Microorganisms Essays (Examples)

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Gram Stain and Acid Fast Staining of Microorganism

Words: 715 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92233293

Microorganisms Through a Microscope

The Gram stain test distinguishes two fundamental cell varieties of bacteria. The latter also determines the presence of bacteria. "Gram-positive" refers to the type that retains the original crystal violet stain. In contrast, the decolorized stain red depicts the "gram-negative" variety. The significance of the staining plays a crucial role in the determination of the appropriate treatment for an infection. Often, the clarity in distinguishing between viral, fungal, and bacterial infections may not be attained (ojewoda et al. 2073). This requires the application of the gram stain test. Additionally, various bacterial varieties may necessitate the use of different treatments. The use of gram stain technique enables physicians to establish that the infection is because of bacteria. The test also provides fast results that are beneficial for the diagnosis process.

The acid-fast stain can be used to identify microbes in the genera Mycobacterium and Nocardia. A majority…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Jiang, Fuguo, and Doudna, Jennifer A. The Structural Biology of CRISPR-Cas Systems. Current Opinion in Structural Biology 30 (2015): 100-111.

Meyer, Ernst, Hug, Hans J. and Bennewitz Roland. Scanning Probe Microscopy: The Lab on a Tip. New York: Springer Science & Business Media, 2013. Print

Reimer, Ludwig. Transmission Electron Microscopy: Physics of Image Formation and Microanalysis. Vol. 36. New York: Springer, 2013. Print

Trimby, Patrick W. Orientation Mapping of Nanostructured Materials Using Transmission Kikuchi Diffraction in the Scanning Electron Microscope. Ultramicroscopy 120 (2012): 16-24.
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Enviroprop the Following Project Is

Words: 557 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26175829

It is therefore quite important to evaluate each experience on its own merits, as well as to how well each experience is integrated into the overall picture. An evaluation form has been developed for each participant as well as the parents of that participant. The evaluation form will be handed out at the end of each of the camps (whether the attendee stayed for a one-week or the full three-week course will be noted) for completion and return to the directors of the camp.

After the evaluation forms have been returned, the responses contained therein will be analyzed and broken down into categories pertaining to each camp experience and how it (they) were perceived by the campers. Follow-up questionnaires can be sent to each participant on a bi-yearly basis in order to gauge what type of long-term effects the camps continue to have on the participants.

The project is proposed…… [Read More]

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Luminous Bacterium Vibrio Fischeri Vibrio

Words: 2011 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30709179

The chemical was found to turn on quorum sensing in V. fischeri, whereas it inhibited pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Also, the slow-release was shown to be far more effective than by applying the chemical directly as an aqueous solution. Since quorum sensing is also important for pathogen establishment this application could be important for inhibiting pathogenic bacteria from colonization of internal medical devices.

In summary, the V. fischeri and squid symbiotic relationship is an important model host-bacteria system. Aspects of colonization of host-symbiont and host-pathogen have been shown, using the V. fisheri and squid model, to be the same. Therefore, understanding the mechanism and complex transcriptional regulatory systems of V. fischeri could lead to potential new therapies and pharmaceutical applications. Likewise, understanding the environmental factors necessary for successful host-bacteria interactions could lead to novel drug targets. In addition to being important in understanding other harmful host-bacteria relationships the V. fischeri and…… [Read More]

References:

Breitbach, a.S., Broderick, a.H., Jewell, C.M., Gunasekaran, S., Lin, Q., Lynn, D.M., & Blackwell, H.E. 2010. Surface-mediated release of a synthetic small-molecule modulator of bacterial quorum sensing: Gradual release enhances activity. Chem Comm.

Chun, C.K, Troll, J.V., Koroleva, I., Brown, B., Manzella, L., Snir, E., Almabraz, H, Scheetz, T.E., Bonaldo, M.F., Casavant, T.L., Soares, M.B., Ruby, E.G., & McFall-Ngai, M.J. 2008. Effects of colonization, luminescence, and autoinducer on host transcription during development of the squid-vibrio association. PNAS 105(32): 11323-11328.

Lyell, N.L., Dunn, a.K., Bose, J.L., Stabb, E.V. 2010. Bright mutants of Vibrio fischeri ES114 reveal conditions and regulators that control bioluminescence and expression of the lux Operon. J. Bacteriol. 192(19): 5103-5114.

Murray, P.R., Rosenthal, K.S., Kobayashi, G.S., Pfaller, M.A. 1998. Vibrio, Aeromonas, and Plesiomonas. In M. Brown (Ed.), Medical Microbiology Third Edition (pp. 245-250). St. Louis, MO: Mosby.
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Normal Saline During Suctioning Adults

Words: 1900 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67492568

(Torpy, 2007)

Some of the symptoms of ventilator assisted pneumonia may be the onset of fever, a higher white blood cell count, and a new or changing lung infiltrate that may be visible on a normal chest x-ray. Cultures taken as samples from the patient's airways may show the presence of microorganisms or bacteria and fungi that would eventually cause the dreaded ventilator assisted pneumonia in the patient. JAMA states that these risk factors may be eliminated to a large extent if the nurses and medical practitioners were to follow certain simple but essential steps in preventing the onset of the symptoms of pneumonia. First and foremost, the nurse must maintain a high degree of hygiene; he must wash his hands both before and after coming into contact with any patient, and second, he must try to keep the bed elevated to a 30 degree head up position, so that…… [Read More]

References

Druding, Mary. C. (1997, Aug) "Re-examining the practice of normal saline installation prior to suctioning" Medical Surgery Nursing, Retrieved 8 October, 2007 at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0FSS/is_n4_v6/ai_n18607505

Medscape. (2007) "Should Normal Saline be Used When Suctioning the Endotracheal Tube of the Neonate?" Retrieved 8 October, 2007 at http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/552862

Schwenker, Ferrin, M; Gift, a.G. (1998) "A survey of endotracheal suctioning with installation of normal saline" American Journal of Critical Care, vol. 7, no. 4, pp: 255-260.

Torpy, Janet M. (2007, Apr) "Ventilator assisted pneumonia" the Journal of the American
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Explaining Dental Biofilm to a Client

Words: 894 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83597259

Project Management, Sustainability and Whole Lifecycle Thinking

Explaining Dental Biofilm to a Client

While showing Pamela the pink/purple disclosing stain on her teeth, she comments "oh-that is from my lunch earlier today. I did not have time to brush before the appointment." espond to her comment by explaining what the disclosing solution showed.

Lark, while I understand your concerns about the results of your recent dental biofilm examination, I would like to take some time to explain the diagnosis in more detail to help alleviate those concerns. First, it is important to remember that dental biofilm is not a disease, nor does it result from poor dental habits on your part, as these naturally occurring collections of bacterial communities are simply microorganisms functioning as nature intended. You have probably heard of plaque, while that oral health issue is widely known, and the data obtained from empirical studies during the last…… [Read More]

References

Che'rel F, Mobilia A, Lundgren T, Stephens J, Kiger R, Riggs M, Egelberg J. Rate of reformation of tongue coatings in young adults International Journal of Dental Hygiene 2008 January;(6):371 -- 375

Collins FM. Biofilm formation, identification and removal. Pacific Endodontic

Research Foundation 2006 March;3(1)1-7

Hiyari S, Bennet, KM. Dental diagnostics: Molecular analysis of oral biofilms. The Journal of Dental Hygiene 2011 Fall;85(4):256-63
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Gene Technology

Words: 1232 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32580332

Gene Technology

Genetically Modified Crop Plants

The term genetically modified organisms, popularly referred to as GMOs, constitute crops, animals and even microorganisms that have undergone development my man and technology. Through the great leaps man has developed in technology, it is now possible to 'create' organisms and plants through the combination of genes considered superior, resistant and quick-maturing. Farming and animal rearing land brings a challenge in the current world, due to population explosions. This trend has been brought about by the necessity to feed the ever-increasing food demand by world populations.

The world today carries over six billion people, a number that increases every day. The natural means of plant reproduction cannot support to feed this population due to the long time taken to grow to maturity, poor yields and the limited space for planting. Therefore, genetic modification has gained an edge in the development of such crops as…… [Read More]

References

Conway, G. 2000. Genetically modified crops: risks and promise. Conservation Ecology 4(1): 2. [online] URL: http://www.consecol.org/vol4/iss1/art2

McMichael, D. Costanza, R., H. Daly, C. Folke, P. Hawken, C.S. Holling, A.J. Pimentel, and D. Rapport. (2000). Managing our environmental portfolio. Bioscience 50: 149-155.

Deborah B. Whitman (2000) Genetically Modified Foods: Harmful or Helpful? (Released April 2000) http://www.csa.com/discoveryguides/gmfood/overview.php

Ellstrand, N. 2000. The elephant that is biotechnology: Comments on "Genetically modified crops: risks and promise" by Gordon Conway. Conservation Ecology 4(1):8. [online] URL: http://www.consecol.org/vol4/iss1/art8
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Pseudomonas Aeruginosa

Words: 1496 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97332427

Psuedomonas Aeruginosa

Pseudomonas aeruginosa

Epidemiology

The Gram-negative, motile, rod-shaped bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic killer that takes advantage of people suffering from medical problems (Van Delden and Iglewski, 1998).For this reason, P. aeruginosa is one of the most common nosocomial infection that occurs in hospitals. P. aeruginosa is responsible for causing 16% of pneumonia cases, 12% of urinary tract infections, 10% of bloodstream infections, and 8% of surgical infections due to hospital care. Patients who are immune-compromised are also susceptible to P. aeruginosa infections, such as patients undergoing chemotherapy, suffering from HIV / AIDS, recovering in burn units, and suffering from cystic fibrosis. With death rates ranging from 30 to 60% for these patients, P. aeruginosa is considered to be a significant threat to patient health.

Ecology

P. aeruginosa can switch between a free-swimming planktonic form and colonies enclosed within slime-protected biofilms attached to surfaces (Baltch and Smith, 1994,…… [Read More]

References

Baltch, A.L. And Smith, R.P. (Eds.). (1994). Pseudomonoas aeruginosa Infections and Treatment. New York, NY: Marcel Dekker, Inc.

Botzenhart, Konrad and Doring, Gerd. (1993). Ecology and Epidemiology of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In M. Campa, M. Bendinelli, H. Friedman (Eds.), Pseudomonas aeruginosa as an Opportunistic Pathogen (pp. 1-18). New York, NY: Plenum Press.

Hawkey, Peter M. And Kerr, Kevin G. (2004). Laboratory investigation of health care-associated infection. In P. Hawkey and D. Lewis (Eds.), Medical Bacteriology: A Practical Approach (pp. 331-354). Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.

Hurley, Matthew N., Camara, Miguel, and Smyth, Alan R. (2012). Novel approaches to the treatment of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections in cystic fibrosis. European Respiratory Journal, published online ahead of print, 1-19. Retrieved 23 July 2012 from http://erj.ersjournals.com/content/early/2012/06/27/09031936.00042012.long.
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Lab She Said Smiling No Wonder Your

Words: 1671 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 11799455

lab! she said smiling. "No wonder your grades are so awesome!"

Ann said hardly a word to me all year. Although she was in at least two of my classes each semester since I started at UTSA, I think that maybe Ann felt a little intimidated by me. Ann is an all-American college student, a woman from a small town Kentucky who had never left the greater forty-eight. The farthest place she had been to away from her home town was Los Angeles. On the other hand, I hailed from far-off Japan, a country she had probably only read about and seen pictures of on television or books. Because Ann was a science student and not a geography buff, I wondered in fact if she even knew where my home country was on a world map.

A love to research!" I told her enthusiastically, conscious that I wanted to make…… [Read More]

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Social Justice in Global Health

Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12906124

Blog: Place Within Populations

Blog -- Place Within Populations

How individual and community social behaviors and responses to the physical environment alter, disrupt, impair and/or damage the ability of human physiology to fight infectious diseases. The following concepts will be explored: drug resistant microorganisms, herd immunity, and re-emergence of vaccine preventable diseases, genetic susceptibility of some populations.

The idea that individual and social responses to the environment can impact human health, particularly with regard to the ability to fight off infectious disease is not new. As far back as the 1800s when John Snow connected an epidemic of cholera to sewage in the Broad Street pump, epidemiologists (as they are now known) have been making connections between behavior, environment, and disease. Some variables influence public health through policy rather than through medical practice. The public health system has labeled phenomena such as these social determinants of health (SDH). The World…… [Read More]

Gore, D.M. & Kothari, A.R. (2013). Getting to the root of the problem: health promotion strategies to address the social determinants of health. Canada Journal of Public Health, 104(1), e52-e54.

2. How the practice decisions of health care providers, health educators, health organizations, policy nation and globally. Consider the leadership and management roles of nurses in recognizing the global health implications of patient education, screening and care delivery management.

An unwillingness to accept health care advice from outsiders is not a trait buried in our historic past, as I will discuss in more detail below. Trust is more readily given to those who are live among us or who are like us in important ways. Dr. Shirley, who has established clinics and home visitation networks in the Mississippi Delta, can attest to the resistance to outsiders that seem intractable in local residents. Referring to the diseases born of poverty and obesity that are not prevented by traditional -- and even non-traditional -- approaches to healthcare, Dr. Shirley told The New York Times staff reporter, "I've been coming here for 40 years and nothing has changed" (Hansen, 2012). Could it be that this reluctance -- to let those outside of one's culture or ethnic group influence how things are done -- be a residual from the days when keeping to one's tribal practices meant greater survival rates? Scientists who study social collectivism and individualism have observed that the further away from the equator one goes, the more individualism increases and collectivism decreases. Their conclusion: equatorial environments are saturated with pathogens and colder environments are not. These researchers have attributed this difference to the
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Pathogens and Diseases Pathogens Are Common Characteristics

Words: 1909 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65625701

Pathogens and Diseases:

Pathogens are common characteristics of everyday environment as soil contains huge number of bacteria per cubic centimeter while air contains fungal spores. The existence of pathogens in everyday environment emanates from the fact that microorganisms are deposited through touching of various surfaces like tables. Pathogens can be described as disease-causing agents such as infectious microbes, and parasites. While the infectious microbes include viruses and bacteria, parasites include protozoa and fungi. Notably, microbes are only considered as pathogens if they cause harm or diseases since not all microbes are harmful (Koo, 2009). There are opportunistic pathogens, which are organisms that are normally part of the natural flora of the body. These organisms become harmful or pathogens after an invasion like the occurrence of an accidental injury or surgery.

Spread of Pathogens:

Since pathogens are common disease-causing agents, they spread in various ways to cause harm or illnesses. Some…… [Read More]

References:

ABPI -- Bringing Medicines to Life (n.d.), How Pathogens Cause Disease, The Association of the British Pharmaceutical Industry, viewed 17 April 2012,

ABPI -- Bringing Medicines to Life (n.d.), Pathogens Cause Disease, The Association of the British Pharmaceutical Industry, viewed 17 April 2012,

Canadian Committee on Antibiotic Resistance (2007), Infection Prevention and Control Best

Practices, Canadian Committee on Antibiotic Resistance, viewed 17 April 2012,
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Hygiene Proposal World Health Organization 2007 Estimates

Words: 1990 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 55741238

Hygiene Proposal

World Health Organization, (2007) estimates that more than 1.4 million people suffer form one disease to the other and HAI (Health care-associated infections) are the most important infections that occurs globally. In advanced countries, between 5% and 10% of patients acquire one or more infections within the hospitals environment while between 15 and 40% of patients-to-critical-care are estimated to be affected. In the United States, one out 136 patients acquire one or more infection in hospital, equivalent to 2 million cases yearly. In the UK, HAI causes 5000 attributable deaths yearly. There is substantial evidence that hand hygiene reduces the incidence of HAI and hand hygiene is the fundamental action that enhances patient safety. Despite the importance of hand hygiene, there is still an unacceptable low compliance with the hand hygiene policy within the universal healthcare system. (World Health Organization, 2007).

Fundamental objective of this project is to…… [Read More]

References

Dubberke, E.R. And Gerding, D.N. (2011).Rationale for Hand Hygiene Recommendations after Caring for a Patient with Clostridium difficile Infection. The Joint Commision. USA.

Klavs, I. et al. (2003). Risk factors and Prevalence of hospital-acquired infections in Slovenia -- results of the first national survey, 2001. Journal of Hospital Infection. 54:149 -- 157.

Klevens, R et al. (2007).Estimating health care -- associated infections and deaths in U.S. hospitals, 2002. Public Health Report. 122:160 -- 166.

Provincial Infectious Diseases Advisory Committee (2010). Best Practices for Hand Hygiene in All Health Care Settings . Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care.
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Meat Packing Industry

Words: 6838 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17615196

Safety and Health Issues in Meat Processing Industry

In the meat processing industry, health and safety issues are of vital importance, in view of the several risks arising out of microbial contamination of meat and the occupational hazards faced by workers. Past experiences have shown that microbial reproduction in meat and meat products can reach alarming proportions traversing across countries and even continents. The infamous mad cow disease and the foot and mouth disease in cattle has rattled the British meat industry for a considerable period, resulting in loss of image, confidence and erosion of profits. North America's main problem is the widespread prevalence of eschericia coli in meat, more commonly known as the hamburger disease. It is well-known that meat is highly susceptible to attack of bacteria and virus and hence there is a constant need to address this risk. When microbial activity sets in, the quality of meat…… [Read More]

References

American Meat Industry Fact Sheet: 'Worker Safety in the Meat and Poultry Industry', (2002) Available at www.meatami.com/content/presscentre/factsheets_infobits/FactSheetWorkerSafety.pdf. Accessed 11/28/2003

Brodeur, C. (n.d) Agriculture and Agri-food Canada - 'Meat Safety: The war on bacteria', Available at http://www.res2.agr.gc.ca/orda/pubs/art8_e.htm. Accessed 11/28/2003

Cannon, J.E et. al (1996) 'Pork Chain Quality Audit Survey: Quantification of Port Quality Characteristics', Journal of Muscle Foods (7), 56-62

Chesworth, N (1997) 'Food Hygiene Auditing', Blackie Academic & Professional, London
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Hygiene as a Pivotal Method of Preventing

Words: 3599 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 7707917

Hygiene as a pivotal method of preventing infection in a health care setting

Hand Hygiene as a Pivotal Method of Preventing Infection in a Healthcare Setting

Carpetti, G.M., Sandri, F., Trridapallli, E., Galleti, S., Petracci, E., & Faldella, G. (2007).

Nosocomial infection in very low birth weight infants. American journal of infection control, 36(6), 430-435.

To increase the chances of survival of VLBW infants, there are continued improvements in neo-natal management. However, the risk of infection during their stay in hospital is especially because they undergo diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. In order to eliminate the infections, and provide more chances of survival, the article suggests that hand washing is the only effective measure to prevent the transmission of microorganisms. In addition, it suggests that it is the most important precaution in infection control. In the study, sixteen VLBW infants, in the "before" period and five others in the "after" period…… [Read More]

References

Allerganzi, B., Pittet, D. (2009). The role of hand hygiene in healthcare-associated infection prevention. Journal of hospital infection, 73, 305-315.

Andrej, T., & Andreas, W.F. (2004). Hand hygiene: A frequently missed lifesaving opportunity during patient care. Mayo clinic proceedings, 79(1), 109-216.

Asare, A., Enweronu-Laryea, C.C., & Newman, J.M. (2009). Hand hygiene practices in a neo-natal intensive care unit in Ghana. Journal of infection in developing countries, 3(5), 352-356.

Carpetti, G.M., Sandri, F., Trridapallli, E., Galleti, S., Petracci, E., & Faldella, G. (2007).
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Conventional Methods of Waste Water Treatment

Words: 731 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44993840

Waste Water Treatment

Inadequately treated waste water poses hazards such as water-borne diseases and water-body pollution. People generate wastewater (sewage) in numerous ways, including laundry and toilet use. To prevent pollution and ensure public health, waste water ought to be treated adequately. Today, waste water is not so much a problem as it was in earlier centuries, a trend that is attributable to the development of efficient sewer lines and treatment plants, otherwise referred to as centralized wastewater collection and treatment facilities. Not long ago, however, these were not as effective as they are today, and worse still, were not available to a majority of the population. People used the conventional decentralized waste systems to take care of, among others, the black waters, and still managed to lead hygienic lives.

Septic Systems: these consisted of a "septic tank, the drain field, and the soil beneath the drain field" (NCSU, 2013).…… [Read More]

References

NCSU. (2013). Septic Systems and their Maintenance. North Carolina State University. Retrieved 2 May 2014 from  http://www.soil.ncsu.edu/publications/Soilfacts/AG-439-13/ 

Rapaport, D. (1995). Sewage Pollution in Pacific Island Countries and how to Prevent It. Center for Clean Development.

UNL. (2011). A Place in the Country: the Acreage Owner's Guide. University of Nebraska, Lincoln. Retrieved 2 May 2014 from  http://lancaster.unl.edu/acreageguide/waste.shtml
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Biological Warfare Dramatic Technological Advances

Words: 2144 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60918020

These efforts include: expansion of international efforts to prevent terrorist acquisition of biological agents, initiated Bioatch program to detect initial releases of biological weapons within the environment, launched food programs to carefully inspect foods for potential bioagents (with greater focus on foreign foods), expanded bioterrorism research (including Project Bioshield, a program to develop medical ripostes to biological agents), and increased medical stockpiles and training for dealing with bioterrorism attacks (Cordesman; Lindler, Lebeda, & Korch; Petsko; Fidler & Gostin). These efforts will help to both prevent the initial release of any biological agents within the general populace or environment, as well as effectively treat afflicted individuals and slow spread through appropriate treatments.

Once biological agents are released into the general population, the extent of disease spread and number of individuals afflicted will be significantly affected by the role and effectiveness of the government through quarantine and treatment (Cordesman; Lindler, Lebeda, &…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Cole, Leonard A. The Eleventh Plague. Macmillan, 2002. Print.

Cordesman, Anthony H. The challenge of biological terrorism. CSIS, 2005. Print.

Fidler, David P., and Lawrence O. Gostin. Biosecurity in the global age. Stanford University Press, 2008. Print.

Kortepeter, MG, and GW Parker. "Potential biological weapons threats." Emerging Infectious Diseases 5.4 (1999): 523-527. Print.
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Chemistry Remediation Chemistry at Chromium

Words: 1738 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16904162

Bioreduction will be most effective in the future if researchers and engineers can develop more effective means of delivering needed nutrients to the microorganism strands used in remediation efforts, as well as tailor site conditions as needed. In the final analysis, it seems most likely that a combination of extractive and immobilization techniques will produce the best results, by each removing aspects of chromium contamination that the other cannot effectively eliminate.

orks Cited

Camargo, F.A.O., Okeke, B.C., Bento, F.M., and Frakenberger, .T. "In Vitro Reduction of Hexavalent Chromium by a Cell-Free Extract of Bacillus sp. ES 29 Stimulated by CU2+." Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology 62.5/6 (Oct. 2003): 569-573.

Ciura, J., Poniedzialek, M., Jedrszczyk, E., and Sekara, a. "The Possibility of Using Crops as Metal Phytoremediants." Polish Journal of Environmental Studies 14.1 (2005): 17-22.

Kapoor, Anoop, and Viraraghavan, Thiruvenkatachari. "Remediation of Chromium-Containing Soils by Heap Leaching: Column Study." Journal of Environmental…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Camargo, F.A.O., Okeke, B.C., Bento, F.M., and Frakenberger, W.T. "In Vitro Reduction of Hexavalent Chromium by a Cell-Free Extract of Bacillus sp. ES 29 Stimulated by CU2+." Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology 62.5/6 (Oct. 2003): 569-573.

Ciura, J., Poniedzialek, M., Jedrszczyk, E., and Sekara, a. "The Possibility of Using Crops as Metal Phytoremediants." Polish Journal of Environmental Studies 14.1 (2005): 17-22.

Kapoor, Anoop, and Viraraghavan, Thiruvenkatachari. "Remediation of Chromium-Containing Soils by Heap Leaching: Column Study." Journal of Environmental Engineering 121.4 (Apr. 1995): 366-367.

Pagilla, Krishna R., and Canter, Larry W. "Laboratory Studies on Remediation of Chromium-Contaminated Soils." Journal of Environmental Engineering 125.3 (Mar. 1999): 243-248.
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Bioprocess of Monosodium Glutamate MSG

Words: 1940 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62730171

Monosodium glutamate, otherwise known as MSG, is a commonly discussed food additive used throughout the world today. While some countries use it minimally, and place high restrictions on its use, other countries use it on a consistent basis, in many foods. This paper will examine MSG, and its uses. Additionally, this paper will examine each step of how MSG is made, using fermentation. The discussion will include technical details of the process, the equipment commonly used, the use of enzymes and bacteria, as well as an examination of the product packaging and quality control procedures. Finally, this paper will include a brief description of the market of MSG, and the socio-economic aspects of the product.

Monosodium glutamate, or MSG, is the sodium salt of glutamic acid. Glutamate is an amino acid that occurs naturally in many foods known for their flavor, such as tomatoes and mushrooms. Additionally, glutamate is found…… [Read More]

References

Aida, K., Chibata, L. Nakayama, K., Takinami, K., and Yamada, K. 1986. Biotechnology of Amino Acid Production. Amsterdam: Elsevier, p. 215.

Ajinomoto Company, Inc. 1996. Production process of amino acids. Encyclopedia of Amino Acids. Tokyo, Japan: Ajinomoto Company, Inc.

Blue Diamond. 2004. History of MSG. Facts About MSG. Obtained October 18, 2004 from Direct Food Ingredients, LTD. Web site: http://www.directfood.net/bluediamond/history.asp.

DeSilva, F.J. 1997. Removing organics with ion exchange resin. Water Conditioning and Purification Magazine, 2, p. 5-8.
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Search of the Perfect Host the Origins

Words: 2829 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2247852

Search of the Perfect Host

The Origins and Specificity of Parasites

The door opens. You walk into the room. You hear your favorite music. You see your best friends. Your favorite drink is waiting on the bar. Smiling, the hostess approaches, "I did it all for you." Ah, what a dream - the perfect party, the perfect host! While such a fantasy may not always be the lot of the human guest, it is real life for many microbial visitors. Every parasite has its "perfect host," the one organism that is ideally suited to its needs. Of course, this perfect pairing of guest and host did not evolve by accident. Over the course of time, parasites have evolved in tandem with the organisms upon which they live. It is a unique relationship, the host organism providing a complete environment for the parasite. The parasite has so completely adapted itself to…… [Read More]

References

Evolution of Parasitism." (No Date). McGill University. http://martin.parasitology.mcgill.ca/jimspage/biol/evolut.htm

Murthy, Venkatesh L. (July 14, 2002). "An RNA Base Structure Primer." RNABase. http://www.rnabase.org/primer/

Parasites and Health: Ascariasis." (April 24, 2002). Identification and Diagnosis of Parasites of Public Health Concern. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

Simpson, Larry and Maslov, Dmitri A. (June 24, 1994). "RNA Editing and the Evolution of Parasites." Science. Vol. 264.
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Developing and Implementing a Kill Step Validation Program

Words: 10186 Length: 54 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49178036

Validation of Commercial Baking as an Effective Step to Control/Inactivate Salmonella in Baked Products

Major findings, analysis and conclusions

Description of the baking industry and baking emphasis in the United States.

Purpose and structure of importance

Description of the problem being addressed and its importance to the practice of applied food safety

Process of Consultation

Outline how the client (ABA) will be engaged and carefully define the problem

Identification of key stakeholders

Overview and feedback of findings and results

ecommended actions and dissemination of these recommendations

Plans for implementation and measurement

Major findings. The U.S. had approximately 167,600 baker positions available in 2012 and around 6% of these were self-employed (Bakery business, 2016). Although industry analysts project sustained growth in the U.S. baking industry, this growth will not be on par with other industries (Bakery business, 2016). Currently, the U.S. baking industry is a nearly $310 billion industry that has…… [Read More]

References

About us. (2016). American Bakers Association. Retrieved from http://www.american bakers.org/.

Albion, R. G. & Williamson, H. F. (1944). The growth of the American economy: An introduction to the economic history of the United States. New York: Prentice-Hall.

Bakery business. (2016). SBDC Net. Retrieved from http://www.sbdcnet.org/small-business-research-reports/bakery-business-2014.

Baking industry economic impact study, 2016). American Bakers Association. Retrieved from http://www.americanbakers.org/industry-data/.
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Epidemiological Study Proposal Nursing Hand

Words: 5318 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85369119

These are questions dealing with attitude and are the most important questions when doing qualitative social science research to gauge relationships among events. In addition to construction questions about attitudes, it is important to have the questions drafted in the correct format (Nachmias, 2008).

The Quantitative methodologies will be the statistical tests designed for the overall model to incorporate the information provided through one, two or all of the Qualitative data analysis methodologies. The tests used to determine the relationship between these "qualitative" factors and increases in Infection rates, will be the Chi-Square, Student's T-Test, ANOVA (to test for variations among the data), the construction of a Linear Regression Model and the calculation of the Pearson Correlation Coefficient, otherwise known as "R-Squared" (Nachmias, 2008).

These tests will be utilized in conjunction with a predetermined level of significance, or alpha. Since these tests will all be measuring the means and relationships…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Barrett, R. & Randle, J. (2008). Hand hygiene practices: nursing students' perceptions. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 17(14), 1851-1857.

Beggs, C.; Noakes, C.; Shepherd, S.; Kerr, K.; Sleigh, P. & Banfield, K. (2006). The influence of nurse cohorting on hand hygiene effectiveness. American Journal of Infection Control, 34, 10, 621-626.

Larson, E.; Quiros, D. & Lin, S. (2007). Dissemination of the CDC's Hand Hygiene Guideline and impact on infection rates. American Journal of Infection Control, 35(10), 666-675.

Roberts, C.; Roberts, J. & Roberts, R.J. (2009). Investigation into the effect of an alcohol-based hand product on infection rate in a nursing home setting. Journal of Infection Prevention, 10(4), 138-142.
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Earthworm Castings Earthworms Are Seen

Words: 2283 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86145068

This implies that decomposition process goes on activated by the young earthworms in the soil, given that the soil is loose, moist and rich in organic matter for the worms to remain alive. The bacterium which is present in the alimentary canal of the earthworm converts organic water to natural fertilizers. The chemical alterations that the organic wastes are put to consist of deorderising and neutralizing. This implies that the pH of the castings is 7 which is neutral. (the tasteful garden)

Vermiculture:

The Latin meaning of vermes is worm from which the term vermiculture has been derived. Vermiculture is a process wherein the process of composting, containing the addition of some species of earthworms used to improve the process of conversion of waste and produce an improve product. Vemicomposting varies from composting in a number of ways. Mainly, vermicomposting consists of a mesophillic process in which the microorganisms are…… [Read More]

References

Delahaut, Karen; Koval, C.F. Earthworms: beneficial or pests?

 http://grounds-mag.com/mag/grounds_maintenance_earthworms_beneficials_pests/index.html 

N.A. Advantages of Vermicompost. http://www.organicneem.com/neemvermicompost_advnt.htm

N.A. Beautiful gardens begin with great compost.  http://www.happydranch.com/articles/reference.html
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Positive and Negative Impacts of DNA Microarrays

Words: 2243 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88372260

positive and negative impacts of DNA microarrays, Genetic engineering and cloning on the society, environment and the living beings.

In the past years, people have heard much about the biological revolution and they have seen it coming too. Biology, with its modern discoveries, has not only influenced agriculture, medicine and economy but it has affected the nature of man as well. In today's era, where both, biology and technology are developing at a fast pace it is impossible for anyone to survive without having sufficient knowledge about science. The information related to scientific issues will enable the people to make good choices about their health, environment, surroundings and the society in which they reside. This information also enables the people to logically analyze different inventions and advancements in biology so that they can decide that whether the projected discovery is good for them or not. (Silva, 2008)

In the past…… [Read More]

References

Agarwal, N. The California State Summer School for Mathematics and Science (COSMOS), (2010).The pros and cons of cloning. Retrieved from The California State Summer School for Mathematics and Science (COSMOS) website:  http://cosmos.ucdavis.edu/archives/2010/cluster7/Agarwal_Nisha_Cloning.pdf 

Asbury, L. The European Arabidopsis Stock Centre, (2005). DNA microarrays. Retrieved from The European Arabidopsis Stock Centre website: http://arabidopsis.info/students/microarrays.pps

Brock, D. Brown University, (2009). Cloning human beings. Retrieved from Brown University website: http://bioethics.georgetown.edu/nbac/pubs/cloning2/cc5.pdf

Silva, K. Flinders University, School of Biological Sciences. (2008). Biology and society: A new way to teach tertiary science to non-science students. Retrieved from Flinders University website:  http://dspace.flinders.edu.au/xmlui/bitstream/handle/2328/12252/2006009592.pdf;jsessionid=507BB9A61E39EF7034A7C025D0896D59 ?
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Biological Weapons

Words: 1443 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52032389

iological Weapons: The 'Living' and Pervasive Weapons of Mass Destruction

The 'art' and methods of war have indeed gone a long way; from subsisting to crude metals and guns, human society has learned to manipulate Nature by using as one of its weapons of mass destruction organisms that create balance within the planet's ecosystem. Nuclear warheads, guns, and other artilleries and weaponry are no longer feasible arsenals of war, mainly because they are not energy- and economically-efficient, as biological weapons are. iological weapons, is identified as a destructive medium which "consist of living, infectious microorganisms that are disseminated as aerosols through the atmosphere... are generally invisible, odorless, and tasteless" (Falkenrath, 1998). These characteristics of biological weapons make it a feasible medium for destruction, especially between warring nations/societies.

This paper traces the origins and history of biological weapons, especially in the United States. In knowing its history, this research also looks…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Augerson, W. (2000). A Review of the Scientific Literature As It Pertains to Gulf War Illnesses, Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents. Washington, D.C.: Random House.

Falkenrath, R. (1998). "Unconventional Arms: The Threat of Biological and Chemical Weapons." Microsoft Encarta Reference Library 2002. Microsoft Inc.

Forsberg, R. (1995). Nonproliferation Primer: Preventing the Spread of Nuclear, Chemical, and Biological Weapons. Cambridge: MIT Press.

Lederberg, J. (1999). Biological Weapons: Limiting the Threat. Cambridge: MIT Press.
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Excessive Use of Antibiotics Alexander

Words: 949 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96397733

Chicken are treated with antibiotics and with a drug with contains arsenic. These drugs are given to birds when they are sick, and also, to make them grow faster. This treatment on birds is dangerous for humans because, if the meat isn't cooked well, people can fall ill, and the drugs that they were normally using would not destroy bacteria. This is because of the fact that excessive use of antibiotics on chicken made the bacteria develop stronger in its body and because the meat isn't cooked properly, bacteria are transferred in the organism, being immune to common drugs. This case is not only for chicken, but for the other animals, such as pigs, cows, etc. So, the meat or other products from chickens, pigs, cows that have been administrated antibiotics is not healthy, and can make people fall ill, with their affections being difficult to treat. ith these problems…… [Read More]

Works cited:

1. Amyes, Sebastian G.B. Magic Bullets, Lost Horizons: The Rise and Fall of Antibiotics (London: Taylor & Francis, 2001)

2. Levy, Stuart B. How Miracle Drugs Are Destroying the Miracle (New York: Plenum Press, 1992)
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Abandoned Oil and Gas Wells

Words: 2890 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56778534

"Individual odor thresholds range from 1 to 13 parts per million. Between 50 and 100 parts per million, it causes mild inflammation on the membrane joining eyeball and eyelid after an hour, loss of smell in two to 15 minutes and can burn the throat" (Lucas, ¶ 4-5). A person can tolerate a maximum concentration of 170 to 330 parts per million for approximately one hour without serious consequences. At 500 parts per million, however, the person loses reasoning and balance and possibly experiences respiratory disturbance. When a person is exposed to 700 to 1,000 parts per million for up to an hour, death may occur within minutes. Emissions In the journal publication, "A Guide to geothermal energy and the environment," Alyssa Kagel, Diana Bates, and Karl Gawell (2007), all of the Geothermal Energy Association, explain that the visible plumes rising from some thermal power plants consists of water vapor…… [Read More]

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Yellow River of China the

Words: 2517 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 59381254



Another consequence of the exploitative use of water resources is the destruction of mangrove forests and the fragmentation of the habitats of endangered species. The United Nations Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Flora and Fauna listed 189 endangered species in China among the 740 in the world.

Sand content is quite high in the Yellow iver. In the dry season, sand rises and flies up with the wind and soil desertization becomes severe. In addition, the iver's dri-up directly reduces the quantity of water for farmland irrigation. The supply of ground water decreases while the exploitation quantity of ground water increases. The results would include a deep crescent of ground water, a decrease of land evapo-transpiration, local climate drying, soil desertization, a reduction of biotic population and a simplification of biocommunity structure.

Another serious problem confronted in the Yellow iver is nitrogen contamination. A study found…… [Read More]

References

Federal Reserve Division. Country Profile: China. (Library of Congress, August 2006)

Retrieved April 23, 2007 at http://lcweb2.loc.gov/frd/cs/profiles/China.pdf b) Jiang, Gooming and Jixi Gao. The Terrible Cost of China's Growth. Part I. (Creative Commons, January 12, 2007)

Luo, Yufing, et al. The Lower Yellow River Basin: a System Dynamics Approach. ACIAR

Proceedings number 123. (Agricultural Water Management in China, September 2005). Retrived April 23, 2007 at http://www.aciar.gov.u/web.nsf/att/ACIA-6s79R7/$file/ACIAProc123WebPart3.pdf
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Liquid Would Be the Easiest

Words: 1097 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86233387



The following study suggests that whilst macro and micronutrients are conducive to plant growth it is water that has the greatest impact on, and is the most crucial regulator of plant growth and, when regulated, can lead to the highest growth spurt. The author of this study, therefore, wished to test the effects of a pellet, one of whose elements originated from a microorganism, powder that sourced from a microorganism, and water. The hypothesis was that whilst each would contribute to plant growth, the greatest amount of growth would emerge from the water and that even thoguh all plants in each of the other 2 studies initially received the same amount of water in their feeding / growth process, addition of water to the experimental study of the Brassica rapa would -- due to water's enhanced absorption capacities -- evidence enhanced plant growth.. Formulating these hypotheses in a scientific manner:…… [Read More]

Reference

Environmental factors effecting growth: Water and humidity extension.oregonstate.edu/mg/botany/env_factors.html

Higa, T. & Wididana, GN. (1991) The concept and theories of effective microorganisms. Proceedings of the first international conference  http://www.infrc.or.jp/english/KNF_Data_Base_Web/PDF%20KNF%20Conf%20Data/C1-5-015.pdf 

Kloeeper, JW & Schroth, MN (1981) Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria under gnotobiotic conditions. Phytopathology, 71, 642-644.

Millhouse, DE & Munneke, DR (1979) Increased growth of Nicotinana glyutinosa as partially related to accumulation of ammonium-nitrogen… Phytopathology, 69, 793-797
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Biological Weapons How Real Is

Words: 4788 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67241031

Having known the mounting dangers, many public health and bio-terrorism experts, members of Congress and some well-positioned ush administration officials convey increasing discomfort about what they think are flaws in the country's bio-defenses. Over the earlier years, awareness steps have been made, mainly in the large cities. ut most of necessary equipments are not available.

The federal government's standard answer to the anthrax assaults of 2001 and the warning of upcoming bio-terror attacks has been to accumulate huge amounts of drugs and vaccines to take care of or vaccinate sufferers or possible sufferers. However, these medicines are ineffective if there is no dependable system in place to quickly distribute and give out them to the disturbed populations early enough for the drugs to be successful. Regrettably, as of now, we do not have this strong, competent system in position in the United States. At the close of 2003, only two…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Analysis: U.S. Unprepared for Bio-Attack. NewsMax Wires. Retrieved from: http://www.newsmax.com/archives/articles/2002/11/10/114328.shtml. Accessed on 28 November, 2004

Biological Threat to U.S. Homeland is Very Real. 2004. Retrieved at http://www.aviationnow.com/content/ncof/view_19.htm. Accessed on 28 November, 2004

Biological Weapons and Threat Detection. Osborn Scientific Group BADD white paper. April, 2002. Retrieved at http://osborn-scientific.com/PDF/osg_wp_bw_041802.pdf. Accessed on 28 November, 2004

Brennan, Phil. Bio-terrorism Threat to U.S. is Real & Deadly. October 4, 2001. Retrieved at http://www.newsmax.com/archives/articles/2001/10/3/142304.shtml. Accessed on 28 November, 2004
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Living Things Are Characterized by the Following

Words: 4492 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61564004

living things are characterized by the following seven characteristics namely mobility, respiration, excretion, sensitivity or response to external stimulus, growth, feeding, and reproduction. Though there may be variations between animal and plant kingdom (ex, plants take in carbon dioxide and prepare their own food), these characteristics are commonly observed among all living things.

iology is a very broad field that encompasses the study of characteristics of living things. It includes botany, zoology and all other sub-disciplines that range from microbiology to evolution and ecology.

Evolution is the branch of biology that deals with the study of natural development of living organisms and the changes in them over time. Evolution refers to the heritable changes that occur in a population over a period of time. All the diversity that is observed currently in plant and animal kingdom can be ascribed to evolution over a long period of time.

Atoms are the…… [Read More]

Bibliography

1) Mark Rothery, "Cells," Accessed on Sep 20th 2005, Available from  http://www.mrothery.co.uk/cells/cellnotes.htm
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Microbiome Can Be Defined as the Sum

Words: 1528 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64994122

Microbiome can be defined as the sum of microbes, their genetic genomes and their environmental interactions in a particular environment. The word Microbiome was inverted by Joshua Lederberg, one of the giants of molecular biology to designate all microbes. He emphasized that microorganisms inhabiting the human body should be included as part of the human genome, reason on the influence on human body physiology (Predator, 2012).

However, microbes are seen to be the dominant life form of Earth. Its bacteria organisms which live on the plant are outnumbering all other bacteria combined. According to Joshua Lederberg, Microbiome bacteria dominate not only the planet, but also new people. However, the body of each one of us is ten (10) times more microbial cells than other cells which are contained in the human body (Predators, 2012). Therefore, the number of microbial genes in the human body is one hundred and fifty (150)…… [Read More]

References

NAS. Interplay of the Microbiome, Environmental Stressors, and Human Health [workshop], 27 -- 28 April 2011, Washington, DC. Washington, DC:National Academies of Sciences (2011). Available: http://tinyurl.com/4xotab3 [accessed 19 Jul 2011]

Rappaport SM, Smith MT. Environment and disease risks. Science 330(6003):460 -- 461. 2010. http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1192603

The Human Microbiome Project is an NIH program intended to characterize microbial communities at several different sites on the human body (nose, mouth, gastrointestinal tract, skin, and urogenital tract) and to investigate their role in health and disease.

The European Commission's Metagenomics of the Human Intestinal Tract consortium investigates associations between human intestinal microbiota, human health, and disease.
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Development of Oil and Gas

Words: 2370 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91618234

il and Gas

Development of Two Important Materials in Earth's Early History

According to scientists, Earth began its life 4.6 billion years ago, when cosmic dust collided to form increasingly large particles. These particles, after millions of years of colliding and increasing in mass, eventually formed the Earth, with a mass similar to what it is today (5.9736 x 1024 kg or 5,973,600,000,000,000,000,000,000 kg) . Soon, the Earth's atmosphere began to form, as well as various minerals within its core. Studying the Earth is a fascinating endeavor, yet one that comprises extensive research and writing. For the purposes of this paper, I will examine two elements that are of vital importance to human life today: oil and gas. In this study, I will thus speak both about the development of the two materials in the Earth's early history-how they developed, what factors contributed to this development, and when this development…… [Read More]

Oil and gas industries also comprise upstream and downstream exploration. The upstream process includes exploration and production and the downstream refers to refining crude oil and gas, distribution of the two and marketing. Some companies may be "fully integrated," meaning they have capabilities for both upstream and downstream interests; others only concentrate on exploration and production and are known as E&P companies. Furthermore, many companies operate nationally and internationally, while others are "independent." This short description of the oil and gas development process is very important because it can show how two natural fuels found in the Earth are utilized to improve our daily lives, for others' financial gain, of course. [16: "Overview of the oil and gas exploration and production process." Environmental Management in Oil and Gas Exploration and Production. Web. 19 Apr. 2011. < http://www.etechinternational.org/new_pdfs/lessImpact/AttAoverview.pdf >. ]

Conclusion

This paper has focused upon the development of the two fuels in the Earth's early history and has discussed oil and gas development, complete with how this development process took place, what factors contributed to it and how long it took. Furthermore, the paper has also analyzed the impact of oil and gas towards humanity and the complex process through which these resources are handled today, thus placing this paper's aim in a larger context and showing the importance of this study.
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Computing Pollution

Words: 1180 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 82536596

Computing Pollution

Computers are being used in applications that gauge the pollution in the air and water and other areas of the earth environment. These applications are useful in determining the source of the pollution and in assisting in informing researchers what might be done to reduce such pollution.

Air Pollution Emission

One such application in computing pollution is described in the work of Emad, Sayed, and Kassem (nd)[footnoteef:1] who report that smoke is one common source of air pollution. Specifically stated is that the "rising process of smoke depends on atmospheric ambient, meteorological conditions, emission parameters, such as the atmospheric stratification, initial emission momentum and temperature, wind direction and speed as well as turbulent behaviors, and so on." (Emad, Sayed, and Kassem, nd, p.1) The smoke dilution process and scope are of great interest to environmentalists since regional air quality is affected critically by dispersion of pollutants. eported as…… [Read More]

References

Emad, AA., Sayed, M.E., and Kassem K.O. (nd) Computer Simulation for Dispersion of Air Pollution Released from a Line Source According to Gaussian Model. Canadian Journal on Computing in Mathematics, Natural Sciences, Engineering & Medicine Vol. 1, No. 3, April 2010. Online available at:  http://ampublisher.com/April%202010/CMNSEM-1004-013.pdf .

Hemann, J. And Granger, B. (nd ) Parallel Computing with IPython: An Application to Air Pollution Modeling. Available online at:  http://conference.scipy.org/scipy2010/slides/josh_hemann_airpollution_acrobat.pdf 

Maringanti, Chetan and Chaubey, Indrajeet (nd ) High Performance Computing Application to Address Non-Point Source Pollution at a Watershed Level. Agricultural and Biological Engineering. Purdue University. Online available at:  https://engineering.purdue.edu/ecohydrology/Chetan/ASABE2009.pdf 

Swarms of Tiny Robots to Monitor Water Pollution (2002) Daily University Science News. UNISCI online available at:  http://www.unisci.com/stories/20021/0114026.htm
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Microbial Volatile Organic Compounds as Indoor Air Pollutants

Words: 4019 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 24251196

Air pollution pertains to substances and gases in the air that threaten health and life. Among these are pollutants and irritants, such as nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, and carbon dioxide; particulates, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), toxic substances and some natural substances, like pollen. ut most of the pollution comes from the by-products of industrialization - fossil fuel combustion, transportation, transportation, power plant emissions and those from other industrial processes. The burning of fossil fuels to generate electricity alone is the greatest source of air pollution in the U.S.A. These outdoor pollutants can undermine health and cause environmental disturbances, such as acid rain, and are toxic.

Studies show that we now spend more than 90% of our lives inside buildings and other constructed environments. ecause of this, such structures - including homes and office buildings - are constructed with energy efficiency and comfort foremost in mind. The installation of central heating,…… [Read More]

Bibliography

1. Alpha nutrition Programs. Indoor Air-More Contaminated Than Outdoor Air?

Medical Information

2. Ammann, Harriet M. Is Indoor Mold Contamination a Threat to Health?

Office of Environmental Health Assessments, Washington State Department of Health
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Symptoms of Periodontitis Smoking and

Words: 3837 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64949452



According to the research conducted by Silverstein et al., (2000), the pressure used to place the probe tip at the base of the periodontal sulcus is approximately 50 N/cm2 and at the base of the junction epithelium is 200 N/cm2. A tip diameter of 0.6 mm is needed to reach the base of the sulcus. Clinical inflammation does not reflect the severity of histological inflammation, and the recordings may not illustrate probing depth. Therefore, probing depth does not identify anatomical locations at the base of the sulcus. Probe tips must have a diameter of 0.6 mm and a 0.20 gram force (50 N/cm2) to gain a pressure which demonstrates estimated probing depth. This pressure is useful for the measurement of the reduction of clinical probing depth, which includes the formation of a long junctional epithelium as a result of treatment. but, different forces or diameter tips are essential for the…… [Read More]

References

Chaves et al., (1993). Clinical oral research. Journal of Clinical Periodontol, 139-43.

Fowler, et al., (1982). Histologic probe position in treated and untreated human periodontal tissues. Journal of Clinical Periodontology 9, 373-385.

Gerber et al., (2009). Clinical Oral Implants Research. Journal of Periodontology, 20(1):75-8

Heins, et al., (1998). Pain threshold values during periodontal probing: assessment of maxillary incisor and molar sites. Journal of Periodontology, 69, 812-818.
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Benefits and Risks of Genetically Engineered Foods or Organisms

Words: 2177 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61352608

GENETICALLY ENGINEERED FOOD OR ORGANISMS: SCIENCE'S ANSWER TO WORLD HUNGER

The introduction and use of genetically modified or engineered foods or organisms have attracted attention, mostly alarmed in recent years (WHO 2014). These foods are manufactured from organisms by artificially altering or engineering their DNA for nutrition purposes. This is done by infusing an edible plant gene into the organisms for immediate and ultimate purposes. One is to optimize production and increase the resistance to plant disease while tolerating the harmful effects of herbicides. Another is to extract them from genetically modified or GM microorganisms or animals for future use. Still another object or prospect is to alter the nutrients themselves in foods in order to control or prevent allergies they cause (WHO).

The target of the United Nations Organization's Millennium Development goals is to cut down the proportion of hunger this year into half (World Hunger Education Service, 2015).…… [Read More]

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Chatsko, M. (2013). Regulatory similarities between GMO foods and pharmaceuticals.

The Motley Fool: Interactive Data Managed Solutions. Retrieved on April 25, 2015

from http://www.fool.com/investing/general/2013/11/23/regulatory-similarities-betweengmo-foods-and-phar.aspx

CHGE (2012). Genetically Modified Foods. Center for Health and the Global Environment:
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What you can t'see can kill you or help you

Words: 428 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58177059

Classification of Microorganisms

The world is rife and full of what are known as microorganisms. These microorganisms, also known as microbes, come in a number of different forms. Five in total, these groups are viruses, bacteria, algae, fungi and protozoa. It is important to know why these different groups are classified differently and what each of them do. As is clear to most people, these groups range from the harmless to the useful and even the dangerous. Some groups are combinations of two or more. This brief response will cover each of these at a somewhat detailed level. hile microbes are not visible to the naked eye, they certainly have an effect on our lives.

As noted in the introduction, there are five groups when it comes to microbes. A virus, at its heart, is a microscopic organism that is a tiny bundle of genetic material. That material is shrouded…… [Read More]

Work Cited

Prince Edward Island. "The Microbe World." edu.pa.ca. N.p., 2016. Web. 26 Sept. 2016.
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Invasive Plant Species in New

Words: 2808 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 22444344

The shrub is fast growing and seeds can remain viable in the soil for as long as five years. It can lie in wait until growing conditions are optimum and then begin its life cycle. It can also spread via sucker propagation. The ability to do this is a key reason for the invasive nature of the plant. As buckthorn leaves fall to the ground, their leaves contain a high concentration of nitrogen, which can change the soil pH and create changes in the soil. This promotes the establishment of more buckthorn trees, but can create a hostile environment for other native plant species.

One of the key reasons why the spread of common buckthorn needs to be stopped is its ability to quickly create, starving other plants around it of needed light. It can prevent the generation of native plant species around it. However, this is not the most…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Aubry, C., Shoal, R., & Erickson, V. Grass Cultivars: Their origins, development, and use on national forests and grasslands in the Pacific Northwest. January 2005. USDA Forest

Service. pp. 23-27. <

http://www.fs.fed.us/r6/uma/publications/cultivars_maindoc_040405_appendices.pdf

>.Accessed November 6, 2010.
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Health Care Laboratory Technologists Clinical

Words: 928 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4142721

There are almost 60 programs accredited by the NAACLS for clinical assisting and phlebotomy. The Accrediting Bureau of Health Education Schools and the Commission on Accreditation of Allied Health Education Programs are two extra and relevant accrediting associations (Clinical Laboratory Technologist and Technician Career, Job and Employment Information, 2010).

Laboratory technologists and technicians must be licensed in order to be employed in a number of states; information concerning attaining the license is accessible from the State departments. Nongovernmental agencies, frequently a professional society, set principles and endorse those who meet or surpass their principles. Most companies in this field necessitate certification for new employees and for progression. Each business sets their own principles and is supported by diverse groups (Clinical Laboratory Technologist and Technician Career, Job and Employment Information, 2010). Lab technicians frequently must have a bachelor's degree and pass an examination in order to be licensed. Yet, the necessities…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, Occupational Outlook Handbook, 2010-

11 Edition, Clinical Laboratory Technologists and Technicians, viewed 2 October 2010,



"Career: Clinical Laboratory Technologists." 2010, viewed 2 October 2010,
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Jainism Began in the 7th

Words: 1101 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73940351

According to Aiken, this liberation is only achieved after twelve years as a monk and eight rebirths. Souls who do not achieve liberation are either reborn as another life on earth or suffer punishment in one of the eight levels of hell.

Once a householder undertakes the path to liberation of the soul, according to the Jain Center of America, he must take and follow the five vows:

Ahimsa -- nonviolence

Satya -- truthfulness

Asteya -- not stealing

Brahmacarya -- celibacy or monogamy

Aparigraha -- detachment from material possessions 'All the venerable ones (arhats) of the past, present and future discourse, counsel, proclaim, propound and prescribe thus in unison: do not injure, abuse, oppress, enslave, insult, torment, torture or kill any creature or living being' (Uttaraadhyayan Sutra)

Hibbets explains that ahimsa (nonviolence) is the most fundamental value to the Jains. Because they believe that all living things (animals, plants, insects,…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Aiken, Charles Francis. "Jainism." The Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 8. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1910. Web. 5 May 2011.

Anonymous. "Jainism." ReligionFacts. N.p. 18 January 2008. Web. 5 May 2011.

Hibbets, Maria. Extremists for Love: The Jain Perspective on Nonviolence. Beliefnet. N.p. Web. 5 May 2011.

"Jainism." Jain Center of America. Web. 5 May 2011.
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Nitrogen Cycle as the Most

Words: 641 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 6268048

When organisms higher on the food chain -- like human beings -- eat plants and other organisms lower on the food chain, they absorb and utilize the nitrogen that was originally fixed by these bacteria (Harrison 2003). In this way, the nitrogen from the atmosphere is able to make it through the entire biosphere. The cycle is not complete, however, until the nitrogen is returned back to the atmosphere. This occurs when higher organisms die, and decay (as well as metabolic process of other bacteria and fungi) converts the fixed nitrogen back to ammonia, or even further into nitrates which will eventually break down further and become nitrogen gas again, returning to the atmosphere (Kimball 2008). Sometimes the nitrogen products of decay return to the soil or directly to plants, and other byproducts can actually build up to toxic levels in soil and in the world's oceans (Harrison 2003). In…… [Read More]

References

Harrison, J. (2003). "The nitrogen cycle." Accessed 4 January 2010. http://www.visionlearning.com/library/module_viewer.php?mid=98

Kimball, J. (2008). "The nitrogen cycle." Accessed 4 January 2010.  http://users.rcn.com/jkimball.ma.ultranet/BiologyPages/N/NitrogenCycle.html 

UC. (2003). "Nitrogen." Accessed 4 January 2010. http://periodic.lanl.gov/elements/7.html
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Prebiotic Potential of Chitosans Prebiotic

Words: 6463 Length: 25 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28944082

1).

This teatment, albeit, does not poduce 100% chitosan, but basically poduces a mixtue of 10-15% chitin plus 85-90% pue chitosan, called "pue CC." In the U.S., chitosan constitutes a mixtue of appoximately7% chitin plus appoximately 93% chitosan. Outside of cost-effectiveness, the biological effects of chitin poduced fom each souce appeas identical. "Chitosan oligosacchaides (CO) takes chitosan a big step futhe," Matsunaga (2007 explains. "When CC is ingested, a small amount of it is boken down into vey small molecula paticles by the enzymes of the body, thus poducing CO. CO can also be manufactued by using an enzymatic pocess" (Matsunaga, as cited in Levine, p. 1). The body moe eadily absobs CO, although CO contains less fibe than egula CC.

In Case Histoy 1: Low Pulmonay (Lung) Function, Matsunaga (Levine, 2007) teats his fist patient, also his fathe, with the administation of CC. Pevious teatments had yielded no esults…… [Read More]

references and further reading you must purchase this article.

Lee, H., Park, Y., Jung, J. & Shin, W. (2003). Chitosan oligosaccharides, dp 2 -- 8, have prebiotic effect on the Bifidobacterium bifidium and Lactobacillus sp.

Elsevier Science Ltd. Retrieved November 2, 2009, from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6W9T-48BKR97-

2&_user=10&_rdoc=1&_fmt=&_orig=search&_sort=d&_docanchor=&view=c&_search

StrId=1075134506&_rerunOrigin=google&_acct=C000050221&_version=1&_urlVersio
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Biology Qs Microbes Exist All

Words: 1525 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89102749

Given a mosquito's vastly shorter life span, preventing the spread of the infection to more human hosts greatly reduces the number of viable parasites in existence (CDC 2009).

10)

There are several reasons that viral infections are more difficult to treat and diagnose than bacterial infections. For one thing, viruses are not truly alive, and this makes it difficult to kill them. They are essentially packets of genetic information in tough protein shells; there are no real biological mechanisms for medicines to disrupt. In addition, the virus' use of host cells as reproduction sites means that drugs used to attack the virus often als due damage to healthy cells and the body's natural defenses. The basic life cycle of an animla virus includes hijacking a host cell and reproducing until rupture, where the process continues in new host cells. Most viruses can remain viable indefinitely outside a host, so the…… [Read More]

Reference

CDC. (2009). "Malaria." Accessed 22 September 2009. http://www.cdc.gov/Malaria/index.htm
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Coli and IT's Filamentous Morphology

Words: 916 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98976208

"Elimination of these and other pathogens from the lower respiratory tract is made possible by an effective innate immune response, which is necessary yet potentially dangerous to the infected host."

E. coli Outbreak:

There have been numerous E.coli outbreaks over the years. Pakalniskiene, Falkenhorst, Lisby, and Madsen (2009) studied one of the larger single source outbreaks. On November 11th, 2006, there was an outbreak in Greater Copenhagen, Denmark. The director of a high school had contacted the regional health authority to report an outbreak of diarrhea and vomiting among guests of a school dinner party. A total of 750 people, nearly all of the teachers and students at the school, had attended the dinner. The evening, the first people became sick. Three days later, when the director made the report, approximately 200 to 300 teachers and students had reported gastroenteritis. It was found that the fresh basil used in the…… [Read More]

References

Cegelski, L., Marshall, G., Eldridge, G., Hultgren, S. (Jan 2008). The biology and future prospects of antivirulence therapies. Nature Reviews: Microbiology. (6). Retrieved May 7, 2009, from Proquest.

Hacker, J. & Blum-Oehler, G. (2007). In appreciation of Theodor Escherich. Nature Reviews. Microbiology, 5(12) Retrieved May 7, 2009, from ProQuest.

Justice, S., Hunstad, D., Cegelski, L., & Hultgren, S. (2008). Morphological plasticity as a bacterial survival strategy. Nature Reviews. Microbiology, 6(2). Retrieved May 7, 2009, from ProQuest.

Pakaliniskiene, J., Falkenhorst, G., Lisby, M., Madsen, B., Olsen, K., Nielsen, E., Mygh, A., Boel, J., & Molbak, K. (2009). A foodborne outbreak of enterotoxigenic E. coli and Salmonella Anatum infection after a high-school dinner in Denmark, November 2006. Epidemiology and Infection, 137(3) Retrieved May 7, 2009, from ProQuest.
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Biological Weapons Bioweapons Are Weaponry

Words: 1504 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9318820

" Encyclopaedia Britannica. 2009. Encyclopaedia Britannica Online. 22 Apr. 2009 .

Goldman, D. "The Generals and the Germs." Journal of Military History 73(2). Apr 2009: p. 531-569. Academic Search Complete. EBSCOHost. University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ. April 22, 2009 .

Guillemin, J. "Germ arfare Under the Microscope." Futurist 42(3) May/Jun 2008: p. 31. MasterFILE Premier. EBSCOHost. University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ. April 22, 2009 .

Kelle, A. "Strengthening the Effectiveness of the BT Control Regime -- Feasibility and Options." Contemporary Security Policy 24(2) Aug 2003: p. 95-132. MasterFILE Premier. EBSCOHost. University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ. April 22, 2009 .

Kellman, B. "Bioviolence: A Growing Threat." Futurist 42(3) May/Jun 2008: p. 25-30. MasterFILE Premier. EBSCOHost. University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ. April 22, 2009 .

Littlewood, J. "Biological eapons: Much Ado and Little Action." Minerva: A Review of Science, Learning & Policy 45(2) Apr 2007: p. 191-203. MasterFILE Premier. EBSCOHost. University of…… [Read More]

Works Cited

"Biological Weapon." Encyclopaedia Britannica. 2009. Encyclopaedia Britannica Online. 22 Apr. 2009 .

Goldman, D. "The Generals and the Germs." Journal of Military History 73(2). Apr 2009: p. 531-569. Academic Search Complete. EBSCOHost. University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ. April 22, 2009 .

Guillemin, J. "Germ Warfare Under the Microscope." Futurist 42(3) May/Jun 2008: p. 31. MasterFILE Premier. EBSCOHost. University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ. April 22, 2009 .

Kelle, A. "Strengthening the Effectiveness of the BTW Control Regime -- Feasibility and Options." Contemporary Security Policy 24(2) Aug 2003: p. 95-132. MasterFILE Premier. EBSCOHost. University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ. April 22, 2009 .
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Environmental Settings of the Cambrian

Words: 3368 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86724624

" (Sukumaran, 2004) Mutation is what results in the difference and may be utilized as a measure of the time that has elapsed since separation of the species from the common ancestor during evolution. This is a method of "inferring the divergence of time of clades from a common ancestor by means of gene/protein sequencing" and has been termed 'molecular dating'. The process is one in which there is a calibration of time in comparison to the Phanerozoic era fossil data and then expoliation is conducted for providing the estimation time for divergence of phyla. (Sukumaran, 2004; paraphrased) Indeed, if life did evolve as posited in the work of Charles Darwin then "the abrupt appearance of diversified life at the beginning of the Cambrian period was not explainable." (Sukumaran, 2004) However, Sukumaran explains that gradualism is not a central tenet to the idea that there has been an evolution of…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Fenchel, Tom (2002) the Origin and Early Evolution of Life. Oxford University Press 2002.

Wray et al., Molecular evidence for deep Precambrian divergence among metazoan phyla, Science, Vol. 274, pp. 568-573, 1996

Gon, S.M. III (2005) Trilobites of Chengjiang, China. 27 Apr 2005. Online available at  http://www.trilobites.info/Chengjiang.htm 

Gon, S.M. III (2007) Trilobites of the Emu Bay Shale, Australia 7 July 2007. Online available at  http://www.trilobites.info/Emu.htm .
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Adrenal Gland Keeping the Body

Words: 2250 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 25520423

S. Congress that the prospects of stem cell research were so vast that it could touch all the realm of medicine (Connor 2000). An unlimited source of embryonic stem cells will solve the problem of shortage of transplants. Embryonic stem cells will save lives by curing generative diseases of the brain, hepatitis, diabetes, leukemia, rheumatoid arthritis, muscular dystrophy and cystic fibrosis and diseases of the heart and kidneys. ut current laws restrict the use of stems cells on embryos less than 14 days old and for correcting fertility, reproduction or congenital disorders. The restriction is grounded in the belief that the embryo is a potential human being from the moment of conception. It thus possesses a soul and a dignity just like any other viable person (Connor). Previous scientific research presented evidence that genetically engineering cells could partly repair a defective immune system (Travis 2002). Two new studies bolstered this…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Bauer, D.G. (2005). Review of the endocrine system. MedSurg Nursing: Jannetti Publications, Inc.

Connor, S. (2000). Science: the miracle cure with a catch. The London Independent: Newspaper Publishing PLC

Degen. D (2008). Body organization and homeostasis. 1 page. Bones, Muscles and Skin. Pearson Education, Inc.: Pearson Prentice Hall

Farabee, M.J. (2006). Animal organ systems and homeostasis. 18 web pages. Estrella Mountain Community College. Retrieved on February 1, 2006 at http://www.emc.maricopa.edu/faculty/farabee/biobk/BioBookMUSSKEL.html
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Water Geography Part One Terms

Words: 2762 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16776764

But after local wastewater plants were "...upgraded and farms' management practices were improved, the amount of phosphorus declined and the copper sulfate was no long considered necessary" (Royte, 2007). The Times' story reports that to prevent the dumping of partially treated sewage water into the waterways, septic tanks need to be upgraded and "cleaning the water in sewage treatments plants even more thoroughly before it is discharged into the watershed..." is necessary. That will be quite a job, because "more than two dozen of the roughly 100 wastewater treatment plants that discharge into the city's watershed use a suboptimal cleaning process."

TO: The flooding problem. hy has it become a more serious problem in recent years? Taking New York City as an example of the problem and its roots, the New York Times article alluded to in the previous section points out that recently, as developers began clearing more and…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Clausen, Jan. (2000). Northwest Tribes Fight Against Formidable Odds to Save Endangered

Salmon. Nation. 270(3), 22-24.

Gelt, Joe. (2005). Managing the Interconnecting Waters: The Groundwater-Surface Water

Dilemma. University of Arizona. Retrieved Oct. 16, 2007, at http://cals.arizona.edu/axwater/arroyo/081con.html.
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Health Care the Black Plague

Words: 3052 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96435776

What might have otherwise been individual illness, limited to one or two cases of Ebola, was magnified in a hospital setting in which unsterile equipment and needles were used repeatedly on numerous patients." (Garrett 220).

Even with the significant accomplishment of learning to genetically engineer biologic material, the means did not exist to apply this new knowledge where it was needed most. Economic, social, governmental, and geographic barriers prevented this advancement from having the impact it could have. As a result, the microorganisms continued to outpace the medical scientists.

It is important to understand that, largely, what has determined the direction of the American medical industry during the post war -- for profit -- era has been the market for new drugs and treatments. It has already been established that this market is relatively unconcerned with those who cannot afford service: uninsured Americans and poor foreigners. Therefore, it should be…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Eckholm, Erik. (1993). Solving America's Health Care Crisis. New York: Times Books.

Garrett, Laurie. (1994). The Coming Plague. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux.

Herlihy, David. (1997). The Black Death and the Transformation of the West. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

Jennings, Ken and Kurt Miller and Sharyn Materna. (1997). Changing Health Care. Santa Monica: Anderson Consulting.
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Natural Resources and Energy

Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28885450

Natural Resources and nergy: Florida verglades

ffects of Agriculture

The verglades' freshwater ecosystem supplies vital services to the local population, such as the maintenance of South Florida's agriculture and drinking water (National Wildlife Preservation, 2012). However, these services are rarely accounted for in decision making in regards to land use and planning. As a result of the natural services being taken for granted, Agricultural scientists agree that modern agriculture faces an environmental calamity. Specifically, " the very nature of the agricultural structure and prevailing policies have led to this environmental crisis by favoring large farm size, specialized production, crop monocultures and mechanization" (Altieri, 2001).

The absence of diversifications and rotations of crops, necessary for the self-regulating process, induces the agroecosystems to rely on vast amounts of chemicals, such as fertilizer nutrients. Moreover, crops ineffectively absorb the chemical fertilizers, thus contaminating the surface and ground water. According to Altieri (2001), "In…… [Read More]

Effects of Human Population

In July 2010 the World Heritage Committee placed the Everglades on the "List of World Heritage in Danger" as a result of the reduction in natural water flows and the introduction of various pollutants from urban growth that reduce the nutrients necessary for ecological balances to occur naturally. Excess water flows at given times is also a problem for nesting animals that build in areas that would normally be elevated during dryer seasons. The Everglades is an aquatic ecosystem and the loss of the habitat for all the species that inhabit or migrate to the area is critical. Furthermore, the Everglades represents a dynamic region where saltwater meets freshwater. This acts to provide a replenishment area for the Biscayne Aquifer which in turn accounts for most of the freshwater supply for Southern Florida.

The increase of construction and related activities after hurricanes Katrina and Andrew have increased the amount of pollution emitted into the local system which in turn further increases the environmental threats for 14 endangered species, over 400 birds, and many mammals,
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Hospital Acquired Infections Popularly Known as the

Words: 1713 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3869727

hospital acquired infections, popularly known as the nosocomial infections in adults, specifically elderly adults. In this research paper, the focus is built on infections caught by elderly people and the preventions that can be taken as measures to eradicate the causes of this infection. esearch reports have been taken as references to describe the current situation of nosocomial infection spread in the American society and all over the world.

This infection is developed in a person after a visit to hospital within 48 hours or by patients who are discharged from the hospital and are diagnosed within 30 days of leaving the hospital. Patients who are diagnosed with such an infection carry diseases that are caused by fungal infections or through unsanitary conditions of the hospital environment (Norton, Barie, & Bollinger, 2008). Moreover, they catch infection through contamination from air droplets via sneezing or coughing and from contact with patients…… [Read More]

References

Allen, J.E. (2011). Nursing Home Administration. New York: Springer Pub.

Katlic, M.R. (2011). Cardiothoracic Surgery in the Elderly. New York; London: Springer.

Nelson, K.E., & Williams, C.M. (2007). Infectious Disease Epidemiology. Sudbury, Mass.; Toronto: Jones and Bartlett Publishers.

Norton, J.A., Barie, P.S., & Bollinger, R.R. (2008). Surgery: Basic Science and Clinical Evidence. New York, NY: Springer.
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Plasma & Rbc Plasma Constitutes the Majority

Words: 685 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94076051

Plasma & BC

Plasma constitutes the majority of whole blood volume, about 46-63% (Martini, Nath, & Bartholomew, 2011). Plasma is the matrix of blood, contributing to blood's unique composition. Plasma has three main components: plasma proteins, water, and other solutes (Patton & Thibodeau, 2009). Plasma proteins are too large in size to get across capillary walls; therefore after the majority of these proteins are synthesized by the liver, they go into the bloodstream and remain there (Martini, Nath, & Bartholomew, 2011). The majority of plasma proteins are albumins. Albumin's role is to contribute to the osmotic pressure of plasma; they also serve as carrier proteins, transporting various hormones and fatty acids (Tortora & Derrickson, 2011). Globulin is another plasma protein whose role is to transport ions, thyroid and steroid hormones, and lipids; they also contain our antibodies that help our immune system (Martini, Nath, & Bartholomew, 2011). Fibrinogin is an…… [Read More]

References:

Martini, F., Nath, J., & Bartholomew, E. (2011).Fundamentals of anatomy and physiology.. (9th ed.). San Francisco: Pearson/Benjamin Cummings.

Patton, K.T., & Thibodeau, G.A. (2009). Anatomy & physiology. (7th ed.). Missouri: Mosby.

Tortora, G.J., & Derrickson, B.H. (2011). Principles of anatomy and physiology. (13th ed., Vol. 22). Hoboken, New Jersey: Wiley.
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Role of Antibiotic Therapy in the Treatment

Words: 2560 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94718984

ole of Antibiotic Therapy in the Treatment of Periodontal Disease?

The objective of this work is to examine the role of antibiotic therapy in the treatment of periodontal disease. Also examined will be the delivery system, the type of antibiotics and efficacy as an adjunct to mechanical therapy in the management of periodontal disease. Toward this end, this work will examine the literature in this area of study including literature located in professional and academic journal and publications.

Sub-Antimicrobial Dose Doxycycline

The work of Preshaw, et al. (2005) entitled "Long-Term Treatment with Sub-Antimicrobial Dose Doxycycline Has No Antibacterial Effect on Intestinal Flora" reports a study that sought to determine if a nine-month regimen of subantimicrobial doxycycline (20 mg. bid) had an effect on either the intestinal or the vaginal microflora. The study involved 69 individuals with periodontal disease who were randomized to receive drug or placebo control for a nine-month…… [Read More]

References

American Academy of Periodontology. (2000) Parameter on "refractory" periodontitis. J Periodontol 2000;71:859-860.

Andrian E, Grenier D, Rouabhia M. (2004) In vitro models of tissue penetration and destruction by Porphyromonas gingivalis. Infect Immun. 2004;72: 4689 -- 98.

Chen C, Slots J. (1993) The current status and future prospects of altering the pathogenic microflora of periodontal disease. Curr Opin Periodontol 1993;71-77.

Chen C, Slots J. (2000) Microbiological tests for Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans and Porphyromonas gingivalis. Periodontol 2000-1999;20:53-64.
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Evidence-Based Solution to Reducing Incidence the Goal

Words: 2666 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63294087

Evidence-Based Solution to educing Incidence

The goal of this assignment is to increase my ability to appraise and synthesize evidence to provide experience a logical argument in support of a proposal for practice change, and to provide experience in designing a detailed implementation and evaluation plan for my project. I need to discuss my project plan with you.

An evidence-based solution to reducing incidence of hospital acquired infections through indwelling medical devices

Hospital-acquired or nosocomial infections are the fourth leading cause of disease in developed countries. The increased insertion and implanting of prosthetic or indwelling medical devices is a leading cause of these infections since the introduction of a foreign body significantly reduces the body's immunity and decreases the number of bacteria needed to produce an infection. Prosthetic or indwelling medical devices such as urethral catheters, suprapublic catheter, nasogastric tubes, hemodialysis catheters, central venous catheters, and tracheostomy tubes are associated…… [Read More]

References

Chambless, J.D., Hunt, S.M., & Stewart, P.S. (2006). A three-dimensional computer model of four hypothetical mechanisms protecting biofilms from antimicrobials. Appl Environ Microbiol, 72(3), 2005-2013. doi: 10.1128/aem.72.3.2005-2013.2006

Chu, V.H., Crosslin, D.R., Friedman, J.Y., Reed, S.D., Cabell, C.H., Griffiths, R.I., . . . Fowler, V.G., Jr. (2005). Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia in patients with prosthetic devices: costs and outcomes. Am J. Med, 118(12), 1416. doi: 10.1016/j.amjmed.2005.06.011

Cookson, S.T., Ihrig, M., O'Mara, E.M., Denny, M., Volk, H., Banerjee, S.N., . . . Jarvis, W.R. (1998). Increased bloodstream infection rates in surgical patients associated with variation from recommended use and care following implementation of a needleless device. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol, 19(1), 23-27.

Digiovine, B., Chenoweth, C., Watts, C., & Higgins, M. (1999). The attributable mortality and costs of primary nosocomial bloodstream infections in the intensive care unit. Am J. Respir Crit Care Med, 160(3), 976-981. doi: 10.1164/ajrccm.160.3.9808145
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Ethics Regulation Environment Health Technology

Words: 2741 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35622442

Hazards on the Hudson

Imagine, if you will, a sunny day. A boy and his father are fishing on the beautiful waters of the Hudson River. Excitedly, the boy yells, "I got a fish! I got a fish!" He reels it in and his father removes the hook from its mouth. Dad says, "That sure is nice one, son." He then tosses the fish back in the water. hen the boy asks why, the father explains that the fish in these waters are dangerous to eat. They contain high levels of Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs).

Since the middle part of this decade, the GE Company used PCBs to pack and insulate their electrical components. During this manufacturing process they managed to dump millions of tons of dangerous chemicals into the Hudson River. Now the EPA has ordered GE to help clean up the mess they created. The legal battle has been…… [Read More]

Works Cited

CleanupGE.org. Toxics on the Hudson: The story of GE, PCBs and the Hudson River. Retrieved at  http://www.cleanupge.org/pcbarticle.html  Accessed August 2002.

Clearwater.org. Fact Sheet 8: Hudson River PCB Pollution Timeline. News and Bulletins. 1997.

Retrieved at  http://www.clearwater.org/news/timeline.html  Accessed August 2002.

Dupont, Anna. Hudson River Interview Comparison Chart. 1999. Retrieved at http://www.marist.edu/summerscholars/99/pol/chart.htm Accessed August 2002.
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Mold Spore Analysis and Toxicity

Words: 4404 Length: 16 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 11291106

Mold Spore Trapping

Current Scientific Knowledge

People are exposed to aeroallergens in a variety of settings, both at home and at work. Fungi are ubiquitous airborne allergens and are important causes of human diseases, especially in the upper and lower respiratory tracts. These diseases occur in persons of various ages.

Airborne spores and other fungi particles are ubiquitous in nonpolar landscapes, especially amongst field crops, and often form the bulk of suspended biogenic debris. The term mold often is used synonymously with the term fungi. A more precise definition would specify that molds lack macroscopic reproductive structures but may produce visible colonies. Respiratory illness in subjects exposed to rust and dark-spored imperfecti fungi was described more than 60 years ago, and physicians worldwide now recognize a sensitization to diverse fungi.

Since fungus particles commonly are derived from wholly microscopic sources, exposure hazards are assessed largely through direct sampling of a…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Brinton, W.T., Vastbinder, E.E., Greene, J.W., Marx, J.J., Hutcheson, R.H., Schaffner, W. (1987). An outbreak of organic dust toxic syndrome in a college fraternity. Journal of the American Medical Association 258:1210-1212.

Ceigler, A., & Bennett, J.W. (1980). Mycotoxins and Mycotoxicoses. Bio-Science 30:512-515.

CDC. 1994. Acute pulmonary hemorrhage/hemosiderosis among infants -- "Cleveland, January 1993-November 1994. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR) 1994; 43:881-3.

CDC. 1997. Update: Pulmonary hemorrhage/hemosiderosis among infants -- "Cleveland, Ohio, 1993-1996. MMWR 1997; 46:33-35.
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Risk Assessment and Analysis

Words: 4889 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9423985

isk Analysis and the Security Survey

The following risk analysis and security survey report will be centered on the hospital as an organization. Vulnerabilities can be classified as crime opportunities, opportunities for breaking rules and regulations, opportunities for profiting and also for loss. By definition, vulnerability can be a gap or a weakness inside a security program that might be exploited by opponents to acquire unlawful access. Vulnerabilities include procedural, human, structural, electronic as well as other elements that offer opportunities to damage assets (Vellani and Owles, 2007).

A vulnerability assessment can be classified as a systematic method utilized to evaluate an organization's security position, assess the efficiency of current security infrastructure, as well as, recognize security limitations. The basic approach of a Vulnerability Assessment (VA) first measures what precise assets require protection. Subsequently, VA recognizes the protection measures previously being used to protect those assets, as well as what…… [Read More]

References

Brandon Region Hospital. (2012). Evacuation plan.

Brandon Region Hospital. (2012). Risk management plan.

Chung, S., & Shannon, M. (2005). Hospital planning for acts of terrorism and other public health emergencies involving children. Archives of disease in childhood, 90(12), 1300-1307.

Code Green Networks. (2009). Protecting Healthcare Organizations from Patient Data Loss. Retrieved from: www.codegreennetworks.com/resources/downloads/wp_patient_dlp.pdf
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Green Procurement for McDonalds French Fries

Words: 2155 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95857366

Green Sourcing Process for Mcdonalds French Fries

McDonald is a global and largest food chain specializing in fast food with more than 68 million customers. The company operates in 36,658 outlets across 119 countries. Major brands of Macdonald include French fries, cheeseburgers, hamburgers, chicken products, breakfast items, desserts, milkshakes and soft drinks. However, Mcdonald's French fries is the world most famous fries produced from premium potatoes, Shepody and usset Burbank. Mcdonald has been successful from selling the French fries because their fries are made up of one-third of French fries sold in the United States. In the last few years, Mcdonald has faced criticisms because of inability to follow green initiatives when procuring the ingredients used to prepare the French fries.

The purpose of this document is to provide recommendations to assist Mcdonald completing the Green Sourcing process for French fries. The report uses the following steps in providing the…… [Read More]

Reference

Blome, C. Hollos, D. & Paulraj, A. (2014). Green Procurement and Green Supplier Development: Antecedents and Effects on Supplier. International Journal of Production Research. 52( 1): 32 -- 49.

Birkin, F. Polesie, T. Lewis, L. (2009). A new business model for sustainable development: an exploratory study using the theory of constraints in Nordic organizations. Business Strategy and the Environment 18(5): 277 -- 290.

ESRC. (2008). Biological Alternatives To Chemical Pesticides. Sciencedaily. Economic & Social Research Council.

Greaves, J. (2015). Biopesticides, regulatory innovation & the regulatory state. University of Warwick.
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Polymicrobial Diseases of Animals and Diseases

Words: 972 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61791118

Polymicrobial Diseases of Animals and Diseases

Identify the research hypothesis and re-state it

The research hypothesis is that polymicrobial diseases found in animals as well as human beings are instigated by polyviral contaminations, polybacterial contaminations polymicrobial contaminations that involve viruses and bacteria, polymicrobial infections that involve fungi and parasites and polymicrobial infections owing to microbe-induced immunosuppression. These aforementioned illnesses are severe and whose etiologic causes are every now and then challenging to diagnose and treat.

What is the major issue at the heart of this publication?

The key issue at the core of this publication is the discussion of polymicrobial infections, particularly in human beings and animals. It also takes into consideration the etiological causes and the fundamental mechanisms of pathogenesis. It is imperative to note that polymicrobial illness is a fast developing and exceedingly studied field, yet at the same time signifies an ignored concept. Therefore, this article delves…… [Read More]

References

Brogden, K. A. (2002). Polymicrobial diseases of animals and humans.