernie Krisher of American Assistance for Cambodia set her up in Phnom Penh twice more, but each time she ran away after a few days, desperate to get back to her meth supply" (Kristof and uDonn, p.39). hile I have not returned to Mexico and the carefree lifestyle I led there, I cannot deny having the desire to do so, on occasion. hile I know that the life I lived there was not the right life for me, I still long to return to it on occasion.
Of course, the differences in countries and cultures are, in many ways, becoming less apparent as the world becomes more global. This globalization has challenged the existing social structures in many countries, including those countries with castes or caste-like socioeconomic divisions. Discussing India, Kapur stated that, "ancient social structures are collapsing under the weight of new money. Bonds of caste and religion and…
Barber, Benjamin. "Jihad vs. McWorld." The Atlantic. N.p. 1 Mar. 1992. Web. 6 May 2013.
Kapur, Akash. "How India became America." The New York Times. 1-2. 9 Mar. 2012. Web.
6 May 2013.
Kristof, Nicholas and Sheryl WuDunn. "Microcredit: The Financial Revolution." Half the Sky:
The British created a well-educated, English-speaking Indian elite middle class d. new jobs were created for millions of Indian hand-spinner and hand-weavers
The Indian National Congress can best be described in which of the following ways:
a. An Indian Civil Service that administered British rule.
b. A group of upper-caste professionals seeking independence from Britain.
c. white settlers who administered British rule.
d. anglicized Indians who were the social equals of white rulers.
Under the Culture System, Indonesian peasants had to Answer:
a. learn to speak and read Dutch b. plant one-fifth of their land in export crops to be turned over to the Dutch colonial government c. convert to the Dutch Reformed Church d. join large state-run farms.
Modern Vietnamese nationalism traced much of its inspiration to Answer:
a. Japanese modernization.
b. China's "Hundred Days" Reform program.
c. The U.S. Declaration of Independence.
d. British Fabian socialism.
Many of those who came here in the first wave after the revolution believed they would be returning home, perhaps within a few months, but as the years have passed the Cuban population has become more socially and economically integrated into the U.S. culture in Florida even while maintaining ties with Cuba and while trying to keep alive the hope that Castro could be overthrown and democracy restored in Cuba. These Cuban ex-patriates still constitute a potent political force in Cuba with considerable influence on the federal government, especially when there is a epublican administration. To a degree, the population in Cuba is better off economically than most of the Mexican-American population in the Southwest, but evidence also shows that migration to Miami is strongest for the elderly, foreign-born Cubans, and more disadvantages Cubans, with a concentration in the Metropolitcan Miami area (McHugh, Miyares, & Skop, 1997). While Miami faces…
Aysa-Lastra, M. (2007, May). Diaspora philanthropy: The Colombia experience. www.tpi.org/downloads/pdfs/Colombia_Diaspora_Philanthropy_Final.pdf.
Bourgois, P. (1996). In Search of Masculinity. British Journal of Criminology, Volume3 36, Number 3, 412-426.
The city in crisis (1992). Los Angeles: Board of Police Commissioners.
Del Pinal, J. (2004). The Hispanic population. U.S. Census Bureau, retrieved September 9, 2007 at http://www.census.gov/population/www/pop-profile/hisppop.html .
A favorite target for conspiracists today as well as in the past, a group of European intellectuals created the Order of the Illuminati in May 1776, in Bavaria, Germany, under the leadership of Adam Weishaupt (Atkins, 2002). In this regard, Stewart (2002) reports that, "The 'great' conspiracy organized in the last half of the eighteenth century through the efforts of a number of secret societies that were striving for a 'new order' of civilization to be governed by a small group of 'all-powerful rulers.' The most important of these societies, and the one to which all subsequent conspiracies could be traced, is the Illuminati founded in Bavaria on May 1, 1776 by Adam Weishaupt" (p. 424). According to Atkins, it was Weishaupt's fundamental and overriding goal to form a secret organization of elite members of Europe's leading citizens who could then strive to achieve the Enlightenment version of revolutionary social…
American Psychological Association. (2002). Publication manual of the American Psychological
Association (5th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.
Anderson, J. (1981, 1723). The charges of a Free-Mason extracted from the ancient records of lodges beyond the sea, and of those in England, Scotland, and Ireland, for the use of the lodges in London: To be read at the making of new brethren, or when the master shall order it. Reprinted in The Radical Enlightenment: Pantheists, Freemasons, and Republicans, by M.C. Jacob, 279-285. London and Boston: Allen & Unwin in Harland-
Jacobs at p. 237.
Questions On World Regional Geography
Generally speaking, African colonies during the colonial period were seen as expensive liabilities by the great European powers, especially in relation to trading concessions. Toward the end of the 19th century, the attitudes of these powers altered as rival industrial nations like Great Britain, Germany, France and Belgium, attempted to locate and develop overseas markets for their goods. In 1885, the Berlin Conference was convened to resolve conflicts of interest in Africa by allotting areas of exploitation to these colonial powers. As a result, the so-called "scramble for Africa" began in which these powers sought to establish their "rightful" claims to vast expanses of land.
When this conference was convened, most of Africa was under colonial control and was subsequently broken up into numerous states, made up of some fifty separate countries with very irregular geographical boundaries. One major problem linked to this break-up…
As with other Hispanic groups, there may be a greater reluctance to seek professional help in dealing with psychological issues because of a belief that the church, rather than Western psychological medicine, should address such problems. The greater economic security of middle-class Cuban immigrants and their children thus has not meant an entirely uncomplicated relationship with the new American homeland.
Although it is a small island, the history of Puerto ico has been marked by many influences, spanning from Africa to Spain to Latin America. "There is an essential dichotomy [in] Puerto ico's relationship with the United States. Within American jurisdiction, as reflected by common citizenship, flag, currency and numerous applicable Federal laws, Puerto ico might seem in everything but name a State of the Union. But on the other side you will find a culture and society profoundly different from that in the mainland. It is a…
Bachay, Judith & Rafael Montes. (2010). Article 14: The Cuban-American grieving process
Counseling.org. Retrieved September 17, 2010 at http://www.counseling.org/Resources/Library/VISTAS/vistas04/14.pdf
The declining economic status of Puerto Ricans. Health Affairs. Retrieved September 17,
2010 at http://www.irp.wisc.edu/publications/focus/pdfs/foc102d.pdf
Of all ethnic groups classified as "Hispanic," Cuban Americans have been seen as a model minority. Compared to groups such as Mexican-Americans or Puerto Ricans, Cubans are seen as an economically-successful sub-group. Furthermore, Cuban Americans are generally regarded as a socially-homogenous group which has parlayed their population and economic might into political clout.
This paper examines the various cultural, political and economic factors that have contributed to the Cuban American success story. This paper argues that counter to popular belief, Cubans are far from a homogenous ethnic group. Rather, it was this group's shared sense of exile and its mobilization of large numbers of immigrants that paved the way for their socio-economic and political clout.
This paper takes a historical approach to the growth of economic and political power of Cuban Americans. It looks at how Cuban exiles slowly shifted focus from anticipating their return to the homeland…
Alvarez, Carlos et al. "Cuban Identity: A Preliminary Study." Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association (Seattle, WA, April 10-14, 2001). Available from ERIC database.
Anton, Alex and Hernandez, Roger E. Cubans in America: A Vibrant History of a People in Exile. New York: Kensington, 2002
Azicri, Max. Reinventing Socialism. Gainesville: University of Florida Press, 2000.
Eckstein, Susan and Barberia, Lorena. "Grounding Immigrant Generations in History: Cuban Americans and Their Transnational Ties." International Migration Review 36(3): 799-837
This change in national politics has resulted in a much improved standard of living throughout Mexico and the growth of the middle class. The business climate inside Mexico is much improved and this trend should continue, however, the country is only a few years removed from being a totalitarian regime.
The illegal drug business remains a serious problem for the Mexican Government. It is a high priority for the Government as substantial portion of the national budget and military manpower is dedicated toward Mexico's war on drugs. This war often affects the operation of business within Mexico and must be considered (Gonzalez).
The taxing structure within Mexico is highly transitory (Stewart). The system is in a continual state of flux and anyone contemplating doing business in Mexico should be careful to be diligent and avail themselves of a qualified tax accountant well-versed in Mexican tax laws. The national government has…
DeMente, Boye Lafayette. Why Mexicans Think and Behave the Way They Do!: The Cultural Factors that Created the Character & Personality of the Mexican People. (2d Edition). Beverly Hills, CA: Phoenix Books, 2009.
Gilbreth, Chris. "Democratization in Mexico: The Zapatista Uprising and Civil Society." Latin American Perspectives (2001): 7-29.
Gonzalez, Francisco E. "Mexico's Drug Wars Get Brutal." Current History (2009): 72-76.
Nelson, Mexico Mike. Live Better South of the Border: Practical Advice for Living and Working (Live Better South of the Border in Mexico) 3rd Edition. Golden, CO: Fulcrum Publishing, 2000.
Fo the Mexican people, this indicates a conflict in the claims and ealities of globalization. The investment of geate capital and poduction into the Mexican labo maket has pomised to bing jobs, wealth and economic obustness to the developing economy. But the oppotunity to cut poduction costs by enteing this venue whee envionmental egulations ae weak o in some aeas non-existent has inclined the pollution of Mexican ai, wate and soil. This has not only had teible effects on the population of Mexico, but it has ceated a self-pepetuating esistance to the adoption of envionmental impovements. The pospects of a global standad in the aea of envionmental potection is obstucted by the will of those nations and companies which have so much to gain by exploiting contexts such as Mexico. The geatest victim of this behavio ae the citizens of nations such as Mexico, which have little to no say…
references are those which are evident in a nation like North Korea. Taken to its approach by a view toward communist oversight of a vast array of social, economic and political affairs, North Korea is an example of government becoming so big as to invade tyrannically every aspect of Korean life. So too is this evident in an Iran rippling with the desire for revolution, an indication that the public is no longer content to allow this big government to shape their affairs to violently and inhumanely.
Industrialization After the Civil War
Industrialization was, in all aspects, a game changer in the U.S. because it brought about a complete transformation in people's ways of life. It changed how businesses were run, transformed how people earned money, made transportation easier, and caused a social and economic revolution.
Within four decades (1865-1920), the U.S. had "transformed from a predominantly rural agrarian society to an industrial economy centered in large metropolitan cities" (Hirschman & Mogford, 2009). In addition to the unity that had been created by the uniting states, three other factors played a crucial role in the rapid diffusion of technology during this period. These are;
Legislative representation - the pieces of legislation that furthered the efforts of reconstruction and promoted civil rights for the marginalized. For instance, the 13th, 14th and 15th econstruction Amendments which illegalized slavery, awarded citizenship to all people naturalized or born in the U.S.,…
Berkin, C., Miller, C., Cherny, R. & Gormly, J. (2007). Making America: A History of the United States, Vol. II from 1865 (5th ed.). Mason, OH: Cengage Learning.
Hirschman, C. & Mogford, E. (2009). Immigration and the American Industrial Revolution from 1880-1920. Social Science Research, 38(4), 897-920.
Weinberg, M. (2002). Chapter 7: Capitalism Dominant, 1865-1920. A Short History of American Capitalism. Retrieved from http://www.newhistory.org/CH07.htm
American Way of War
The history of the American Way of War is a transitional one, as Weigley shows in his landmark work of the same name. The strategy of war went from, under Washington, a small scale, elude and survive set of tactics practiced by what seem today to be relatively "quaint" militias, to -- in the 20th century -- a full-scale operation known as "total war." True, "total war" was not a concept invented by the Americans in the 20th century. The North eventually practiced "total war" against the Confederates when Sherman's campaign left utter destruction of civilian territory in its wake. The ancient Romans practiced it when, under the direction of Cato, they destroyed Carthage because its mere existence, they felt, posed a threat to their prosperity. In the 20th century, however, "total war" received an enormous boost of technical support when the inventors of the atom…
Butler, Smedley. War is a Racket. LA: Feral House, 2003.
Chollet, Derek and James Goldgeier. America Between the Wars. NY: Public Affairs,
Debs, Eugene. "Anti-War Speech," 16 June 1918. Web.
causes of different economic development among different immigration groups in the United States will be documented on a description of the economic level of each community and some of its characteristics, as well as on the different policies that the U.S. government may have applied in their cases and on the social and human capital they have brought along.
The Cubans represent a case apart, mainly due to the legal stimuli that they received from the White House administration for their immigration. Indeed, as many sources were keen to mention, the Cuban immigrates were privileged, in the sense that, unlike many other populations, they were not required to prove their position as political immigrates, but their status was predefined as such, because of Fidel Castro's Communist regime in Cuba. This meant that they were automatically considered refugees and received the privileges that went with this position.
Additionally, starting from 1966,…
1. Stepick, Alex. Immigrants, Race and Power in Miami: Reconfiguring Relations. November 2003. On the Internet at http://ist-socrates.berkeley.edu:7001/Events/fall2003/11-20-03-stepick/
2. Dominicans Are City's Fastest Growing, Poorest Group, Says Study. Columbia University Record -- March 10, 1995 -- Vol. 20, No. 20. On the Internet at http://www.columbia.edu/cu/record/archives/vol20/vol20_iss20/record2020.22.html
3. Robson, Barbara. Cubans. Their History and Culture. Refugee Fact Sheet Series No. 12. 1996. Prepared by the Center for Applied Linguistics Refugee Service Center. On the Internet at http://www.culturalorientation.net/cubans/index.htm
Robson, Barbara. Cubans. Their History and Culture. Refugee Fact Sheet Series No. 12. 1996. Prepared by the Center for Applied Linguistics Refugee Service Center. On the Internet at http://www.culturalorientation.net/cubans/index.htm
The main causes of the war relied in the issue of slavery as well as the right of the states to be part of a federal entity with equal rights and voices. The implications for this war were enormous as it provided a different future for the colonies and for the U.S. As a whole.
The main cause of the war was, as stated, the issue of slavery. In this sense, the Mexican war played an important role. It pointed out the importance of the slavery issue even in an apparently international situation. The Wilmot Proviso is essential in this way. Thus, it represented an additional act to a bill that enabled the U.S. To satisfy the financial needs of Mexico. The act in itself however was not passed because it pointed out the fact that none of the territories acquired during the Mexican war should be opened to slavery;…
Africans in America. The Compromise of 1850 and the Fugitive Slave Act. 2007.Available at http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aia/part4/4p2951.html
Caughey, John Walton. The California gold rush. University of California Press: Berkeley, 1975.
Civil Rights Act of 1866. Historycentral.com. 2000. Available at http://www.historycentral.com/documents/civilrightsact.html
Cornell University Law School. "13th Amendment." United States Constitution. 2010. Available at http://topics.law.cornell.edu/constitution/amendmentxiii
What does this have to do with the rest of paragraph 27?
The individual and the institution of the state cannot flourish when their interests are in competition: one of the 'seeds' must die.
33. In this paragraph, Thoreau talks about how he sees his neighbors in a new light after his night in jail.
After suffering the loss of his liberty, he sees how little his neighbors are willing to risk of their own security to see justice done.
Paraphrase each of these observations:
a. "I saw to what extent the people among whom I lived could be trusted as good neighbors and friends;"
I saw that the people amongst whom I lived were good in name only -- they spoke about the value of justice, but would not lift a finger to do promote justice.
b. "that their friendship was for summer weather only;"
They did good deeds…
Mill take issue with the Puritans? Explain.
Famed government theoretician John Stuart Mill took great exception with the Puritans who traveled to the New orld in order to start a community based upon similar fanatical religious beliefs. The reason that he took such issue with the Puritans is that they used religion as a basis of government but worse than this they used that religious intolerance in order to oppress and marginalize others. The Puritans made their laws based upon the assertion that their restriction encouraged moral behavior, but in doing so they took away each person's right to make individual choices. Mill wrote, "ith respect to what is said of the necessity of protecting society from the bad example set to others by the vicious or the self-indulgent; it is true that bad example may have a pernicious effect, especially the example of doing wrong to others with impunity…
Douglass, Frederick. "Oration in Memory of Abraham Lincoln." N.p. n.d. Web. 18 March. 2013.
El-Shabazz, El-Hajj Malik (Malcolm X). "The Ballot or the Bullet." N.p. n.d. Web. 18 March.
Goldman, Emma. "Anarchism: What it Really Stands For." Print.
In 1965, the first American ground troops went to Vietnam, where the American policy of containment of Communism was severely challenged. Vietnam became a junior leaders' war, with much of the responsibility of combat leadership resting on the NCO. Needing large numbers of NCOs for combat, the Army created the Noncommissioned Officers Candidate Course (Arms, 1989). There were many outstanding acts of heroism, including Sergeant First Class Eugene Ashley who was supporting Camp Lang Vei with high explosives and illumination mortar rounds. After a communication loss, he directed air strikes and artillery support and organized a small assault force. Five times Ashley's unit attacked enemy positions and then proceeded through booby-trapped bunkers. Wounded by machinegun fire, Ashley directed air strikes on his own position to clear the enemy. While being transported down the hill, he was killed by enemy artillery (Arms, 1989).
Today in Iraq and other parts of the…
Arms, L.R. (1989) Short history of the NCOs. Museum of the noncommissioned officer.
Website retrieved March 23, 2007.
Giangreco, D.M, and Moore, K. Why a 200-year-old decoration offers evidence in the controversy surrounding the Hiroshima bombing. American Heritage Magazine
51(8). [electronic version]