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Middle Range Theories
Middle range theories are among the most commonly used theories in research alongside grand theories. This capstone project seeks to examine whether the use of a multidisciplinary approach helps to decrease readmissions within 30 days of newly diagnosed patients with Chronic Heart Failure (CHF). The middle range theory that will be applied on nursing research for this project is the Core, Care and Cure Theory, which was developed by Lydia Eloise Hall. This theory suggests that core, care, and cure are interconnected though they vary depending on the patient’s condition (Cosejo, 2018). This theory identified the core as the individual or patient receiving nursing care based on his/her own goals while the cure is the attention provided to patients by clinical professionals and care is the primary role of a professional nurse. Core, Care and Cure Theory suggests that these three components work together toward promoting the…
Range Nursing Theory
A clinical nurse is generally involved with specialized research; for example, a clinical nurse specializing in oncology would likely be heavily involved in the treatment of patients with cancer, according to Andrea Santiago. That clinical nurse specialist (CNS) working with cancer patients may also create helpful protocols or other strategies to improve the delivery of services in a hospital (Santiago, 2013). This paper delves into the reasons why the CNS can (and will) benefit from the use of the middle range theory.
hat are middle range theories?
Judy Davidson (RN, DNP, CNS) explains that middle range theories are designed to "guide practice" for nurses (including clinical nurse specialists) and are "more focused than grand theories" because they zero in on a "single aspect of practice" and are not as general as grand theories (Davidson, 2010, p. 28). Moreover, because grand theories only offer a framework in terms…
Andershed, Birgitta, and Olsson, Kristina. (2009). Review of research related to Kristin
Swanson's middle-range theory of caring. Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, 23(3),
Davidson, Judy E. (2010). Facilitated Sensemaking: A Strategy and New Middle-Range Theory
Jill Watson is an employee of Telecommunication Company and has been working for the company for approximately 7 years. Within the past few years, Jill has organized numerous health-fairs as well as countless health help sessions. She also regularly posted information on the company central bulletin boards about health and well-being. Moreover, she assists in providing screening program for many sick people. The goal of her health promotion is to enhance positive lifestyles and behavioral changes for people. Despite her promotional effort, many people still engage in smoking habits, do not engage in physical exercise, and are still overweight. While health promotion may be essential, however, providing health information is not sufficient to facilitate positive lifestyle or behavioral changes.
The objective of this study is to use the self-determination theory to assist Jill to understand the strategy to facilitate positive behavioral or lifestyles changes among her clients.…
Deci, E.L. & Ryan, R.M. (2013). Handbook of Theories of Social Psychology: Volume 1 Self-Determination Theory. SAGE Publications Ltd.
Ng, J.Y.Y., Ntoumanis, N., Thogersen-Ntoumani, C. (2012). Self-determination theory applied to health contexts: A meta-analysis. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 7, 325-340.
Niemiec, C.P., & Ryan, R.M. (2009). Autonomy, competence, and relatedness in the classroom: Applying self-determination theory to educational practice. Theory and Research in Education, 7, 133-144
Patrick, H. & Williams, G.C. (2012). Self-determination theory: its application to health behavior and complementarity with motivational interviewing. Int J. Behav Nutr Phys Act. 9: 18.
Middle ange Theory of Self Transcendence
There are several nursing-related theories and these have the function of explaining, evaluating and applying the field in order to enhance quality of treatment. These theories are divided into three classes; low rang theories, middle age theories and grand theories. All these classes each have their specialized roles towards the improvement of the nursing practice dependent on the various treatment types they are concerned with. Middle range theories possess a number of well-defined models which are applied for experimental testing on a concept in order to determine if it is useful and effective in the nursing profession. Several active forms of middle range theories exists and they include those which are concerned with self-efficiency, empathy, human interactions, carrying out of nursing duties, reasoned action, adverse symptoms, self-transcendence etc. Generally, the benefits of these theories are evident when nursing challenges, especially those concerned…
Coward, D. D. (2003). Facilitation of Self-Transcendence in a Breast Cancer Support Group: II. Oncology Nursing Forum, 30(2), 291-300.
Masters, K (2012). Nursing Theories: A framework for Professional Practice. Sudbury, MA: Joones & Bartlett, LLC
McEwen, M. & Wills, E. M. (2011). Theoretical Basis for Nursing. China: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Reed O (2008). "The Theory of Self-Transcendence." In M.J. Smith & P.R Liehr (Eds.). Middle Range Theory for nursing (2nd ed.). New York, Springer.
The respondents who step out to be part of the research process should be protected from any unwanted intrusion or any other form of personal or group harassment (Smith & Liehr, 2008).
It is formal to have and conduct nursing research according to the set ethical frameworks where the entire review of the proposal will be undertaken. Whether to be undertaken by the staff or students, this research should be subjected to ethical approvals, which will make sure that the research, proposal is directed at serving the nursing school dream and intentions. Using the Middle range theory, the nursing problems and challenges will be solved in various ways as follows (Smith & Liehr, 2003).
All the nursing researchers and educators, being the staff members, must have respect upon the dignity, interests, and rights of the nursing students and other staff members related and participating in practical and theoretical learning.
Basford, L., & Slevin, O. (2003). Theory and practice of nursing: An integrated approach to patient care. Cheltenham, U.K: Nelson Thornes.
Fitzpatrick, J.J., & Kazer, M.W. (2012). Encyclopedia of nursing research. New York:
Meleis, a.I. (2011). Theoretical nursing: Development and progress. Philadelphia: Wolters
range theory nursing. If accepts premise grand theories nursing longer, implications nursing education, practice, research? Question 2: due 11/29/11 There controversy nursing direction development nursing knowledge .
There is an emphasis at present on the development and use of mid-range theory in nursing. If one accepts the premise that grand theories of nursing are no longer necessary, what are the implications for nursing education, practice, and research?
Nursing theories can be classified in many different ways, but one of the most common methods is to group them into grand and middle range theories. A grand theory "provides a conceptual framework under which the key concepts and principles of the discipline can be identified," while, in contrast, a "middle range theory is more precise and only analyzes a particular situation with a limited number of variables" (Nursing theories: An overview, 2011, Nursing Theories). Mid-range theories of nursing do not attempt to…
Entry-to-practice competencies. (2011). College & Association of Registered Nurses of Alberta.
Retrieved September 25, 2011 at http://www.nurses.ab.ca/Carna-Admin/Uploads/Entry-to-Practice%20Competencies.pdf
Is nursing theory important? (2099). All Nurses. Retrieved September 25, 2011 at http://allnurses.com/general-nursing-discussion/nursing-theory-important-406192-page4.html
Kennedy, Shawn. (2009). New nurses face reality shock in hospital setting. AJN.
Interdisciplinary Theory Evaluation
Middle range and interdisciplinary theories can significantly inform clinical practice. This is particularly true for Alberta Bendura's self-efficacy theory and Sister Callista oy's adaptation model. This paper evaluates the applicability of the two models in breast cancer care. First, a description of breast cancer is provided. Next, the two theories are summarized. Attention is then paid to critical evaluation of the two theories. Finally, the most appropriate theory for breast cancer care is highlighted.
Description of Practice Problem
Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer and top cause of cancer death in women across the globe (Jemal, 2011). Statistics indicate that breast cancer accounts for approximately a quarter of all cancers in women, with majority of the victims falling in the 40-49 years age group (Mousavi et al., 2007). Lifestyle factors such as smoking, physical inactivity, and unhealthy eating have been found to be the…
Bandura A. (1977). Self-efficacy: toward a unifying theory of behavioural change. Psychological review, 84(2), 191-215.
Jemal A., Bray, F., Center, M., Ferlay, J., Ward, D., & Forman, D. (2011). Global cancer statistics. CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians, 61(2), 69-90.
Jeng, C., & Braun, L. (1994). Bandura's self-efficacy theory. Journal of Holistic Nursing, 12(4), 425-436.
Kardong-Edgren, S. (2013). Bandura's self-efficacy theory. .. something is missing. Clinical Simulation in Nursing, 9(9), e327-e328.
ithin the field of nursing there are many theories that receive a great deal of attention for the manner in which they assist nurses in treating patients. The middle range theory of unpleasant symptoms was developed many years ago and has proved to be beneficial to nurses treating patients with various ailments. The purpose of this discussion is to investigate the middle range theory of unpleasant symptoms as it relates to cancer patients. This subject was chosen because of the substantial number of patients that are affected by cancer. As a result of the presence of so many cancer patients, Nurses must understand how to effectively treat people with this disease. The middle range theory of unpleasant symptoms is one of the tools that can assist in the treatment of cancer patients.
Overview of theory
According to Smith & Liehr (2008) Middle range theory is defined as "a…
Dirksen, S.r, Belyea, M.J., Epstein, D.R. (2009)Fatigue-Based Subgroups of Breast Cancer Survivors with Insomnia. Cancer Nurs. 32(5): 404 -- 411
Kim, H., Barsevick A.M. (2009) Predictors of the Intensity of Cluster Symptoms in Patients With Breast Cancer J. Nurs Scholarsh. 2009; 41(2): 158 -- 165.
Otte, J.L. And Carpenter J.S. Theories, Models, and Frameworks Related to Sleep-Wake Disturbances in the Context of Cancer. Cancer Nurs. 2009; 32(2): 90 -- 106
Smith, M.J. & Liehr P.R. (2008) Middle Range Theory for Nursing. http://www.springerpub.com/samples/9780826119162_chapter.pdf
MID ANGE THEOY OF SPIITUAL WELL BEING
Middle ange Theory of Spiritual Well Being in Illness
Nurse meta-theorists have recently been very much concerned about the different seasons of the patient's life, which has supported and promoted the development of middle range theories in the field of nursing. This is due to the reason that these theories focus on the specific health and illness issues instead of discussing the general issues. These specific health and illness issues focused in the mid range theories are extremely important for the practicing nurses as they spotlight on the particular problem and its solution.
History of Theory Development in Nursing
The practicing nurses started incorporating the nursing theories into their research and practically applying them to real situations during 1970s and 1980s. Majority of the early nursing theories fall in the category of grand theories of nursing because the concepts that described…
Barss, K. (2012). T.R.U.S.T: An affirming model for inclusive spiritual care. Journal of Holistic
Nursing. 30(1). 23-35.
Burkhart, L and Hogan, N. (2008). An Experiential Theory of Spiritual Care in Nursing Practice.
Qualitative Health Research, 18 (7), 929-940.
Middle ange Nursing Theorist: ozzano Locsin
Dr. ozzano Locsin attained a PhD in nursing at the University of the Philippines in 1988. He is currently a tenured Professor of Nursing at Florida Atlantic University. Locsin has extensive experience in nursing research in a variety of nations: "Through the Fulbright Scholar Award, he developed the first Masters program in Nursing in Uganda while researching the phenomenon 'waiting-to-know' and the lived experiences of persons exposed to patients who died of Ebola Hemorrhagic Fever" (ozzano Locsin, 2011, Pro-Libraries). His current research interests focus on themes of technology and caring in nursing and "life transitions in human health" (ozzano Locsin, 2011, Pro-Libraries). Locsin calls his mid-range theory the "technological competency as caring model."
Theory development: How the theorist came about to develop his/her theory
Locsin's theory arose because of the frustrations he perceived in nurses when they were coping…
Locsin, Rozzano C. (2005). Technological competency as caring in nursing.
Sigma Theta Tau International
Parker, Marilyn E & Marlaine C. Smith. (2010). Nursing theories & Nursing practice.
F.A. Davis Company.
For the 21st century, I feel that the Theory of Community Empowerment is a model that will work well. When we consider the challenges of health care in the 21st century, we realize that technology advancements and new drugs are doing a lot of the technical work on physical healing, but these are the sorts of remedies that come about only after someone gets sick. Ultimately, medical procedures and drugs are not a pathway to sustainable health. As I understand the Theory of Community Empowerment, one of the most important roles of the nurse is to work with people, connect with them, and then help them to help themselves. We, as a community, are responsible for our own health, for making the right choices that can help us avoid having health problems in the first place.
This theory has been expounded upon at length in nursing literature. To…
Fawcett, S., Paine-Andrews, A., Francisco, V., Schultz, J., Richter, K., Williams, E., Lewis, R., Harris, K., Berkley, J., Fisher, J., Lopez, C. (1995). Using empowerment theory in collaborative partnerships for community health and development. American Journal of Community Psychology. Vol. 23 (5) 677-697.
Persily, C. & Hildebrandt, E. (2008). Theory of Community Empowerment, excerpt from Middle Range Nursing Theories. Springer.
Rappaport, J. (1987). Terms of empowerment/exemplars of prevention: Toward a theory of community psychology. American Journal of Community Psychology. Vol. 15 (2) 121-148.
As mentioned earlier, the desired outcome of nursing care is comfort and there are many articles in which the researchers have talked about the needs of the patients and the things that alter the comfort of the patients. Kolcaba suggested that the cancer patients who are terminally ill can benefit from comfort care as it pays attention to the perspective and needs of the patients. Through such kind of care, the patient is not only provided with pain relief, but the depression of the patient is also addressed adequately. As she said that patients who are not in pain but are depressed seek comfort in the transcendental sense as well as in the psycho-spiritual sense (Kolcaba, 1992 p 4). In some of her works, she has explained the use of the instruments and their application by the nurses. Kolcaba reckons that the instruments presented by her to evaluate the comfort…
Kolcaba K. (1994). A theory of holistic comfort for nursing. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 19(10): 1178-1184.
Kolkaba, K. (1992). Holistic comfort: Operationalizing the construct as a nurse-sensitive outcome..Advances in Nursing Science, 15 (1), pp. 1-10.
Kolkaba, K. (1997). The primary holisms in nursing..Journal of Advanced Nursing, 25 pp. 290-296.
Kolkaba, K. And Fisher, E. (1996). A holistic perspective on comfort care as an advance directive..Critical Care Nursing Quarterly, 18 pp. 66-76.
At times patients cannot care for themselves, and nurses must remedy these self-care deficits (Dorothea Orem's Self-care theory, 2011, Nursing Theories).
Whenever possible, patients should be empowered to act as best as they can to care for themselves. The nurse is viewed as an aid to remedy the self-care deficit in Orem's view. The nurse is not seen as superseding the patient's basic right to autonomy. Although some nurses know this intuitively, when busy or rushed sometimes it can be easy to forget the value of allowing patients to do as much as possible as they can for themselves, even if this is something as simple as eating and drinking or going to the bathroom.
Given the preponderance of lifestyle-related diseases today, Orem's stress upon patient self-knowledge and awareness is essential. Patients will care for themselves when they return home from a healthcare environment in most instances, and they must…
Cody, W.K. (2006). Philosophical and theoretical perspectives. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett
Dorothea Orem's Self-care theory. (2011, January 11). Nursing Theories.
Retrieved April 6, 2011 at http://currentnursing.com/nursing_theory/self_care_deficit_theory.html
ange Theory in Nursing
The credibility of a profession is mainly based on the professional's ability to create and apply the appropriate theory. Theories are notions or concepts used for inferring observations, elucidating experiences, and unfolding relationships of project results. Theories are derived from conceptual models. The main function of a theory is to narrow and fully specify the phenomena that is contained in the conceptual model. The theory should also provide a relatively concrete and specific structure for interpreting the initially puzzling situations, behavior, and events. A nursing theory is defined as a set of concepts, relationships, definitions, and assumptions that are derived from nursing models and project a systematic view of phenomena by designing particular inter-relationships among concepts with the purpose of explaining, describing, predicting, and prescribing. Theories are derived using either deductive reasoning or inductive reasoning (Smith & Liehr, 2013). Nurses make use of various theories in…
Davydov, M. (2014). Middle-Range Theory for Nursing. Journal for Nurses in Professional Development, 30(6), 316.
Fawcett, J. (2005). Middle range nursing theories are necessary for the advancement of the discipline. Aquichan, 5(1), 32-43.
Imenda, S. (2014). Is there a conceptual difference between theoretical and conceptual frameworks. Journal of Social Sciences, 38(2), 185-195.
Lenz, E. R., Pugh, L. C., Milligan, R. A., Gift, A., & Suppe, F. (1997). The middle-range theory of unpleasant symptoms: an update. Advances in Nursing Science, 19(3), 14-27.
influential theories related to deviance by Robert K. Merton. Firstly, the paper provides the historical context within which the theorist produced their ideas. Secondly, the paper provides a summary of their original theory. Thirdly, the paper provides a discussion of how the model has been critiqued and altered as new research has emerged. Lastly, the paper delves into the theory's current usage/popularity within criminology.
The historical context within which the theorist produced their ideas
There is huge contribution of influential theories related to deviance by Robert K. Merton. As a matter of fact, He is considered one of the most significant sociologists of modern times. Moreover, he has also made large number of contributions to the criminology field. Undoubtedly, Merton influenced various fields of science, humanities, law, political theories, economics and anthropology (Cole, 2004, p.37). Merton's introduced numerous concepts like anomie, deviant behavior, self-fulfilling prophecy, strain, middle range theory and…
American Sociological Review (2012). Retrieved January 29, 2014 from http://garfield.library.upenn.edu/histcomp/index-merton.html
Bernanke, Ben, S. (1995) 'The Macroeconomics of the Great Depression: A Comparative Approach', Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, 27 February.
Bivens, T. (2004). Robert K. Merton Draft. Florida State University Publications
Calhoun, C. (2003). Remembering Robert K. Merton. Papers in Honor of Robert K. Merton. 175-220. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.
nursing is both a discipline and a profession
All of these affect fundamental nursing values such as emotional support for patients and the importance of touch.
Imogene King's conceptual model includes three types of dynamic, interacting systems: personal systems (represented by individuals), interpersonal systems (represented by such dyadic interactions as nurse-patient dialogue), and social systems (represented by larger institutions such as hospitals and families). (Imogene King, J.P. Riehl-Sisca, 1989) further example of theory developing into concept and ultimately into model and practice is Katharine Kolcaba's Theory of Comfort. Holistic comfort is defined as the immediate experience of being strengthened through having the needs for relief, ease, and transcendence met in four contexts of experience (physical, psycho spiritual, social, and environmental) (Kolcaba, 1994)
The Concept of Philosophy in Nursing
Despite over a century of philosophical thinking in nursing, philosophical inquiry has yet to be positioned as contributing substantially to the field…
Austgard, K. (2008). What characterises nursing care? A hermeneutical philosophical inquiry.
Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, 314-319.
Barbara Pesut, Joy Johnson. (2008). Understanding Philosophical Inquiry in Nursing. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 115-121.
Dr Sharon L. Van Sell, Ioannis a Kalofissudis. (2002). A Complexity Nursing Theory.
Theory guides practice. This is true of many things, but is especially true of nursing. While many processes, actions, and rules are involved in becoming a great nurse, understanding and applying theory must be the most important aspect. Nursing theory allows for one to examine concepts and then attempt practical application of these concepts when theories are tested. Evidence-based practice for example, is the wonderful lovechild of theory and application in that when theories are constructed, they are then tested, and if they work, are applied to standard practice via modification. This essay aims to provide a deeper synthesis of nursing theory by examining two important nursing theories: Orem's Self-care Theory and Watsons Nursing Theory. Additionally, one will see how nursing theory has evolved since its beginnings.
Background on Nursing Theory
Many say nursing is as old as humankind. If there was someone sick, there was someone willing to…
Chronic Sorrow Theory
The term 'chronic sorrow' may be described as sadness of a persistent, periodically severe, increasing, and lasting nature. This condition may be triggered in a person because of ongoing loss, arising from personal chronic disease, a loved one's illness, or personal disability (Isaksson, 2007, p. 18). Olshansky (1962) first put forward the "chronic sorrow" concept when working with children suffering from physical or mental disabilities and members of their family (parents, siblings, etc.). The researcher noted that these children' parents exhibited a persistent psychological response to their experience of being the parents of a physically or mentally disabled child (Monsson, 2010, p. 16). Through inductive reasoning, the chronic sorrow theory -- a middle range model -- was developed, which was corroborated using both qualitative research and literature review. (Peterson & Bredow, 2013, p. 98)
The chronic sorrow theory helps create a framework to comprehend individuals' reactions to…
Azar, R. & Solomon, C. R. (2001). Coping Strategies of Parents Facing Child Diabetes Mellitus. Journal of Paediatric Nursing, 16(6), 418-428. doi:10.1053/jpdn.2001.27878 http://www.mta.ca/pshl/docs/copingstrategiesparents.pdf
Cousino, M. K. & Hazen, R. A. (2013). Parenting Stress among Caregivers of Children with Chronic Illness: A Systematic Review. Journal of Paediatric Psychology, doi: 10.1093/jpepsy/jst049. http://jpepsy.oxfordjournals.org/content/early/2013/07/10/jpepsy.jst049.full
Eakes, G., Burke, M. L. & Hainsworth, M. A. (1998). Middle-Range theory of Chronic Sorrow. Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 30(2), pp. 179(6). http://www.psychodyssey.net/wp-content/uploads/2012/05/Middle-range-theory-of-chronic-sorrow.pdf
Isaksson, A-K. (2007). Chronic Sorrow and Quality of Life in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis. Orebro Studies in Caring Sciences 12. http://www.diva-portal.org/smash/get/diva2:137348/FULLTEXT01.pdf&sa=U&ei=mRpOU-_jNoHdtAaX_IHADQ&ved=0CEIQFjAH&usg=AFQjCNEOnPREJrlQluN534bq57kX56S8oQ
The broad definition of the term 'theory' is development and elucidation of any aspect or field of cognition. Theory then is a collection of interrelated propositions that must forecast, describe, influence, or explain events. Theories of learning have attempted to offer explanations about learning as well as its application. In the last century, educational researchers and psychologists have postulated a number of theories to account for how people attain, organize and apply knowledge and skills. Rather than offering a specific theory, educational psychology provides multiple approaches and theories about the process of learning and the motivation for change and learning in individuals. Understanding theories of learning, (essentially educational psychology), is central to the field of education, for enabling nursing educators to offer an atmosphere conducive to learning, enhancing the educational system's efficiency and education harmonization. In the previous century, learning theory formulation and assessment has greatly facilitated the…
Ahmed, S. (n.d.) Theories and models of nursing practice. College of nursing/university of Baghdad. Retrieved from: http://www.conursing.uobaghdad.edu.iq/uploads/others/conursing/leacture/theory.pdf
Aliakbari, F., Parvin, N., Heidari, M., & Haghani, F. (2015). Learning theories application in nursing education. J Educ Health Promot. Retrieved from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4355834/
Azimian, J., Negarandeh, R., & Movahedi, A. F. (2014). Factors Affecting Nurses' Coping With Transition: An Exploratory Qualitative Study . Global Journal of Health Science, 1916-9744.
Duchscher (2015). Transition Theory. Nursing the Future. Retrieved from: http://nursingthefuture.ca/transition_theory
borrowed theory can be useful in understanding nursing problems and trials. This essay will broach the problem listed in previous submissions by applying a new theoretical model to the problem. This essay will use a borrowed theory from another discipline in order to measure its effectiveness and importance within the nursing and medical professions.
Problem Summary With Middle Theory
The original problem identified at my hospital saw the patient satisfaction scores becoming more and more poor, as the nursing and caring aspects of this practice on my ward has been in bad shape. A useful middle theory was applied to help understand this problem. Benner's learning theory was applied in this case to help understand how nurses may or may not learn new behaviors. These behaviors would take shape in new practices that would be enforced by new learning and new rules.
Benner's theory explained how professionals, such as nursing…
Benner, P. (1982). Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. The American Journal of Nursing, 82(3), 402-407.
Maslow, A.H. (1943). A theory of human motivation. Psychological review,50(4), 370.
Dorothea Orem Nursing Theory
A theory is related concepts, and propositions used to guide a professional practice. Moreover, nursing theory serves as the interrelated concepts, predictive in nature, statement explanatory that assists in understanding the nursing phenomenon, which helps to explain and predict the nursing outcomes. Nursing theory is an organized body of knowledge used to explain the phenomena and supporting the nursing practice. Moreover, the nursing theory is defined as a set of definitions, concepts, assumptions, and relationships or propositions that are derived from the nursing model. However, the nursing theories consist of grand and middle-ranged theory. The middle ranged theory is the testable theory, limited in scope, limited in a variable, and used for the clinical research. More importantly, nursing theory serves as the body of knowledge that assists in carrying out the nursing research.
The objective of this study is to use the Dorothea Orem theory to…
Aliakbari, F., Parvin, N., Heidari, M., & Haghani, F. (2015). Learning theories application in nursing education. Retrieved May 10, 2017, from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4355834/
Maria, O. (2015). Application of Dorothea Orem's Theory of Self-Care to the Elderly Patient on Peritoneal Dialysis. Nephrology Nursing Journal 41(5): 495-498.
Roussel, L. (2013). Management and Leadership for Nurse Administrators, Sixth Edition. Jones & Bartlett Learning.
Wong, C. L., Ip, W. Y., Choi, K. C., & Lam, L. W. (2015). Examining Self-Care Behaviors and Their Associated Factors Among Adolescent Girls With Dysmenorrhea: An Application of Orem's Self-Care Deficit Nursing Theory. Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 47(3), 219-227. doi:10.1111/jnu.12134
Chronic illness is a concept that was brought to the fore over 40 years ago by Olshansky. The term is used to describe the grief and sadness experience that parents of children with disabilities go through for a lifetime. The intensity of this experience varies from person to person, family member to family member and situation to situation. Olshansky chose to view the phenomenon as a normal and continuous response as opposed to a pathological condition. Experts were encouraged to note the occurrence of the condition when dealing with a parent or a caregiver of a child with disability. They are encouraged to provide support the expressions and feelings of such parents (Peterson & Bredow, 2013, pp. 96-97).
The occurrence of chronic sorrow syndrome was validated by initial research carried out in the 80s. esearchers such as Burke et al. pointed out that the continuous nature of losing…
Ahlstrom, G. I. (2007). Experiencing Loss and Chronic Sorrow in Persons with Severe Chronic Illness. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 16(3A), 76-83. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/6313596_Experiencing_loss_and_chronic_sorrow_in_persons_with_severe_chronic_illness
Borkon, D. A. (2008). Is Chronic Sorrow Present in Maternal Caregivers of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disordered Children? Adlerian Counselling and Psychotherapy. http://alfredadler.edu/sites/default/files/Borkon%20MP%202009.pdf
Isaksson, A-K. (2007). Chronic Sorrow and Quality of Life in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis. Orebro Studies in Caring Sciences 12. http://www.diva-portal.org/smash/get/diva2:137348/FULLTEXT01.pdf&sa=U&ei=mRpOU-_jNoHdtAaX_IHADQ&ved=0CEIQFjAH&usg=AFQjCNEOnPREJrlQluN534bq57kX56S8oQ
Monsson, Y. (2010). The Effects of Hope on Mental Health and Chronic Sorrow in Parents of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder. https://kuscholarworks.ku.edu/bitstream/handle/1808/6981/Monsson_ku_0099D_10980_DATA_1.pdf?sequence=1
The author of this report has been asked to offer some insight and informed perspective about how nurses should be influenced by organizational nursing theory. Specifically, the author of this report will cite Polk's theory of resilience to answer this question. The manners in which the influence could or should render would include whether it is compelling for other professionals, whether it promotes sustainability, how it is related to the commission of collegiate nursing, how it influences the profession itself, how it influences the culture and how it can lead to change in the nursing industry overall. While organizational theory can easily delve into navel-gazing and the wasting of time, there are many theories and ideas in the nursing paradigm that could and should be taken very seriously.
Before getting to the answers found for most of the questions above, the author of this report will first…
Earvolino-Ramirez, M. (2007). Resilience: A Concept Analysis. Nursing Forum, 42(2),
Polk, L. (1997). Toward a middle-range theory of resilience. - PubMed - NCBI.
Ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. Retrieved 14 July 2015, from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9055026
Concisely, Comfort results when an individual keeps of negative or unhealthy living and sticks to positive and healthy living. Comfort has been associated with positive institutional outcomes that include patient satisfaction. The outcome of Comfort is therefore one of the most important indicator of measuring success in nursing practice particularly for patients and families going through some tough or stressful healthcare conditions.
Benefits of the Comfort theory to the Clinical Nurses of the 21st Century
Comfort theory is an important theory that is applicable to the 21st Century clinical practice because of its many inherent benefits or advantages. This theory defines the working environment for healthcare practitioners while at the same time it charts the direction for improving the services offered by the clinical nurses. The universality of the language and concepts used in presenting the theory also promotes its wide acceptance. The simplicity of the tenets of the Comfort…
Kolcaba, K. (2003) Comfort Theory and Practice: A Vision for Holistic Health Care and Kolcaba, K.Y. (1994). A theory of holistic Comfort for nursing. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 19(6), 1178-1184.
Kolcaba, K., & DiMarco, M.A. (2005). Comfort Theory and its application to pediatric nursing. Pediatric Nursing. New York, NY: Springer Publishing Company, Inc.
Magyrary, D. (2002) Positive mental health: a turn of the century perspective. Issues of Mental Health Nursing, 23, 331-349
Malinowski, a., & Stamler, L.L. (2002). Comfort: exploration of the concept in nursing. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 39(6), 599-606.
203). Others who lose a loved one they had cherished for many years may have a disposition "towards compulsive caregiving" (Bowlby, p. 206). The welfare of others is of prime concern for these individuals; instead of experiencing "sadness and welcoming support for themselves" after the death of a loved one or family member that has been loved for many years, these individuals "proclaim that it is someone else who is in distress and in need of the care which then insist on bestowing."
This compulsive caregiving often manifests itself with the selection of a handicapped person to become that person's caregiver. Imagine the daughter who since adolescence has idolized her father, and never left the home but rather attended college nearby to her parents' home. She never made a lot of close friends and preferred to be home with her dad especially. So when he died, according to Bowlby's compulsive…
Bowlby, John (1980). Attachment and Loss / Volume I / Attachment. New York: Basic
Books, Inc., Publishers.
Bowlby, John (1980). Attachment and Loss / Volume II / Separation / Anxiety and Anger. New York: Basic Books, Inc., Publishers.
Bowlby, John. (1980). Attachment and Loss / Volume III / Loss / Sadness and Depression. New York: Basic Books, Inc., Publishers.
S. involvement in World War II.
Is it possible to have a general theory of war?
Perhaps the most well-known "theory" of war is articulated in Matthew 24:6: "You will hear of wars and rumors of wars. . . . Such things must happen" (New International Version 1984). Therefore, although it is possible to have a general theory of war, any such theory will be limited in its ability to explain the why's and how's of its occurrence. According to Gray (1999), in his seminal text, on War, Carl Philipp Gottfried von Clausewitz, set forth a modern general theory of war, but Sun Tzu's Art of War also addressed this issue. Clausewitz, though, is cited time and again in the relevant literature as having propounded a general theory of war. For instance, eid (2004) reports that, "In particular, he seeks to explain the methods to establish a general theory of…
Clausewitz, C.V. (1976) on War. Princeton, NJ.
Gray, C.S. (1999) Modern Strategy. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
-. The 21st Century Security Environment and the Future of War. Parameters, 38(4): 14-9.
Lichbach, M.I. (1989) "An evaluation of 'does economic inequality breed political conflict?'
Theoretical Foundations of Nursing:
Nursing can be described as a science and practice that enlarges adaptive capabilities and improves the transformation of an individual and the environment. This profession focuses on promoting health, improving the quality of life, and facilitating dying with dignity. The nursing profession has certain theoretical foundations that govern the nurses in promoting adaptation for individuals and groups. These theoretical foundations include theories, theory integration, reflection, research and practice, and assimilation.
Grand Nursing Theory:
There are several grand nursing theories that were developed by various theorists including the Science of Unitary Human Beings by Martha ogers, Sister Callista oy's Adaptation Model, and Systems Model by Betty Neuman. Sister Callista oy's Adaptation Model is based on the consideration of the human being as an open system. She argues that the system reacts to environmental stimuli via cognator and regulator coping techniques for individuals. On the other hand, the…
American Sentinel (2012). 5 Steps for Nurses to Stay Updated with Health Care Changes.
Retrieved September 4, 2013, from http://www.nursetogether.com/5-steps-for-nurses-to-stay-updated-with-health-care-changes
Andershed, B. & Olsson, K. (2009). Review of Research Related to Kristen Swanson's Middle-range Theory of Caring. Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, 23, 598-610.
"Application of Theory in Nursing Process." (2012, January 28). Nursing Theories: A
One mid-range nursing philosophy is that of Barbara esnick, with her "Middle ange Theory of Self-Efficacy." This theory states that 'self-efficacy expectations and outcome expectations are not only influenced by behavior, but also by verbal encouragement, physiological sensations and exposure to role models or self-modeling" (Nurses.info, 2014).
esnick is an Associate Professor at the University of Maryland School of Nursing. She is also a geriatric nurse practitioner at oland Park Place. Her research is focused on motivation, particularly with older adults. She has written papers on motivation for older adults to recover from disabling events, for example, noting that where motivation is high recovery is more likely to be successful, and life prolonged. She found support for her theory in this study (esnick, 1998), for example, lending credence to her prior work on finding ways to enhance the likelihood of recovery in all populations, but particularly in older and…
Nurses.info. (2014). Barbara Resnick. Nurses.info. Retrieved March 21, 2014 from http://www.nurses.info/nursing_theory_midrange_theories_barbara_resnick.htm
Resnick, B. (1998). Efficacy beliefs in geriatric rehabilitation. Journal of Gerontological Nursing. Vol. 24 (7) 34-44
Resnick, B. & Jenkins, L. (2000) Testing the reliability and validity of the self-efficacy for exercise scale. Nursing Research. Vol. 49 (3) 154-159.
Weber, B., Roberts, B., Resnick, M., Deimling, G., Zauszniewski, J., Musil, C. & Yarandi, H. (2004). The effect of dyadic intervention on self-efficacy, social support, and depression for men with prostate cancer. Psycho-oncology. Vol. 13 (2004) 47-60.
In the pantheon of nursing theories, borrowed theories are those that derive from other disciplines and have been adapted to the nursing context. Many such borrowed theories come from the different social sciences, such as psychology or sociology, because they directly reflect critical issues in care such as human nature and the role of human interactions in well-being. One could apply religious theories to care for religious people, and it is possible even to consider things like motivational theories as well, if the nurse is trying to motivate the patient (for example, to change behavior as a means of changing health outcomes). Borrowed theories have perhaps received less study than either grand theories or mid-level theories, but they are nevertheless an important source of insight for the nursing educator, and it is important to understand the theory, where it comes from, and how it has been adapted to apply…
Villarruel, A., Bishop, T., Simpson, E., Jemmott, L. & Fawcett, J. (2001). Borrowed theories, shared theories and the advancement of nursing knowledge. Nursing Science Quarterly. Vol. 14 (2) 158-163.
Zalenski, R. & Raspa, R. (2006). Maslow's hierarchy of needs: A framework for achieving human potential in hospice. Journal of Palliative Medicine. Vol. 9 (5) 1120-1127.
Zhan, L. (2000). Cognitive adaptation and self-consistency in hearing-impaired older persons: Testing Roy's adaptation model. Nursing Science Quarterly. Vol. 13 (2) 158-165.
Compare and contrast at least three views on what constitutes a theory. Distinguish the related concepts of theories, such as hypothesis, paradigm, model and concept.
Differentiating between hypothesis and theory
The word hypothesis is a description of various phenomenon occurring. In most cases, it's not a confirm statement. In other cases, it can be well-developed, designed and explained to follow through the workings and mechanisms of certain phenomenon. According to one definition, it states particularly that it's a precursor to a conditional proposition. A hypothesis is an unconfirmed theory. One can develop a hypothesis while the observation is being tested, that could be unconfirmed too. By an observation, one can simply have a window of opportunity to verify a hypothesis. A hypothesis can be detailed and inclusive of details. This permits lucid testing. Apart from that, it is the distinguishing factor from a theory (Harris, 2001).
The word theory…
Ardichvili, A., & Gasparishvili, A. (2001). Leadership profiles of managers in post-communist countries: A comparative study. Leadership and Organization Development Journal, 22(2): 62-75.
Ashkanasy, N.M., Trevor-Roberts, E., & Earnshaw, L. (2002). The Anglo cluster: Legacy of the British Empire. Journal of World Business, 37, 28-39.
Bakacsi, G., Sandor, T., Andra, K., & Viktor, I. (2002). Eastern European cluster: Tradition and transition. Journal of World Business, 37, 69-80.
Bass, B.M. (1990). Bass and Stogdill's Handbook of Leadership. (3rd Edition.). New York: Free Press.
It is also a population that often has limited resources and one that seeks to find others to help comfort and educate them. Modern technology has certainly improved both the diagnosis and treatment of the illness, but there are so many options that the patient is often left bewildered and frightened (Guadalupe).
A proactive and professional nursing approach to this illness takes Mishel's theory and uses it in four ways:
To combat ambiguity -- Patients are unaware of the progress and severity of their illness and often fill in with worst-case scenarios. Open and honest communication about that status of the illness will alleviate many concerns, or at least allow for uncoerced decision making.
To combat complexity -- Illness is complex and often based on statistical tables, not individual expressions. Using Michel, the nurse can simplify to the necessary degree both the illness and options.
To provide information -- More…
Alligood, M. (2010). Nursing Theory: Utilization and Application. Denver, CO: Mosby.
Guadalupe, K. (2010, Feb.) Understanding a meningioma diagnosis using Mishel's theory of uncertainty in illness. British Journal of Neuroscience Nursing. 6 (2): 77-82.
Mishel, M. And Clayton, M. (2003). Theories of Uncertainty in Illness. In Smith, M. ed. Middle
Range Theory for Nursing. New York: Springer. Chapter 2.
Myra Levine Nursing
easons why the MYA LEVINE NUSE theorist developed the theory
Myra Levine an influential figure in the nursing vocation set up new methods which were effective for educating the nursing degrees students with fundamental concepts and caring, of the patients (Parse 2009). Her objective was to present individualized and reactive care of the patients which concentrated less on medical procedures and maximized on individual contexts of the patients. With this, it led to nursery theory's creation and patient care approach. The theory implies criteria which help in evaluating the nurses and what to do.
It offers concepts which are skilled in sustaining research which are useful to the nurses. Hence, it creates knowledge which is exclusive to the nurses. By that, it enhances the nurse's status as a better profession. In promoting the research, the nurses' theory endorses the education of the nurse (Allan 2011). With that,…
Allan, H.T., Smith, P., & O'Driscoll, M.. "Experiences of supernumerary status and the hidden curriculum in nursing: a new twist in the theory-practice gap?"Journal Of Clinical
Nursing, 2011 p850.
Melat, Z. "Theory -- Directed Nursing Practices" Wolterskluwer.2005. p. 270
Reimer, A.P., & Moore, S.M.. "Flight nursing expertise: towards a middle-range theory."
Good researchers tend to pull methods out of a tool kit as they are needed" (2006, p. 54). Notwithstanding these criticisms and constraints, though, most social researchers seem to agree that classification by some type of research paradigm is a useful approach based on the need to determine which approach is best suited for a given research enterprise. In this regard, Corby concludes that, "The contested nature of research makes it impossible and unhelpful to ignore the different aims and purposes of various research projects and the methods and approaches being used to carry them out" (2006, p. 54). Therefore, the different aims and purposes of the positivist research paradigm, the constructivist research paradigm and the pragmatic research paradigm are discussed further below.
Positivist Research Paradigm
The positivist research paradigm is a quantitative-based approach that generally seeks to identify trends and patterns that can be used to formulate predictions concerning…
Ames, S.L., Gallaher, P.E., Sun, P. & Pearce, S. (2005). A Web-based program for coding open-ended response protocols. Behavior Research Methods, 37(3), 470-471.
Authors provide a description of a Web-based application that provides researchers with the ability to analyze participant-generated and open-ended data. Authors note that the application was developed in order to take advantage of online surveying based on its ease of use and flexibility. Authors note that this application may be of particular value to researchers who are employing large sample sizes that are frequently needed for projects in which frequency analyses are required. The application uses a grid-based set of criteria to establish codes for participant-generated and open-ended data collected from online surveys and can be applied for scoring results from stem completion,-word or picture associations, and comparable purposes in which such participant-generated responses require categorization and coding. Authors advise that they use this application for their professional online surveying purpose in experimental psychology to examine substance abuse patterns derived from participant-generated responses to various verbal and nonverbal associative memory problems, but that the application is also appropriate for other research areas as well. Authors also note that the application helps improve survey reliability by providing a systematic approach to coding participant-generated responses as well as evaluating the quality of coding and interjudge reliability by researchers with little or no specific training for the purposes. Authors conclude that the coding application is helpful for survey research that uses open-ended responses in virtually any research area of interest.
Austin, T.M., Richter, R.R. & Reinking, M.F. (2008). A primer on Web surveys. Journal of Allied Health, 37(3), 180-181.
Authors report that survey research has become a widely accepted research methodology that has been facilitated through the introduction of computer-based and online survey methods. Authors also emphasize that although electronic survey methods are useful in a wide range of settings for a variety of purposes, they are not appropriate in every situation. Online surveys involve various technologies that have not been available (or required) for paper-and-pencil surveys and require special considerations involving their design, pilot testing, and response rates. Authors present the results of their empirical observations and professional experience in using Web-based surveys to illustrate some of the advantages and disadvantages of the approach, including security and confidentiality issues (they make the point that electronic surveys are particularly vulnerable to compromise and that survey data must be protected as the research progresses) as well as the special considerations that must be taken into account as they apply to this surveying approach. Authors also discuss issues such as sampling error, a "how-to" guide to writing survey questions for online media, and how to order questions to ensure that respondents answer accurately and faithfully. All in all, this was a very timely guide for researchers for identifying when Web-based surveys are most appropriate and what factors should be taken into account in the design, posting and analysis of online surveys.
Nurses and patients are engaged in a "partnership of human experience," (Levine, 1977, p. 845). The ethical obligations and core values of nursing are rooted in this fundamental assumption about the relationship between nurse and patient. Nursing entails ethical obligations. "To be a nurse requires the willing assumption of ethical responsibility in every dimension of practice," (Levine, 1977, p. 845). The ethical obligations of a nurse are best explained by the belief that patients are holistic beings who constantly "thrive to preserve wholeness and integrity," ("Levine's Four Conservation Principles," 2012). Each patient is unique, too, and each seeks wholeness in a unique way. Nursing is defined as "a human interaction designed to promote 'wholeness' through adaptation." Myra Levine's theory is patient-centered, rather than disease-centered; the patient is treated and not just the disease. Because it offers specific guidelines within a rubric of ethical and philosophical tenets, Levine's conceptual…
Levine, M. (1966). Adaptation and assessment: A rationale for nursing intervention. The American Journal of Nursing 66(11): 2450-2453.
Levine, M. (1977). Nursing ethics and the ethical nurse. American Journal of Nursing 77(5): 845-849.
Levine, M. (2007). The rhetoric of nursing theory. Journal of Nursing Scholarship 27(1): 11-14.
"Levine's Four Conservation Principles," (2012). Nursing Theories. Retrieved online: http://currentnursing.com/nursing_theory/Levin_four_conservation_principles.html
Laura Polk's theory of resilience holds that an individual has the ability to rise above adversity. There are a number of factors that contribute to how this occurs -- dispositional, relational, situational and philosophical factors all play into this ability to be resilient (Jackson, 2015). This theory has significant implications for nursing practice, and can be evaluated through the lens of evidence-based practice.
Polk's Theory of esilience
Individuals rise above adversity
Dispositional, relational, situational, philosophical
Can be evaluated through evidence-based practice
Nurses can influence the different factors that contribute to resilience. The theory was developed on the basis of Polk's own real-life experience. She recognized that nurses can put themselves in the position of the patient, at least to some extent, and by doing this can empathize with the patient. This empathy allows the nurse to see the treatment through the eyes of the patient. Nurses can then…
Jackson, J. (2015). Nursing paradigms and theories: A primer. Athabasca University. Retrieved July 23, 2015 from https://www.nursinglibrary.org/vhl/bitstream/10755/338888/1/Nursing%20Paradigms%20and%20Theories,%20A%20Primer.pdf
Polk, L. (1997). Toward a middle-range theory of resilience. Advances in Nursing Science. Vol. 19 (3) 1-13.
Interdisciplinary Theory Evaluation
Understanding Interdisciplinary Theory Evaluation
Caregivers of patients with Alzheimer's Dementia have massive responsibilities that come to them in the form of demands. These responsibilities are sometimes overwhelming and make them wear out and even experience burnout in some instances. These responsibilities present them with limited alternatives over their situations (DeSanto-Madeya & Fawcett, 2009). When burnouts occur, caregivers find challenges when administering their duties and sustaining their psychological and physical health. The experiences they undergo are always demanding, calling for many of them to consider alternative measures of offering their caregiver services to the patients with Alzheimer's Dementia. Burnout begins with stress developed within the normative working conditions of the caregivers. Stress takes effect upon the health, relationship, and even the families of persons involved. It is imperative for the caregivers to have some time where they take rest and resort to simple avenues that will assist them…
Cowen, P. S., & Moorhead, S. (2014). Current Issues in Nursing. London: Elsevier Health Sciences.
DeSanto-Madeya, S., & Fawcett, J. (2009). Toward Understanding and Measuring Adaptation Level in the Context of the Roy Adaptation Model. Nursing Science Quarterly, 22(4), 355-359.
Fawcett, J., & Garity, J. (2009). Chapter 6: Evaluation of middle-range theories. Evaluating Research for Evidence-Based Nursing. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: F. A. Davis.
Grove, S. K., Burns, N., & Gray, J. (2013). The practice of nursing research: Appraisal, Synthesis, and Generation of Evidence. St. Louis, Mo: Elsevier/Saunders.
Chronic sorrow is characterized by a constant grief in individuals who have lost a "perfect child." In this instance, a perfect child is relative to the individual. A perfect child, as referred to by the article is a child who, in the view of the parents, was exceptionally gifted and had a natural inclination to gravitate towards productive activities. Through the loss of this perfect child, a pervasive and recurrent form of grief persists in the individual. In addition to the common emotions of grief, individuals suffereing from Chronic sorrow also experience bouts of helplessness, frustration, and even fear. Chronic sorrow varies from a conventional form of grief in four main attributes.
There is a perception of sadness that has no end. The situations seems hopeless to the individual and as a result, it seems that the problem can not be resolved
The sorrow is cyclical and recurrent in nature.…
1) Burke, Mary L., Georgene Eakes, and Margaret A. Hainsworth. "Middle-range theory of chronic sorrow." Image: Journal of Nursing Scholarship Summer 1998: 179+. Academic OneFile. Web. 7 Nov. 2011.
2) Thai nurses' experience of caring for persons who had a peaceful death in intensive care units. (2011) Nursing Science Quarterly, 24 (4), pp. 374-384
Readmission of Hispanic Populations for CHF
Background: The specific phenomenon examined within this paper is the readmission of Hispanic patients for congestive heart failure (CHF). Hispanic patients are representative of myriads of underserved populations in this regard and are frequently troubled by readmissions for this ailment due to an assortment of factors revealed from an thorough literature review about this subject.
Literature Review: The literature review for this paper involved searching and parsing through scholarly articles specific to this phenomenon. The author of this document sought out articles focused on this particular population segment and issues contributing instances of readmission for CHF. The literature examined was within the past 15 years. Moreover, this literature was analyzed within the context of middle ground theory as it applies to the nursing profession.
History of the Theory: Middle ground theory is innately multidisciplinary when it is utilized within the context of nursing.…
Chronic sorrow is a continuous, pervasive sadness and also permanent and intermittently intense. An individual often encounters loss experience because of their disability, relative or chronic illness (Isaksson, 2007, p. 18). Chronic sorrow as a concept was introduced by Olshansky (1962) while he was dealing with children with disability of various kinds and their parents or relatives. He noted that the children's parents showed what he referred to as a pervasive reaction of psychological nature to the predicament of parenting mentally defective children (Monsson, 2010, p.16).
Such grief, he observed, was not dissimilar to the type shown by parents that have lost a child. The parents of mentally defective children have it worse because their pain is a continuous one. This is why he referred to the concept as chronic sorrow (Monsson, 2010, p. 16). It has been thought that chronic sorrow entails experiencing intermittent spans of distress and pain,…
Ahlstrom, G. I. (2007). Experiencing Loss and Chronic Sorrow in Persons with Severe Chronic Illness. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 16 (3A), 76-83. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/6313596_Experiencing_loss_and_chronic_sorrow_in_persons_with_severe_chronic_illness
Borkon, D. A. (2008). Is Chronic Sorrow Present in Maternal Caregivers of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disordered Children? Adlerian Counselling and Psychotherapy. http://alfredadler.edu/sites/default/files/Borkon%20MP%202009.pdf
Dozier, B. (2015). Application of Middle-Range Theory. Professional Practices in Nursing. Wordpress.com. https://barbradozier.wordpress.com/2015/07/03/application-of-middle-range-theory/
Eakes, G., Burke, M. L. & Hainsworth, M. A. (1998). Middle-Range theory of Chronic Sorrow. Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 30(2), pp. 179(6). http://www.psychodyssey.net/wp-content/uploads/2012/05/Middle-range-theory-of-chronic-sorrow.pdf
Madeleine Leininger's place of birth was Sutton, Nebraska. She earned her Ph.D. in social and cultural anthropology in 1965, from Washington University, Seattle. In her initial years of working, she was a nurse. This was where she gained insight on how important it is to care. Frequent appreciative statements from care patients inspired her to center her attention on care; she realized that 'caring' is a fundamental part of nursing. In the 50s, she worked in a guidance home for children. Madeline discovered that the recurrent habits among children seemed to have been inspired by culture. She stated that nurses had no knowledge about care and culture, and this led to their ignorance on the numerous components needed in caring for patients to support healing, wellness and compliance. This knowledge led to the introduction of transcultural nursing; a phenomenon and construct based on nursing care, in the 50s.…
Gil Wayne. (2014). Madeleine Leininger's Transcultural Nursing Theory. Nurseslabs.
Kathleen Sitzman MS, & Dr. Lisa Wright Eichelberger. (n.d.). Madeleine Leininger's Culture Care: Diversity and Universality Theory. In Kathleen Sitzman MS, & Dr. Lisa Wright Eichelberger;, Understanding the work of Nurse THeorists (pp. 93-102). Jones and Bartlett Publishers.
Melanie Mcewen, & Evelyn M. Wills. (2011). Theoretical Basis for Nursing. Wolters Kluwer.
And it is those negative consequences that could, in the long-term, create alterations in those original basic values. Finally, there is Merton's self-defeating prophecy. Worry about being afraid of some consequence motivates people to take action before the problem exists. The non-occurrence of that problem they acted against, is not anticipated as a possibility.
It is interesting to note here that it is not improbable that the reader of this can place himself or herself in several of these situations and, therefore, see the accuracy, and the depth and complexity of Merton's postulations and conclusions.
Manifest and latent functions were first defined by Merton for the science of sociology. He was attempting to focus on the conceptual practices employed in a functional analysis. Functional analysis is the study of the individual elements of a functioning societal structure such as its customs, traditions and institutions. As Herbert Spencer, a 19th century…
Berger, P.L. Excerptom Invitation to Sociology. New York: Doubleday, 1963.
Calhoun, C. "Robert K. Merton Remembered." March 2003. asanet.org. 27 January 2010 .
Crothers, Charles. Robert K. Merton. Oxford, UK: Taylor & Francis, 1987.
Hollander, J. "Renowned Columbia Sociologist and Nationsl Medal of Science Winner Robert K. Merton Dies at 92." 25 February 2003. Columbia University News. 27 January 2010 .
Management Issues and Practices
James Strong, the former CEO and managing director of Qantas Airlines, twice sat on the panel convened at the Sydney office of CPA Australia to select those who would be recognized for the annual 40 Young Business Leaders list. Strong believed in the importance of nurturing young talent and threw himself wholeheartedly into leading much of the discussion among prominent leaders from all over the globe. Criteria for entrants included "the ability to land a top job, develop others and get the most from a team, and leading by example was also a must-have attribute" ("CPA Australia," 2014). To provide the scope and depth of the list-building endeavor, it is informative to explore the names of other participants on the panel, and to match them to the criteria they articulated for entrant evaluation. Here is a quick run down: James Strong looked for entrants who had…
40 young business leaders. In the Black. 2014 CPA Australia Ltd. Retrieved from http://www.itbdigital.com/lists/40-young-business-leaders-2013/
Bennis, W. (1997). Managing people is like herding cats. Covey Leadership Center.
Braithwaite, J. & Mannion, R. (2011). Managing change. In K. Walshe & J. Smith, Healthcare Management, pp. 830-861. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Education.
Cummings, G.G., McGregor, T., Davey, M. Lee, H., Wong, C.A., Lo, E., Muise, M. & Strafford, E. (2010). Leadership styles and outcome patterns for the nursing workforce and work environment: A systematic review. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 47(3), 363-385. doi: 10.1016/j.jnurstu.2009.08.006.
Equity theory recognizes that individuals are concerned not only with the absolute amount of rewards they receive for their efforts, but also with the relationship of this amount to what their peers receive (amlall, 2004). Adams (1963, 1965) posits that individuals are motivated by the perception of inequality, as measured by "input" and "outcome" ratios in comparison to others. Equity theory draws from multiple empirical theories and is utilized to make predictions about how individuals manage their relationships with others (Huseman, et al., 1987). If equity exists, the individual is at peace with the exchange and therefore not moved to action. If the individual perceives that his or her outcome/input ratio is less than that of a referent individual, then inequity exists, and motivation to restore equity arises (Chhokar et al., 2001).
Perception of inequity
Behavioral response (define)
Individuals may respond by choosing a behavioral response by reducing their inputs…
Byrne D.E., Lindgren H.C. 1971. Psychology: an Introduction to a Behavioral Science.
Wiley: New York.
Drillings M., O'Neil H.F. Jr.
Motivation: Theory and Research. Contributors: - editor,. - author. Publisher: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Place of Publication: Hillsdale, NJ. Publication Year: 1994. Page Number: 14.
Staffing shortages in nursing are a consequence of poor nurse retention and nurse satisfaction. Being a nurse requires a lot of dedication, patience, and ability to keep updated in a constantly evolving world. When hospitals and other medical facilities have staffing shortages or shortages in qualified nurses, the healthcare delivery of that particular place dwindles. Nurses are the backbone of any healthcare facility.
Especially in recent times, nurses provide prescriptions, treatment protocols, and diagnosis when doctors are away or busy. This literature review is meant to explain such a phenomena and how it relates directly to nurse satisfaction and nursing retention. From here, the connection crosses over to nursing care and healthcare delivery as standards of practice. Things like arrhythmias will be viewed to understand how nursing shortages attribute to lower quality of care. Utilizing Polk's theory of esilience, this review will allow a look into performance improvement concerns and…
Bosch, R., Kirch, W., Theuer, J., Pittrow, D., Kohlhaussen, A., Willich, S., & Bonnemeier, H. (2013). Atrial fibrillation management, outcomes and predictors of stable disease in daily practice: Prospective non-interventional study. International Journal Of Cardiology, 167(3), 750-756. doi:10.1016/j.ijcard.2012.03.053
GIANFERMI, R., & BUCHHOLZ, S. (2011). Exploring the relationship between job satisfaction and nursing group outcome attainment capability in nurse administrators. Journal Of Nursing Management, 19(8), 1012-1019. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2834.2011.01328.x
Hudgins, T. (2015). Resilience, job satisfaction and anticipated turnover in nurse leaders. Journal Of Nursing Management, n/a-n/a. doi:10.1111/jonm.12289
Minhas, R., Vogelaar, G., Wang, D., Almansoori, W., Lang, E., & Blanchard, I. et al. (2015). A prehospital treat-and-release protocol for supraventricular tachycardia. CJEM, 1-8. doi:10.1017/cem.2014.53
The first flow of influence is disarming, the process of omitting any signs of power or control on the part of the seller. Second is liking, or how rapport is established and relationships are trigger with strangers. Third is distinctiveness, which refers to the degree that the seller's approach differs from others to which the buyer has been exposed.
Williams (1998) suggests that firms who want to move from traditional transaction oriented selling to relationship building must look closely at all aspects of sales management including recruitment, training, remuneration and sales planning. Conti and Cron (1998) state that the field sales force must be particularly involved in targeting individual customers, implementing relationship-specific offerings, and evaluating relationship outcomes for relationship selling to be effective. To accomplish those objectives, they suggest a planning framework that includes criteria that are conducive to collaborative relationships. The key criteria include; 1) the customer's business philosophy…
Alessandra, Tony & Barrera, Rick. (1993). Collaborative Selling: How to Gain the Competitive Advantage in Sales. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Anderson, Rolph E. (1996). Personal selling and sales management in the new millennium. Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management, 16 (4), 17-32.
Boorom, Michael L., Goolsby, Jerry R. & Ramsey, Rosemary P. (1998). Relational communication traits and their effect on adaptiveness and sales performance. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 26 (1), 16-30.
Borys, Bryan & Jemison, David B. (1989). Hybrid arrangements as strategic alliances: theoretical issues in organizational combinations. Academy of Management Review, 14 (2), 234- 249.
Improving Nursing Education esearch
The article reviewed for this assignment is "Methodological quality and scientific impact of quantitative nursing education research over 18 months" by Yucha et al. The related topic of this particular article involves research about the education of nurses. Specifically, the authors wanted to examine research articles that were about the various sorts of methods and factors that pertained to nursing research. The vast majority of such research pertained to continuing education and patient research (Yucha et al., 2011, p. 362); although the articles were concerned with virtually any article containing original research regarding any facet of education for nurses. The principle factor that spawned the interest of the authors is that there has been a reduction in original research pertaining to nursing education. This phenomenon is partially explained in the context of the majority of research in nursing slowly evolving towards clinical issues, while neglecting that…
Yucha, C.B., St. Pierre Schneider, B., Smyer, T., Kowalski, S., Stowers, E. (2011). Methodological quality and scientific impact of quantitative nursing education research over 18 months. Nursing Education Perspectives. 32(6), 362-368.
Discharge Education to Promote Self-Efficacy in Heart Failure
An Education Intervention For Patients With Heart Failure
Management of congestive heart failure (CHF) continues to be a financial burden on the economy of the United States of America (USA); responsible for multiple hospital admissions and readmissions of patients with HF within thirty days post discharge. The disease has been associated with personal, physical, and economic challenges. As the population increases, the number of individuals affected with this condition is also increasing. According to the American Heart Association (2009), an estimated 400,000 to 500.000 new cases occur annually, with additional annual cost of more than $33 billion dollars added to the U.S. economy.
Discharge education, which attempts to reduce readmission rate, has become a valuable metric in the provision of health care. For effective management of heart failure symptoms, patient education is a necessity (Gruszczynski, 2010). Sara Paul (2008) discussed the importance…
Anderson, C., Deepak, B.V., Amoateng-Adjepongn, Y.,Zarich, S., (2005). Benefits of Comprehensive inpatient education and discharge planning combined with outpatient
Support in elderly patients with congestive heart failure. Congestive Heart Fail, 11(6),
Annema, C, Luttik ML, Jaarsma, T, (2009), Reasons for readmission in heart failure:
Postmodernism and Post-Positivism
Challenges and Strengths
Post-positivism vs. postmodernism
Two of the dominant paradigms within the modern epistemological discourse are that of post-positivism and postmodernism. They are often used relatively loosely and postmodernism in particular is deployed in a very flexible manner, to denote a form of art based upon pastiche and humor with a kind of ironic, self-referential quality. The difficulty of defining postmodernism is due to the fact that the philosophy denies the idea of modern 'progress' or the ability to arrive at a secure definition of reality. Instead, "postmodernists deny both the possibility and the desirability of an integral postmodernist philosophy," and postmodern philosophers often seem to share little other than a sense of opposition to modernism (Nekrasas 2011). The idea that there are no truths, only subjective beliefs, might seem antithetical to the sciences, including the health sciences, and there are some postmodernists who deny the…
Hutton, Erica. (2009). An examination of post-positivism. Erica Hutton, PhDc.
Retrieved May 6, 2011 at http://www.ericahutton.blogspot.com/2009/03/examination-of-postpositivism.html
Nekrasas, Evaldas. (2011). Positivism, post-positivism, and postmodernism.
Retrieved May 6, 2011 at http://www.crvp.org/book/Series04/IVA-26/chapter_viii.htm
Deductive and Inductive Theory Construction
There has been much controversy regarding feminism during recent decades and even though the contemporary society has reached a particularly advanced level when considering the idea of civilization, gender discrimination continues to occur in some areas. One's location is likely to be an important factor in making the respective individual more or less of a feminist. Geographic locations are thus essential in shaping a person's character and his or her determination to become a feminist. I believe that it is very likely for feminism to depend on factors such as geographic location, taking into account that many cultures are hesitant about accepting feminist ideas and some are even likely to use harsh criticism as a means to control or even to eradicate these respective ideas.
My theory is going to attempt to confirm the fact that geographic location can play an important role in making…
Nursing Theory -- oy Adaptation Model
The oy Adaptation Model is one of the most commonly cited and used options when it comes to nursing theories. It has been in existence since 1976, and has had a number of years to be adjusted and changed to work with the adjustments that have occurred in the field of nursing over time (Alligood, 2011). Being able to adapt and change is a very important part of nursing, because all patients are different. Additionally, treatments and medications change rapidly, and that can be difficult to keep up with if a nurse is not focused on adapting his or her style and beliefs to the changing nature of medicine. Here, the importance of nursing theory will be explored, along with the key points that are used in the oy Adaptation Model. The views and ideas that the model provides when it comes to nursing…
Alligood, M.R. (2011). The power of theoretical knowledge. Nursing science quarterly, 24(4), 304-305.
Polit, D.F., & Beck, C.T. (2013). Essentials of nursing research. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Roy, C. (2011). Extending the Roy adaptation model to meet changing global needs. Nursing science quarterly, 24(4), 345-351.
Roy, C. (2011). Research based on the Roy Adaptation Model last 25 years. Nursing science quarterly, 24(4), 312-320.
The Critique of Pure eason proposed and researched, highlighting expertise of how the mind's synthetic framework makes up the world. As a review of taste, such a technique does not try to separate some home that is distinct to beautiful items, however rather intends at exposing how the mind discovers specific items beautiful. Kant thinks that this is possible since the intellect that is associated with common spatiotemporal experience, so it is just fitting to look initially at the nature of these professors prior to continuing to how they associate with aesthetic judgments. An additional reason to continue in this way is that the Critique of the Power of Judgment is scant when it concerns explicating the complimentary play of the creativity and understanding Kant anticipates that his readers have actually accumulated this from the first Critique.
In the Critique of Pure eason we see that in determinative judgments the…
Aristotle (1980). Metaphysics, the Loeb Classical Library (trans. H. Tredennick). Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1 933 / 1980 . 1029a20ff.
Crawford, D.W. (1974). Kant's Aesthetic Theory (London: The University of Wiscon-sin Press).
De Blaas, Eugene, God's Creatures, oil on canvas, 1877, private collection
Kant, I. (2000a). Critique of the Power of Judgment, trans. Paul Guyer and Eric Matthews, ed. Paul Guyer (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).
While on one hand, the Nile gets the highest discharge from rainfall on the highlands of Ethiopia and upland plateau of East Africa, located well outside the Middle East region; on the other hand, discharge points of the other two rivers, Euphrates and Tigris, are positioned well within the Middle East region, prevailing mostly in Turkey, Syria along with Iraq. In other areas, recurrent river systems are restricted to the more northern upland areas of Iran and Turkey, in common with the coastline of Levant (Peter eaumont, Gerald H. lake, J. And Malcolm Wagstaff, 1988).
The conflict in the Future
It is widely believed by many experts that those who control the waters in the Middle East; control the Middle East; and those who control the Middle East; control the oil supply of the world (David M. Hummel, 1995). From the above mentioned facts it is clear that the water…
Anthony H. Cordesman. Peace is Not Enough: The Arab-Israeli Economic and Demographic Crises. Part Two. Population Growth, Fertility and Population Doubling Rates, Regional Trends, National Trends, and the "Youth Explosion" Center for Strategic and International Studies, 1998.
Adel Darwish. Troubled waters in rivers of blood. Water Issues. 3 December 1992. http://www.mideastnews.com/water004.html
Adel Darwish. Inadequacy of international law. Taken at http://www.mideastnews.com/WaterWars.htm
Ashok Swain. A new challenge: water scarcity in the Arab world. Arab Studies Quarterly (ASQ). January, 1998.
S., experts estimate the genuine number of incidents of abuse and neglect ranges three times higher than reported. (National Child Abuse Statistics, 2006) in light of these critical contemporary concerns for youth, this researcher chose to document the application of Object elation, Attachment Theories, and Self-Psychology to clinical practice, specifically focusing on a patient who experienced abuse when a child. Consequently, this researcher contends this clinical case study dissertation proves to be vital venture, which will contribute to enhancing research in the field of psychology.
For this clinical case study dissertation exploring Object elation, Attachment Theories, and Self-Psychology, along with researching information for the application of these theories to clinical practice, this researcher answered the following research questions.
What is Winnicott's elational Model Theory?
What is Bowlby's Attachment Theory?
What is Kohut's Self-Psychology?
How may components of these three theories be applied to the clinical case chosen for…
American Psychiatric Association, (2004). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Test Revised. Washington DC.
Blatt, S. (1974). Levels of object representation in anaclytic and introjective depression. New York: International University Press.
Bowlby, J. (1969) Attachment. Volume One of Attachment and Loss, New York: Basic
Since taconite iron ore can be attracted by magnets, it is called a magnetite. Magnetite is abundant in the Minnesota Iron ange as well as the Michigan Iron ange that is located next to Marquette as well as in the Penokee ange in Wisconsin, Minnesota. In Wisconsin-Minnesota's Gogebic-Penokee ange, the taconite iron ore deposits are concentrated on the bands that run from the Mellen area in Ashland County up to the area near Upson in the Iron County.
The taconite iron ore extraction process
The mining of taconite iron ore in the Gogebic-Penokee ange is carried out by means of open-pit mining methods. The mining process commences by the drilling of a hole into the ground in order to determine the exact location and quality of the iron ore deposit. The drilling also reveals the characteristics of the rocks that surround the ore. For the rather large modern mines, there…
Broman, A (2011)'Silent Majority' Backs Penokee Mine: Gogebic Taconite President
Cannon, W.F., (1973)The Penokean orogeny in northern Michigan, in Young, G.M., ed., Huronian stratigraphy and sedimentation: Geological Association of Canada Special Paper
Clements, B and Sack, C (2008)Introduction to Mining in the Penokees
Sociology and Feminist Theories on Gender Studies
Postmodern Feminism in "Cherrie Moraga and Chicana Lesbianism"
In the article entitled, "Cherrie Moraga and Chicana Lesbianism," author Tomas Almaguer analyzes and studies the dynamics behind Moraga's feminist reading of the Chicano culture and society that she originated from. In the article, Almaguer focuses on three elements that influenced Moraga's social reality as she was growing up: the powerful effect of the Chicano culture, patriarchal orientation, and homosexuality that she experienced within the context of her nationality.
Chicano culture centers on race as an indicator of one's cultural orientation, while patriarchy serves as the ideology that is prevalent in Moraga's social reality. Homosexuality, particularly, lesbianism, is Moraga's release from the somewhat repressing role that she perceives women receive in her culture. Thus, lesbianism becomes Moraga's alternative sexual orientation to a heterosexually conservative Chicano culture. Using the following factors concerning the cultural, social, and…
(Novick, 1996) According to Novick practices that are developmentally appropriate and that contain culturally relevant teaching are: "...well grounded in human development and brain-based research..." (1996) The teacher must understand that today's schooling: "...takes place in a wider political context, one in which currently there is a great deal of anxiety and controversy regarding the nature of schooling, the economy, and our society, itself." (Novick, 1996) Schorr (1990) states that "methods and materials that promote active, experiential, inquiry based, cooperative learning activities lend themselves to accommodating a wide range of abilities and interests." (as cited by Novick, 1996)
SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION
It is critically important that the teacher of the middle-childhood classroom understand and apply in the classroom practice the theories as set out in this research in order to motive the students both on a group and individual level in their acquisition of knowledge and learning.
Bowers, C.A. & Flinders, D.J. (1990). Responsive Teaching. New York: Teachers College Press.
Bowman, B.T. (1992) Reaching potentials of minority children through developmentally and culturally appropriate programs. In S. Bredekamp & T. Rosegrant (Eds.), Reaching potentials: Appropriate curriculum and assessment for young children. Washington, DC: National Association for the Education of Young Children.
Bowman, B.T. (1994). The challenge of diversity. Phi Delta Kappan, November, 218-224.
Bowman, B.T. & Stott, F.M. (1994). Understanding development in a cultural context: The challenge for teachers. In B. Mallory & R. New (Eds.), Diversity and developmentally appropriate practices. New York: Teachers College Press.
The international community can obviously respond by seeking to marginalize the Taliban and similar movements as extremists. However, it has become clear following the terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon that western governments have not been effective in infiltrating terrorist networks and pre-empting attacks. It has also become clear that there will be no shortage of people in the Islamic world who are willing to martyr themselves for as long as there are legitimate grievances against the U.S. And other countries. It is therefore in the interest of the Americans that actions are taken by its government that seek to address both the legitimate concerns of moderate elements within the Islamic world and American's own relative ignorance as to what is happening in the world beyond the U.S. (Marsden, 2002 pp. 153-155).
The Afghanistan military action of the U.S. wherein the Taliban regime was overthrown is…
Marsden, P. (2002) the Taliban, War and Religion in Afghanistan. London: Zed Books Ltd.
Rashid, a. (2000) Taliban: Militant Islam, Oil and Fundamentalism in Central Asia. New Haven CT: Yale University Press.
Roy, O. (1986) Islam and Resistance in Afghanistan. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Rosenthal, J. (1991) Righteous Realists: Political Realism, Responsible Power and American Culture in Nuclear Age. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University.
They can go one of two ways, if they have social and emotional problems brought on by the divorce. They can spend their teenage years being wild and out-of-control, or they can spend them as a virtual recluse, rarely leaving their rooms except to go to mandatory functions such as school. Neither one of these options is very good, and both can lead to more problems later on in life.
When children become wild and hard to control, parents are often at a loss as to how to help them. It is difficult enough to control a wild, unruly teenager when there are two parents in the house, but much more difficult when there is only one parent. To compound the problem, that single parent often works two jobs or long hours to provide food, clothing, and shelter for himself or herself and the children. This absence from the house…
Ahrons, C.R. & Tanner, J.L. (2003) Adult children and their fathers: Relationship changes 20 years after parental divorce. Family Relations, 52: 340-351.
Amato, P. & DeBoer, D. (2001). The transmission of marital stability across generations: Relationship skills or commitment to marriage? Journal of Marriage and Family, 63: 1038-1051.
Biblarz, T.J., & Gottainer, G. (2000) Family Structure and Children's Success: A Comparison of Widowed and Divorced Single-Mother Families. Journal of Marriage and Family. 62: 533-548.
Hetherington, E.M. (2003) Intimate pathways: changing patterns in close personal relationships across time. Family Relations, 52: 318-331.
The researches in this direction have confirmed that engagement in goal-setting and acceptance of the goals are crucial for the assurance of the goal and job. Moreover, monitoring the stages of attainment of goal is also crucial for imparting motivation. While an employee is not attaining timely and accurate feedback on performance it is quite difficult in assessing the behaviors for continuance in the direction of achieving the goals in subsequently. It is again pertinent to note that goals themselves are not reinforcing. The motivation is perceived to have resulted from the discontentment of what is accomplished and what was set earlier for accomplishment. Such shortfalls imbibe people to work harder for achieving better pursuits subsequently. (Goal Setting Theory)
The importance of the goal setting theory stems from its focus on motivation in work fronts and on the core characteristics of a successful and effective goal or aim. The performance…
Big Dog's Leadership Page - Human Behavior. May 17, 2000. Retrieved at http://www.nwlink.com/~donclark/leader/leadhb.html . Accessed on 10 February, 2005
ERG Theory. Retrieved at http://www.envisionsoftware.com/articles/ERG_Theory.html. Accessed on 10 February, 2005
ERG Theory. Retrieved at http://www.netmba.com/mgmt/ob/motivation/erg/ . Accessed on 10 February, 2005
Goal Setting Theory. Retrieved at http://www.siop.org/Instruct/Motivate/sld007.htm. Accessed on 10 February, 2005
magic bullet theory" -- sometimes called the hypodermic needle theory -- holds that when recipients of broadcasted information are separated from one another they are extremely susceptible to the messages that they are receiving; theses messages can drastically influence their opinions as well as their perceptions of reality. "Agenda setting scholars corroborate the fact that our dependence on the media for news and information has shaped and reinforced our perceptions of the world around us. The mass media continue to set the news agenda for dominant events, issues and policies that subsequently become popular in our social discourse."
It is a theory regarding the nature by which information influences its receivers and is generally only accurate under a specific set of circumstances. Overall, the magic bullet theory cannot be utilized as a comprehensive model for the mass media because it ignores a number of characteristics inherent to human nature. The…
1. Alozie, Emmanuel C. (2003). Global Media Journal, volume 2, issue 5.
2. Ayeni, Dr. Olugbenga Christopher. "ABC, CNN, CBS, FOX, and NBC on the Frontlines." Global Media Journal.
3. Gehman, Gary L. (1999). "About Magic Bullet Communications." Magic Bullet Communications, Oct. 10.
4. Holtzman, Linda. (2000). Media Messages. New York: M.E. Sharp.