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I take an oath of loyalty to the table / coated with white Formica, a cup full of pens, the ashtray / I dreamed that the State had passed out of existence / and with our children / we'd settled down in the three volumes of the / dictionary."(Shabtai, 39) Also, in Our Land he dramatically deplores the ugliness of his land. The poem is even more telling because of its many Biblical allusions. Thus, the people of God, as the Israeli used to be called are now murderers, and the land is covered in shame. In a violent, scathing image, Shabtai depicts the sky as the "broad buttocks of the murder" that has nothing of its original purity: "e quarreled / like the body parts of the man / who brought the milk of the lioness / down from the mountains / in the legend told by Bialik. /…
Ali, Taha Muhammad. Never Mind: Twenty Poems and a Story. New York: Ibis Editions, 2000.
Mert, Ozkan. So What? New York: New Direction, 2003.
Lehrer, Jim. "Unscripted: segments from the NewsHour with Jim Lehrer.(Interview)(Broadcast transcript)." World Literature Today 81.5 (Sept-Oct 2007): 8(4). General OneFile. Gale. 2 Nov. 2007 http://find.galegroup.com/ips/start.do?prodId=IPS .
Shabtai, Aharon. J'accuse. New York: New Directions, 2001.
Thorough reviews of the Q'uran have revealed that it actually forbids sexual oppression of women. Several and well-entrenched customary practices in the region, however, violate women's basic human rights. These practices include honor crimes, stoning, female general mutilation, and virginity tests. Women researchers and activists did not find a basis for these practices in the Q'uran (Ilkakaracan).
Modernization in the 19th and 20th centuries, the foundation of nation-states and the establishment of nationalist ideologies and the rise of the Islamic religious right have somewhat modified the conditions of the women in the Middle East (Ilkkaracan 2002). Social values have begun evolving and strengthening the activities of women's groups to produce change. New attitudes about sexuality, especially among young people, have spurred new and progressive legal and social changes and reforms. As a consequence, a new basis for new rights for women has surfaced concerning their sexuality and family status. The…
Abukhalil, a'sad. Women in the Middle East. Foreign Policy in Focus: International
Relations Center, 2000. Retrieved on December 13, 2008 at http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_hb42/is_30_5/ai_n28798892?tag=content;col1
Darraj, Susan Muaddi. The Case of Arab Feminism. Monthly Review: Monthly Review
Foundation, 2002. Retrieved on December 13, 2008 at http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1132/is_10_53/ai_84184713?tag=content;col1
Ali gives the reader the impression that there must be value in letting go of hatred and acknowledging the better emotions, such as those which are present in the former work by Ali, even if such purity is not the end to our means it is infinitely valuable nonetheless.
Eliaz Cohen writes of the universal historical struggles of power and control in the Middle East in Snow. (Cohen NP) Though Snow is a very brief poem, its conveyance of meaning is paramount to the history of the peoples of the Middle East. Cohen demonstrates that the world changing hands around the people makes it possible to see only the blood upon the snow rather than the beauty of the crisp white snow itself. "Snow on bleeding Jerusalem//as though bandaging her wounds//all rests in tranquility now//filling the cracks of yearning in the all//children in your streets Jerusalem//the children of Isaac and…
Ali, Taha Muhammad "Abd el-Hadi Fights a Superpower" & After We Die" Radical Teacher, Spring 2005 72-15 Retrieved November 10, 2007 from Academic Search Premier.
Cohen, Eliaz Snow Retrieved Novemeber 10, 2007 at http://www.pbs.org/newshour/indepth_coverage/entertainment/poetry/profiles/poet_ecohen.html
Cooke, Miriam, and Roshni Rustomji-Kerns, eds. Blood into Ink: South Asian and Middle Eastern Women Write War. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1994.
Karlinsky, Nahum. "California Dreaming: Adapting the "California Model" to the Jewish Citrus Industry in Palestine, 1917-1939." Israel Studies 5.1 (2000): 24-40.
Mahfouz was the first Arab to ever win the Nobel Prize for literature, while Orhan Pamuk was the first Turkish individual to win a Nobel Prize at all. In contrast to Mahfouz who criticized his nation's government only indirectly, Pamuk's open criticism of Turkish government practices outside of his fictional universe made him something of a cause celeb for human-rights organizations and writers' unions. Rather than praise, right-win Turkish patriots lobbied for punishing him under Article 301 of the Turkish criminal code. Article #01 bans expressions of speech that could be considered critical of the Turkish culture, and carries a penalty of up to three years in prison ("In Istanbul, a writer awaits her day in court," the Guardian, 2006). The feminist Turkish author Elif Shafak suffered a similar fate upon the publication of her novel the Bastard of Istanbul.
In the eyes of some esterners, the condemnation of both…
Elif Shafak." All Things Considered. NPR. 6 Feb 2007. 28 Oct 2007. http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=7217653
Eoan-Chuan, Howard. "Orhan Pamuk." Time Magazine. 26 Feb 2006.
28 Oct 2007. http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,1187233,00.html
In Istanbul, a writer awaits her day in court." The Guardian. Books. 26 Jul 2006.
Isma'ilis believe only the descendants of Ali and Fatimah can be considered the rightful caliphs. As the center of power weakened in Baghdad, Persian nobles ignored the caliph and established their own kingdoms. Toward the end the Abbasid only had Iraq under their control. In 945 the Buyids invaded Iraq and forced the caliph to recognize their prince, called a sultan, as ruler of Iraq. Another problem started much earlier with the Turks. Turks were used as soldiers and slaves. As Abbasid power began to wane they hired entire armies of Turkish soldiers. In 1055 the Seljuks, a Turkish group took over Baghdad. The Turks pushed all the way to Damascus in 1076. The Seljuks established a feudal economy and one where military service is the means of acquiring land. After the Seljuks defeated the Byzantium Empire in 1071, the Byzantines called on the Pope for help in defeating the…
Symbolism of the Veil
In almost any modern social environment, not dictated by the standards and restrictions associated with a non-secular institution it is difficult for most people, not just women to imagine living life behind the screen of a veil. Though it may seem that this is true only of western states that is just not the case. The reality of the fundamentalist resurgence of the legalism of the Islamic religion is also a shock in locations much closer to the heat of the matter. Many Middle Eastern and North African countries have enjoyed relative freedom from non-secular rule, in some cases as long as they have been post-colonial, independent nations.
A recent resurgence of fundamentalist rule in some countries has brought women's rights to the forefront of social debate. It is for this reason that the discourse of the veil and the veil itself are recognized as the…
Ahmed, Leila. Women and Gender in Islam. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1992.
Cooke, Miriam. "Women in the Middle East." NWSA Journal, Spring 1999, Vol. 11 Issue 1,
Inda, J. "Behind the Veil Debate." Unte Reader, March / April 1992 Issue 50, 23-24.
Rifaat, Alifa. Distant View of a Minaret and Other Stories. New York: Quartet Books, 1983.
exclusive title reference page) comparing contrasting middle-Eastern African terrorist movements. Your paper focus goals terrorist movements analyze methods involved.
Terrorism is one of the most significant evolutions in the international arena that the twentieth century has brought as more and more groups are formed and act to attain their objectives by the use of terror, be it violent or less violent. Having in view the magnitude that the 2001 effects had on the evolution of terrorism from a rather localized phenomenon to a global 'war on terror', it is important to understand the evolution of terrorism prior to 9/11. Looking towards the hottest area of the planet in what regards terrorism -- Middle East -- it is interesting to observe that many of these organizations have survived for a large period of time due to the manner in which they adapted not only their methods but also their objectives. From…
Lyman, P. (2004) The Terrorist Threat in Africa. Foreign Affairs, January/February 2004
Lyman, P. (2008) The War on Terrorism in Africa, from Harbeson, J. Africa in World Politics, Westview Pressi, extracted from http://www.cfr.org/content/thinktank/Lyman_chapter_Terrorism.pdf
'The Thousand-and-Second Tale of Scheherazade' contains specific references from the Koran" (Goodman). Thus, Middle Eastern literature's dependence on Islamic thought has spread far beyond the Middle East, and continues to influence other writings, as well.
Middle Eastern poetry often carries references to Islam, both implied and obvious. Another historian writes of an early poem celebrating Islam over tribal loyalties. He quotes, "My father is Islam, none else, / Though others boast of Bakr or of Tam-m. / Each of the tribes champions its pretender, / to make him out of noble stock" (Cachia 19). While this reference is quite obvious, many other writings use less obvious references, but still carry allusions to Islam, including many tenets of the religion, such as references to abstinence from drinking, living a spiritual life, and even punishment and/or enlightenment in the next world (Goodman). Others refer to visions of the Prophet himself, including miraculous…
Arkoun, Mohammed. Rethinking Islam: Common Questions, Uncommon Answers. Trans. Robert D. Lee. Ed. Robert D. Lee. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1994.
Cachia, Pierre. Arabic Literature: An Overview. London: Routledge Curzon, 2002.
Goodman, Martha K. "Using Middle Eastern Literature and Allusions in Class." Central Virginia Community College. 1992. 27 Feb. 2007. http://www.vccaedu.org/inquiry/vcca-journal/good.html
Law Enforcement Contact With Arab
SENSOY INDOO/OUTDOO ENVIONMENT
Law Enforcement Contact with Arab-Americans and Other Middle Eastern Groups
Chapter eight is a very diverse chapter. It explores everything from describe the historical background of the Arab-Americans to displaying the demographics of Arab-American populations. It also goes in detail to mention the diversity that is within the Arab-American and other Middle Eastern communities in the United States. Other areas that this chapter sheds light on were debating the effects of communication styles not to mention the group identification terms, myths and stereotypes. Also, chapter eight does a thorough job in discussing the family structure of Arab-Americans and other Middle Eastern groups for law enforcement. With that said, this essay will discuss and explain all topics in Chapter 8 Law Enforcement Contact with Arab-Americans and Other Middle Eastern Groups.
Arab Immigration to U.S.
Even though Arab-Americans in the past decade have been,…
Grinc, R. (2004). "Angels in Marble: Problems Stimulating Community Involvement in Community Policing. Crime & Delinquency, 40(3), 437-468.
Henderson, N. J. (2013). LAW ENFORCEMENT & ARAB-American COMMUNITY RELATIONS AFTER SEPTEMBER 11, 2001 . New York City: Vera Institute of Justice.
Shusta, R. M. (2014). Multicultural Law Enforcement. New York City: Prentice Hall.
Sloan, S. (2013). "Meeting the Terrorist Threat: The Localization of Counter Terrorism Intelligence.." Police Practice and Research, 3(4), 337-345.
The workforce participation by women is higher in industrialized countries than ME countries. The years of compulsory schooling are lower in ME countries and the illiteracy rates are generally higher. The GDP is generally lower in ME countries than industrialized countries, as is the GDP per capita. Most of the ME countries are predominantly Muslim, where the industrialized countries are predominantly Christian. The birth rates are generally higher in the ME countries and there is a higher ratio of men to women.
Human Capital and the Middle East
The co-efficient is 0.092.
The regression coefficient is 0.04.
2. The estimated rate of return would be calculated using:
0.092x + e3.309 where x is the number of years schooling.
So the estimated return of 1 year of schooling would be $27.4.
As the regressions obtained are quite similar between the ME countries and industrialized countries it would be suggested…
Nationmaster (2007) Retrieved October 22, 2007, at http://www.nationmaster.com .
The World Factbook (2007) CIA. Retrieved October 22, 2007, from
treatment of Western women to treatment of Middle Eastern women
This paper will compare the treatment of women in the West with the treatment of women from the Middle East. It should be borne in mind that the term 'Middle East' is a term constructed by people of the West to describe an area in which the West has a military interest; there is no such geographic area as the 'Middle East'. Further, the peoples of the Middle East are very heterogeneous, including people from Turkey, Iran, the Kurds, Armenians, Israelis, Palestinians, and others from a wide variety of Arab countries. earing these considerations in mind, therefore, in order to give some generalization to this paper, I will use a religious axis upon which to base my study of the treatment of women in the Middle East: the treatment of Middle Eastern women following Islam, and those following Judaism, will…
Abdel Azeem, S. Women in Islam vs. Women in the Judaeo-Christian tradition: The Myth and Reality.
Mahnaz Murshid, T. Women, Islam and the State: Subordination and Resistance.
Rahman, A. Women in Society.
Baghdad Diaries Persepolis
Nuha al-Radi's Baghdad Diaries: A oman's Chronicle of ar and Exile and Persepolis: The Story of a Childhood, and Marjane Satrapi's illustrated story, Persepolis: The Story of a Childhood, reveal profound insights about the impact of war. These novels examine how Iraqis and Iranians cope with the profound uncertainty, political repression, deprivation, and war that have impacted their homelands in recent years. Ultimately, al-Radi's novel gives an intimate portrait of the effect of war on the ordinary Iraqi, but fails to provide a larger ideological or political context. In contrast, Satrapi's Persepolis provides a complex understanding of war's effect on personal freedoms and ideology, but is less adapt than al-Radi's work in describing the lives of the average citizen. Taken together, these two works provide a complex portrayal of how war has impacted the lives of the ordinary person, as well as how war has shredded the…
Works Cited al-Radi, Nuha. 2003. Baghdad Diaries: A Woman's Chronicle of War and Exile. Vintage.
Satrapi, Marjane. 2003. Persepolis: The Story of a Childhood. Pantheon Books.
The Lebanese and the overall middle easterners are known to be strict to their cultural beliefs and practices. Such beliefs and practices dictate every aspect of their lives and how they interact with other people from other cultures across the world as well as other aspects of life that are widely applicable in the contemporary world. This culture has a great impact on the structure and nature of health care that is appreciated among the Lebanese and other middle easterners (Shiloh, 2007). It is imperative to understand their cultural perception on care presentation, accommodation, and repatterning to offer a more effective healthcare under this cultural setting.
The Lebanese have a unique perception on culture care presentation. The cultural practices in Lebanon emphasize the importance of both nuclear and extended families. Moreover, the family members rely heavily on each other. During illnesses, the family members offer the primary care and support…
This has caused a divide in Iran, where traditionalists want to save the old religious and moral values, while many people want to bring more changes to Iran, like democracy and true free elections. This has created a rift in the country, and has caused unrest and even hatred of western values. That is one of the things that has caused Muslim fundamentalists in Iran (and elsewhere in the Middle East), to declare a war on American and westernization. This shows that modernization is not always a positive change, and that some countries simply do not need or want modern conveniences if it means they come along with western values. It is a time of social change in the country, and it is certain that more changes will happen in Iran today and in the future.
Mahmoodshahi, eza. "Westernization: A New Motif for evolution in Iran." Published:12/15/2002.
Mahmoodshahi, Reza. "Westernization: A New Motif for Revolution in Iran." Published:12/15/2002.
Mirsepassi, Ali. Intellectual Discourse and the Politics of Modernization: Negotiating Modernity in Iran. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 2000.
Rinehart, James F. Revolution and the Millennium: China, Mexico, and Iran. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers, 1997.
Salehi, M.M. Insurgency through Culture and Religion: The Islamic Revolution of Iran. New York: Praeger Publishers, 1988.
Middle East Peace Talks
Many people view the Middle East as having been a powder keg for the last half-century. These difficulties started when other countries, such as Great Britain, made decisions in the region, including setting boundaries, that historically did not work out well. This has been the cause of strife in other areas of the world as well. However, rightly or wrongly, many Arabs in the Middle East view the strife as going back much further. They point to the start of difficulties at the Crusades of the middle ages. This points to a very significant and basic problem: history is written, and viewed, differently by different groups in the world. In the case of the Middle East, the issue is history -- whether it's the history of something that happened last week or events from the 12th century.
To solve this difficult problem, it is necessary for…
Taoism offers an ideal of nonaggression that does not strive to improve upon the existing order. However, unlike Buddhism, which can advocate action of present mindfulness to relieve suffering (such as the protests of Tibetan monks striving to create a free society) Taoism seems more passive, and less apt to critique existing society, in contrast to Buddhism. Taoism's main critique of Confucianism, for example, was not that Confucianism promoted an inequitable and hierarchical society of age and social class but that it tried to change things in the existing world, which was already perfect. Taoism is a philosophy that is proudly one of submission, not resistance. Even a good ruler, in the Taoist view "sidesteps" the need for direct action -- unlike Buddhism, which provided a path for warriors, so long as they upheld a virtuous ethic, and remained 'in the moment,' responding only with as much force as was…
Middle East comprises a diverse group of regions, countries, peoples, customs, and cultures. On the one hand, it is daunting to offer a semester-long course that treats all Middle Eastern issues with clarity and fairness. The risk of oversimplification, however, is outweighed by the risk of ignorance. This course will explore the Middle East with as much depth and breadth as possible, stimulating student thought on political, social, religious, historical, ethnographic, and economic issues related to the region. Included in the course rubric will be current events ranging from gender issues to terrorism. In between the heavier topics, lighter lessons on local customs, culture, music, and food will reveal the ordinariness of daily life in the part of the world we call the Middle East.
Islam will be covered from a multidisciplinary perspective, allowing for nuanced and rich class discussions about the unique interface between politics, religion, and social norms.…
Anderson, Lisa. "Demystifying the Arab Spring." PDF Available: http://www.ssrresourcecentre.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/06/Anderson-Demystifying-the-Arab-Spring.pdf
Henry, Clement Moore and Springborg, Robert. Globalization and the Politics of Development in the Middle East. Cambridge University Press, 2010.
Kuran, Timur. "The Islamic Commercial Crisis: Institutional Roots of Economic Underdevelopment in the Middle East." The Journal of Economic History (2003), 63(2).
(Jabal Omar Development Corporation 2010)
Since 2008, the real estate market in Kuwait has been continually declining. The reason why is because the economy was largely depending upon oil revenues. However, in 2010 the sector began witnessing an increase in prices. This is because of the Kuwaiti government was aggressively promoting the tourism industry. As developers are expecting a strong increase in foreign direct investment, due to the governments push to expand the sector. As a result, holiday and residential areas in Kuwait are continuing to boom. (Finkelstein)
In the housing industry, there are large numbers of shortages that are affecting prices. What has been happening is the residential sector has been facing restrictions over the last several years, surrounding building permits. As the government was slow to endorse them, which created a rush on new areas that were approved for development. At the same time, the government has…
Alexandria Real Estate, 2010.
Egypt Property, 2010, Select Property. Available from: [19 Mar. 2011].
Egypt Real Estate Attracts Interest From Foreign Investors, 2010, New Investors. Available from: [19 Mar. 2011]
Jabal Omar Development Corporation, 2010
The map of the Middle East was completely redrawn as a result of WW1, reflected especially in the case of Turkey, Iraq and Palestine. The Ottoman Turks had ruled the realm prior to WW1 and had an alliance with Germany. The English, always wary of a strong state on the continent making inroads in the Middle East, sought to undermine both German and Ottoman power, and thus allied with the House of Saud, which it supported against the Ottoman Empire. When war broke out, the destruction of the Ottoman Empire was a main objective for England and it achieved that goal. At the same time, the English were indebted to the Zionist Jews who sought a restoration of Israel (Palestine) as a state of their own. Thus, the Balfour Declaration, issued during WW1, promised Israel to the Jews—and as the English now controlled the territory in the wake of the…
Anderson, L. (2018). The state and its competitors. International Journal of Middle East Studies, 50(2), 317-322.
Clark, J. (n.d.). Actors, public opinion, and participation.
Gaiser, A. R. (2017). A narrative identity approach to Islamic Sectarianism.
Johnson, N., & Koyama, M. (2019). The State, Toleration, and Religious Freedom. In Advances in the Economics of Religion (pp. 377-403). Palgrave Macmillan, Cham.
Lust, E. (2018). Layered Authority and Social Institutions: Reconsidering State-Centric Theory and Development Policy. International Journal of Middle East Studies, 50(2), 333.
While on one hand, the Nile gets the highest discharge from rainfall on the highlands of Ethiopia and upland plateau of East Africa, located well outside the Middle East region; on the other hand, discharge points of the other two rivers, Euphrates and Tigris, are positioned well within the Middle East region, prevailing mostly in Turkey, Syria along with Iraq. In other areas, recurrent river systems are restricted to the more northern upland areas of Iran and Turkey, in common with the coastline of Levant (Peter eaumont, Gerald H. lake, J. And Malcolm Wagstaff, 1988).
The conflict in the Future
It is widely believed by many experts that those who control the waters in the Middle East; control the Middle East; and those who control the Middle East; control the oil supply of the world (David M. Hummel, 1995). From the above mentioned facts it is clear that the water…
Anthony H. Cordesman. Peace is Not Enough: The Arab-Israeli Economic and Demographic Crises. Part Two. Population Growth, Fertility and Population Doubling Rates, Regional Trends, National Trends, and the "Youth Explosion" Center for Strategic and International Studies, 1998.
Adel Darwish. Troubled waters in rivers of blood. Water Issues. 3 December 1992. http://www.mideastnews.com/water004.html
Adel Darwish. Inadequacy of international law. Taken at http://www.mideastnews.com/WaterWars.htm
Ashok Swain. A new challenge: water scarcity in the Arab world. Arab Studies Quarterly (ASQ). January, 1998.
The Egyptian King Faud (1922-36) repeatedly disbanded popularly elected afd governments, despite huge majorities, due to their distinctly nationalist platform. The fickleness of the British position is exemplified by their later coercion of King Farouk (1936-52) to appoint an enfeebled afd government due to their need for a neutral Egypt during the Second orld ar. This intense irony does not detract from the fact that the monarchs in Egypt and Iraq were very powerful political actors but were 'so closely associated with the structures of colonialization that they did not outlast them' (Owen 1992, 19). The British imperialists exploited the constitutional power of the King to dismiss any elected government of nationalists 'that threatened to tear up or amend the arrangements…defining Britain's rights' (Owen 1992, 19). Hence, once again, diminishing the authority of the regime they installed and creating a lack of respect for lawfully elected governments.
Pan-Arabism Causes Conflict…
Anderson, L. "The State in the Middle East and North Africa." Comparative Politics 20, no. 1 (1987): 1-18.
Ayubi, N. Over-stating the Arab State. London: Tauris, 1995.
Batutu, H. "Of the Diversity of Iraqis, the Incohesiveness of their Society, and their Progress in the Monarchic Period toward a Consolidated Political Structure." In The Modern Middle East: A Reader, by A. Hourani. London: Tauris, 1993.
Beinin, J, and Z. Lockman. Workers on the Nile. London: Tauris, 1988.
One can therefore expect that Israel will benefit from an increase in knowledge-based industry that will continue to power employment and GDP growth.
Investment is a triple indicator: relative attractiveness of the country, the type of investment being attracted, and political stability or instability. In comparison to the U.S., all countries save Saudi Arabia are attracting more investment. One would expect that the U.S., as a relatively mature first-world economy, would be at a relatively lower level. The surprise in this analysis exists in both extremes: Saudi Arabia on the low side, and Qatar, Kuwait and Dubai on the high side. Israel's relatively low investment can be explained by the type of knowledge-intensive industrial development it is experiencing now.
Qatar and Kuwait are experiencing resource-extraction investment at record levels. The primary driver is natural gas expansion. Unlike oil, natural gas must be processed extensively by capital-intensive facilities before it…
There will always be terrorist organizations such as Hamas, it seems, but with the Palestinians and Israelis getting along diplomatically, it could lead to better relationships with other countries, as well, and it could lead to a much stronger unity between the countries in the Middle East. This should be a long-term goal of the peace process, to bring an end to tension throughout the entire region, so they can concentrate on other elements of society and government.
In conclusion, the oad Map for Peace in the Middle East still seems to be a long way from conclusion. Israel has stopped all construction in East Jerusalem, another are under contention in the peace process, and talks are still going on bi-weekly between the two parties (as of the end of February, at least). A lasting peace would bring a new decade of hope to the region, and a new peace…
Bush, George W. "Joint Understanding Read by President Bush at Annapolis Conference." WhiteHouse.gov. 2007. 9 June 2008. http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2007/11/print/20071127.html
Editors. "A Performance-Based Road Map to a Permanent Two-State Solution to the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict." 2002. UN.org. 9 June 2008. http://www.un.org/media/main/RoadMap122002.html
Migdalovitz, Carol. "Israeli-Palestinian Peace Process: The Annapolis Conference." 2007. U.S. Department of State. 2008. 9 June 2008. http://fpc.state.gov/documents/organization/98093.pdf
Rice, Condoleezza. "Press Conference." U.S. Department of State. 2008. 9 June 2008. http://www.state.gov/secretary/rm/2007/12/97945.htm
Motivating Middle East
Motivating Diversity in the Middle East Workforce
Motivation is a complex force, and there are a multitude of theories as to how it is best achieved. One useful and highly practical framework developed by David McLellan identifies three needs as factors in motivation that are present in varying degrees for different individuals: the need for affiliation which is a need for interpersonal connectivity and warmth; the need for achievement, which can be seen as a need for recognition or to develop more efficient or effective processes; and the need for power, which is a need to control and influence others (Source Year). Effective motivational strategies and methods will appeal to all three of these needs to some degree, such that all individuals are motivated to take on the desired changes regardless of their personal proclivities and needs in these areas.
It is not only individual differences that…
Kuran, T. (2004). Why the Middle East is Economically Underdeveloped: Historical Mechanisms of Institutional Stagnation. The Journal of Economic Perspectives 18(3): 71-90.
Pollit, D. (2006). Barclays bank on Africa. Human Resource Management 14(3): 16-9.
Soltani, E., Scullion, H. & Collings, D. (2010). Workforce diversity in Iran. In Managing cultural diversity in Asia, Ozbilgin & Seyd, eds. Northampton, MA: Edward Elgar.
Based on the assessment of the sample features in terms of capital size and value of the property portfolio, an observation is made in the fact that a proportion is kept between the two. In other words, the property companies in Jordan, Egypt and Syria seem to be prudential and correlate their capital sizes with the values of their portfolios.
3. esults and analysis of the Jordanian property companies
The results of the implemented questionnaire are revealed throughout the table below:
c d e f g
x x x
x x x
x x x
Shortage of commercial properties
Availability and choice
2011, the world factbook, Central Intelligence Agency, https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook / last accessed on February 21, 2011
Every year more than million local population migrate towards the urban areas.
Gender Discrimination: The regional religious clerics and their influence over the governments have created broad problems for women, and thereby restricting their integration and involvement into society and profession. Although the females have secured permission to vote, and fight elections, but they are subjected to difficult terms and conditions. The employment of females in MENA has improved, however it is still 15% lower than East Asian countries.
Growing pressures on young men and women in the Middle East and North Africa to immigrate to Europe and the U.S. To find jobs and economic opportunities -- a process that inevitably creates new tensions and adjustment problems' (Strategic Insights: Globalization has eluded the Middle East).
egional trade of lower magnitude:. All the countries of the region have so far failed to progress over economic and trade agreements. The countries have…
S. Mujahid, WTO, Globalization and Pakistan: Dreaming for Global Living Standards Pakistan and Gulf Economist, May 20, 2002.
Cf. Jeffrey Sachs, Globalization and Patterns of Economic Development
A. Sen, If It's Fair It's Good: 10 Truths About Globalization," International Herald Tribune, July 14, 2001
A.T. Kearney Corp, Measuring Globalization, Foreign Policy
The Representation of Muslim Women in Eastern and Western Literature: A Comparison
Representations of women in Middle Eastern literature represent a means by which the appreciation, perspective and overall role of women and how they are viewed by society can be determined. While some argue that literature and actually lived daily life are separate, literature serves as a measuring stick by which one can ascertain a definitive viewpoint on what the experience of being a Muslim woman is, and how such women are viewed. Literature can tell one volumes about how societies work and underscore the role that women play or don’t play and how others see them. While both eastern and western literature is incredibly vast, it is possible to get a definitive sense of how Muslim women are viewed; however, it is possible to get an overall sense of certain trends that arise over and over. This paper…
Syria, Jordan, Lebanon and Iraq were all "constructed" as "imperial conveniences for France and ritain" (Gause, 444). And so, when the ritish and French were authoritative landlords, places like Kuwait (a ritish "protectorate" until 1961) were safe from outside interference. ut once ritain was long gone from Kuwait, Hussein had his chance to move in and he did, until the U.S. And its allies pushed him out in 1991.
Conclusion: After WWI, the winners divided up the Ottoman Empire, and that was the origin of the country of Iraq. The history of the Middle East -- beginning in the 19th Century and continuing today -- is shaped by outside forces, by colonialism, war, greed, and cultural conflicts. An alert reader can see why the invasion of Iraq by the U.S. In 2003 was star-crossed in the first place, and why ritain and the U.S. are hated so fiercely by the…
Gause, Gregory F. 1992, 'Sovereignty, Statecraft and Stability in the Middle East', Journal of International Affairs, vol. 45, no. 2, pp. 441-460.
Gillen, Paul, and Ghosh, Devleena, 2007, Colonialism & Modernity, University of New South Wales (UNSW), UNSW Press: Sydney, Australia.
Nieuwenhuijze, Chritoffel Anthonie Olivier. 1971. Sociology of the Middle East: A Stocktaking and Interpretation. Brill Archive: Boston, MA.
Public Broadcast Service. 2008. 'Kuwait: Country Profile', retrieved March 15, 2011, from http://www.pbs.org/frontlineworld/stories/kuwait605/profile.html .
PTSD in the Middle East
Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is one of the most common mental health or psychological disorders facing people in the Middle East region. This condition emerges from episodes of social upheaval, combat, and violence that have become common in the Middle East over the past few years. Some of the major areas in the Middle East that have been characterized by increased conflicts in recent years include Palestine, Iraq, and Lebanon. Given increased conflicts and combat in the Middle East, PTSD and other trauma-related mental health conditions are expected to become public health crisis in the Arab world (Suto, 2016). Therefore, public health professionals in the Middle East face the need to develop appropriate measures for diagnosis and treatment of PTSD and other trauma-related disorders. However, the treatment of this condition and other traumatic mental health disorders is significantly affected by culture. This paper examines how…
Lawrence in Arabia: War, Deceit, Imperial Folly and the Making of the Modern Middle East
Lawrence never received formal military training, but he achieved the rank of Colonel in the British Army. Discuss how he achieved the rank and compare his training to yours.
Lawrence initially studied archeology and architecture at Oxford; these pursuits first drew him to the Middle East. The knowledge he gained was instrumental in his securing a military position in the Middle East. Thanks to his knowledge of the Arab world and the Ottoman Empire, "he was sent to nurture the Arab revolt against Turkish rule, started by Sherif Hussein of Mecca with the aim of creating a single Arab state stretching from Syria to Yemen"(MacIntyre 2010). In contrast to my own training, the knowledge Lawrence obtained was largely experiential -- he did not study military theory in-depth or go through basic training and was iconoclastic…
Anderson, S. (2013). Lawrence in Arabia: War, deceit, imperial folly, and the making of the modern Middle East. New York: Doubleday.
MacIntyre, B. (2010). Arabian knight. The New York Times. Retrieved from:
Of the six conflicts (within the fifty mentioned) that resulted in 200,000 or more deaths, three were between Muslims and non-Muslims, two were between Muslim cultures, and just one involved non-Muslims on both sides. The author references a New York Times investigative piece in which fifty-nine ethnic conflicts were reported in forty-eight locations in 1993. In "half these places Muslims were clashing with other Muslims or with non-Muslims"; in thirty-nine of the conflicts groups from different civilizations were engaged, and two-thirds of those were between "Muslims and others" (Huntington, 257).
Keeping in mind this book was published in 1996 -- and updated data employing Huntington's Muslim-violence theme is not immediately available -- it is worthy of note that of the twenty-nine wars (that involved 1,000 or more deaths in a year's time) in 1992, twelve were intercivilizational, and of those dozen, nine were between Muslims and non-Muslims (257). Huntington raised…
Arendt, Hannah. (1969). On Violence. New York: Harcourt, Brace & World, Inc.
Blitzer, Wolf. (2011). Cheney refuses to admit any mistakes as vice president. CNN.com
Retrieved September 7, 2011, from http://situationroom.blogs.cnn.com .
Dougherty, James E, and Pfaltzgraff, Robert L. (1997). Contending Theories of International
drives a person to terrorism?
As Hamid (2008) notes, the drive to become a terrorist can be part of a personal journey that has roots in personal beliefs. For Hamid, those beliefs were religious and rooted in his Islamic conviction. He believed in the words of Mohammed and though he liked Christians as a boy, he was warned against befriending them: "By restricting my contact with Christians, I felt that I was doing a great deed to satisfy Allah" (p. 3). Thus, by not mixing with Christian society, the terrorist-to-be was steeling himself to later inflict harm on a people that he did not really know. So part of what drives a person to be a terrorist might be ignorance. eal-life education on what others are like and why they are not bad could help to prevent people from moving towards terrorism -- but in the case of Hamid, it…
Engdahl, W. (2015). Interview 1112 with James Corbett. Corbett Report. Retrieved from https://www.corbettreport.com/interview-1012-william-engdahl-explains-the-context-of-the-paris-attacks/
Escobar, P. (2015). Say Hello to My Cruise Missiles. Asia Times. Retrieved from http://atimes.com/2015/10/say-hello-to-my-cruise-missiles-escobar/
Foreword. (2015). Dabiq, 12: 2-3.
Froese, P., Mencken, F. (2009). A U.S. Holy War? The effects of religion on Iraq War policy attitudes. Social Science Quarterly, 90(1): 103-116.
he authorities did what they could to maintain their iron control, even if it meant destroying people and families in the process. hey were evil, and I can say that now.
Later, we found out just how much trouble our exhibition had caused. oday, the papers about the exhibition are in the Hungary History Office's archives. You see, they kept files on us and on the exhibition. You can read how seditious the exhibition was, and what a danger it was to the political regime. here is also a thick folder on Gyrgy, codenamed "Painter," and compiled by a dizzying number of spies and informers. We were under more scrutiny than we even knew, and some of us are still very lucky to have survived those turbulent times. Soldiers walked the streets, and spies were everywhere. It was a terrible way to live, and hopefully, it will never happen in…
The exhibition was a turning point for us. There was no turning back after that night in January. We had all shown where our allegiances were, and they were for Hungary, not the Communists. We knew Hungary was a great country, and could be great again. We knew that commerce and trade could thrive, and so could tourism. We knew the people should have better, cheaper housing, and the opportunity to work at better-paying jobs in the private sector. We knew we should have the ability to speak our minds and show our art whenever we wanted. These things would come, but we did not know it then. We only knew we were sick and tired of living under oppression and Communist fears. The Communists were paranoid, and afraid that everyone and everything was against them. They were right, but so many people lived in fear that the Communists still had us under control. We lived as if we were caught in time. Our clothing was outmoded by Western standards, and so was our technology. We saw the world changing around us, and we wanted more. It was a difficult time, and many people disappeared, never to return. The authorities did what they could to maintain their iron control, even if it meant destroying people and families in the process. They were evil, and I can say that now.
Later, we found out just how much trouble our exhibition had caused. Today, the papers about the exhibition are in the Hungary History Office's archives. You see, they kept files on us and on the exhibition. You can read how seditious the exhibition was, and what a danger it was to the political regime. There is also a thick folder on Gyrgy, codenamed "Painter," and compiled by a dizzying number of spies and informers. We were under more scrutiny than we even knew, and some of us are still very lucky to have survived those turbulent times. Soldiers walked the streets, and spies were everywhere. It was a terrible way to live, and hopefully, it will never happen in Europe again.
In conclusion, 1984 was a bitter year for us in Hungary. We thought we were on our way to freedom, but we were still stuck right in the middle of Communism. Today, we are free, and we enjoy one of the best economies in Europe. Then, we were under the chains of Communism, and we could not walk the streets without looking over our shoulders. We were frightened, and we felt alone and in despair. We wanted so much, and it was so difficult to create. Freedom is a gift, and today, the kids of Hungary almost take it for granted. They do not remember the bad times, or the people, like Gyrgy and so many others, that worked so tirelessly to help ensure the freedom we know today.
Thick and thin book review.
Some year," JK Galbraith once wrote, "like some poets, and politicians and some lovely women, are singled out for fame far beyond the common lot." For the Middle East in general, and for the people of Palestine in particular, 1948 was clearly such a year. It was the year in which the British-Mandate for Palestine terminated, a Jewish state was established, thousands of Arab Palestinians became refugees, and regular armed forces of Trans-Jordan, Egypt, Syria and other Arab countries entered Palestine - Israel and clashed with Israeli forces." (Bregman, 2000) In the same way, some land masses seem to carry a higher level of importance than others. Such is the case with a small strip of land lying along the eastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea.
Israel, or Palestine depending on the year the map was published, has been a place of conflict since first…
Review of Thick and Thin. Phil books. 2000. Available from: http://www.phil-books.com/Thick_and_Thin_Moral_Argument_at_Home_and_Abroad_0268018979.html.
Bregman, Ahron. Israel's Wars: A History Since 1947. Routledge, 2000
Walzer, Michael. Thick and Thin: Mporal Argeument at home and Abroad. University of Notre Dame Press, 1996.
Near Eastern Culture
For my first intercultural experience, I decided to attend a yoga class. Although yoga has become increasingly popular amongst Westerners, it is still an ancient Eastern practice rather than something that can be characterized as part of mainstream American culture. It is a noncompetitive activity that is devoted to preparing the body for meditation rather than improving the body's physical appearance or to improve an athlete's performance. It is much a mental practice as it is a physical one.
During the beginning of class, everyone laid down their mats and assumed an 'easy sitting posture.' The teacher gave a short 'dharma' talk about the focus of the class, which was about setting aside the ego. Then, we said 'om' to indicate that the practice was starting. We performed some chanting in Sanskrit, doing a call-and-response after the teacher's prompting. Then, we begin to practice. First we began…
The UAE and IsraelIntroductionIsrael has been, for most of its existence, involved in some form of conflict with the Arab world. However, the Arab world itself is largely conflicted between the Sunni and Shia states. Israels recent pivot toward forming greater relations with the Sunni states has indicated an improvement in relations between Israel and at least part of the Arab world. Yet, making matters more complicated is the fact that Palestine remains largely Sunni, and Palestine has viewed the Sunni states relations with Israel as a betrayal of the Palestinian peoples fight for independence and autonomy. For that reason, Palestine has disapproved the new relations between Israel and the UAE. As a Sunni majority state, the UAE has long sided with the rest of the Sunni Arab world in support of Palestine (Soriano, 2014). But now that has changed to some extent. This paper will discuss why the UAE…
ReferencesAlshuwaiter, M. (2020). President Hadi and the future of legitimacy in Yemen. Retrieved from https://www.mei.edu/publications/president-hadi-and-future-legitimacy-yemen Alterman, J. (2020). The Significance of the Israel-UAE Deal. Retrieved from https://www.csis.org/analysis/significance-israel-uae-deal Arnone, M & Padoan, P. (2007). Anti-Money Laundering by International Institutions: A Preliminary Assessment. CIDEI Working paper No. 74Bahi, R. (2018). Qatar Crisis: A Genuine struggle for power. Retrieved from shorturl.at/xBT89Baker, P., Kershner, I., Kirkpatrick, D. & Bergman, R. (2020). Israel and United Arab Emirates Strike Major Diplomatic Agreement. Retrieved from https://www.nytimes.com/2020/08/13/us/politics/trump-israel-united-arab-emirates-uae.html BBC. (2017). Qatar crisis: What you need to know. Retrieved from https://www.bbc.com/news/world-middle-east-40173757 Belenkaya, M. (2019). Why did UAE foreign minister go to Russia following his meeting with Pompeo? Retrieved from https://www.al-monitor.com/originals/2019/06/russia-uae-us-iran-egypt-peace-plan.html Bowen, J. (2020). Five reasons why Israel\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\'s peace deals with the UAE and Bahrain matter. Retrieved from https://www.bbc.com/news/world-middle-east-54151712 Khakhar, P., & Rammal, H. G. (2013). Culture and business networks: International business negotiations with Arab managers.International Business Review,22(3), 578-590.Neuman, S. (2021). Intelligence Chiefs Say China, Russia Are Biggest Threats To U.S. Retrieved from https://www.npr.org/2021/04/14/987132385/intelligence-chiefs-say-china-russia-are-biggest-threats-to-u-s Ramani, S. (2020). Russian and Chinese views on the Israel-UAE normalization deal. Retrieved from https://www.mei.edu/publications/russian-and-chinese-views-israel-uae-normalization-deal Reuters Staff. (2020). Israel, U.S. near deal to exclude China from Israeli 5G networks: U.S. official. Retrieved from https://www.reuters.com/article/us-israel-usa-5g-china/israel-u-s-near-deal-to-exclude-china-from-israeli-5g-networks-u-s-official-idUSKCN25A2CF Scollon, M. (2015). Who has a stake in Yemen fight? Retrieved from https://www.rferl.org/a/who-has-a-stake-in-yemen-fight/26925287.html Sly, L. (2018). Princely feuds in the Persian Gulf thwart Trumps efforts to resolve the Qatar dispute. Retrieved from https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/princely-feuds-in-the-persian-gulf-thwart-trumps-efforts-to-resolve-the-qatar-dispute/2018/05/13/7853cc88-39cf-11e8-af3c-2123715f78df_story.html?utm_term=.ebe5fd3adafa Soriano, M. A. (2014). United Arab Emirates & Mexico: Do\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\'s and dont\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\'s in negotiation strategies,\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\" A Mexican perspective\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\".The Business & Management Review,5(1), 378.Tasmin News. (2020). Envoy: Iran-Russia Military Cooperation to Enter New Level. Retrieved from https://www.tasnimnews.com/en/news/2020/08/22/2333123/envoy-iran-russia-military-cooperation-to-enter-new-level Weir, D. T. H. (2003). Management development and leadership in the Middle East: An alternative paradigm. Leadership in the Management Theory at Work Series Conference, JuneWilson Center. (2020). Russia in the Middle East: National Security Challenges for the United States and Israel in the Biden Era. Retrieved from https://www.wilsoncenter.org/publication/report-russia-middle-east-national-security-challenges-united-states-and-israel-biden Zhenqing, H. (2019). Turkey or generals aid Libya, the dispute over the delimitation of the Eastern Mediterranean has become a regional hot spot. Retrieved from https://www.thepaper.cn/newsDetail_forward_5252577 Zhongming, L. (2020). Professor Liu Zhongmin was interviewed by Shangguan News on the normalization of relations between Israel and the UAE. Retrieved from http://mideast.shisu.edu.cn/06/8e/c3991a132750/page.htm
Even so, both parts of the Empire retained their oman identity while incorporating local cultural influences.
The oman era legacy was the single most important factor in the development of a distinctive Western European culture. Latin language (from which most European languages such as French, Spanish and Catalan evolved) and oman law are perhaps the greatest legacy of the omans to the Western Civilization. After the decline of the Western oman Empire, however, there was a gradual revival of the Celtic culture and a corresponding decline of oman culture in Europe during the Middle Ages. During the enaissance, interest in the Greco-oman civilization was revived and the ancient civilization's highly developed art, literature, philosophy and language left a lasting influence-in fact, helped shape the Modern Western Civilization. (Mellor, 2006)
Mellor, onald J. (2006). "oman Empire." Article in Microsoft Encarta Online Encyclopedia 2006. etrieved on September 14, 2006 at http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_1741502785_10/oman_Empire.html…
Mellor, Ronald J. (2006). "Roman Empire." Article in Microsoft Encarta Online Encyclopedia 2006. Retrieved on September 14, 2006 at http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_1741502785_10/Roman_Empire.html
As a result of the Second Triumvirate, Octavius controlled the Western provinces -- Italy, France, parts of Belgium and Netherlands, Spain, and Portugal; Mark Antony the East-- modern-day Greece, Turkey, and parts of Libya, and Lepidus Africa (modern day Tunisia).
Education in the East and West
The difference between education in the East and the West is primarily a difference in culture. Today, cultural differences are less pronounced than they were a century ago. Globalized society has seen cultures meld and melt into one another, so that in many senses the East resembles the West in more ways than one (Igarashi). However, deeply rooted cultural cues still represent a fundamental reason for existing educational differences between the East and the West. This paper will describe these differences and show why they exist.
Medieval Guilds were important to production standards in the time of the Renaissance. For example, "in places where guilds were strong, they exercised strict oversight over training" (Hansen). In fact, the education and apprenticeship of the Renaissance was a highly skilled exercise that began at the youngest age and often required more than a decade of training.
Li, Jin. Cultural Foundations of Learning: East and West. UK: Cambridge, 2012.
Li's book is very helpful in understanding the differences between Eastern and Western education: it highlights cultural influences in the West, from the Greeks, and in the East, from Confucius and Buddha, etc. It looks at how religion and science have both played a part in where East and West are educationally speaking.
From Jessica McElrath, Your Guide to African-American History)."
In addition to the renaissance the new found self-confidence and pride that was found by Southern Blacks who moved north also impacted the work environment.
Social protest was not only possible it was available to those who were not happy with their working conditions in the North (the BLACKS and the UNIONS (http://www.socialdemocrats.org/blktu.html).While it was extremely oppressed compared to the life of African-Americans today, it was still a far cry and significantly better than anything they had experience in the south up to that point.
Currently the nation is facing a social crisis when it comes to the plight of Mexican immigrants. Whether they are here legally or illegally there are an estimated 12 million Mexicans working and living inside the American boundaries. If one were to compare their plight to those of the Southern blacks they would find several similarities.…
People at Risk
Harlem Renaissance http://afroamhistory.about.com/cs/harlemrenaissance/a/harlemren.htm
THE BLACKS and the UNIONS
learn so little about these ancient Eastern civilizations?
Ancient Greece and Rome are often called the cradles of modern, Western civilization. Greece 'gave birth' to democracy and major philosophic and scientific ideas spanning from the concept of atoms to geometry. Once upon a time, all roads famously lead to Rome, reflecting the importance of Rome in shaping the landscape of the modern globe. But simply because these civilizations were so important in shaping our own worldview does not mean we should discount the contribution of the East.
The recent excavation site of the Dadiwan relics of Qin'an at the Gansu Province is a demonstration of the richness of the early civilizations of the area. The archeological site has yielded some of the earliest findings of agriculture and pottery ever discovered, pushing back the date of the discovery of millet to a far earlier time than originally assumed. New evidence of…
Ever since the time when the Muslims raided the city, it became obvious that Christians would lose their influence in the territory, even with the fact that the latter were given permission to keep most of their churches. During the years in which I stood witnessing the Christian population being assimilated into the more powerful Muslim population, I observed that people belonging to both religions came to the church to worship God. Regardless of their personal convictions, people were united through religion and through their dedication to believing in God.
The finances spent for building such an architectural colossus are surely mind-blowing, taking into account that the structure's magnitude expresses magnificence. However, because the Muslim population thrived during the period, it is not surprising that they were willing to support such a spending, especially given that they too were aware of the consequences such a building would have on their…
1. Flood, F.B. The Great Mosque of Damascus: Studies on the Makings of an Umayyad Visual Culture (Boston: Brill, 2001).
2. Smith, E.B. Egyptian Architecture as Cultural Expression (New York: D. Appleton-Century, 1938).
3. Thackara, W.T.S. "The Epic of Gilgamesh: A Spiritual Biography." Retrieved October 2, 2010, from the Teosophy Northwest Website: http://www.theosophy-nw.org/theosnw/world/mideast/mi-wtst.htm
Middle Eastern Students: What Is the Effect of Advisory Participation in the Adolescent Years- Grades 8-9
Benefits of student advisory
Adolescence and its effects on learning
Functions and Expectations of Advisory Program
Middle Eastern Student advisory experiences
Social and economic mobility is a function of educational achievement. It is important to ensure that all children receive education in order to secure their future and that of the nation. The U.S. accommodates many immigrants from the Middle East. Several studies done in the recent past have examined how immigrants fair in the educational system. However, few studies attend to the subject of adolescent students from the Arab world participation in advisory programs for schools and the effects of such participation explicitly. It is not clear whether the results of adolescent participation in school advisory programs would necessarily coincide with the participation by Arab immigrants. Considering the consistent negative portrayal of…
Alexander, W.M., & George, P. S. (1981). The exemplary middle school. New York, NY: Holt, Reinhart, & Winston.
Al-Khatab, A. (1999). In search of equity for Arab-American students in public schools of the United States. Education, 120, 254.
American Psychological Association. (2010). 2008 APA survey of psychology health service providers: Special analysis. Washington, DC: Author
Arnold, J. (1991). The revolution in middle school organization. Momentum, 22(2), 20-25.
"Diaspora" is a Greek term meaning "to disperse," or "to scatter," and is often applied to the Jews and their dispersion out of the land of Israel. Many scholars point to the year 588 B.C., when the kingdom of Judea was conquered by the Babylonians as the beginning of the Jewish Diaspora. ("Diaspora") The Jews were forced to relocate to Babylon where, even after the Persians conquered the Babylonians and allowed the Jews to return to Judea, many remained. It was also when the Babylonians conquered Judea that many Jews fled to Egypt, where they created a Jewish community in exile that continued for centuries. After the return of the Jews to Judea in 538 B.C., the entire area became embroiled in a series of conflicts that resulted in the creation of a Hellenic culture throughout the middle east. As a result, Jews spread out from their traditional homeland…
"Balfour Declaration." Avalon Project. Web. 8 Dec. 2012.
"Diaspora." Jewish Encyclopedia. Web. 8 Dec. 2012.
Gothic vs. Romanesque Architecture
The Romanesque and Gothic styles of architecture are key to the artistic development of the Middle Ages. They are they result not only of an aesthetical development, a natural consequence of improving socioeconomic conditions and a growing interest of individuals and groups to showcase their wealth and power with churches and other constructions, but also a result of technological developments. Indeed, many of the components of these styles came about as architectural necessities: to support the new constructions, technical innovations needed to be implemented and this sometimes translated into stylistic expressions.
This paper will investigate each architectural style in part, focusing both on a separate, relevant description of the main elements and on a comparison between the Romanesque and Gothic styles. To the degree to which this is possible, the paper will aim to showcase the description and the comparison with concrete examples from the civic…
1. Rolf Toman, Romanesque: Architecture, Sculpture, Painting, Konemann, (1997)
2. Banister Fletcher, A History of Architecture on the Comparative method (2001). Elsevier Science & Technology.
3. Helen Gardner; Fred S. Kleiner, Christin J. Mamiya, Gardner's Art through the Ages. Thomson Wadsworth, (2004)
4. Pevsner, Nikolaus. An Outline of European Architecture. Pelican Books. (1964)
Knighthood and Chivalry: Heroism, Love, and Honor in "Canterbury Tales" by Geoffrey Chaucer and "Sir Gawain and the Green Knight"
Fourteenth century literature was characteristically based on medieval period, wherein the dominance of Christianity is evident in estern society during that time. Influenced by the image of a knight, who serves as a warrior and man of noble birth, literary works during this period centered on the virtues taught to be important by the Church: love, honor, and chivalry. These are the characteristics that every heroic knight should have: respect for other people and the self, respect for love, and protecting those people who are unable to protect themselves from harm.
These are the traits that readers see in the images of the 'knights' depicted in Geoffrey Chaucer's "Canterbury Tales" and "Sir Gawain and the Green Knight." Belonging to the 14th century estern literary period, these works have illustrated how…
E-text of "The Knight's Tale." Available at http://www.literatureclassics.com/etexts/98/89/.
E-text of "The Tale of Sir Thopas." Available at http://www.literatureclassics.com/etexts/98/96/.
Coss Cultual Moes and Values: Middle-Easten Ameicans, South Asian-Ameicans and Native Ameicans
No longe a melting pot but moe like a salad bowl, the United States has always been a land of immigants and its divese demogaphic composition today is a eflection of this pocess. In fact, just one goup, Native Ameicans, can be egaded as being the oiginal inhabitants, but anthopologists ague that even these people likely migated fom othe continents tens of thousands of yeas ago, making them immigants in a sense as well. Thee goups in paticula stand out in the Ameican demogaphic mix as being in need of thoughtful attention in coss-cultual counseling situations, namely Middle-Easten Ameicans, South Asian-Ameicans and Native Ameicans. To detemine what counselos need to know in ode to develop effective inteventions fo membes fom these thee goups, this pape povides a eview of the liteatue, followed by a summay of the eseach…
A study of Lumbee undergraduates. Journal of College Counseling, 9(1), 47-55.
South Asia countries. (2014). World Bank. Retrieved from http://web.worldbank.org/ .
Globalization and Middle Eastern Culture
The term globalization has positive connotations in that it implies interaction and sharing through technology and suggests the improvement and development of less developed countries through connections with countries that are more economically wealthy. However, this is not always the way in which the term is interpreted by some countries and cultures. There has been a negative reaction throughout the world in recent years to the concept of globalization which is increasingly viewed as a means of domination and assimilation -- especially with regard to cultural aspects. A more formal definition of globalization is as follows:
Globalization can be conceived as a process (or set of processes) which embodies a transformation in the spatial organization of social relations and transactions, expressed in transcontinental or interregional flows and networks of activity, interaction and power (see Held and McGrew, et al., 1999).
In essence globalization is characterized…
Cheruiyot K. Our Languages Are Dying [article online] Available from http://www.globalpolicy.org/globaliz/cultural/2003/0224language.htm ; Internet: accessed December 1, 2004.
Held D. And McGrew A. Globalization. (article online); available from; Internet: available from http://www.polity.co.uk/global/globocp.htm; Internet: accessed 6 December, 2004
Maisami Mona, Islam and Globalization. [essay online] Available from The foundation Magazine (August 2003) http://www.fountainmagazine.com/articles.php?SIN=5a952d9bae& ; k=33& 1677948306& show=part1; Internet: Accessed 1 December, 2004.
Moussalli Mohammed, Impact of Globalization ( Article online) Available form Daily Star ( August 25, 2003) http://www.globalpolicy.org/globaliz/cultural/2003/0826islam.htm ; Internet: accessed 5 December, 2004
Abraham Path Initiative
The Abraham Path: The evolution of the enterprise over time
One of the most divisive regions of the world is the Middle East. The Middle East is fraught with conflict not simply because of the ongoing Israeli-Palestinian territorial dispute but also because of a host regional and sectarian struggles that are tearing this area of the world apart. With this in mind: "in the face of daunting barriers, the Abraham Path Initiative envisions uncovering and revitalizing a route of cultural tourism that follows the path of Abraham and his family some 4000 years ago across the Middle East…As it takes fuller shape, the Path variously serves as a catalyst for sustainable tourism and economic development, a platform for the energy and idealism of young people, a beacon for pilgrims and peacebuilders, as well as a focus for seemingly endless media inquiries from reporters, producers" (Leary, Sebenius, &…
Leary, K., Sebenius, J. & Weiss, J. (2009). Negotiating the Path of Abraham. Harvard Business
School Working Paper. 10-049.
Again, the press is not aware of all that goes on in the White House behind closed doors. Just because the matter was not publicly mentioned again in a direct fashion, does not mean that it was dropped. My team and I have continually discussed the best course of action for fostering trade with Tunisia and setting a much stronger precedent in the Middle East. The WSJ has actually zeroed in on the connection between this injection of fiscal support to Tunisia and our intentions to foster free trade with the entire Middle East.
The WSJ thinks that we should strike a trade deal with Tunisia and to also designate as a strategic economic nation. I and the entire White House is flattered that the Wall Street Journal would give us such obvious and prosaic advice on plans that we've already come up with ourselves. Of course the U.S. is…
Bonime-Blanc, a., 2011. The Fight Against Corruption Goes Global. Foreign Affairs, pp. 44-49.
Caldwell, W., 2009 . Learning to Leverage New Media. Military Review, May, pp. 256-260.
Carafano, J., 2011. Mastering the Art of Wiki. Joint Force Quarterly, pp. 266-271.
Clinton, H., 2010. Leading through Civilian Power. Foreign Affairs, pp. 199-209.
8 billion. The Occupation authorities also helped the Japanese government overcome postwar economic chaos, especially rampant inflation, by balancing the government budget, raising taxes and imposing price and wage freezes, and resuming limited foreign trade" (Kesselman et al., 203). The U.S. aid not only helped to rebuild the country, but also ensured that Japan was stable enough so that renegade seedlings of Communism or comparable institutions didn't suddenly flourish. The United States should sue this wise historical strategy that it deftly employed to help the economies of poorer nations in the Middle East. hen people are living in poverty, this makes them ripe breeding grounds for terrorism to build and people to be brainwashed by doctrines which vilify the est. Furthermore the United States should invest money in developing educational programs in the Middle East, so that the citizens there can actually envision a real future for themselves, without having…
Bryne, P.J. The Chinese Revolution: The Triumph of Communism. Minneapolis: Compass Point
Kesselman, M., Krieger, J. And Joseph, W. Introduction to Comparative Politics. Boston:
Wadsworth Learnign, 2013.
Israel and the Arab WorldIntroductionThe history of modern Israel and the Arab world is a history of tension and violence that has gone on for decades. It is a history characterized by numerous wars, accusations of genocide, threats of annihilation, and bitter hostilities punctuated intermittently by peace agreements like the Camp David Accords, signed during the Carter Administration to ease tensions between Israel and Egypt. This paper will describe the history of Israel, the nature of the hostilities between Israel and the Arab World, and relations between the UAE and Israel.History of IsraelFollowing World War 1, England took control of Palestine, known then as the British Mandate. Prior to the war, the Ottoman Empire had controlled the realm. The Zionist Movement, seeking a home for the Jewish people, had sought protection from the Ottoman Empire, which promised nothing of the sort. The English Lord Balfour, in the famous Balfour Declaration…
ReferencesBaker, P., Kershner, I., Kirkpatrick, D. & Bergman, R. (2020). Israel and United Arab Emirates Strike Major Diplomatic Agreement. Retrieved from https://www.nytimes.com/2020/08/13/us/politics/trump-israel-united-arab-emirates-uae.html Balfour Declaration. (1917). Retrieved from https://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/text-of-the-balfour-declaration Baroud, R. (2009). My Father Was a Freedom Fighter : Gaza\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\'s Untold Story. Pluto Press.Congressional Research Service. (2019). US foreign aid to Israel. Retrieved from https://web.archive.org/web/20200115021105/https://fas.org/sgp/crs/mideast/RL33222.pdf Gazit, M. (2000). The Genesis of the USIsraeli Military-Strategic Relationship and the Dimona Issue.Journal of Contemporary History,35(3), 413-422.Hoffman, B. (2011). The rationality of terrorism and other forms of political violence: lessons from the Jewish campaign in Palestine, 19391947.Small Wars & Insurgencies,22(02), 258-272.Hoffman, B. (2020). The bombing of The King David Hotel, July 1946.Small Wars & Insurgencies,31(3), 594-611.Hughes, G. A. (2014). Syria and the perils of proxy warfare.Small Wars & Insurgencies,25(3), 522-538.Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs. (2013). 1947: The international community says YES to the establishment of the State of Israel. Retrieved from https://mfa.gov.il/Jubilee-years/Pages/1947-UN-General-Assembly-Resolution-181-The-international-community-says-Yes-to-the-establishment-of-the-State-of-Israel.aspx#:~:text=Neither%20saw%20fit%20to%20establish,from%20its%20inception%20until%20today .Khalidi, R. (2007). The Iron Cage the Story of the Palestinian Struggle for Statehood / Rashid Khalidi. 1st ed. Boston: Beacon Press.Kurtulus, E. N. (2007). The Notion of a pre-emptive War: the Six Day War Revisited.The Middle East Journal,61(2), 220-238.Neubauer, S. (2017). Israel: A Strategic Partner for the UAE?.IndraStra Global, (11), 3.Popp, R. (2006). Stumbling decidedly into the six-day war.The Middle East Journal,60(2), 281-309.Salisbury, P. (2015). Yemen and the SaudiIranian Cold War.Research Paper, Middle East and North Africa Programme, Chatham House, the Royal Institute of International Affairs, 11.Ulrichsen, K. C. (2016). Israel and the Arab Gulf States: Drivers and Directions of Change. Retrieved from https://www.bakerinstitute.org/media/files/research_document/13eaaa71/CME-pub-GCCIsrael-090716.pdf Weinbaum, M. G. (1985). Egypt\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\'s Infitah and the politics of US economic assistance.Middle Eastern Studies,21(2), 206-222.Yisraeli, D. (1971). The Third Reich and the Transfer Agreement.Journal of Contemporary History,6(2), 129-148.
Scientific and Political Aspects
of Genetically Modified Foods
While there is little controversy over many aspects of biotechnology and its application, genetically modified (GM) foods have become the target of intense controversy. This controversy in the marketplace has resulted in a firestorm of public debate, scientific discussion, and media coverage. The countries most affected by this debate are Middle Eastern and third world countries, who stand to reap the benefits of solving widespread starvation, and countries such as the United States, as strong suppliers of genetically modified foods. The world's population is predicted to double in the next 50 years and ensuring an adequate food supply for this booming population is already a challenge. Scientists hope to meet that challenge through the production of genetically modified food plants that can help in warding off starvation as the world's population grows.
Although "biotechnology" and "genetic modification" commonly are used interchangeably, GM…
"A Rice Dilemma." Social Issues Research Center. 2002. Social Issues Research. 13 Dec. 2004
Bredahl, Lone. "Attitudes and Decision Making With Regard to Genetically Engineered Food
Products -- A Review of Literature and a Prescription of Models for Future Research." Journal
This is a small step towards the improvement of opportunities for women in the Middle East. However, Turkey is considered a "soft" power in the Middle East (Altunisik, 2005), so this small step alone is unlikely to result in immediate sweeping change. However, this does represent a small step and demonstrates that the women's movement is gaining strength.
Middle Eastern culture centers on the village and the local conditions Societies within the Middle East developed in geographically isolated pockets. Historically, these pockets had little contact with each other and developed their own ideologies and traditions that made them unique. Among those traditions is how they define women's roles and treat them in regard to education and career opportunities.
One such example of this distinction due to locality is the case of India. Southern India follows a matrilineal family system, while a patrilineal system is followed in the North (Ghandi, 2003).…
References Bureau. Retrieved June 22, 2009 from http://www.prb.org/Publications/PolicyBriefs/EmpoweringWomenDevelopingSocietyFe
Zambelis, C. (2005). The Strategic Implications of Political Liberalization and Democratization
in the Middle East. Parameters. 35 (3): 87.
In these very conservative Islamic countries, and even those less conservative like Jordan and Egypt, we see symbols of capitalism. This gives rise to the question of whether or not these countries can in fact be a part of a world economy without surrendering their theocratic rule to more liberal forms of democratic rule; or whether they reject - as Iran has done - Westernization completely.
At this point the outcome is unknown, but this does help explain the conditions in the Middle East today, and why the situation in Iraq has become so violent. The question becomes one of whether or not the fundamental principles of Islam can survive against the fundamental principles of democracy; the answer is predictably no. This is what has given rise to Islamic fundamentalism in the region; those Muslims who - and perhaps rightfully so - under stand the threat of over exposure to…
Holocaust affected Israeli society and culture and how Jews memorialize/emember it today
There exists no doubt regarding the massacre of the Jews during the phase of World War II and its impact on the lives of the Jewish people and the people who were near and dear to them. A dissention is required against those who assert that the tragedy never occurred, irrespective of whether they hold an opposite perspective to the Holocaust theory or just outright vehemence against Jews. The Holocaust stands for the lowest extreme of Jewish impotence. The affected Jews of the Holocaust were distraught due to it, both by direct means and indirectly, and as a continuance their kith and kin, near and dear ones, were separated by space. The holocaust has been termed rightly as a "Tragic legacy." It has also been looked upon as an unauthentic episode.
Just due to the fact they…
Anderson, Frank. "Holocaust Atrocity and Suffering." Vol.47. Middle East Studies, Vol.30, 1991, 164-177
Ben-Amos, Avner; Bet-El; Ilana. "Holocaust Day and Memorial Day in Israeli Schools: Ceremonies, Education and History" Israel Studies, Vol. 4, 1999, 258-284
Davison, Todd. "The Holocaust experience." International Journal of Middle East Studies, Vol, 24, 1994, 153-165
Najarian, James. "Experiences of Holocaust Survivors." Mid East Quarterly, Vol.56, 1993, 114-128
Not simply risky in that he is trying to create an integrated Middle Eastern policy when the issues involved are so complicated and so volatile (and the grievances so intractable). But also because by applying specifically religious language to the situation he runs the risk of exacerbating the tensions in the region that run so deeply along religious lines. (On the other hand, by emphasizing the important of connections among all Muslims, Obama may have some success in reducing the conflicts along national, ethnic, cultural, and linguistic lines.)
The importance of studying U.S. foreign policy in the Middle East is that all carefully considered information and theories about this subject, by adding to the marketplace of ideas, help even if only incidentally to move the world towards a more rational (and equitable) set of policies in the region (Dworkin, 1996, pp. 46; Hanania, 2009).
The thesis that I will be…
Bender, Thomas, 2006. A nation among nations: America's place in world history. London: Hill & Wang.
Benoit, Sammy, 2009, November 10. Obama's Middle East Policy Falls Apart . [Online]. http://docstalk.blogspot.com/2009/11/obamas-middle-east-policy-falls-apart.html . [Accessed 5 December 2009].
Chittenden, M., Rogers, L. & Smith, D., 2003. Focus: 'Targetitis ails NHS. Times Online. [Online]. http://www.timesonline.co.uk/printFriendly/0,,11-1506-669.html . [Accessed 3 December 2009].
Corsi, Jerome, 2009. Why Israel Can't Wait: The Coming War Between Israel and Iran. Los Angeles: Threshold.
3. How the quality of service changed and why?
The quality of service increased significantly as all practices areas of the hospital better aligned to the cultural norms, values and needs of each ethnic population represented by the segments served. The quality also increased because the staff also began to better understand the unique needs of the patients being served, with more emphasis on interpersonal communication than had been the case in the past. This personalization aspect of leadership works both ways; the hospital staff had a much better appreciation and understanding of the unique needs of the population they were serving, and the potential patients and customers developed familiarity and trust with the providers. The next step for the hospital is to create a means to continually evaluate the level of satisfaction they are delivering to patients. The hospital could use the SEVQUAL metrics to evaluate the level of…
Barrett, H., Balloun, J., & Weinstein, a.. (2009). How variation in management perceptions affects organizational performance. Quality and Quantity, 43(3), 451-461.
Paul Hughes-Cromwick, Sarah Root, & Charles Roehrig. (2007). Consumer-Driven Healthcare: Information, Incentives, Enrollment, and Implications for National Health Expenditures. Business Economics, 42(2), 43-57.
Ravichandran, K., S. Prabhakaran, and S. Kumar. 2010. Application of Servqual Model on Measuring Service Quality: A Bayesian Approach. Enterprise Risk Management 2, no. 1, (January 1): 145-169.
Wrenn, B.. (2006). Marketing Orientation in Hospitals: Findings from a Multi-Phased Research Study. Health Marketing Quarterly, 24(1/2), 15.
But the opportunity for a broader, regional conflict was still decades away in the Yom Kippur War and Six Day War.
Today, the threat posed by weapons of mass destruction makes the region in a more significant condition for war. With Syria and Iran attempting to build nuclear facilities capable of enriching uranium, and receiving support from North Korea in this endeavor, the opportunity for devastating warfare is made all too clear. Not only nuclear, but chemical and biological agents, perhaps carried by Iranian Shahab missiles, pose a grave security threat to not only Israel, but also to the Lebanese government, and moderate rab states such as Turkey. lso, the possibility of Pakistani nuclear weapons being controlled by Islamic hardliners, or falling into (intentionally or not) the hands of terrorist entities makes the possibility of war in this period more compelling. While stability in Iraq and Lebanon is in question,…
Also, although the Israeli-Palestinian conflict is worthy of considerable attention, it is important to remember that most other Arab nations in the Middle East actively discriminate against Palestinians. Although the Arab politicians often cite Palestinian mistreatment as a key reason for resentment against Israel, the real motivation underlying Arab militancy is concealed. It is simply a window-dressing for militant propaganda. The reality of the matter is that Palestinians in Israel are guaranteed the broadest freedoms, both religiously and politically, when compared to every other nation in the region. And although Palestinians' economic status is often lower than average Israelis, the same is true of Arab nations, which specifically target Palestinians for discrimination because of their status as a separate ethnic group. When it joined several other Arab states in expelling 400,000 Palestinian refugees since 1991, because of PLO support for the Iraq invasion, Kuwait became a good example of this discrimination. Egypt has also curtailed Palestinian settlement to the Gaza strip, where Palestinian militants continue to launch attacks on Israel,
Most revealing of all, however, is the Arab League's policy of refusing to grant Palestinians citizenship in any of its member states. Instead, Palestinians become international refugees in the region, living in camps by the thousands and growing more resentful all the time -- which is probably League's goal, as the displaced Palestinians then serve as proxy warriors against Israel.
The most effective appraoch is to pursue more aggressive action in preventing the Iranian state from acquiring WMDs, and in isolating Iran from its influential position as terrorist and militant financier and supporter. President Ahmedinejad has expressed very harshly and openly the intentions of the Iranian government to eliminate Israel and to pursue radical Islamic hegemony. This provides the international community with a dramatic glimpse of Iranian goals. In assessing the threat posed by Iran, the international community must realize that Iran will not easily be deterred by threats of sanction or isolation. Instead, it must be made absolutely clear to the Iranian regime that its current course will result in consequences. Also, the Iranian dissident movement must be supported and encouraged in order to undermine the support of the hard-line Iranian regime.
pottery making art islamic civilization. Please illustrative timeline. Please include outline beginning.
Islamic pottery is an essential part of the Islamic culture
Early beginnings of Islamic pottery
Historical and geographical challenges
Pottery as a necessity, not an art
Islamic pottery transformed from an activity to an art
The periods of the Islamic pottery
Influences of Chinese pottery
Improvements of techniques and materials
ole of calligraphy and technical discoveries
Increase of the value of pottery for the Islamic culture
The Islamic art is one of the most significant parts of the Islamic culture and of the world heritage. Islamic pottery has in this sense an important place in the structure of the Middle Eastern art.
The history and development of Islamic pottery is representative for the development of Islamic art and reflects the influences of external cultures on the evolution of art in the region.
Atwood, R. (2005) "Basra's Inventive Potters" in Archaeology, Vol. 58, No 2, March / April, available at http://www.archaeology.org/0503/reviews/basra.html
Grube. E (n.d.) "The Art of Islamic Pottery." The Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin. Available at http://www.metmuseum.org/pubs/bulletins/1/pdf/3258167.pdf.bannered.pdf
Jenkins, O. (2000). "Emergence and Evolvement of the Islamic Tin-glazed Pottery," The 8th Research Seminar on the History of Middle Eastern Ceramics. Available at http://www.l.u-tokyo.ac.jp/IAS/HP-e2/eventreports/44ceramics8IM.html
Luter, J. (1974) "The Potters of Islam." Saudi Aramco World. Available at http://www.saudiaramcoworld.com/issue/197404/the.potters.of.islam.htm
Certainly, utilizing those agencies now that there has been a crime at the premises is warranted. However, it may not have been negligent for DWI to fail to contact law enforcement when it first began receiving threats. Large corporations such as DWI routinely receive threats in the course of business. The vast majorities of those threats are harmless and represent no danger to the employees or customers of those organizations. Therefore, DWI may have been exercising due diligence by increasing its security force and not reporting the action to the police. To determine whether or not DWI was negligent, it would be necessary to see the exact language of the threats. Threats of plausible violence against customers or staff would give rise to a higher standard of care than threats against the property. Businesses cannot be held responsible for harm that occurs as the result of an unforeseeable act by…