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Philosophers such as John Locke and the Founding Fathers of the American Revolution demanded that the rights of the individual be acknowledged by the leading social governing body. But even today, the balance between the rights of the individual and the state is an imperfect one: to what degree do individuals have a right to critique the government, to set their own moral terms of the private behavior, and what ethical as well as legal obligations does the individual have to the community? America's intense individualism tends to deemphasize the obligations of citizens to others.
A third controversial development during this period was the development of capitalism. Before capitalism, the self-sustaining farm or fiefdom was the predominant economic mode. However, mechanized and specialized labor that took the form of wage labor where "humans work for wages rather than for product" became more common (Hooker, 1996, capitalism). Arguably, in a Marxist…
Hooker, Richard. (1996). Capitalism. European Enlightenment Glossary.
Retrieved August 3, 2009 at http://www.wsu.edu/~dee/GLOSSARY/CAPITAL.htm
Hooker, Richard. (1996). The divine right of kings. European Enlightenment Glossary.
Retrieved August 3, 2009 at http://www.wsu.edu/~dee/GLOSSARY/DIVRIGHT.htm
He commits depraved acts by which he offends God, his neighbor, and himself; shameful acts by which he defiles his name, his person, and his conscience; and vain acts which he ignores all things important, useful and necessary." It became the responsibility of man to scorn the present while making sure of the future with a correct set values. The soul God created is held by the malevolent flesh, and salvation is only possible only through holy living and good works and solely through the Church. At death, if the person's spirituality and belief was strong enough salvation will come. But nothing can help the damned.
Yet, for those who lived in the 1400s with the philosopher Giovanni Pico Della Mirandola, human life was considered so much better. Based on the Great Chain of Being, there were but two classes of people: Nobles and Commoners with man gradations in between.…
Middle Age Crusade:
The Middle Ages Crusades were a succession of holy wars initiated by the European Christian states against the Saracens i.e. The Moslem during this period. These holy wars were known as crusades because the term was derived from a French old word that means the cross. hile the crusades are classified into two major categories, they began in 1095 when Pope Claremont preached at the council of Claremont. The two categories of the crusades were the Principal Crusades i.e. The first four holy wars and the Minor Crusades i.e. The last four wars.
Causes and Objectives of the Crusades:
The Middle Ages Crusades were great military expeditions conducted by Christian nations within the European region to rescue Palestine's holy places from the control of Mohammedans ("The Crusades" par, 1). Therefore, the main cause of the crusades was war between Christian and Moslems that focused on the city…
Carr, Karen. "The Seventh Crusade." Kidipede - History for Kids - Homework Help for Middle School Social Studies. Dr. Karen Carr, 20 Oct. 2011. Web. 28 Dec. 2011. .
"Crusades." HowStuffWorks - Making You an Expert on Everything. HowStuffWorks, Inc. Web. 28 Dec. 2011. .
"The Crusades." Middle Ages. The Middle Ages Website. Web. 28 Dec. 2011. .
"THE CRUSADES TO THE HOLY LAND." JESUS CHRIST OUR SAVIOR. Jesuschristsavior.net. Web. 28 Dec. 2011. .
Middle Ages and the Renaissance are two historical periods in Europe that give interest to many philosophers, writers, and artists, among many others, in their study of how the Europeans, in their respective periods, lived their lives. In the study of the Middle Ages, sometimes also known as the "Dark Ages," and the Renaissance, also known as the period of "rebirth," similarities and differences can be presented based on the people's way of life, religion, culture, politics, arts and literature, and economy.
One main difference between the Middle Ages and the Renaissance is the way people value individuality. The people of the Middle Ages were guided by the teachings of their religion and church, which in contrast to the Renaissance whose people adhere more of individualism, valuing their potential of gaining achievements in life. Renaissance has been known as an era in which Europe emerged from depression and economic stagnation…
Annenberg/CPB. "Renaissance - Printing and Thinking."
Renaissance, What Inspired this Age of Balance and Order." 1997-2002.
Annenberg/CPB Learner.Org. 5 Dec. 2002. http://www.learner.org/exhibits/renaissance/printing.html
Chaffey Classes of '99, '00, & '01. "Contrasting the Renaissance and Later Middle Ages."
Technology and education were booming, as inventions of the cannon and gunpowder changed the face of war, compasses and clocks improved tremendously, and universities taught advanced mathematics in a new setting. These advances could only mean an introduction to a new age where war became civilized, everyday life became easier and books and education changed the meaning of the phrase "upper-class." Music and the fine arts flourished with the advent of new musical instruments and polyphony, and new kinds of paint for visual artists.
Large nations had been formed out of the smaller city-states, consolidating small kingdoms in Italy and England. France and England's Hundred Years' War put land and taxes into the hands of royalty. ut the people were growing dissatisfied with the Church which had instituted "papal indulgences," leading the wealthy to become more corrupt as they could purchase forgiveness. Pope Martin V replaced a series of popes,…
Donald Kagan, Steven Ozment, Frank M.Turner, (1993). The Western Heritage: Since 1300, eighth edition, Prentice Hall.
Barbara H. Rosenwein. 2001. A Short History of the Middle Ages. Broadview Press.
living in the Middle Ages. What new things are available for you to experience?
The prelude to modernism
The history that establishes origin and evolution of the modern society has its basis from the ancient time. Initially, the world and society featured various practices that today we may perceive as being barbaric and outdated. However, it is essential to acknowledge that it is through the various ages of revolution that the world has what it enjoys today. The beginning of the revolution era was the period of modernization, which began towards the end of the tenth century. Living in that era of modernization, the following are some of the experiences and events that happened to shape the society and world at large. In this year, there was increased danger to the Roman Catholic Church, which at that moment had the overall authority and recognition over the world dynasties. Thus, living…
Middle Ages and the Renaissance
The Medici Family was the most powerful and influential Florentine family from the 13th through the 17th century (Medici pp). This family produced three popes, numerous rulers of Florence, and eventually members of the French royalty (Medici pp).
From humble beginnings, the family achieved power through banking, in fact the Medici Bank was one of the most prosperous and respected banking institution in Europe, and it is from this base, that the family acquired political power, first in Florence, and then later throughout Italy and the rest of Europe (Medici pp).
Cosimo de Medici is considered to be the real founder of the family's fortune and in 1434, he controlled the government in Florence, and for the next sixty years ruled Florence although he had no official title (Medici1 pp). His son, Lorenzo, was also a powerful influence in Italian politics, yet like his father,…
Early Middle Ages
The fashion of designer Marc Jacobs, which appeared on the runway in the fall of 2008, could have been inspired by the fashion of European Early Middle Ages. The runway pieces, shown above[footnoteef:1], show five traits found in fashion of the early middle ages: simplicity, loose, color, layering, and head covering. [1: Style.com, (Accessed Nov 28, 2010)]
Women's clothing of the early middle ages was loose and somewhat shapeless. In the early middle ages, women wore ankle length gowns or tunics in layers. The under garment, called a chainse or cainsil, was a long white tunic usually pleated, made of fine linen that had long sleeves that fit at the wrists. The outer layer, sometimes hiked up to knee length adding texture and additional fullness, was shorter. For the outermost layer, women wore semi-circular cloaks which were long in the back and shorter in the front.…
Brooke, Iris. English Costume from the Early Middle Ages Through the Sixteenth Century. Dover Publications, 2000. Print.
Ancient, Early Church, Middle Ages, and Renaissance Civilizations to the Contemporary Western Civilization
Two primary civilizations had emerged to form the first civilization of mankind -- that of the Mesopotamia, and Egyptian civilizations. Although other important civilizations had been formed during the ancient times such as the Sumerian and Akkadian empires, the important contributions and use of innovations and progress of the three aforementioned civilizations had influenced and developed the Western Civilization of today, thus, the focus of this paper will be on the contributions of the Egyptian and Mesopotamian civilization to the present civilization of mankind.
One of the primary contributions of the ancient civilization to the Western civilization is the development of a water irrigation system. Through the development of water irrigation system, the Mesopotamians were able to cultivate plants as their food, giving way to the development of agriculture. The need to establish laws regarding irrigation control…
All classes of people during the Middle Ages were averse to bathing, as it was seen as a way to care for the body. The body was not respected in any sense, and was neglected as much as possible. Indeed, many saw the fleas and lice that resulted from a prolonged lack of sanitation and hygiene as simply part of the body and hence of sin.
The combination of early Christianity with the folk medicines and beliefs of the invading Germanic forces also resulted in a new conception of how healing was to be achieved during the Middle Ages. The root of disease was considered to be supernatural; the afflicted had sinned or was possessed by something evil. In earlier Germanic folk wisdom, it was also believed that illness resulted from noxious darts from elves, deleterious snakes, and venomous dragons.
During the time, there was a variety of options the…
Chivalry and knighthood were also important during the Middle Ages. From this group of men, we learned that people from this era had a tremendous amount of respect for honor and military duty. Other characteristics we associate with knights are generosity and loyalty. The Middle Ages also offered up wonderful literary achievements including Geoffrey Chaucer, who authored The Canterbury Tales. Chaucer said the fourteenth century included a "wealth if romances, lives of saints, contes, fabliaux, drama, history, biography, all of great interest and importance" (Chaucer qtd. In Barzun 232). Another great writer during this era was Dante Alighieri. hile there are many reason to think the Middle Ages were dark, history proves that they were not as backwards as some might think.
Barzun, Jacques. From Dawn to Decadence. New York: Harper Collins Publications. 2000.
Duiker, illiam, et al. The Essential orld History. Belmont: Thomson adsworth. 2008.
Barzun, Jacques. From Dawn to Decadence. New York: Harper Collins Publications. 2000.
Duiker, William, et al. The Essential World History. Belmont: Thomson Wadsworth. 2008.
Noble, Thomas, et al. Western Civilization: The Continuing Experiment. Vol. I. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company. 1994.
Health Care Access of Middle Aged Adults
In the 21st century, issues of health care access for middle aged adults is closely related with issues of class. There have been several, major, economic hurdles experienced by countries around the world, and we have yet to reach the year 2020. In countries such as the United States, more people are entering and remaining in the workforce out of necessities. Middle aged adults who have access to health care have substantial enough income to pay for part of all of the costs of their health care fees and transportation to/from the health care facility. Middle aged adults who have access to health care additionally have job flexibility so that they can take time away from their work schedule, or modify their schedules so there is time available to visit a health care facility. Such adults would also have a relative amount…
African-American Male Depression
The cultural group I selected for this assignment is African-American men. Oftentimes, there is an aura of hyper-masculinity that surrounds this particular cultural group (despite the best efforts of Western society to marginalize and disempower it), which is what attracted my attention to studying it. Moreover, I believe there is an interesting dichotomy between this perception and the sort of mental health problems that are precariously balanced by this group -- partially because of the systematic attempts to disenfranchise this group. On the one hand, it seems natural that those within this demographic should experience mental health problems because of the typical socio-economic problems to which they are frequently subject. The article reviewed for this assignment provides a fair amount of insight into this phenomenon, since it focuses on clinical expression experienced by African-American men, and provides information how to best treat this group for depression.
Bryant-Bedell, K., Waite, R. (2010). Understanding major depressive disorder among middle-aged African-American men. Journal of Advanced Nursing. 66(9), 2050-2060.
Canyon, S. (2007). "Verbal communication -- speaking so someone will listen." www.suecanyon.com. Retrieved from http://suecanyon.com/verbal-communication-speaking-so-someone-will-listen/
Patten, S.; Williams, J.; Lavorato, D.; Wang, J.; McDonald, K.; Bulloch, A. Descriptive epidemiology of major depressive disorder in Canada in 2012. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry. 60(1), 23-30.
The Middle ages were quite fruitful in inventing a number of discoveries that include the invention of the wheels, the invention of the plow, the harnessing the power of animals to pull wagons and plows and make their use for transportation, using the power of wind for sailboats, and the invention of writing and calendar (Ashcroft et al., 1989). These innovations collectively transformed the conditions of life for societies in the middle ages. These innovations had great effect in increasing the wealth of the population and developing complex social organizations. Although all of the innovations mentioned above were important, the plow was considered as the greatest potential for transforming social and cultural change (Duerr et al., 1985). It made the use of the permanent cultivation possible in a greater variety of soils, and thereby led to the widespread replacement of horticulture by agriculture. It also facilitated the harnessing…
1. Ashcroft, Bill, Gareth Griffiths, Helen Tiffin, The Empire writes Back. Theory and Practice in Post-Colonial Literatures. London, New York 1989.
2. Duerr, Hans Peter, Dreamtime. Concerning the boundary between wilderness and civilisation. Translated by Felicitas Goodman. Oxfod: Basil Blackwell 1985
3. Eckholm, Erik, "Two greybeards race against time to preserve a culture that few people can understand." In: The Sunday Independent, Johannesburg, 16.1.2000, p.12.
4. Fabian, Johannes, Time and the Other. How Anthropology makes its Object. New York: Columbia University Press 1983.
Errogenous Zones in Middle Ages, Renaissance, And Baroque
Art has always been used to showcase the desired and desirable in nature and in imagination. The definition of the erogenous zone is any body part that causes sexual desire or stimulation to increase. These zones can be located at various parts of the body and their sensitivity will be less or more depending on the individual. It has been argued that even before doctors made studies of these zones on the human body, the artists were already utilizing them in art to add a symbolic message of sexual desire and stimulation.
Besides the male and female genitalia, the most commonly known erogenous zones are the mouth and neck, chest and abdomen. Next to that are the fingers. Some find the feet and particularly the toes equally stimulating.
In the Middle Ages and entering into the early Renaissance, appreciation for the human…
Dark Ages or Early Middle Ages is that historical time period of the Western Europe that came after the collapse of the West oman Empire in the fourth and fifth centuries. It ended when the period of the enaissance started in the 15th century. The western civilization adopted a number of its ideas and institutions from the unstable and tumultuous events of the Early Middle Ages. It won't be incorrect to state that the culture in West in fact experienced a revolution in the Middle Age. The most important reason why Middle Age can be considered advancement in the humanities is that its effects influenced the world greatly. The significance of this specific time period "has been increasingly recognized as scholarship based on newly published source material, archaeological findings, and studies of demographics and migration patterns presents more accurate and detailed analyses of events and trends" ("Middle Ages," 2013).
Charles-Edwards, T.M. (2000). Early Christian Ireland. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press.
Dawson, C. (2003). The Making of Europe: An Introduction to the History of European Unity. London: The Catholic University of America Press.
Middle Ages from The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. (n.d.). Questia. Retrieved September 11, 2013, from http://www.questia.com/read/1E1-MiddleAg/middle-ages
Ridyard, S.J. (1999). Chivalry, Knighthood, and War in the Middle Ages. Sewanee, Tenn.: Univ. Of the South Press.
Naves During the Middle Ages -- Architectural Analysis
From a structural perspective, the basic timber roof possesses some problems, most notably its relatively flimsy structural integrity. It is easy to construct, requiring less manpower to lift it and to construct its support network, but provides relatively little resistance to the elements of snow and the wind. It is functional in the sense that it performs the sheltering function of shielding the building's inner dwellers, and encloses the building from the open air, but aesthetically is not satisfactory in providing the sense of 'reaching up to the sky' so important in Medieval cathedrals of the era, and of some import in castles and other symbolically significant structures.
Longitudinal barrel vault
This is the simplest form of a vault, consisting of a continuous surface of semicircular or pointed sections. It resembles a barrel or tunnel that has been cut…
Diabetes Among Middle Age Males:
One of the major public health issues among middle age males is diabetes since they are twice as likely to suffer from the disease as compared to their female counterparts. Generally, the rate of diabetes has increased in the recent past to an extent that 8% of the American population have the disease, especially children and adults. The main reason for the increase of the rate of diabetes is that the risk of type 2 diabetes increases with age. The other risk factors include an inactive lifestyle, being obese or overweight, a history of the disease in immediate family, and a diet with high sugar and low fiber. As the rate of diabetes has increased among children and adults, much increase has occurred among the male population, especially middle age males. Therefore, it is increasingly important to examine the major health risks incurred by the…
American Diabetes Association. (2002, January). Screening for Diabetes. Diabetes Care, 25(1),
S21-S24. Retrieved April 30, 2014, from http://care.diabetesjournals.org/content/25/suppl_1/s21.full.pdf
"America's Middle Boomers." (2013). Demographic Profile. Retrieved April 30, 2014, from https://www.metlife.com/assets/cao/mmi/publications/Profiles/mmi-middle-boomer-demographic-profile.pdf
David et al. (1994, May). Health Behaviors and Survival Among Middle-Aged Men and Women
Dark ages and the middle ages existed between fifth and fourteenth century. The Dark Ages observed traditional and modern clashes when there was no intellectual growth not only the public but also the kings and rulers of the countries were illiterate. The Roman culture was deteriorating and the intellectual growth in Roman society stopped. The Dark Age prevailed in whole of Europe and. It is stated that the period was a transition between the Roman height and the High Middle Ages. The Latin literature also fell and the progress could not continue. The social and cultural dominancy of the Europe over rest of world could not sustain. The history speaks that the social and demographic richness and achievements converted into social challenges. It was a time of backwardness for the rich as well as poor as compared to the Roman era when literature and literary growth was prevalent.
Brehaut. E., (1912), "An Encyclopedist of the Dark Ages," Concilio Toletano, Retrieved from:
Hall, F.R., (1980), "CHAUCER AND CHIVALRY," Knight Templar Magazine, pp.28
distinguishes the Renaissance from the Middle Ages lies in the sociological movements that defines each era. While there are certainly differences in almost every aspect of life - from art to theology - the two eras share common ground in that without one, there would not exist the other.
The era of feudalism that dominated the Middle Ages formed civilizations, communities and bonded like-minded families together. Territorial boundaries were drawn and each nation began creating it's own identity. Identities that were largely dependent upon location which determined agricultural capabilities, architecture, religion, and to some extent, leadership structure.
From this sense of community and working for the good of the people and the government that oversees that community, came the individuality and the humanistic values that dominated the Renaissance. With roots well-planted and generations of families growing up in the same house, in the same country, doing the same thing their…
CPR Instruction for Young and Middle-Aged Adults with infants and young children.
I will be teaching CPR for infants and young children to a population of young to middle-aged adults at ible aptist Church in Chickasha, OK. Those likely to take this course will range in age from 19 to 40 years old and are likely to be both male and female. This class will teach the highest level of prevention -- the support of life until medical help can arrive.
I determined the learning needs of this group by interviewing several people within the target population. I found that most of the adults in two Sunday School classes at this church knew little or nothing about how to perform CPR on infants and children. At the same time, the people I talked with expressed an interest. Those people were parents or grandparents of young children. In particular,…
Canadian Group for Emergency Training."Child/Infant CPR Course." Accessed via the Internet 9/20/05.
Smith, Donna, and Williams, Jessica. Date not given. "Don't Leave it to Luck: Learn Infant/child CPR." Toddlers Today at iParenting.com. Accessed via the Internet 9/20/05.
Staff writers. 2003. "Babysitting Is a Serious Job." USA Today, March, Vol. 131, pp 6+.
Mendicant Orders and the Artwork of the 13th and 14th Centuries
The advent of the mendicant Dominican and Franciscan orders in the medieval world came at a time when European Christendom was expanding its custodial religious shield, so to speak, about the continent. The architecture of the cathedrals, the stained glass windows, the ornate altar pieces, and the stylized woodwork all indicated in elaborate and grand ways the glory of God. Yet, as art, religion, society, politics and travel began to increase and grow at this time, the mendicant orders appeared like a salve -- a reminder of the need for Christian society to be humble, to be charitable, to be Christ-like and simple. The new style and format for art that emerged during the 1200s and 1300s were infused with the teachings and ideas of the mendicant orders, which swept the continent as a result of their bold simplicity…
It also widened her female audience much further than the small group of upper-class women with whom she was acquainted (ibid).
Overall, this work represented Lanyer as a complex writer who possessed significant artistic ambition and "who like other women of the age wrote not insincerely on devotional themes to sanction more controversial explorations of gender and social relations" (Miller 360).
In her work, Lanyer issued a call to political action by noting several Old Testament women who changed the course of ancient Jewish history through their bravery, humor and valor, and she recalled the favor Christ demonstrated to women in a variety of actions and by electing them as custodians of his salvational message (ibid 362). The story covered Christ's betrayal by male apostles, the arraignment before male authorities to whom Lanyer addressed complaints, and the account of Christ's procession to Calvary, the crucifixion and the drama of the…
Barish, Jonas. Ben Jonson. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1963.
Braun, Lily, and Meyer, Alfred. Selected Writings on Feminism and Socialism. Gary: Indiana University Press, 1987.
Castiglione, Baldassare. "The Courtier." In Three Renaissance Classics. NY: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1953, 242-624
De Vroom, Theresia. Female Heroism in Thomas Heywood's Tragic Farce of Adultery. NY: Palgrave, 2002.
Harley Davidson has traditionally targeted middle-aged white men. This target arises out of a couple of factors. The first is that most users do not rely on their Harley Davidson as their primary means of transport, so the purchase is discretionary. This skews the target demographic older because younger demographics do not have thousands of discretionary dollars to spend. The bikes are also priced at a premium, which further pushes them into an older target market. The image of freedom that the company projects is also symbolic -- Harley wants customers to reconnect with their youth now that their children have left the home, and to reconnect with the spirit of freedom in their lives.
The company has utilized both the cost element and the freedom element in its positioning strategy, but the product itself also reflects the positioning. Harley makes heavyweight and superheavyweight bikes, which inherently carry a…
Fournier, S. (1998). Consumers and their brands: Developing relationship theory in consumer research. Journal of Consumer Research. 24:4(March):343-72. Available 5/5/12 through ProQuest database.
Hagerty, J.R. (2011). Harley, WIth Macho Intact, Tries To Court More Women. Wall Street Journal (October 31). Available 5/5/12 through EBSCO database.
Harley Davidson. Accessed 5/5/12 at http://www.harleydavidson.com/en_US/Content/Pages/home.html
Gothic vs. Romanesque Architecture
The Romanesque and Gothic styles of architecture are key to the artistic development of the Middle Ages. They are they result not only of an aesthetical development, a natural consequence of improving socioeconomic conditions and a growing interest of individuals and groups to showcase their wealth and power with churches and other constructions, but also a result of technological developments. Indeed, many of the components of these styles came about as architectural necessities: to support the new constructions, technical innovations needed to be implemented and this sometimes translated into stylistic expressions.
This paper will investigate each architectural style in part, focusing both on a separate, relevant description of the main elements and on a comparison between the Romanesque and Gothic styles. To the degree to which this is possible, the paper will aim to showcase the description and the comparison with concrete examples from the civic…
1. Rolf Toman, Romanesque: Architecture, Sculpture, Painting, Konemann, (1997)
2. Banister Fletcher, A History of Architecture on the Comparative method (2001). Elsevier Science & Technology.
3. Helen Gardner; Fred S. Kleiner, Christin J. Mamiya, Gardner's Art through the Ages. Thomson Wadsworth, (2004)
4. Pevsner, Nikolaus. An Outline of European Architecture. Pelican Books. (1964)
Western ideas about romantic love came in large part from the classical Greek and oman past. However, they were also filtered through the very different culture of the European Middle Ages. One can trace the concepts that dominated Western thinking until recently to the mid-12th Century. Before that time, European literature rarely mentions love, and women seldom figure prominently. After that time, within a decade or two, all transformed. Passionate love stories replaced epic combat tales, and women were praised to goddess status (Brians). Since courtly love was often a very complicated and confusing social interaction, in the 12th century, Andreas Capellanus, or Andreas the Chaplain as he was known, wrote the Art of Courtly Love, including the "rules of love." Below is one of the lyrics of the 14th century by songwriter Guillaume de Machaut. Capellanus' corresponding rules are written as well.
I want to stay faithful,…
Brians, Paul. Study Guide for Medieval Love Songs. Department of English, Washington
State University. 23, May 2005.
Capallanus, Andreas. The Art of Courtly Love: The Art of Courtly Love, Book Two: On the Rules of Love. "Medieval Source Book." 23, May 2005.
Age Stratification and Methods of Social Networking
Old Age and Interpersonal Relationships
As the baby boomer generation ages, America becomes increasingly a senior nation. This has caused an increasing degree of scrutiny to be directed at the process of aging, and the effects which it has upon the social fabric of the nation. Only a few decades ago, as Grant McCracken puts it, old people were "expected to remove themselves from the public stage, to relinquish positions of influence and usefulness, to retire their claims to a place at the center of things." (2004) hether they were locked away in nursing homes or the back bedrooms of their own children's homes or quaint little apartments and retirement facilities, the elderly were generally like ideal children seen and not heard or noticed. However, increasingly middle aged and senior individuals are beginning to appear as vibrant actors in society and culture, boosted…
Mahoney, S. (2003) "Seeking Love" AARP Magazine (online). Accessed at http://www.aarpmagazine.org/lifestyle/Articles/a2003-09-23-seekinglove.html,25 Jun 2004.
McCracken, G. (2004) "Plenitude" Accessed at http://www.cultureby.com/books/plenit/html/Plenitude2p4.htm,25 Jun 2004.
Navon, A. & Sieger, M. (2000) "Pal Power: If friends are the gifts we give ourselves, it's good to be greedy. Hold on to the ones you've got -- and grab some more."
Time, Nov 13, 2000.
A) The authors surveyed 122 adults in three groups (young, middle aged and older) and expected that older adults would receive the most unsolicited advice and offers of support, and also more likely to find these unwelcome than the younger and middle aged groups. They found that older adults, especially those living alone, received fewer offers than the younger groups, but all groups had "the same level of unpleasant affect" (p. 227). Older people were particularly likely to find offers or advice unwelcome if their compentecy was questioned.
B) Most people in the study received advice from sugnifucant ithers such as spouses and relatives (58%), compared to 28% that came from friends and 14% from strangers, and 56% reported that knowing the person made them more liklely to regard the advice as pleasant (p. 236).
C1) All participants reported receiving more advice associated with everyday cognition, competence and…
Middle ange Theory of Self Transcendence
There are several nursing-related theories and these have the function of explaining, evaluating and applying the field in order to enhance quality of treatment. These theories are divided into three classes; low rang theories, middle age theories and grand theories. All these classes each have their specialized roles towards the improvement of the nursing practice dependent on the various treatment types they are concerned with. Middle range theories possess a number of well-defined models which are applied for experimental testing on a concept in order to determine if it is useful and effective in the nursing profession. Several active forms of middle range theories exists and they include those which are concerned with self-efficiency, empathy, human interactions, carrying out of nursing duties, reasoned action, adverse symptoms, self-transcendence etc. Generally, the benefits of these theories are evident when nursing challenges, especially those concerned…
Coward, D. D. (2003). Facilitation of Self-Transcendence in a Breast Cancer Support Group: II. Oncology Nursing Forum, 30(2), 291-300.
Masters, K (2012). Nursing Theories: A framework for Professional Practice. Sudbury, MA: Joones & Bartlett, LLC
McEwen, M. & Wills, E. M. (2011). Theoretical Basis for Nursing. China: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Reed O (2008). "The Theory of Self-Transcendence." In M.J. Smith & P.R Liehr (Eds.). Middle Range Theory for nursing (2nd ed.). New York, Springer.
Middle East Peace Talks
Many people view the Middle East as having been a powder keg for the last half-century. These difficulties started when other countries, such as Great Britain, made decisions in the region, including setting boundaries, that historically did not work out well. This has been the cause of strife in other areas of the world as well. However, rightly or wrongly, many Arabs in the Middle East view the strife as going back much further. They point to the start of difficulties at the Crusades of the middle ages. This points to a very significant and basic problem: history is written, and viewed, differently by different groups in the world. In the case of the Middle East, the issue is history -- whether it's the history of something that happened last week or events from the 12th century.
To solve this difficult problem, it is necessary for…
Age of the Universe
Understanding the origin of the universe and the mysteries behind the complex machinery has always been a fascinating subject for the inquisitive minded. Questions of the nature as to whether the universe is infinite or is it well confined within its own boundaries, the exact time period in which the universe came into being, the ultimate end and other cosmological complexities of the universe are rather intriguing. The inherent curiosity to unravel the secrets behind the universe has long driven scientists in to exploring the beginnings of our universe. In the process methods have been evolved which have more or less traced down the age of our universe. Let us have a brief outlook into one of the well-known methods available for calculating the age of earth.
Currently radiometric-rating technique is one of the valid methods of calculating the age of the universe. Radiometric…
Edward L. Wright, "Age of the Universe," Accessed on November 29th, 2003, http://www.astro.ucla.edu/~wright/age.html
Jon Covey, "Age of the Universe," Accessed on November 30th, 2003, http://www.ldolphin.org/univ-age.html
Author not Available, "Redshift: A Measure of Distance," Accessed on November 29th, 2003, http://www.channel4.com/learning/main/netnotes/sectionid237.htm.
This has caused a divide in Iran, where traditionalists want to save the old religious and moral values, while many people want to bring more changes to Iran, like democracy and true free elections. This has created a rift in the country, and has caused unrest and even hatred of western values. That is one of the things that has caused Muslim fundamentalists in Iran (and elsewhere in the Middle East), to declare a war on American and westernization. This shows that modernization is not always a positive change, and that some countries simply do not need or want modern conveniences if it means they come along with western values. It is a time of social change in the country, and it is certain that more changes will happen in Iran today and in the future.
Mahmoodshahi, eza. "Westernization: A New Motif for evolution in Iran." Published:12/15/2002.
Mahmoodshahi, Reza. "Westernization: A New Motif for Revolution in Iran." Published:12/15/2002.
Mirsepassi, Ali. Intellectual Discourse and the Politics of Modernization: Negotiating Modernity in Iran. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 2000.
Rinehart, James F. Revolution and the Millennium: China, Mexico, and Iran. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers, 1997.
Salehi, M.M. Insurgency through Culture and Religion: The Islamic Revolution of Iran. New York: Praeger Publishers, 1988.
On the point, Lachman & James indicate that an emphasis in "middle age is on separating from one's family of origin (though still remaining in connection), becoming intimate with a partner, developing skills in work, and rearing children. The emphasis in later middle age is on facilitation of others and the responsible use of power." (Lachman & James, p. 21)
Functioning in Late Adulthood
Evaluate this question: Is new cognitive development possible during late adulthood?
How could you use your answer in the pursuit of your anticipated career (clinical psychologist) direction for yourself and for others?
Though the subject will generally be in a state of cognitive decline with the onset of later adulthood, there are ways to stimulate new cognitive development. From the perspective of a clinical psychologist, this development must be stimulated through a clearer understanding of how older adults reason and retrieve information. According to Gates (2006),…
Bastable, S.B. (2008). Nurse as Educator: Principles of Teaching and Learning for Nursing Practice. Jones & Bartlett Learning.
Cantu, E. (2010). Middle Adulthood: Physical and Cognitive Development. University of Texas at Brownsville and Texas Southmost College.
Crawford, K. (2009). Physical and Cognitive Development in Late Adulthood. Metropolitan State College of Denver.
Gates, R.C. (2006). Late Adulthood-Cognitive Development. RCGates.com.
The author of this report is asked to answer to a number of questions relating to the Dark Ages. Specifically, the author is asked to define what "Dark Ages" means. Second, the author is asked to ask how this society unwittingly paved the way for a preservation of literature and art from the classical era. In particular, the author is asked to identify how Ireland was instrumental in this re-emergence. Finally, there is to be a summation of the Arthurian legend and how modern ethics is driven in part by this literature and dynamic and a definition of chivalric code is also to be offered.
In terms of history, the Dark Ages is the millennia or so that followed the end of the oman Empire. It refers to the cultural and economic downfall that ostensibly happened in Western Europe after the oman Empire was reduced to…
Fordham. (2013, October 9). Internet History Sourcebooks. FORDHAM.EDU. Retrieved
October 9, 2013, from http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/basis/roland-ohag.asp
MLT. (2013, October 9). Code of Chivalry. Medieval Life and Times. Retrieved October
9, 2013, from http://www.medieval-life-and-times.info/medieval-knights/code-of-chivalry.htm
They can go one of two ways, if they have social and emotional problems brought on by the divorce. They can spend their teenage years being wild and out-of-control, or they can spend them as a virtual recluse, rarely leaving their rooms except to go to mandatory functions such as school. Neither one of these options is very good, and both can lead to more problems later on in life.
When children become wild and hard to control, parents are often at a loss as to how to help them. It is difficult enough to control a wild, unruly teenager when there are two parents in the house, but much more difficult when there is only one parent. To compound the problem, that single parent often works two jobs or long hours to provide food, clothing, and shelter for himself or herself and the children. This absence from the house…
Ahrons, C.R. & Tanner, J.L. (2003) Adult children and their fathers: Relationship changes 20 years after parental divorce. Family Relations, 52: 340-351.
Amato, P. & DeBoer, D. (2001). The transmission of marital stability across generations: Relationship skills or commitment to marriage? Journal of Marriage and Family, 63: 1038-1051.
Biblarz, T.J., & Gottainer, G. (2000) Family Structure and Children's Success: A Comparison of Widowed and Divorced Single-Mother Families. Journal of Marriage and Family. 62: 533-548.
Hetherington, E.M. (2003) Intimate pathways: changing patterns in close personal relationships across time. Family Relations, 52: 318-331.
Asceticism and Its Influence in the Middle Ages on the Church
Saint Jerome, known for his austerity in the spiritual life, wrote to Celantia in the fourth century that the extent of one's "abstinence and fasting" is not to be confused with his state of perfection. In other words, a life of asceticism or penance is merely a means to perfection and not an example of perfection in and of itself. Asceticism was a term borrowed from the Greeks by the early Christians, who applied askesis, the Greek word for athletic training, to the spiritual life (Campbell). As men like Benedict and Augustine developed the ascetic lifestyle, the Church began to refine its sense of the practice of penance, meant to lead one to a state of holiness in the Middle Ages. This paper will describe the beliefs and practices of the major ascetics and how their ideas affected the…
Campbell, Thomas. "Asceticism." The Catholic Encyclopedia, Vol. 1. NY: Robert
Appleton Company, 1907. Print.
Trade and imperialism brought all the societies of the Near East into contact with one another during the Axial Age so that networks were established and goods and services flowed from society to the other. These networks also facilitated the dispersal of ideas, both religious and philosophical. By the end of the Axial Age, the foundations of Western thought had been laid by the classical philosophers in Greece: Socrates, Plato and Aristotle—and their ideas rooted in the observance of Transcendentals, or ideals, that individuals pursued through the cultivation of good or virtuous habits in their daily lives, spread to the next dominant empire in the West—the Roman Empire. This paper will discuss the transmission of technology, ideas (religious and philosophical), consumer goods, and germs from the end of the Axial Age to 1500 CE. It will also examine the treatment of indigenous people by expanding empires and conquerors as…
Prior to the emergence of the Middle Ages, the Dark Ages or period of Antiquity in the Roman Empire dominated the Western world. From the 3rd to 5th centuries, the Roman Empire was gradually experiencing chaos, being attacked by various tribes and societies from nearby territories outside the Empire. Ultimately, control no longer rested on the Emperor and his government, but solely on the military.
Amid the political and civil strife in the Empire was the emergence and gradual development of various religions in it. Among the leading religions in the Empire was Christianity, which strengthened with the establishment of monasteries, serving both as religious and political forces that directly influence the daily lives of the citizens of the Empire. However, another indicator that the Empire was under its Dark Age was the sudden emergence of other religions as well, brought about by the sudden influx of foreigners…
An explanation of how poverty impacts the experience of individuals in young and middle adulthood?
The vicious poverty cycle in young adults and middle-aged persons suggests the passage of lifelong impediments and problems from generation to generation. A few transmitted plagues include: lack of schooling/education, disease transmission, child labor for aiding parents in raising the family and no basic personal hygiene. Extremely low family earnings and adult joblessness give rise to an atmosphere that makes it virtually impossible for children from such households to attend school. Meanwhile those who are able to attend school fail to understand that hard work and dedication will be able to change their lives for the better, since they witness their parents regularly failing at this task (Dario, 2015).
The following experiences are also linked to poverty in young adults and middle-aged persons: Drug and alcohol misuse -- right from African slum-dwellers to American adults,…
Developmental cognitive occur starting age 50 moving end life.
Developmental and cognitive changes
The essay aims at exploring the developmental and cognitive changes that occur starting at the age of fifty years moving through end of life. The developmental changes are easily noticeable or observable, hence not much of literature or scholarly articles have been written about it. On the other hand a lot of materials, studies and researches have been conducted on cognitive changes because cognition is a key requirement needed in both the young and old to meet the job demands, challenges of education and day-to-day life of an individual (MacDonald, Hultsch, & Dixon, 2003, p 32-52).
Before the essays embark on the changes that occur at the age of fifty and beyond its important to consider the early changes right from when a baby is born up to middle life for us to understand the…
Anstey, K., Hofer, S., & Luszcz, A., (2003). Cross-sectional and longitudinal patterns of differentiation in late-life cognitive and sensory function: The effects of age, ability, attrition, and occasion of measurement. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General. 132, 470 -- 487.
Ball, K., et al. (2002). Effects of cognitive training, interventions with older adults. Journal of the American Medical Association, 288, 2271 -- 2281.
Dixon, R., De Frias, M., & Maitland, S.B. (2001). Memory in midlife. In M.E. Lachman (Ed.), Handbook of midlife development New York: Wiley (pp. 248 -- 278)...
Finkel, D., Pedersen, N.L., & Harris, J.R. (2000). Genetic mediation of the association among motor and perceptual speed and adult cognitive abilities. Aging, Neuropsychology, and Cognition, 7, 141 -- 155.
Cultural and Construction History of the Islamic Golden Age
The Islamic Golden Age is also known as the Caliphate of Islam or the Islamic Renaissance. The term refers to a system of political, cultural, and religious authority derived from the teachings of the Prophet Mohammed in the early sixth century AD. At its high point under the Abbassid Dynasty (eighth to thirteenth centuries AD), Islamic civilisation experienced a flourish of art and culture that blended Arab, Persian, Egyptian, and European elements (Kraemer). The result was an era of incredible intellectual and cultural advancements (Wiet). At the height of its power, the Caliphate controlled all of the present-day Middle East, all of northern Africa and into Spain, and as far east as the Indus Valley, making it among the largest empires of all time and one of the few states ever to extend direct rule over three…
"Diaspora" is a Greek term meaning "to disperse," or "to scatter," and is often applied to the Jews and their dispersion out of the land of Israel. Many scholars point to the year 588 B.C., when the kingdom of Judea was conquered by the Babylonians as the beginning of the Jewish Diaspora. ("Diaspora") The Jews were forced to relocate to Babylon where, even after the Persians conquered the Babylonians and allowed the Jews to return to Judea, many remained. It was also when the Babylonians conquered Judea that many Jews fled to Egypt, where they created a Jewish community in exile that continued for centuries. After the return of the Jews to Judea in 538 B.C., the entire area became embroiled in a series of conflicts that resulted in the creation of a Hellenic culture throughout the middle east. As a result, Jews spread out from their traditional homeland…
"Balfour Declaration." Avalon Project. Web. 8 Dec. 2012.
"Diaspora." Jewish Encyclopedia. Web. 8 Dec. 2012.
Technology in the Modern Age
Technology's Attempts to Address the Human Need in the Modern and Post-Modern Ages
Literary rouping One: The crisis of World War I and the lie of a technology's ability to sustain the human body and soul
as!" With this one word, Wilfred Owen's poem "Dulce Et Decorum Est" encompasses the sense of failure that many soldiers felt, regarding the promise of technology, throughout the duration of the First World War and during its immediate aftermath. In the previous era of capitalist industrialization, technology was seen, as part of the progressive movement and mechanized progress, as life giving and life-sustaining. However, the lie, in Owen's poem, of the value of technology, runs just as deep as the lie that it is sweet to die for one's country. The innovations of technology simply yield new ways for humanity to destroy other humans, based on arbitrary national groupings.…
Grouping Three: In a technological World, who is the 'I' that is writing this paper?
Samuel Lilley's 1914 text Past, Present and Future stressed the need that those who forget the past will have to repeat the past, until they learn its lessons. He wrote on the eve of war, in 1914, that history was the science of the future. To understand history, he suggested, is to understand humanity. However, this idea has since changed over the course of the 20th century, as science, has become the dominant modality of understanding the human condition and the perceived source of the reasons for the trajectory of humanity's evolution as a species.
The works of the soldiers of the first category of readings created a dichotomy of the 'natural' world of gas-free lungs and butterflies contrasted against the mechanized world of civilization, Latin, and the false glory of war. However, John R. Searle, whom addresses Consciousness as a Biological Problem from a late 20th century and early 21st century perspective implies that such impulses to violence are also natural and hardwired into the human, biological condition that creates the necessary conditions for warfare itself. To understand war, one must understand human biology rather than human history. The brain itself causes a sense of specificity and subjectivity, whether it is having a relationship with a machine, an element of the natural world, or another human being.
They made no references to their past occupations and engaged in no bickering or arguing. Couple Number 2 contributed less variety to the conversation, and talked almost exclusively about their recent medical problems. There was a dynamic of mutual irritation apparent between them that seemed to be related to the fact that the wife was responsible for monitoring all of the husband's medical tests and appointments and medications and that the husband was obstinate about complying with certain instructions from his physician. They never mentioned any interests and the husband made several references to having been a police officer for 28 years. When his wife responded to the other couple that maybe she and her husband would join their cruise someday, the husband dismissed it with an irritated wave of his hand and said "I need to be locked up on a ship like that like I need a hole…
Ekerdt, D.J. "The Busy Ethic: Moral Continuity between Work and Retirement." the
Gerontologist, Vol. 26, No. 3; (1986): 239-244.
The Progressives transformed America in a multitude of ways, some positive and some negative. Most importantly the situation offered voice to many who had not previously had voice, or at least gave permission to build one and created a completely different relationship between individuals, the economy and even government. Definitions used during the progressive era still apply to many attributes of social, political and economic reform today and many of the anti-corruptive checks and balances that were begun during the progressive era are lasting even into the modern information age. Diner contends that the progressive era marked an opening of opportunity for individuals and groups to help redefine American democracy in such a way that people might be better protected from industrialism, economic concentration and better allow the government or representative government to help control the destiny of the nation. (12) Most importantly Diner stresses that for many groups this…
Diner Steven J. 1998. A Very Different Age: Americans of the Progressive Era. New York: Hill & Wang.
Yet the Obama Administration has also vigorously pursed the war in Afghanistan against the Taliban.
The discovery of an offensive Iranian nuclear program combined with the suppression of dissenting voices after a corrupt election made adopting a conciliatory and more open position to Iran difficult, despite Obama's stated willingness to open talks with that nation. "I would say to those people who put so much hope and energy and optimism into the political process, I would say to them that the world is watching and inspired by their participation, regardless of what the ultimate outcome of the election was" (Solomon & Spiegel 2009). Even his tenuous statement that America supports all impulses towards freedom was controversial -- Iranian hard-liners used it as evidence of American interference in their internal affairs, while the president's right-wing critics at home said that it was not sufficiently strident. "Any push by Mr. Obama to…
"Obama's speech in Cairo." The New York Times. June 4, 2009.
October 31, 2009.
Solomon, Jay & Peter Siegel. "Obama says Iran must pick its own leaders."
In short, there are numerous reasons to state the need for intervention of school counselor during the middle years, all of which can be summed up under the discovery that middle school students perform better academically, consider more intensively their future, and possess more achievement -- styled goals when they are in touch with a mentor (Zirkel, 2002). Students, at all ages, make choices, but middle school students are likely, for the first time, to make autonomous and independent choices that may significantly effect the rest of their life. Students seek differentiation from parents, responsibility, and independence, and it is the role of the counselor to assist students with decision-making skills and to help them select choices that are healthy and growth promoting.
Other areas that students need assistance in dealing with are class electorates as well as negotiating their way between multiple teachers and new peer groups. This complex…
Akos, R, Konold, T., & Niles, S. (2004). A career readiness typology and typal membership in middle school. The Career Development Quarterly, 53, 53-66.
Cobb, N. (2001). Adolescence: Continuity, change, and diversity (4th ed.). Mountain View, CA: Mayfield.
Eccles, J., & Templeton, J. (2002). Extracurricular and other after-school activities for youth. Review of Research in Education, 26, 113-180.
Mahoney, J., Cairns, B., & Farmer, T. (2003). Promoting interpersonal competence and educational success through extracurricular participation. Journal of Educational Psychology, 95, 409-418.
Range Nursing Theory
A clinical nurse is generally involved with specialized research; for example, a clinical nurse specializing in oncology would likely be heavily involved in the treatment of patients with cancer, according to Andrea Santiago. That clinical nurse specialist (CNS) working with cancer patients may also create helpful protocols or other strategies to improve the delivery of services in a hospital (Santiago, 2013). This paper delves into the reasons why the CNS can (and will) benefit from the use of the middle range theory.
hat are middle range theories?
Judy Davidson (RN, DNP, CNS) explains that middle range theories are designed to "guide practice" for nurses (including clinical nurse specialists) and are "more focused than grand theories" because they zero in on a "single aspect of practice" and are not as general as grand theories (Davidson, 2010, p. 28). Moreover, because grand theories only offer a framework in terms…
Andershed, Birgitta, and Olsson, Kristina. (2009). Review of research related to Kristin
Swanson's middle-range theory of caring. Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, 23(3),
Davidson, Judy E. (2010). Facilitated Sensemaking: A Strategy and New Middle-Range Theory
Definition of Middle Adulthood
When people are in their middle adulthood that means they are in the middle part of their lives. These include the people from the ages of 40 to 64, however a lot of researchers also use an age much lower to that i.e. 30. Some other studies do not measure the middle adulthood from the age that they reach, but from the tasks and opportunities that they have achieved. Looking overall into the middle adulthood, the people in that age have settled down, have a family, are under responsibilities of their children, and other people in the community; their career as well is settled down and they are having a comfortable family life. After the definition of middle adulthood is made clear, the researchers state that it is important that the society creates some roles for these people that they have to fulfill in…
Baltes, P., Lindenberger, U., & Staudinger, U. (n.d.). Life Span Theory in Developmental Psychology. 569-664. Retrieved from: http://library.mpib-berlin.mpg.de/ft/pb/PB_Life_2006.pdf
Hutchison, E. (2008). Dimensions of Human Behaviour: Person and Environment. New York: SAGE.
Hutchison, E. (2011). Dimensions of Human Behaviour: the changing life course. New Delhi: SAGE.
Interdisciplinary Theory Evaluation
Middle range and interdisciplinary theories can significantly inform clinical practice. This is particularly true for Alberta Bendura's self-efficacy theory and Sister Callista oy's adaptation model. This paper evaluates the applicability of the two models in breast cancer care. First, a description of breast cancer is provided. Next, the two theories are summarized. Attention is then paid to critical evaluation of the two theories. Finally, the most appropriate theory for breast cancer care is highlighted.
Description of Practice Problem
Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer and top cause of cancer death in women across the globe (Jemal, 2011). Statistics indicate that breast cancer accounts for approximately a quarter of all cancers in women, with majority of the victims falling in the 40-49 years age group (Mousavi et al., 2007). Lifestyle factors such as smoking, physical inactivity, and unhealthy eating have been found to be the…
Bandura A. (1977). Self-efficacy: toward a unifying theory of behavioural change. Psychological review, 84(2), 191-215.
Jemal A., Bray, F., Center, M., Ferlay, J., Ward, D., & Forman, D. (2011). Global cancer statistics. CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians, 61(2), 69-90.
Jeng, C., & Braun, L. (1994). Bandura's self-efficacy theory. Journal of Holistic Nursing, 12(4), 425-436.
Kardong-Edgren, S. (2013). Bandura's self-efficacy theory. .. something is missing. Clinical Simulation in Nursing, 9(9), e327-e328.
Third Party Intervention in the Middle East
The headlines everyday report more violence in the Middle East than ever before. Television broadcasts offer viewers a barrage of suicide bombers, massacres, garden-variety atrocities of all types, and a group who hails themselves as "Freedom Fighters." With so many women, children, and others who do not support their position as victims, one must wonder for whose freedom do they fight? This conflict has been going on for many generations and with no real resolution, only a temporary lull in the fighting now and then.
The two sides of the conflict have been unable to resolve their differences to this point and the fighting and violence continues to escalate and involve more and more innocent victims. Due to their inability to resolve this conflict on their own, it is now necessary for third parties to intervene with solutions to end this senseless conflict,…
ABC News. Arafat-Sharon Timeline. http://abcnews.go.com/sections/world/popoff/dailynews/arafat_sharon_timeline_020418.popoff/index.html . Accessed May 5, 2002.
Guardian Unllimited. World trade Organization. 2002. http://www.guardian.co.uk/wto/flash/0.6189.380127.00.html . Accessed May 5, 2002
Jerusalem Post Internet Edition. May 5, 2002. http://www.jpost.com/NASAApp/cs/ContentServer?pagename=Jpost/A/JPArticle/Fu;;&cid=1020337077104 Accessed May 5, 2002.
Ramzy Baroud, So, How Do You Define A Massacre? Thursday, May 02, 2002. Palestine
Syndication, the power of networks like CBS and Viacom to relinquish and maintain their lesser competition like UPN through hackneyed reruns, was officially undercut by the age of in the internet, which saw middle school and college-age music junkies successfully distribute media for free online, en masse. The network era of the 1960s and 70s was one of the rerun empire, but the cyclical liberty provided by a wired audience forced TV networks to find new programming and reshape the "ancillary afterlife" of well-loved shows in the digital epoch. As a result, four major changes by purposeful agents to syndication directly preempted the death of the television at the hands of new media.
The first of these changes was a reanalysis of the "shelf life" of a program. While syndication remains an important aspect of the media world, it was been forced to mix reruns with a "collage" of marketing…
Bombadil and Treebeard in Middle-Earth
Middle-earth is the mysterious made-up setting in which the characters of J... Tolkien's story, The Lord of the ings, conduct their lives. As is evident in the name, Middle-earth is a continent located in the central (the middle) of the fictional world; it is not the entire universe or world, yet the characters that inhabit Middle-earth engage in global scale battles and wars with immense and long-lasting stakes. Treebeard and Bombadil are two of the inhabitants of Middle-earth are outwardly as different as could be imagined; yet they share a capacity to deal with adversity and to survive in an arbitrary and hostile world.
The character of Tom Bombadil is an engaging fellow -- he is spry for his age, has a teasing wit, and speaks in a whimsical, jolly, and rhyming manner (McCloskey, 2002). Bombadil tends to narrate his life, speaking in the third…
Humphrey, C. (Ed.) (1981). The letters of J.R.R. Tolkien. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin. Retrieved http://www.tolkienlibrary.com / booksabouttolkien/letters/description.htm
McCloskey, R. (Ed.) (2002, February - May). J.R.R Tolkien: Mythos and modernity in middle-earth. Wilmington, DE: The Chesterton Review. Retrieved web.archive.org/web/200060214120336/http://academic.shu.edu/Chesterton/PDF/Review_FebMay_2002.pdf
Tolkien, J.R.R. (1954). The two towers. Crows Nest, New South Wales: George Allen and Unwin.
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Town/Village Development in the UK in the Medieval Ages
Leicester Development in the Medieval Ages
Leicester provides an excellent example of fort-settlement-town-city development through the Medieval Ages. Controlled at different stages by the Romans, Anglo Saxons, Danish and, of course, Great Britain, Leicester shows the combined contributions, primarily of the Romans, Anglo Saxons and British in its development. Realizing the importance of these contributions, the University of Leicester has undertaken various archaeological projects to continually learn about the city's Medieval development and the Leicester City Council has undertaken a considerable preservation project, particularly of the marketplace area. Both the University and the City Council intend to uncover and preserve Leicester's rich history.
Backdrop: British to Roman to Anglo Saxon to Danish to British
Leicester is a city located at 52°38"06"N 1°08"06" in modern-day East Midlands, Great Britain (Google, Inc., 2006). However, it did not become an organized settlement until it…
Artsin Leicester/shire. (n.d.). Historic buildings and monuments, from Roman times to 1800. Retrieved from Artsin Leicestershire Web site: http://www.artsinleicestershire.co.uk/architecture/historic_buildings.htm
Chaucer, G. (2007). Chaucer's Canterbury Tales. Retrieved from Electronic Lierature Foundation Web site: http://www.canterburytales.org/
Geolocation. (n.d.). The Free Grammar School in Leicester, England. Retrieved from Geolocation.ws Web site: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/0b/Leicester_Free_Grammar_School_west_side.jpg
Google, Inc. (2006, July 2). Leicester, UK. Google Earth (Version 5.1.3533.1731) [Software]. Mountain View, CA, USA: Google, Inc. Retrieved from Google Earth Web site.
Comparing the Minoan and Sea People Civilizations, we find that the Minoans were largely successful because of their Island base and ability to use their technology for trading purposes; thus enhancing their own civilization as well as those they encountered. The Sea Peoples were likely an amalgamation of Mediterranean cultures, whose shipbuilding and warfare technologies allowed them to influence much of the coastal areas, just not as proactively or positively as the Minoans. It is likely that the Minoan culture, in fact, was hindered by a large volcanic eruption and subsequent earthquake and tidal wave, disrupting their ability for commerce. However, recent evidence suggests that although these disasters weakened the culture, it was likely the Sea Peoples who landed on the island, burned selected buildings and palaces, and looted the civilization of the best it had to offer. Similarly, the Sea Peoples appear to have assimilated into a number of…
Bachhuber, C, Roberts, R (eds.) 2009, Forces of Transformation: The End of the Bronze Age in the Mediterranean, Oxbow Books, London.
Bower, B 2010, Hominids Went Out of Africa on Rafts, viewed March 2012, http://www.wired.com/wiredscience/2010/01/ancient-seafarers / >.
Castleden, R 1990, Minoans: Life in Bronze Age Crete, Routledge, New York.
Chadwick, J 1976, the Mycenaean WOrld, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
One can therefore expect that Israel will benefit from an increase in knowledge-based industry that will continue to power employment and GDP growth.
Investment is a triple indicator: relative attractiveness of the country, the type of investment being attracted, and political stability or instability. In comparison to the U.S., all countries save Saudi Arabia are attracting more investment. One would expect that the U.S., as a relatively mature first-world economy, would be at a relatively lower level. The surprise in this analysis exists in both extremes: Saudi Arabia on the low side, and Qatar, Kuwait and Dubai on the high side. Israel's relatively low investment can be explained by the type of knowledge-intensive industrial development it is experiencing now.
Qatar and Kuwait are experiencing resource-extraction investment at record levels. The primary driver is natural gas expansion. Unlike oil, natural gas must be processed extensively by capital-intensive facilities before it…
(Novick, 1996) According to Novick practices that are developmentally appropriate and that contain culturally relevant teaching are: "...well grounded in human development and brain-based research..." (1996) The teacher must understand that today's schooling: "...takes place in a wider political context, one in which currently there is a great deal of anxiety and controversy regarding the nature of schooling, the economy, and our society, itself." (Novick, 1996) Schorr (1990) states that "methods and materials that promote active, experiential, inquiry based, cooperative learning activities lend themselves to accommodating a wide range of abilities and interests." (as cited by Novick, 1996)
SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION
It is critically important that the teacher of the middle-childhood classroom understand and apply in the classroom practice the theories as set out in this research in order to motive the students both on a group and individual level in their acquisition of knowledge and learning.
Bowers, C.A. & Flinders, D.J. (1990). Responsive Teaching. New York: Teachers College Press.
Bowman, B.T. (1992) Reaching potentials of minority children through developmentally and culturally appropriate programs. In S. Bredekamp & T. Rosegrant (Eds.), Reaching potentials: Appropriate curriculum and assessment for young children. Washington, DC: National Association for the Education of Young Children.
Bowman, B.T. (1994). The challenge of diversity. Phi Delta Kappan, November, 218-224.
Bowman, B.T. & Stott, F.M. (1994). Understanding development in a cultural context: The challenge for teachers. In B. Mallory & R. New (Eds.), Diversity and developmentally appropriate practices. New York: Teachers College Press.
The Egyptian King Faud (1922-36) repeatedly disbanded popularly elected afd governments, despite huge majorities, due to their distinctly nationalist platform. The fickleness of the British position is exemplified by their later coercion of King Farouk (1936-52) to appoint an enfeebled afd government due to their need for a neutral Egypt during the Second orld ar. This intense irony does not detract from the fact that the monarchs in Egypt and Iraq were very powerful political actors but were 'so closely associated with the structures of colonialization that they did not outlast them' (Owen 1992, 19). The British imperialists exploited the constitutional power of the King to dismiss any elected government of nationalists 'that threatened to tear up or amend the arrangements…defining Britain's rights' (Owen 1992, 19). Hence, once again, diminishing the authority of the regime they installed and creating a lack of respect for lawfully elected governments.
Pan-Arabism Causes Conflict…
Anderson, L. "The State in the Middle East and North Africa." Comparative Politics 20, no. 1 (1987): 1-18.
Ayubi, N. Over-stating the Arab State. London: Tauris, 1995.
Batutu, H. "Of the Diversity of Iraqis, the Incohesiveness of their Society, and their Progress in the Monarchic Period toward a Consolidated Political Structure." In The Modern Middle East: A Reader, by A. Hourani. London: Tauris, 1993.
Beinin, J, and Z. Lockman. Workers on the Nile. London: Tauris, 1988.
Based on the assessment of the sample features in terms of capital size and value of the property portfolio, an observation is made in the fact that a proportion is kept between the two. In other words, the property companies in Jordan, Egypt and Syria seem to be prudential and correlate their capital sizes with the values of their portfolios.
3. esults and analysis of the Jordanian property companies
The results of the implemented questionnaire are revealed throughout the table below:
c d e f g
x x x
x x x
x x x
Shortage of commercial properties
Availability and choice
2011, the world factbook, Central Intelligence Agency, https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook / last accessed on February 21, 2011
Dark Age and the Archaic Age
Having watched the lectures for the prior learning unit on video, I was prepared to enjoy the video lecture presentation for this learning unit. I previously found the presentation of lectures in the video format to be very convenient because I could observe at my own pace, rewind if I missed part of the lecture, have flexibility about when I was viewing the lecture, and not be distracted by the behavior or questions of other students. I acknowledged that there were some negatives to the video-learning environment, such as missing out on the organic and natural question and answers that develop in a live classroom setting, but had decided that missing those was an acceptable trade-off given the other benefits that I was receiving from the video lecture environment. Therefore, I was surprised to find that I did not enjoy the video lectures for…