Exclusive Title Reference Page Comparing Contrasting Middle-Eastern Essay

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exclusive title reference page) comparing contrasting middle-Eastern African terrorist movements. Your paper focus goals terrorist movements analyze methods involved.

Terrorism is one of the most significant evolutions in the international arena that the twentieth century has brought as more and more groups are formed and act to attain their objectives by the use of terror, be it violent or less violent. Having in view the magnitude that the 2001 effects had on the evolution of terrorism from a rather localized phenomenon to a global 'war on terror', it is important to understand the evolution of terrorism prior to 9/11. Looking towards the hottest area of the planet in what regards terrorism -- Middle East -- it is interesting to observe that many of these organizations have survived for a large period of time due to the manner in which they adapted not only their methods but also their objectives. From demanding more freedom to their nation and autonomy (like the Kurdistan Worker's Party -- PKK) or to the religious-based hatred towards non-Sunnis that Al Qaeda has.

Similar in size and objectives, the terrorist organizations under the influence or in cooperation with Al Qaeda can be found virtually in all countries on the world, making this organization the first truly global one, and a significant non-state actor in international relations. The main objective of the Middle Eastern-based organization is to create for all Muslim countries a space where no foreign influences are present within the new Islamic world caliphate.

Globalized terrorist activities like the Al Qaeda type do not mean that terrorism is equally deployed or perceived as such everywhere. Taking the African continent example, besides the well-known North African terrorist organizations, there are several organizations that although not terrorist per se, use terror and violence to attain their goals. These include "various militia in eastern Congo, who have been the target of the International Criminal Court for their crimes against humanity, the insurgents in the Niger delta of Nigeria, and the Janjaweed militia in the Darfur region of Sudan." (Lyman, 2008) The post colonial states and the borders that were in most cases artificially created have lead to the formation after the 1970s of a series of militias and liberation armies that, similar to the actions of the PKK, fight for autonomy or independence by the use of force: the Lord's Resistance Army, the Army for Liberation of Rwanda, and the Afrikaner Boeremag in South Africa and many others. Especially in Africa, where a large number of governments are considered as illegitimate, terrorism has also been in some cases invented as in Zimbabwe's case, where any political opposition party or organization is labeled as terrorist by the government. Such differences in the nature of terrorist or paramilitary organizations make any analysis on Africa even more difficult as compared to regions like Middle East or Central America, where borders, religion and socio-political issues are easier to divide and perceive.

African-based terrorist organizations act in different ways across the continent, with various reasons and methods. Therefore, a comparison between the…

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