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The authors maintain that the military has factors that are matched by very few civilian jobs. These features include:
1. Risk of injury or death to the service member;
2. Periodic (often prolonged) separation from other immediate family members;
3. Geographic mobility;
4. Residence in foreign countries, and
5. Normative role pressures placed upon family members because they are considered (associate) members of the employee's organization.
Obviously, in this paper, we are interested in prolonged separation and its effects upon the military family. According the chapter's authors, Special Forces units, military police and infantry are gone a lot from home, whereas medics, doctors and other administrative specialists are not. As they state, "e were unable to find comparable civilian statistics, but we are quite sure that civilian families…do not usually experience separations approaching the number of days that soldiers are away from home." According to their research, the average number…
"Army Readiness Group Family Readiness Group." Army Readiness Group Family
Readiness Group. Army Readiness Group, 2010. 3 Jul 2010. .
Bell, D. Bruce & Schumm, Walter R. "Balancing Work and Family Demands in the Military: What Happens When Your Employer Tells You to Go to War?"
in ed. Halpern, Diane F. And Murphy, Susan Elaine. From Work-Family Balance to Work Family Interaction: Changing the Metaphor. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc., 2005.
In wartime, those hardships pale in comparison to the emotional anxiety associated with the natural concerns for the health, safety, and welfare of loved ones. Every news report about U.S. personnel killed or wounded in the theater in which their loved ones serve is a source of anxiety and fear until family members can confirm that the casualties did not involve their loved ones. Meanwhile, everyday civilian life must go on despite the fact that fathers and mothers cannot attend many of the ordinary events in the lives of their children that civilian families often take for granted. Upon their safe return, their prolonged absence is associated with higher than normal rates of marital problems and divorce, even without specific precipitating factors such as depression or PTSD (McGirk, 2009).
Unfortunately, there may be no solution for many of the natural consequences of prolonged military deployment simply by virtue of…
McGirk T. "The Hell of PTSD" Time; Vol. 174, No. 21 (2009): 40-43
Deployment on Military Families
Cause (Deployment) Effect (Stress on Families / Children)
The stress on military families when the father or mother is deployed -- whether the deployment is to a war zone or to another place -- can be very intense and psychologically stressful. There is a great deal of literature on what military families experience before, during, and after deployment, and this paper provides several peer-reviewed articles that discuss and assess the situations that military families must deal with during deployment. Thesis: families left at home when a military parent is deployed face social and psychological issues that do not necessarily end when that parent returns from deployment; however, there are strategies to reduce the stress once the parent returns home from the deployment.
The Literature -- Psychological Adjustment for Children
The psychological adjustments that children must make -- especially children with "…preexisting psychological conditions" such as depression…
Hinojosa, Ramon, Hinojosa, Melanie Sberna, and Hognas, Robin S. "Problems with Veteran-
Family Communication During Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom
Military Deployment." Military Medicine, 177.2 (2012): 191-197.
Lincoln, Alan, Swift, Erika, and Shorteno-Fraser, Mia. "Psychological Adjustment and Treatment of Children and Families With Parents Deployed in Military Combat." Journal
ut it does not come without cost to the local school system." (National Military Family Association, 2006) This report relates funding is provided through the U.S. Department of education Impact Aid Program that go to district who are educating military children to support the districts in educating large numbers of military children including their frequent movements and the need for counseling and other resources. (National Military Family Association, 200;, paraphrased)
III. RECOMMENDATIONS of JOHN HOPKINS UNIVERSITY
John Hopkins University researchers state recommendations for schools who educate military children which include the following: (1) Know your students: Children of military families tend to be hard-working, focused, and goal-oriented; (2) Schools need to provide opportunities for them to excel; (3) Set up strategies to welcome new students; (4) e flexible when students move in or out to assist them in fulfilling graduation requirements and becoming involved in school activities; (5) Engage parents:…
Pre-K for Military Families: Honoring Service, Educating Children (2007) Pre-K Now Research Series July 2007. McCormick Tribune Foundation. Online available at http://www.pewcenteronthestates.org/uploadedFiles/Pre-K%20for%20Military%20Families.pdf
Month of the Military Child (2008) Connections April 2008 Army Reserve Family Programs. Online available at http://www.arfp.org/skins/ARFP/display.aspx?ModuleID=8cde2e88-3052-448c-893d-d0b4b14b31c4&CategoryID=92d19fef-3459-40de-8f84-dbde04b1a1a1&ObjectID=b8080813-c5c2-4c0b-a59f-3a4f894b834c&AllowSSL=true
Military Children and Families (2008) Center for the Study of Traumatic Stress. Online available at http://www.centerforthestudyoftraumaticstress.org/aboutyou.militarychildren.shtml
Kids Serve Too (2005) a Salute to America's Military Children. 13 Apr 2005. Online available at http://www.firebrandstudio.com/ks2/doc/KS2presskit.pdf
Military Needs to Step Down
General Creighton Abrams said, "There must be within our Army, a sense of purpose. There must be a willingness to march a little farther, to carry a heavier load, to step out into the dark and the unknown for the safety and well-being of others (United States)." U.S. military troops are indeed marching farther and farther, expanding into different nations at this very moment: Afghanistan, Egypt, Indonesia, Columbia, Japan, and 58 other countries. However, this isn't what Abrams had in mind. In total, there are 255,065 U.S. military personnel deployed worldwide (Sivitz). But who assigned the U.S. military the task of serving as an international police force? For years, U.S. political and military strategists have conceived a fraudulent justification for increased military deployment that they call "The Global War on Terrorism." Did someone call them for immediate help? Did someone give them the right to…
Military Children and the Effects of Long Deployments on Them
Over the last several years, the children of parents who are serving in the military are facing increasing amounts of scrutiny. This is because one or both of their parents are being sent on long deployments to Afghanistan. These shifts are directly resulting in them and their caregivers having to make dramatic adjustments. (Wells, 2012)
According to a study conducted by the U.S. Department of Defense (DOD), they found that their ability to adjust will involve the family situation, age and their environment. These factors are leading to some adapting more effectively than others. Evidence of this can be seen with observations from the report which says, "Children's reactions to deployment-related parental absence vary by age, developmental stage, and other individual and family factors. While young children are likely to exhibit externalizing behavior such as anger and attention difficulties, school-age…
Report on the Impact of Deployment. (2010). Military One Source. Retrieved from:
Baker, L. (2009). Developmental Issues Impacting Military Families. Military Medicine, 174 (1),
Military personnel must achieve and maintain the best physical conditioning of they are reasonably able to reach for the duration of their enlistment as a fundamental obligation of being fit for duty. Smoking makes that impossible. Likewise, the American taxpayer has a justifiable interest in reducing the costs of fielding a military by eliminating unnecessary costs. Smoking invariably adds to the already substantial costs of providing medical care to armed services personnel, both during their active service as well as throughout their lives afterwards to the extent they rely on veteran's services for medical care.
Military personnel already understand that the privilege and benefits associated with military service entail various restrictions on rights enjoyed by civilians. In this case, military justice must catch up to the manner in which civilian society has already incorporated the understanding of the risks of smoking into American life.
Dershowitz, Alan. (2002). Shouting Fire:…
Dershowitz, Alan. (2002). Shouting Fire: Civil Liberties in a Turbulent Age. New York:
O'Neill, Xana and Lite, Jordan. "Real Estate Companies Making it Tougher for Smokers
in Their Homes" The New York Daily News, March 30, 2008. Retrieved February
In addition, the Marines have a much smaller force than the army.
On the other hand, the army cannot be as selective as the marines because it needs to maintain a much higher number of troops. The article explains that the army "needs 80,000 new soldiers this year and must find them in a populace that is in many ways less willing and less able to serve than earlier generations were (Mockenhaupt, 2007, pg.86)." The article explains that teenagers and young adults are overweight and less fit than any previous generation. In addition, this generation of young Americans eats more unhealthy foods, watches more television, and engages in less physical activity than previous generations. The article further asserts that this generation is "more individualistic and less inclined to join the military. And with the unemployment rate hovering near historic lows, they have other choices (Mockenhaupt, 2007, pg.86)."
Overall it is…
Anderson, P.M., & Butcher, K.F. (2006). Childhood Obesity: Trends and Potential Causes. The Future of Children, 16(1), 19+.
Body Mass Index. http://www.nhlbisupport.com/bmi/
Belkin D. (February 20, 2006) Struggling for recruits, Army relaxes its rules: Fitness, education, age criteria change. The Boston Globe Retrieved March 16, 2008 from; http://www.boston.com/news/nation/articles/2006/02/20/struggling_for_recruits_army_relaxes_its_rules/?page=1
Daniels, S.R. (2006). The Consequences of Childhood Overweight and Obesity. The Future of Children, 16(1), 47+.
Canadian Forces, small group military relationships
Within the Canadian Forces, how are small group military relationships on operational deployments in Kabul, Afghanistan?
A group is mostly defined to be two or more people interacting together so they can achieve a common specific goal. The main purpose of the group would be towards a shared and desired outcome. With this in mind, Military groupings are formed to achieve a common interest like defeating a common foe, or lobbying for a specific cause. The group will have some form of leadership structure to ensure it is not mistaken for a crowd. The leadership for military groups is formal. Military groups report to one leader, and follow the orders or instructions given by their leader. For the effectiveness of the military groups, the group members should work together. Working closely together, and for long periods, the group members will form certain bonds, and…
Cox, D.R., & Snell, E.J. (1974). The Choice of Variables in Observational Studies. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society. Series C (Applied Statistics), 23(1), 51-59.
Jiroutek, M.R., Muller, K.E., Kupper, L.L., & Stewart, P.W. (2003). A New Method for Choosing Sample Size for Confidence Interval-Based Inferences. Biometrics, 59(3), 580-590.
Johnson, B.A., & Tsiatis, A.A. (2004). Estimating Mean Response as a Function of Treatment Duration in an Observational Study, Where Duration May Be Informatively Censored. Biometrics, 60(2), 315-323.
Morgan, D.L. (1996). Focus Groups. Annual Review of Sociology, 22(ArticleType: research-article / Full publication date: 1996 / Copyright © 1996 Annual Reviews), 129-152.
military deployment affects military families. The writer explores the many differences between deployed and non-deployed families and examines some of the things being done to ease the stress and problems that deployment presents. There were 10 sources used to complete this paper.
Americans are waiting with anxious anticipation as the federal government attempts to convince the United Nations that a war with Iraq is in order. President Bush as well as Colin Powell have spent days addressing the issue and presenting evidence of the need to forcibly disarm Iraq. As the world watches the events unfold, nations are lining up on one side or the other of the issue. France, Germany and ussia are asking the United States to hold off on an attack and see if a more peaceful solution can be hammered out. Britain, Canada and several others have pledged if a war erupts, they will send troops…
Peterson, Karen S.(2001).Peterson, Long deployments stress military families., USA Today, pp 08D.
2001). INDSTRY GROUP 91, AIR FORCE SPOUSE ADDRESSES QUALITY-OF-LIFE ISSUES BEFORE CONGRESS FEDERAL DOCUMENT CLEARING HOUSE, INC.., Regulatory Intelligence Data.
Author not available (2001). U.S. REPRESENTATIVE DAVID HOBSON (R-OH) CHAIRMAN U.S. REPRESENTATIVE DAVID HOBSON (R-OH) HOLDS HEARING ON MILITARY QUALITY OF LIFE., Washington Transcript Service.
____(1999). INDSTRY GROUP 91, DOD STUDIES MISSION, FAMILY NEEDS., Regulatory Intelligence Data.
" (Rand National Defense Research Institute, 2009)
It is reported by Rand National Defense Research Institute that when service members and their spouses were polled for the purpose of making an assessment of the readiness of the family for the most recent deployment. Findings state as follows:
65% of service members and 60% of spouses indicated (Rand National Defense Research Institute, 2009)
The way that family readiness was defined is stated to however vary and that there are three specific readiness categories were cited including:
(1) financial readiness;
(2) readiness related to household responsibilities; and (3) Emotional or mental readiness. (Rand National Defense Research Institute, 2009)
It is critically important that knowledge be gained concerning how families prepare for deployment of the service member. It was found in the study conducted by Rand National Defense Research Institute that "…like readiness, coping meant different things to different families." (2009)
Castaneda, Laura Werber (2008) Deployment Experiences of Guard and Reserve Families: Implications for Support and Retention. Rand National Defense Research Institute. Online available at: http://www.litagion.com/pubs/monographs/2008/RAND_MG645.sum.pdf
How Can the Military Best Support Guard and Reserve Families During Deployment? (2009) Rand National Defense Research Institute. Online available at: www.rand.org
CHAPTER FOUR: Results (4-5 pages)
Pisano, Mark C. (2008) Military Deployment: How School Psychologists Can Help. NASP Communique, Vol 37 #2. October 2008. Online available at: http://www.nasponline.org/publications/cq/mocq372deployment.aspx
Deployments on National Guard and eserve Soldiers and Families
The use of reserve components for support of "overseas contingencies has increased significantly since September 11, 2001, and the U.S. invasion of Afghanistan and Iraq."[footnoteef:1] This has resulted in a great impact on the members of the reserve forces and their families upon deployment of these members of the National Guard services to Afghanistan and Iraq. It is related in the work of the "Defense Science Task Force on Deployment of Members of the National Guard and eserve in the Global War on Terrorism "that while children's "behavioral responses and mental health status during noncombat or routine deployments relate to the level of concurrent family stressors and/or maternal psychopathology…" that "…less is known about children from U.S. military families during a time of war or about the impact on children and families of a parent's combat experience or the combat deployment…
Defense Science Task Force on Deployment of Members of the National Guard and Reserve in the Global War on Terrorism (2007) Office of the Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology, and Logistics Washington, DC Retrieved from: http://www.acq.osd.mil/dsb/reports/ADA478163.pdf
Elliott, Matt (2010) Q&A with Stacy Bannerman. PBS. 19 Aug 2010. Retrieved from: http://www.pbs.org/pov/regardingwar/conversations/blog-1/qa-with-stacy-bannerman.php
Gever, John (nd) Extended Military Deployments to Combat Areas Increase Stress, Anxiety and Depression among Families. MedPage Today. Retrieved from: http://www.kevinmd.com/blog/2010/01/extended-military-deployments-combat-areas-increase-stress-anxiety-depression-families.html
Mansfield, A.J. et al. (2007) Deployment and the Use of Mental Health Services among U.S. Military Wives. All Military. Retrieved from: http://www.allmilitary.com/board/viewtopic.php?id=27225
“As Long as The Personal and Societal Safety of American Citizens Is at Risk from External Threats, Historical Precedents Suggest That Rather Few Limits Will Be Placed on The Use of American Military Power, Or on The Constraints the United States Will Impose on The Peoples of Other Countries.”
The government of America exists for its citizens’ welfare, an obligation which encompasses being in charge of both its internal and external affairs. US foreign policy’s key principles are: defense of the physical territory of America, safeguarding citizens from attacks by enemies, promoting the status and economic interests of America, and promoting the nation’s democracy- and freedom- related values across the world. By end-twentieth century, the US’s foreign policy entailed relationships with a total of 159 states that were typically competitive, supportive at times, and at other times clearly unfriendly (Deutsch, 1997).
The government’s executive wing has largely remained in charge…
Military ar or Campaign
The world has existed amidst a set of wars and conflicts that have shaped political systems, governments, and humanitarian associations. Gulf ar is one of the universal and all time conflicts that rocked the world. ith equitable measures and categorical procedures, philosophies, missions, and visions of these wars, this piece of study exemplifies Gulf ar as one of America's participatory wars in the world. The article tries to establish the basement of Gulf ar together with its consequences and responses it received from the United States of America and the world as a whole.
and the Middle East have been on good terms for quite some time. Various wars between the U.S. And countries including Iraq have occurred. In such instances, military deployment by the U.S. government is intense supported by its foreign policies. This study focuses on the 1990/91 Gulf ar. The America's paradoxical love-hate…
Boyne, Walter J. Gulf War: A Comprehensive Guide to People, Places & Weapons. New York: Signet, 1991. Print.
Bulloch, John, and Harvey Morris. The Gulf War: Its Origins, History, and Consequences.
London: Methuen London, 1989. Print.
Carlisle, Rodney, and John S. Bowman. Persian Gulf War. New York: Facts on File, 2003.
Military Deployment Impacts Families
Families are social structures that, like all structures, require stability and solid foundations to serve their purpose (Joshi, Connelly, osenberg, 2014). If the purpose of the family is to provide shelter and support for the growth and development of the individual members of the family as active participants of society, a family that suffers from departures of significant or substantial role players/infrastructural supporters can have a negative effect on the remaining members and in particularly children. Such is the case among military families, where military deployments create a void within the family system dynamic; i.e., while the military parent is away on military service, the house becomes essentially a single-parent home, with ramifications for both the parent and the children. This paper will discuss the issue of the effect of military deployment on the family.
While it is necessary that military deployments be enacted in…
Joshi, H., Connelly, R., Rosenberg, R. (2014). Family Structure and Stability. In:
Millennium Cohort Study Initial Findings from the Age 11 Survey. London: Centre for Longitudinal Studies, Institute of Education.
Lester, P., Flake, E. (2013). How wartime military service affects children and families.
The Future of Children, 23(2): 121-141.
parent goes to war: Effects of parental deployment on very young children and implications for intervention" by Paris, ., Devoe, E. ., oss, A. M., & Acker, M. L. (2010). American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 80(4), 610-618. doi:10.1111/j.1939-0025.2010.01066.x
uth Paris, Ellen . Devoe, Abigail M. oss, and Michelle L. Acker in When a parent goes to war: Effects of parental deployment on very young children and implications for intervention reviewed the effects military deployment cycles have on young children. The effects span intense emotions, attachment patterns as well as behavioral changes. They suggested that military families with toddlers, infants and preschoolers ought to be supported by taking an ecological approach. To explore ways to provide adequate support, Paris et al. reviewed existing literature on the effects parental combat stress had on parenting as well as parent-child relationships. Evidence-informed programs for families and infants were also examined with the goal of identifying…
Alfano, C.A., Lau, S., Balderas, J., Bunnell, B.E. & Beidel, D.C. (2016). The impact of military deployment on children: Placing developmental risk in context, Clinical Psychology Review 43, 17 -- 29.
Chandra, A., Martin, L.T., Hawkins, S.A. & Richardson, A. (2010).The Impact of Parental Deployment on Child Social and Emotional Functioning: Perspectives of School Staff, Journal of Adolescent Health 46, 218 -- 223.
Denscombe, M. (2014). The good research guide: for small-scale social research projects. Mcgraw-Hill Education (UK).
Saunders, M. N., Saunders, M., Lewis, P., & Thornhill, A. (2011). Research Methods for Business Students, 5/e. Pearson Education India.
military readiness intrinsically declines the longer a military encounter is prolonged due to the wear and tear exacted by war. As such, it is important to gauge a country's level of military preparedness at the outset of any martial encounter to truly assess its readiness for protracted combat situations. There are a number of sources that attest to the fact that at the end of the 20th century, the United States' military preparedness -- which would soon be tested in the new millennium by a number of martial engagements, the most eminent of which include Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom, were insufficient. A thorough examination of the results of the former operation (which is still ongoing) and certain key factors relating to military size, personnel availability and training, equipment, and most saliently funding, as compared to those near the end of the 20th century in Operation Desert Storm…
Kaufmann, W. (1994). "Hollow forces': Current issues of U.S. military readiness and effectiveness." The Brookings Institution. 12 (4): 24-29.
Kreisher, O. (2013). "U.S. military funding cuts are eroding readiness to a level that may be difficult to overcome." Naval Forces. 34 (3): 4. Retrieved from Paige, S. (2001). "Under siege one reason our military's readiness is down: We won't let them train." American Enterprise. 12 (7). Retrieved from http://ehis.ebscohost.com.ezp.waldenulibrary.org/eds/detail?sid=3ccf5fe4-0b95-48eb-90aa-de33c85a6438%40sessionmgr111&vid=2&hid=101&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWRzLWxpdmUmc2NvcGU9c2l0ZQ%3d%3d#db=bth&AN=5151435
Ray, D. (2000). "Is the U.S. military prepared to fight?" Insight on the News. 16 (41): 18. Retrieved from http://ehis.ebscohost.com.ezp.waldenulibrary.org/eds/detail?sid=c1e995c8-da05-4b40-bcc4-1f5c7bb02e7c%40sessionmgr114&vid=1&hid=101&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWRzLWxpdmUmc2NvcGU9c2l0ZQ%3d%3d#db=bwh&AN=3740770
Spencer, J. (2000). "The facts about military readiness." www.heritage.org. Retrieved from http://www.heritage.org/research/reports/2000/09/bg1394-the-facts-about-military-readiness
One of the great challenges the military faces is remaining current and preparing the current and future generations of soldiers for inevitable shifts to the geopolitical environment, technological changes, and shifts in both domestic and foreign policies. The importance of preparing officers for the new realities of unpredictable environments and non-state actors cannot be underestimated.[footnoteef:1] The roles and goals of the AMSP and SAMS have not changed. These educational programs provide the requisite advanced and specialized knowledge to foster critical thinking and strategic analysis among military leaders. What must be remembered, however, is the need for organizational awareness and the willingness to change. [1: Edward B. Bankston, Boards vs. Bureaucracies: Field Grade Officer Education in the United States Army, 1946-1985. School of Advanced Military Studies Monograph, 2013.]
This analysis points out the importance of analyzing post-Cold War realities and adapting AMSP and SAMS programs accordingly to include such things…
Bankston, Edward B., Boards vs. Bureaucracies: Field Grade Officer Education in the United States Army, 1946-1985. School of Advanced Military Studies Monograph, 2013.
Beck, William T., Developing Army Leaders Through CGSOC/AMSP and BCTP. School of Advanced Military Studies Monograph, 2005.
Goble, Jeffrey J., Wants and Needs: SMAS' Relationship with the Army. School of Advanced Military Studies Monograph, 2008.
McKinley, Matthew R., An Assessment of the Army Officer Education System from an Adult Learning Perspective. School of Advanced Military Studies Monograph, 2005.
First of all only a scant few of these Veterans groups will acknowledge the "promise" of free health care; for the most part these groups will tout the benefits already promised by the Veterans Administration and assert that cuts in these benefits are the same a broken promise-or contractual breach in legal terms. The idea of the United States military making a "promise" or forging a legally binding agreement between individual veterans or groups of veterans is barred by the United States Constitution. As will be demonstrated in the Literature eview, specific Constitutional language from Article I give Congress and only Congress the express authority to make laws and regulations pertaining to the armed forces. Therefore, the idea the military breached a contract with service members is, ultimately, inherently inaccurate. Combining the lack of specific language within the materials provided by any governmental agency with the clear language of the…
.... (n.d.). The RETIRED MILITARY ADVOCATE. The RETIRED MILITARY ADVOCATE. Retrieved November 29, 2010, from http://mrgrg-ms.org/
Best, R. (2003, August 7). Military Medical Care Services: Questions and Answers. Congressional Research Service, 1, 1-17.
Birkey, a. (2010, July 21). Fraudulent vets charity raised big money in Minnesota. The Minnesota Independent, p. 3.
Burrelli, D. (2008, August 12). Military Health Care: The Issue of Promised Benefits. Congressional Research Service, 1, 1-14.
Evolution and Development of Combat Air Support
The Origins of Military Aviation:
World War I introduced the horrors of mechanized warfare with its unprecedented potential for human destruction. Four years of war decimated the populations of the European powers, accounting for as many as 10 million combatant deaths and about an equal number of civilian casualties. England and Germany both lost at least sixteen percent of their adult male populations to the war effort and left such a devastating emotional effect on those who survived the war that historians have often referred to them as "the lost generation (1).
Aviation was only eleven years old when war broke out in 1914, but the obvious military potential of aircraft inspired a tremendous acceleration in aviation technology during the next four years. Initially, the only practical use for the flimsy, underpowered balsa wood and fabric biplanes was aerial reconnaissance, which had previously…
Ambrose, Steven. The Good Fight: How World War II Was Won
New York, NY: Simon & Schuster, 2001.
Commager, Henry, S. The Pocket History of the Second World War. New York: Pocket Books, 1945.
Jackson, Robert. Modern Military Aircraft. New York: Barnes & Noble, 2003.
Manual War Gaming Methods
The American military frequently employs manual war gaming methods as key analytical techniques. War gaming itself provides situational models that can reveal ideal decision-making processes and illuminate the pros and cons of potential courses of action. Conflict situations are generally framed in scientific or mathematical terms, offering clues for troop maneuvering, combat situations, and taking into account situational or interpersonal variables. In spite of tremendous and helpful advancements in technology and the tools of technology applied to war gaming, manual war gaming remains a core component of military preparedness. Manual war gaming methods enable the conceptualization of skills and resources possessed in light of the realities on the field. Moreover, manual war games provide a transparent, accessible means for visualization. The three primary manual war gaming methods include deliberate timeline analysis, operational phasing, and critical events/sequence of essential tasks. Each of these three manual war gaming…
Department of Military Strategy, Planning, and Operations (2008). U.S. Army War College. Retrieved online: http://www.au.af.mil/au/awc/awcgate/army-usawc/campaign_planning_primer.pdf
Joint Operation Planning (2011). August 2011. Retrieved online: http://www.dtic.mil/doctrine/new_pubs/jp5_0.pdf
Particularly, many democrats and republicans expressed their dismay about the fact that the ush administration did not notify or seek congressional input while the policy was being developed. However, as the Deputy Assistant Secretary of State for Western Hemisphere Affairs, Roberta Jacobson, who actually drafted the 'Merida initiative' says, "Although it [Merida] was proposed by a Republican administration, it was passed by a Democratic [party-controlled] Congress." [Jim Fischer, 2009]
Some policy analysts from Mexico have expressed their concern that controlling drug trafficking in Mexico would be better achieved if the U.S. takes active measures to control the arms trafficking from across its borders into Mexico. Gen. Javier del Real Magallanes, who is in command of the northeastern states such as Nuevo Leon, Tamaulipas, and San Luis Potosi says, "If there are no weapons, there's no violence. These arms aren't from Mexico; they're from the other side." [Laura Starr, 2007]. Sharing…
1) Colleen W. Cook, Oct 2007, 'CRS Report for Congress: Mexico's Drug Cartels', retrieved Apr 22nd, 2010, from, http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/row/RL34215.pdf
2) Bernd Debussman, 'Latin America: Mexico Drug War Update', retrieved Apr 22nd 2010, from, http://stopthedrugwar.org/chronicle/604/mexico_drug_war_update
3) Manuel Roig-Franzia, 'U.S. Guns Behind Cartel Killings In Mexico', retrieved Apr 22nd 2010, from, http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2007/10/28/AR2007102801654.html
4) Inside USA, 'Mexico's Drug', retrieved Apr 22nd 2010, from, http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hyDHNeJxazU
Military life and civilian life differ in key ways, and these differences affect families in particular. Since September 11, there have been higher rates of deployment and a correspondingly increased rate of family stress and domestic abuse. Deployment and the stressors associated therewith are especially important to understand. A review of literature shows that PTSD and other problems are linked to increased rates of abuse among military families. esearch also shows that abuse can be prevented, whether or not PTSD exists. The ways to prevent abuse include developing resilience. esilience includes a range of coping mechanisms that help parents be more able to deal with change and uncertainty. Parents can then pass on these traits to their children. Developing a strong social network has been proven especially helpful in both military and civilian families. Both civilian and military parents benefit from the development of resilience, coping skills, and…
Bursch, B. & Lester, P. (2011). The long war comes home: mitigating risk and promoting resilience in military children and families. Psychiatric Times 28.7 (July 2011): p26.
Chandra, A. & London, A.S. (2013). Unlocking insights about military children and families.
"Help Your Family Face Challenges Successfully," (2014). MilitaryOneSource. 22 Feb, 2014.
Masten, A.S. (2013). Afterword: what we can learn from military children and famliies. The Future of Children 23(2): Fall 2013.
veterans leaving the military. Specifically, it will attempt to solve some of the problems veterans being discharged from the military are facing. Veterans returning from the war in Iraq face a variety of problems and issues, and many of them are not being addressed by the military. Health care is one vital problem, many veterans coming home find that if they need health care, the Veterans Administration (VA) hospitals are so crowded they cannot receive treatment for weeks or even months. However, probably the biggest problem facing returning vets is readjusting to civilian life, and all that entails, from dealing with family and friends to the stresses of their jobs. Many returning vets will not admit they may need mental health counseling, and if they do admit it, they may not be able to find it. The problems of returning veterans are many, and until we learn how to solve…
Anonymous. 23 Nov. 2004. Nightmare #1. Retrieved from the Veterans for Common Sense Web site: http://www.veteransforcommonsense.org/NewsArticle.cfm?ID=2432 24 Nov. 2004.
Author not Available. (2 Oct. 2002). Readjustment, reconnecting after deployment. Retrieved from the United States Military Academy Web site: http://www.usma.edu/publicaffairs/PV/021004/Deployment.htm 24 Nov. 2004.
Editors (23 Oct. 2003). Coping with traumatic stress reactions. Retrieved from the National Center for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Web site: http://www.ncptsd.org//war/fs_coping.html?printable=yes 24. Nov. 2004.
They did not have any problems fighting with their enemies that had inferior technologies but when the United States came into the picture, Japan saw itself fighting not only a technologically superior enemy but one with information / intelligence gathering capabilities unbeknownst of in previous warfare history. In addition, Japan indeed woke up a "sleeping dragon" that not only was capable of evening the battlefield but mobilizing all efforts to withstand Japan's aggression in the pacific theatre of operations.
The Pacific war provided a venue to demonstrate the technological and information superiority of the United States against the Japanese Imperial forces. The use of the atomic bomb in Hiroshima and Nagasaki is the ultimate proof of these abilities but the deployment and utilization thereof could never have been possible without the people behind the invention, manufacturing, production, and implementation of these advanced military technologies and information superiority. Thus, it has…
Advameg, Inc. (2011). Science and technology -- World War II and the early Cold War. Retrieved August 7, 2011 from http://www.americanforeignrelations.com/O-W/Science-and-Technology-World-war-ii-and-the-early-cold-war.html
Grunden, W.E. (2005). Secret weapons and World War II: Japan in the shadow of big science. Wichita, KS: University Press of Kansas.
Harper, M.M., Jeffries, J.W., Tuttle, W.M. Jr., Lichtenstein, N., & Sitkoff, H. (2007, October). World War II and the American home front: A National Historic Landmarks theme study. Retrieved August 7, 2011 from http://www.nps.gov/nhl/themes/HomefrontStudy.pdf
Mercado, S. (2009, January 7). "Book review: Nisei linguists: Japanese-Americans in the military intelligence service during World War II by James C. McNaughton." Intelligence in Recent public literature. Retrieved August 7, 2011 from https://www.cia.gov/library/center-for-the-study-of-intelligence/csi-publications/csi-studies/studies/vol-52-no-4/nisei-linguists.html
FID Technology in the Military
adio frequency identification (FID)
adio frequency identification (FID) is a term used to refer to an electronic system that transmits in form of serial numbers that are distinct, the identity of a person or an object in a wireless manner with the aid of radio frequencies. The FID is categorized under the wider automatic identification technologies category (Association of Automatic Identification and Mobility, 2011). The FID are intelligent bar codes that are connected to a networked system and can communicate back and forth with it.
The FID is nowadays used all around us, from the supermarket items to the pet ID tags, toil booths, gas stations and several security items. Unlike the predecessor UPC bar-code, the FID does not require any contact or line of sight in order for communication to be enabled between the tagged item and the centre of the system. The data…
Army of Robots, (2011). Development of Military Robots. Retrieved September 10, 2010 from http://www.armyofrobots.com/discussion-development-military.html
Association of Automatic Identification and Mobility, (2011). Technologies: RFID / What is
RFID? Retrieved September 10, 2010 from http://www.aimglobal.org/technologies/RFID/what_is_rfid.asp
Brian F, (2011). Pros and Cons of RFID Technology. Retrieved September 10, 2010 from http://ezinearticles.com/?Pros-and-Cons-of-RFID-Technology&id=522015
S. military is designed to respond to and counter other militaries rather than small groups of embedded insurgents who have the capability of blending in with the local population. In many respects, the duties now being performed by U.S. military personnel in Iraq and Afghanistan are much better suited to urban police forces than to national militaries.
Unfortunately, this problem is likely to increase in the near future rather than to decrease, because of the spread of al-Qaeda insurgents and their supporters in Afghanistan into Pakistan in areas that are equally difficult to patrol by military forces designed to address bona fide military threats. The fact that U.S. military forces are also designed for large deployments only further complicates the prospect of continually responding to insurgencies and terrorist threats as they spread to multiple regions capable of destabilizing peace throughout the entire Middle East.
Force Management System or FMS Utility exists due to the complex array of people existing within the army. These people have one or more of an assortment of skills and access to several millions of items of equipment. An organized system for the documentation of how much is authorized and what is required is put in place to keep things in order. Taking that into consideration, the force development process and its five phases keeps coordinated efforts in order as shown in the "Gen. Odierno AUSA Winter Symposium" reading. To begin, there was a mention of Odierno having difficulty turning a "1.1 million-man Army and another 250,000 civilians in a direction"[footnoteRef:1]. [1: U.S. Army,. "Feb. 24, 2012 - Gen. Odierno AUSA Winter Symposium." Www.Army.Mil. Last modified 2016. Accessed November 8, 2016. https://www.army.mil/article/74650/Feb__24__2012___Gen__Odierno_AUSA_Winter_Symposium.]
First, it important to understand how an army runs within the five phases. The first phases 1 and…
Coping ith Deployments
Joining the military means that a person will be basically turning his or her life over to a commitment that is the most serious commitment he or she will make in a lifetime. hether it is the Marines, the Navy, the Army or Air Force, a member of the armed forces can expect to be sent into harm's way -- or sent to a foreign land where unknown dangers may await. In addition, the military person must deal with the separation from one's family, which creates a great deal of stress for the military member and his or her family. This paper relates to those stresses when deployment comes into play.
Each person of course deals with deployment in a different way, just as everyone deals with stress and anxiety differently. On the one hand, an Army PFC knows when he joins that he might have…
American Red Cross. (2012). Copying with Deployments / Psychological First Air for Military
Families. Retrieved June 26, 2013, from http://www.redcross.org .
Military.com. (2010). How to Cope with Sudden Deployments. Retrieved June 26, 2013, from http://www.military.com .
Call for backup before attempting pursuit into unsecured potential gang situations
5.. Examples of gangs deploying military weapons and tactics against law enforcement:
2005: Contract assassination attempt against corrections officer in Lakewood, Wash. By United Blood Nation gang member in active service from Bremerton Navy Station (10)
2005: Ceres, California: Active-duty, U.S. Marine Iraq combat veteran gang member shoots two police, killing one, using military tactics (11)
2006: Verbal testimony by several gang members suggests veterans training gangs for combat (12)
2010: U.S.Marine Corps veterans charged with selling assault weapons to gangs (13)
2011: Twenty-seven AK-47s stolen from California's Fort Irwin Army base (14)
2011: National Gang Threat Assessment report: "Gang members are acquiring high-powered, military-style weapons and equipment, which poses a significant threat because of the potential to engage in lethal encounters with law enforcement and citizens alike" (15)
6. ACTION: If you believe you may encounter military-level threat…
References: All sources peer-reviewed, government or considered reliable.
Blankenstein, A. "Marines sold military assault weapons to L.A. gang members, authorities allege." Los Angeles Times L.A. Now, 9 Nov. 2010. 26 Dec. 2011 (4, 13)
Cooley, S. "Findings and proposals from the District Attorney's Office." L.A. County District Attorney. April 2008. 26 Dec. 2011 < da.co.la.ca.us/pdf/LADA_Gang_Crime_&_Violence_APR_2008.pdf > (9)
Federal Bureau of Investigation. "The Continuing Gang Threat." National Gang Threat Assessment 2011 Key Findings, National Gang Intelligence Center. 21 Oct. 2011 (15)
L.A. County District Attorney's Office. "Gang Crimes." Hardcore Gang Division, 1 Nov. 2011. 26 Dec. 2011 (16)
Military Orders That May be Unethical
Military orders are seen as non-optional when they are given. In other words, they cannot be ignored or discarded by those they are given to if the person does not want to follow them for any reason at all. They are not negotiable in any way, under any circumstances. But, are these orders always ethical? In some cases, it would seem as though these orders are not ethical. However, that depends on the person who has been asked to follow those orders and what he or she sees as being ethical. People have very different opinions about ethics, and they are more guidelines than rules when they are looked at by the majority of people. Because ethics are not completely static across a lifetime and because they can change from person to person, it is important to realize that ethics, as a concept, can…
Baghramian, M. (2004). Relativism, London: Routledge.
Crisp, R. & Slote, M. (1997). Virtue Ethics. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Darwall, S. (2003). Virtue Ethics. Oxford: B. Blackwell.
Devettere, R.J. (2002). Introduction to Virtue Ethics. Washington, D.C.: Georgetown University Press.
PTSD on the U.S. Military
In order to fully understand the issues with PTSD and the military, one must consider the idea that military service can have a serious impact on soldiers, even when they do not see combat. In the past, the argument has been that PTSD was a combat-related illness, and that only soldiers who were actively engaged in combat in the recent past struggled with the issues related to PTSD. Now, many studies have shown that most soldiers live with the thought of never knowing when their turn to die is next, and that constant agitation and anxiety can cause these soldiers to experience PTSD (Delahanty, 2011; Ehlers, et al., 2010; Feldner, Monson, & Friedman, 2007; van Zuiden, et al., 2009). This is even more pronounced for soldiers who have been on multiple deployments and, by extension, have been in harm's way and under stress more often…
American Psychiatric Association (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders: DSM-IV. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.
Cahill, S.P., & Foa, E.B. (2004). A glass half empty or half full? Where we are and directions for future research in the treatment of PTSD. In S. Taylor (ed.), Advances in the Treatment of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Cognitive-behavioral perspectives (pp. 267-313) New York: Springer.
Delahanty, D.L. (2011). Toward the predeployment detection of risk for PTSD. American Psychiatric Association.
Ehlers, A., Bisson, J., & Clark, D.M., et al. (March 2010). Do all psychological treatments really work the same in posttraumatic stress disorder?. Clinical Psychology Review 30 (2): 269 -- 76.
Warfare to Napoleonic Era Warfare
Napoleonic era warfare is the battlefield strategies applied by national armies mainly in the 18th century. The warfare technique was engineered by Napoleon, who is believed by many historians to have been its master. The Napoleon warfare and French revolution led to the revolution of military tactics used. Today's warfare in contrast, refers to the methods, concepts, and technologies that were used by soldiers during and after the Korean War and World War 2. These methods and concepts are complex due to the widespread advancement of information technology
In fact, modern armies are required to modernize constantly to keep up with the modern warfare. Therefore, Napoleonic era warfare is both different and similar from today's warfare. This report endeavors to compare today's warfare to Napoleonic era Warfare.
Today's warfare uses complex methods and concepts due to the advancement in technology. There were the invention…
Barnett, Roger W. Asymmetrical warfare: today's challenge to U.S. military power. (Washington, D.C.: Brassey's, Inc., 2003).
Grant, R.G. Warfare in the modern world. (Austin, Tex.: Raintree Steck-Vaughn, 1999).
Haythornthwaite, Philip J. Napoleonic cavalry: Napoleonic weapons and warfare. (London: Cassell, 2001).
Rothenberg, Gunther Erich, and John Keegan. The Napoleonic Wars. (London: Cassell, 2000).
Suicide and How it Impacts Military Families
Description of the Case or Problem
As the number of suicides amidst the U.S. Armed Service members have constantly increased in the past decade, so has the rate of survivors affected by military suicide, leading to loss of life. Whenever a loved one loses their life as an outcome of suicide, the resulting trauma and shock might compromise the survivors' physical and mental health. This leaves the victims more susceptible to a more agonizing and intricate grief process. Those individuals bereaved by suicide are at an increasing danger of also committing suicide. Peer encouragement, a recognized recuperation method from addictions and sickness, has been clinically monitored to be broadly used by the suicide loss survivors. esearchers have given minimal interest to effective interventions for the victims of suicide loss in the general U.S. population; less is recognized regarding the efficiency of peer support…
AFSP. (2014, August 8). President Obama Announces Executive Actions to Address Veteran and Military Suicide. Retrieved from American Foundation for Suicide Prevention: https://www.afsp.org/advocacy-public-policy/policy-news-updates/president-obama-announces-executive-actions-to-address-veteran-and-military-suicide
American Association of Suicidology. (2010). Survivors of suicide fact sheet. Retrieved from American Association of Suicidology: http://www.suicidology.org/c/document_library/get_file?folderId=232&name=D
American Foundation for Suicide Prevention. (2010). Survivor research: AFSP and NIMH propose research agenda. Retrieved from American Foundation for Suicide Prevention: http://www.afsp.org/index.cfm?fuseaction=home.viewpage&page_id=2D9DF73E -BB25-0132-3AD7715D74BFF585
Cerel, J., Padgett, J. H., Conwell, Y., & Reed, G. A. (2009). A call for research: The need to better understand the impact of support groups for suicide survivors. Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior, 39(3), 269-281.
Alcohol and Special Populations: Unique Problems and Considerations That Apply to the Military
The military is a special population that has its own culture and its own code of ethics. Its veterans have their own VA hospital and society recognizes a distinct difference between civilian and military life. The effect of alcohol on the military, therefore, requires unique consideration outside the realm of investigations on the effects of alcohol on mainstream America. This paper will describe the effect of alcohol on the military, identify unique problems and considerations that apply to the military, and compare and contrast the military to the overall U.S. population in terms of the problem of alcohol. It will conclude with a description of the best treatment practices for specific issues relevant to the military.
The Effect of Alcohol on the Military
The military population is not without its weakness for alcohol consumption. As Pemberton et…
Bray, R., Brown, J., Williams, J. (2013). Trends in binge and heavy drinking, alcohol-related problems, and combat exposure in the U.S. military. Substance Use and Misuse, 48(10): 799-810.
Burns, B., Grindlay, K., Holt, K. (2014). Military sexual trauma among U.S.
Servicewomen during deployment: A qualitative study. American Journal of Public Health, 104(2): 345-349.
Foran, H., et al. (2012). Hazardous alcohol use and intimate partner violence in the military: Understanding protective factors. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 26(3): 471-483.
Supply chain management and logistics
Project Management Plan
the topic is a comparative study of logistic operation in the Military Vs commercial organization
Project Approval equirements
Many experts believe that there is not much of a parallel when it comes to the logistic operations in the Military and commercial organization. This proposal will show rather or not U.S. military logistics have no parallel in the commercial world -- from its scope and size to the lethal position of the term "mission-critical" throughout the course of wars. In this world, the soldier is the client waiting for products like bullets, food, water, medication and fuel for tanks and other war vehicles.
The purpose of the proposal is to gain a better understanding of the comparisons and differences among the two, with an end-state of affecting whether…
Chrlstgau, R. (2008, March 5). "Military PersoniK. I '.VilJ Not Parti- cipate In Any Activity Havin to do With (reatlnp. a Union for unlisted Men,." Retrieved from Ksouire: ***
Global Focus. (2015, February 13). Managing Supply Chains: What the Military Can Teach Business (and Vice Versa). Retrieved from http://knowledge.wharton.upenn.edu/article/managing-supply-chains-what-the-military-can-teach-business-and-vice-versa/
Quinn, J. L. (2014, May 5). THE ADVANTAGES AND D ISADVANTAGES OF UNIONIZATION WITHIN THE ARMED FORCES . Retrieved from ***
Human Relations in the Marine Corp
During World War II, Army Lieutenant General Patton was visiting a hospital in Sicily. He came upon a soldier named Pvt. Charles Kuhl on 3 August 1943 and upon examining him, there were no physical signs of wounds. The General asked him what was wrong and the private responded, "I guess I can't take it." He was diagnosed with psychoneurosis, battle fatigue. General Patton, enraged, smacked him in the face and called him a coward.[footnoteRef:2] This story shows the importance of Emotional Intelligence training in the military. [2: http://www.americanpress.com/Gen -- Patton-struck-two-soldiers-in-August-1943]
Mrs. Hodgson discusses in her paper, Training Marine Leaders; The New Challenges of the 21st Century Leadership[footnoteRef:3], the evolving concept of Emotional Intelligence skills in the Marines. The military as a whole regardless of branch is run as a machine, the unfortunate truth is that the bare minimum training is…
The greater the functionality of the tag the higher the frequency required to communicate the contents of it, hence the spectrum of frequencies shown in Figure 3, Comparison of FID Frequencies.
Figure 3: Comparison of FID Frequencies
Sources: (Cheung, Chu, Du, 2009) (Wang, Wang, 2009)
The greater the frequency of a given set of tags the greater the flexibility and the more data they are often capable of storing, capturing as they move through supply chains, and reporting back via readers. The DoD pioneered the use of very high frequency-based FID tags on pallet containers as they were sent to the Persian Gulf for the Iraq war and for delivery to Afghanistan. Studies indicate that the ability to use the shipping container as a consumer good manufacturer would use a pallet and mix products in it to reflect the needs at the end of the supply chain yield significant OI…
Aitoro, J.. (2008, January). Tag Lag. Government Executive, 40(1), 24-26,28-29.
AMR Research (2004) -- the Hierarchy of Supply Chain Metrics: Diagnosing Your Supply Chain Health. AMR Research. February 18, 2004. Debra Hofman.
Anderson, M.. (2009). RFID Chips Gain Computing Skills. IEEE Spectrum, 46(5), 16.
Angeles, R.. (2009). Anticipated it infrastructure and supply chain integration capabilities for RFID and their associated deployment outcomes. International Journal of Information Management, 29(3), 219.
Improvement of Supply Chain Management Tools and Processes for Ultimate Strategic Achievement of Success in Military and Civil usiness
Today, both public and private sector organisations of all sizes and types are faced with the same need to optimize their supply chain management processes to the maximum extent possible in order to achieve and sustain high levels of performance and productivity. ecause supply chain management systems are frequently highly complex, it is vitally important to understand how these systems operate and what factors contribute to their successful management. Moreover, innovations in information technologies have changed the manner in which companies manage their supply chains, but these innovations have introduced yet additional management challenges. In this environment, identifying opportunities to optimize the supply chain management process represents a timely and important enterprise. To this end, this study reviews the relevant literature to provide an overview of supply chain management and the…
Bibliography." The Journal of New Business Ideas & Trends. Vol. 12, No. 1, pp. 63-66.
"Parts of Supply Chain Management." (2015). Six Sigma. [online] available: http://www.sixsigmaonline.org/six-sigma-training-certification-information/parts - of-supply-chain-management.html.
Rosenbaum, B (2001, November/December), "The Technology-Enabled Supply Chain Network." Industrial Management, Vol. 43, No. 6, pp. 6-9.
Sabbaghi, A & Vardyanathan, G (2008, August), "Effectiveness and Efficiency of RFID Technology in Supply Chain Management: Strategic Values and Challenges." Journal of Theoretical and Applied Electronic Commerce Research, Vol. 3, No. 2, pp. 71-74.
Smith, T (March 2003), "New Ideas for Streamlining the Supply Chain Game: Supply Chain Management Is Something Companies Are Becoming Increasingly Focused on, as the Task of Juggling Profits and Customer Satisfaction Becomes More Complex. Business Asia, Vol. 11, No. 2, p. 22.
The 501st Combat Support Wing
The 501st Combat Support Wing is a U.S. Air Force unit based in AF Alcon Bury in England (501stCSW, n.d). The organization has its headquarters at the 3rd Air Force, amstein Germany. It served a community of more than 14,000 people. As a wing, it was able to provide combat support to facilitate communication, intelligent as well as global strike operations. The wing can trace its history to the World War II bombardment group, which operated and served the Pacific and was mostly used to bomb Japan's mainland. Between 1944- 1945, the tactical missile unit that carried the 501st served in Europe during the cold war. The combats objective was to ensure that the Norway and the UK based airbases were resourced, trained, and equipped. It was also supposed to ensure that it is sustained, and served well so that they could easily…
501st Combat Support Wing. (n.d.). Colonel Kevin P. Cullen, 501st Combat Support Wing (CSW) Commander. Retrieved from The Official Web Site of the 501st Combat Support Wing: http://www.501csw.usafe.af.mil/library/leadership/501stcswcommander.asp
501st Combat Support Wing. (2016, September 2). 501st Combat Support Wing. Retrieved from 501st Combat Support Wing: http://www.501csw.usafe.af.mil/factsheets/factsheet.asp?id=10607
This also has major implications for military operations, both within a military unit and in the interaction between the military unit and another culture. Essentially, the problem of ethnocentrism can be seen at the root of the other cultural problems discussed in this context; it implies both a lack of understanding about the impacts of the unit's culture on the people of a foreign culture, as well as a lack of appreciation and understanding for that culture (Hoskins 2007).
Culture is strange, in that it is both constant and always changing. The only static culture is a dead one; as the various elements and generations of a culture interact, change is bound to happen. When there is no longer any interaction within a culture or between a given culture and other cultures, there is no longer any point to that culture, and indeed that culture could not realistically exist…
DiMarco, L. (2003). Traditions, changes, and challenges: Military operations and the Middle Eastern city. Diane Publsihing.
Harrison, D.; Light, L. & Rothschild-Boros, M. (2008). Cultural anthropology: Our diverse world. New York: Wadsworth.
Hoskins, B. (2007). "Religion and other cultural variable in modern operational environments." Accessed 16 October 2009. http://www.dtic.mil/cgi-bin/GetTRDoc?AD=ADA470675&Location=U2&doc=GetTRDoc.pdf
O'Neil, D. (2007). "Characteristics of Culture." Accessed 16 October 2009. http://anthro.palomar.edu/culture/culture_2.htm
Disruptive Technologies for the Military
Disruptive technologies are innovations that aid in creating new markets, eventually going on to disturb or even dismantle the current value networks and market, and to displace an older technology. Clayton M. Christensen, a professor at Harvard Business School, coined this term, now used frequently in technology and business literature for describing innovations that bring about improvements to any service or product, in ways not expected by the market (Lucas, 2012). The Professor first made use of the term in his best-seller "The Innovator's Dilemma" (published in the year 1997), wherein he classified new technologies into two groups: disruptive and sustaining. The former category refers to novel, inadequately refined technology, typically associated with performance issues, known only to some group(s), and normally lacking any proven practical use. Meanwhile, the latter category includes familiar technologies undergoing successive improvements. Disruption may be viewed from another perspective, if…
Brimley, S., FitzGerald, B., Sayler, S. & Singer, P.W. (SEPTEMBER 2013). Game Changers: Disruptive Technology and U.S. Defense Strategy, Center for American New Security
Christiansen, C. (1997). The Innovator's Dilemma: When New Technologies Cause Great Firms to Fail, Boston: Harvard Business Review Press.
FitzGerald, B., Sayler, K., Lynn III, W.J. & Stavridis, J. (JUNE 2014). Creative Disruption Technology, Strategy and the Future of the Global Defense Industry, Center for American New Security.
Fonseca, M. (03/02/2014). Guide to 12 Disruptive Technologies. IntelligentHQ.com digital, retrieved from http://www.intelligenthq.com/technology/12-disruptive-technologies / on 20 February 2016
Iraq invaded Kuwait. The invasion lasted a few days and on August 8th Iraq announced that Kuwait was its nineteenth province. The same day the invasion began, the United Nations denounced the attack and passed Resolution 660, which condemned the Iraqi invasion and called for immediate and unconditional withdrawal from Kuwait. The United States began mobilizing its military on August 7th.
y the time the UN deadline arrived in January of 1991, The United States had amassed hundreds of thousands of troops in the Persian Gulf Region. The war began on January 17th with bombing sorties. Over the next month, 67,000 sorties would be flown over Iraq. Operation Desert Storm was launched on February 24th, and Coalition ground forces entered the fight. The war was won in less than four days. The cease-fire began on 8am, February 28th. Iraq was defeated and Kuwait was liberated.
In a strategic sense, Operation…
April Glaspie Transcript." What Really Happened. 1996. What Really Happened. 9 Mar 2004 http://www.whatreallyhappened.com/ARTICLE5/april.html
Chronology of the Kuwait Crisis." The Kuwait Information Office. 2004. The Kuwait
Information Office. 9 Mar 2004 http://www.kuwait-info.org
Final Report to Congress: Conduct of the Persian Gulf War." Apr 1992. The National Security Archive 11 Feb 2004. George Washington University. 9 Mar 2004 http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/nsa/the_archive.html
The first method, therefore, of curtailing use relates to the development of tougher measures for soldiers once they have failed a drug test. Prevention programs should be given a higher priority than is currently the case. ith stronger prevention programs, and if commanding officers are more willing to put troops who have failed drug tests into those programs, more soldiers can see their drug use curtailed.
The second method is related to the first -- prevention programs. If stress in its various forms is a major cause of illegal drug use among soldiers, then there needs to be more awareness of the issue in the military community, and more help available to soldiers before they start using. Training for all members of the military community would allow for the creation of an informal support grid for soldiers experiencing stress. Programs that give soldiers a place to turn to when they…
Gilmore, G. (2011). DoD urinalysis test (drug test). About.com. Retrieved September 7, 2011 from http://usmilitary.about.com/od/theorderlyroom/l/bldrugtests2.htm
Jacobson, I.; Ryan, M.; Hooper, T.; Smith, T.; Amoroso, P.; Boyko, E.; Gackstetter, G.; Wells, T. & Bell, N. (2008). Alcohol use and alcohol-related problems before and after military combat deployment. Journal of the American Medical Association. Vol. 300 (6) 663-675.
NIDA. (2011). Substance abuse among the military, veterans and their families. National Institute of Drug Abuse. Retrieved September 7, 2011 from http://www.nida.nih.gov/tib/vet.html
Zoroya, G. (2009). Army blasted for letting drug abusers slide. USA Today. Retrieved September 7, 2011 from http://www.usatoday.com/news/military/2009-05-20-drug_N.htm
Drugs and Alcohol Abuse
The United States military faces considerable difficulty related to substance abuse amongst its personnel. It is critical to denote that its substance abuse issues pertain to both active personnel on duty, as well as to veterans. Of the myriad issues that the military faces, one is the evolving nature of substance abuse in the 21st century. Whereas such abuse has traditionally focused on alcohol and illegal narcotics, there is a stronger emphasis on the abuse of prescription medication. This abuse, in addition to binge drinking, (Institute of Medicine, 2015, p. 243) has considerable ramifications for the aforementioned military personnel. Active personnel face situations in which their readiness and ability to engage in combat is impaired by over-consumption of drugs and alcohol, whereas veterans must reckon with decreased quality of life and ability to successfully reintegrate into society because of the same problems.
Consequence of War ?…
American Psychological Association. (2003). Guidelines on multicultural education, training, research, practice, and organizational change for psychologists. American Psychologist. 58(5), 377-402.
Bohart, A.C., Tallman, K. (1999). How Clients Make Therapy Work: The Process of Active Self-Healing. New York: American Psychological Association.
Furuya, S., Slobodzien, J. (2015). ASAP Triage (brief screen note) for:.
Furuya, S., Slobodzien, J. (2015). Confidential treatment program. ASAP Triage.
Army Substance Abuse Program, in terms of the program's history, its employment requirements, and the rationale behind them. It looks at various jobs within the hierarchy of this program, from the commanders responsible for implementing the program on the level of installations or garrisons, to the trained personnel taking urine samples. By way of demonstrating the utility of the continued education requirement even for the personnel collecting urine, the paper notes the existence of such widespread willingness to deceive testing, and then reviews recent peer-reviewed studies with potential relevance for successful implementation of Army Substance Abuse Program theories, curricula, and policies.
The Army Center for Substance Abuse Programs was first established in 1971 in response to a law requiring the Secretary of Defense to identify, treat, and rehabilitate members of the U.S. military determined to be dependent upon alcohol or illicit drugs; similar legislation followed to require the same…
Lande, R.G.; Marin, B. (2009) Biomarker characteristics of alcohol use in the U.S. Army. J Addict Diseases 28: 158-163. DOI:10.1080/10550880902772506
Larson, M.J.; Wooten, N.R.; Adams, R.S.; et al. (2012). Military combat deployments and substance use: Review and future directions. J Soc Work Pract Addict 12: 6-27. doi: 10.1080/1533256X.2012.647586
McFarling, L.; D'Angelo, M.; Drain, M.; et al. (2011). Stigma as a barrier to substance abuse and mental health treatment. Military Psychology 23: 1-5 http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08995605.2011.534397
Milliken, C.S.; Auchterlonie, J.L.; Hoge, C.W. (2007). Longitudinal assessment of mental health problems among active and reserve component soldiers returning from the Iraq War. JAMA 298: 2141-2148 doi:10.1001/jama.298.18.2141
S. And Russia initiated and encourage in the pursuit of their respective objectives, has gone out of control and is expanding to include not only conventional weapons but also space-based systems and nuclear missiles. It is this frightening arms race focused on the Taiwan Strait, which analysts predict as creating regional ripples or waves in Asia (lack). China's military expansion would also affect Russia, Australia and New Zealand, according to Taiwan Chen Shui-bian, who urged the international community to restrain eijing (Reuters 2005). He said that China could not use the 23 million Taiwanese's efforts at deepening democracy and securing a peaceful cross-strait as an excuse to expand its global military power. Last year, President Chen stopped Taiwan's 34,000-strong war games in order to ease tension in the Taiwan Strait, which security analysts consider one of the most dangerous places in Asia (Reuters).
Alexander, eth R.U.S. In Line of…
Alexander, Beth R.U.S. In Line of Fire in China-Taiwan War. United Press International: News World Communications, Inc., July 19, 2005. http://www.washtimes.com/upi-breaking/20-1926r.htm
Associated Press, The. Chinese General: We'll Nuke U.S. In Fight for Taiwan, July 24, 2005. http://www.newsmax.com/archives/ic/2005/7/15/94638.shtml blank, Stephen. China-Taiwan Arms Race Quickens. Asia Times Online, 2004. http://www.atimes.com/atimes/China/FB24Act01.html
Minnick, Wendell. The Year for Taiwan: 2006. Asia Times Online Co. Ltd. http://www.atimes.com/atimes/China/FD10Ad02.html
Reuters. China Eases Travel Rules to Taiwan. Cable News Network, 2005. http://edition.cnn.com/2005/WORLD/asiapcf/07/24/China.taiwan.reut
Battle of Bristoe Station
Tenants of Army Operation.
The relative depth of both armed forces at this point of the Civil ar, both Confederate and Union, was at a critical juncture. Both armies were at a historically low point, numerically. The recent Gettysburg Campaign had cost both armies in manpower and firepower. (Bristoe Station, 2003)
The Confederate Army had withdrawn into Virginia. The Union Army followed, but cautiously. Before the battle, the armies were settled down in central Virginia to rest and reorganize. Lee's army was spread out between Madison Court House and Culpeper, Virginia. (Bristoe Station, 2003).
Despite his recent loses, General Robert E. Lee decided to take advantage of this apparent abatement of hostilities. He dispatched Lieutenant General James Longstreet's First Corps to reinforce General Braxton Bragg in Tennessee. However, the Army of the Potomac's Eleventh and Twelfth Corps reinforced Bragg's opponent, Major General illiam S.…
Bristoe Station." (2003). Historical Confederate Preservation Project. http://www.angelfire.com/wv/wasec15/ . Retrieved on November 13, 2002.
CWBG. (2003) "The Battle of Briscoe Station. Civil War Battlefield Guide Website. http://college.hmco.com/history/readerscomp/civwar/html/cw_007503_bristoestati.htm Retrieved on November 13, 2002.
CWSAC. (2003) Battle Summaries. Website of the American Battlefield Project.
http://www2.cr.nps.gov/abpp/battles/va040.htm. Retrieved on November 13, 2002.
d.). If those conditions have been met, the student can be given an extension for the length of deployment. If deployment is over 120 days, the student should request a withdrawal from the course.
For the student with an ill family member, I would check whether the request was received at least two weeks prior to the end of the course. If so, I would take a look at how much of the coursework the student completed. If it was over 50%, I would grant the extension. I would speak with the student and decide together when the course could reasonably be completed, no later than 60 days from the last day of the term. If necessary, I would consider "one additional extension which should not exceed 60 days" ("Course Extension," n.d.). I would also be sure to enter an "I" grade into the grade book for the student.
Excelsior College. (n.d.). Plagiarism. Excelsior.edu. Retrieved March 24, 2011, from http://www.excelsior.edu/plagiarism
Excelsior College. (n.d.). Excessive Absenteeism Policy and Procedure. Excelsior.edu. Retrieved March 24, 2011, from http://www.excelsior.edu/excessive-absenteeism
Excelsior College. (n.d.). Military Deployment Policy. Excelsior.edu. Retrieved March 24, 2011, from http://www.excelsior.edu/military-deployment
Excelsior College. (n.d.). Course Extension Policy and Procedure. Excelsior.edu. Retrieved March 24, 2011, from http://www.excelsior.edu/course-extension
Sir or Madam
I am writing in response to your request for a comic book writer to develop an original series for immediate publication. I have a substantial amount of experience with writing, and in writing comic books in particular. I graduated near the top of my class with a Bachelor's Degree in creative writing from New York University. I enlisted in the military so that I could study graphic design, and have spent the past three years learning how to perfect details in graphic art -- which has significantly enhanced my propensity for working in the field of comics.
As per your request in your advertisement for writers at MegaCorp, I have provided an overview of my comic book series and an excerpt from the first issue. It is a period time piece which occurs at the beginning of the year 2000. The protagonists are a group of young…
Cuban Missile Crisis
There are two views, as with any conflict or issue, on the reasons and reactions of the major players in the Cuban Missile Crisis that took place at the end of October 1962. The crisis pitted two world powers, the United States and the Soviet Union, against each other in what many describe as the closest the world has come to World War III and a nuclear holocaust.
In order to understand the Crisis, it is important to first understand the events leading up to the crisis. This paper examines the background of the crisis from the Cuban/Soviet point-of-view in depth. Toward the end of the paper, the United States' perspective of the crisis is discussed with regard to what is described previously from the perspective of supporters of the Castro regime and the now collapsed Soviet Union.
After the devastation that the bombs left in…
Alleged Assassination Plots Involving Foreign Leaders," 20 November 1975. The National Security Archives. 147.
Bay of Pigs: Forty Years After," Chronology, National Security Archives (Cuban Problems 11 December 1959), 24 June 2004. http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/bayofpigs/chron.html .
Bay of Pigs." Cuban History: Missile Crisis. Marxists.org. 25 June 2003. http://www.marxists.org/history/cuba/subject/missile-crisis/index.htm .
Crisis de Octubre: Cronologia." Informe Especial: 1960 and 1961. Centro de Estudios Sobre America.
Northern Territory (NT) Intervention
In this essay, the author will examine how the Australian Federal Government can pass legislation (as was done with the Northern Territory (NT) intervention) which is not subject to the operation of acial Discrimination Act (Clth) and, in turn, any State/Territories acial Discrimination Acts. The author will raise the question of whether or not the Federal Government has such power. If this is so, the author will then examine under what circumstances such power should be exercised. Further, in the essay the author will raise the question of whether the federal government exercised this power correctly with regards to the NT intervention. Finally, the essay will examine if the Federal Government should not have such power, then how human rights can be protected in Australia.
It is the author's opinion that the Australian government far overstepped its mandate. While technically legal, the intervention was only barely…
Ashby-Cliffe, J. (2008) 'Reaching the End,' Army (1202), 4.
ABC News. (2007). Pearson Fears for Indigenous Parents' Freedom. Available: http://www.abc.net.au/news/2007-06-22/pearson-fears-for-indigenous-parents-freedom/78106 . Last accessed 6 September 2011.
Australian Human Rights Commission. (2007). Submission of the Human Rights
and Equal Opportunity Commission (HREOC) to the Senate Legal and Constitutional Committee on the Northern Territory National Emergency
Nigeria Election and Media Coverage
The Nigerian elections committee has postponed the national election until March 28, 2015. The election was scheduled to take place on February 14, but growing concerns about violence and security issues have triggered this cautionary response. Yet, there are some who believe that postponement will not substantially result in improved security, and instead will worsen conditions. Nigeria's security chiefs are not confident that they can keep voters in the northeastern region of the country safe from the extremist militant group Boko Haram. Hundreds of schoolgirls were abducted in the northeast Nigeria last spring, and Boko Haram fighters attacked a village in neighboring Chad in February.
President Goodluck Johnathan's decision to postpone the election until security improves does not align with his position for most of 2014 in which he attempted to diminish the militant threat. As Boko Haram's attacks have become more blatantly daring, the…
____. (2015, February 16). The Editorial Board. Nigeria's miserable choices. The New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2015/02/16/opinion/nigerias-miserable-choices.html?_r=0
____. (2015, February 19). Nigeria Ambassador Adefuye refutes New York Times editorial on election postponement. Sahara Reporters. Retrieved from http://saharareporters.com/2015/02/19/nigeria-ambassador-adefuye-refutes-new-york-times-editorial-election-postponement
____. (2015, February 8). Muhammadu Buhari: Nigeria "reduced to a failed state." Al Jazeera. Retrieved from http://www.aljazeera.com/programmes/talktojazeera/2015/02/muhammadu-buhari-nigeria-reduced-failed-state-150208121316691.html
This alliance brought an end to the illusion that the war in the Gulf was for humanitarian purposes and the restoration of democracy, since Assad, who killed 20,000 of his own citizens to quell an uprising in Hama, Syria, was comparatively more dictatorial than Saddam himself."(Fingrut, 1993)
In close connection with the geopolitical positioning of the kingdom of Kuwait and the regional alliances lay Western interests for oil. Head and Tilford noted in this sense that "the United States also feared a reduction in the flow of oil from Kuwait, especially for its Allies in Europe." (Head and Tilford 17) Indeed, it had become common knowledge that the Iraqi leadership had established the new foreign policy guidelines in terms of acquiring and controlling Kuwait's oil reserves. This attitude was determined by the acute economic crisis Saddam had led his country into, after the eight-year war with Iran. Therefore, his extensive…
Calvocoressi, Peter. World politics since 1945. (Budapest: Open Society Institute, 1996)
Fingrut, David. Operation Desert Storm. Out right disinformation scheme. SEED Alternative School. Toronto, 1993. 23 March 2007. http://www.chss.montclair.edu/english/furr/Vietnam/gulf-war-fingrut.html#Bush
Head, William, and Earl H. Tilford, eds. The Eagle in the Desert Looking Back on U.S. Involvement in the Persian Gulf War. Westport, CT: Praeger, 1996.
IR Theory in Practice Case Study: The Gulf War, 1990-1991. (n.d) 23 March 2007. http://www.gulfweb.org/
Still, urnside did not make use of his possibilities and therefore assumed the Confederate Army's position. Taking into account the limited visibility, the fog and the conditions in the area, mistakes were inevitable. Therefore, his decision not to take full advantage of his available resources also proved important for the outcome of the battle.
Finally, another major element that contributed to the failure of the Fredericksburg campaign was the confusion of the orders given, especially by urnside. Most often, they were rather ambiguous and could be easily interpreted. For instance, "urnside issued his attack orders early on the morning of December 13. They called for an assault against Jackson's corps by Major General William . Franklin's Left Grand Division to be followed by an advance against Marye's Heights by Major General Edwin V. Sumner's Right Grand Division." (United States, Dept. Of Interior, 2006) Therefore, according to his orders, the attack…
Burnside, Ambrose. Fredericksburg Order of Battle. Army of the Potomac. The Official Records of the War of The Rebellion 1862. 12 November. http://www.civilwarhome.com/aopfredericksburg.htm
Burnside, Ambrose. Report of Maj. Gen. E. Ambrose Burnside, U.S. Army, commanding Army of the Potomac, Battle of Fredericksburg. The Official Records of the War of The Rebellion. 1862. 12 November 2006. http://www.civilwarhome.com/burnside.htm
Gallagher, Gary. The Fredericksburg Campaign. Decisions on the Rappahannock. North Carolina: UNC Press, 1995.
Lee, Robert E. Report of General Robert E. Lee, C.S. Army, Commanding Army of Northern Virginia, Battle of Fredericksburg. The Official Records of the War of The Rebellion 1862. 12 November. http://www.civilwarhome.com/leeantietam.htm
The result was horrifying, when opposing forces destroyed the region with war weaponry, and slaughtered entire villages where mostly women, young children, and the aged remained in their homes while the young divided themselves into the service of the opposing forces (Friedman, 2004). The violations of human rights were on a wide scale, and widespread, with both sides committing atrocities. However, by the time the United Nations intervened with peacekeeping forces, the impact of the war was obvious in the despair and destruction that the UN forces encountered. Families and friendships were destroyed, senseless loss of lives, economic interruption of work and production resulted in the need for humanitarian aid in the way of food, clothing, and to rebuild the infrastructure of the area (Friedman, 2004)..
Slobodan Milosevi? was arrested, and tried before an international tribunal at the Hague, and found guilty of crimes against humanity. "In response to the…
Duyvesteyn, Isabelle, and Jan Angstrom, eds. Rethinking the Nature of War. London: Frank Cass, 2005. Questia. 4 Dec. 2007 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=109146932 .
Friedman, Francine. Bosnia and Herzegovina: A Polity on the Brink. New York: Routledge, 2004. Questia. 4 Dec. 2007 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=108775016 .
Lasker, John. "Genocide Not Enough to Send in Troops? Observers Question Bush's Military Deployment to Oil-Rich Africa." Black Enterprise Oct. 2006: 40. Questia. 4 Dec. 2007 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5017455433 .
Peterson, Scott. Me against My Brother: At War in Somalia, Sudan, and Rwanda: a Journalist Reports from the Battlefields of Africa. New York: Routledge, 2000. Questia. 4 Dec. 2007 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=108063184 .
Earhart did not handle the controls rather the two men with her piloted the craft manned the plane. Although Earhart gave ample credit to these men, their names are forgotten to history, and Earhart's legacy lives on.
ut Lovell's tone is grating when she only grudgingly concedes that when Earhart crossed the Atlantic on the fifth anniversary of Lindbergh's successful flight in 1932, Earhart's accomplishment was her own. That time, no one else was in charge of the craft. Clearly, Earhart had improved as a pilot since her early foray into the air. Still, that does not stop Lovell from arguing that Earhart was not a natural pilot and her fame was based more in notoriety and sensationalism than her contribution to the aviation. For the first time, in national newsreels, and through clips seen in movie theaters, the American public could follow a celebrity, famed not for acting or…
But Lovell's tone is grating when she only grudgingly concedes that when Earhart crossed the Atlantic on the fifth anniversary of Lindbergh's successful flight in 1932, Earhart's accomplishment was her own. That time, no one else was in charge of the craft. Clearly, Earhart had improved as a pilot since her early foray into the air. Still, that does not stop Lovell from arguing that Earhart was not a natural pilot and her fame was based more in notoriety and sensationalism than her contribution to the aviation. For the first time, in national newsreels, and through clips seen in movie theaters, the American public could follow a celebrity, famed not for acting or politics, but for doing daring things -- first Lindbergh, and now Earhart.
Finally, Lovell more convincingly argues that the practical value of the circumnavigation of the globe, the flight that resulted in Earhart's disappearance, was also of more financial value to her husband than to the history of flight. Putnam and Earhart's finances rested upon the lucrative speaking and celebrity endorsement engagements that Earhart would gain, if she completed the flight successfully. Lovell demonstrates that Earhart's plane and route was hastily and poorly planned and equipped. The route's navigator, Fred Noonan, also had a reputation for drinking. However, some of the details Lovell includes about the navigation, such as the fact the plane took off at exactly 00:00 Greenwich Mean Time suggests Noonan was more meticulous than Lovell might credit (Lovell 272).
Lovell believes there is no real documentation to support the outlandish theories that Earhart survived, was a spy for the American government, or was captured by the Japanese, or arranged her disappearance so she could live in seclusion, in refuge from fame after the flight (as most of the book is intent on portraying Earhart as a fame-seeker rather that someone who shied from publicity). Instead, Lovell believes the evidence on record supports the theory that Earhart and her navigator while flying from New Guinea to Howland Island during the last part of their journey did not have enough fuel to get to the island and instead crash-landed without enough supplies to survive. The science Lovell assembles in her book to discuss the history of aviation, navigation across the waters, and flight, is clearly and effectively deployed in his analysis of the final disappearance. However her text's refusal to acknowledge any of the contributions that Amelia Earhart made to the ability of women to pursue alternative careers, and to demonstrate the ability that both men and women could overcome, if only briefly, the constraints of the air, seems churlish at best.
She found a place where she could grow and succeed as herself. Diane Oakes, executive director of the Kaw Valley Council, saw girl scouting as a tool in bringing out the leader from every girl of any age. It is one of the few service organizations, which gives full voting power to its young representatives to choose council board of directors. These elected and hardworking representatives become an important voice in the council. The respect they earn from the adult members of the board boosts their self-esteem. That self-esteem, productivity and sense of achievement contribute to their total personality development into adulthood. And Amanda Atwood, a senior high school student, relished a sense of fulfillment when her opinions benefit younger girl scouts. Amanda and three other Senior Girl Scouts organized a safety program for students in the elementary level. As a result, 2,000 children received identification cards with their photos…
Achiever, the. (2006). Spellings addresses girl scouts leaders. 2 pages. ED.gov: Gale.
Retrieved on September 22, 2007 at http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_mOZFD/is_3_5/ai_n17212656
Business Wire (2006). Girl scouting undergoes historic transformation to focus on leadership development for 21st century girls. 2 pages. Business Week: Gale Group
Girl Scouts of America (2007). What is girl scouting? Girl Scout Central. Girl Scouts of America: Girl Scouts of the United States of America. Retrieved September 22, 2007 from http://www.girlscouts.org/program/gs_central/what_is_gs
International elations Theory and United Nations Peace:
International elations (I) field normally focuses on the study of how various state systems can be made to work more efficiently to improve the power of law, maintain order, manage interstate affairs peacefully, and lessen prospects of war. The word relation in this field is used to denote the inclusion of more than political affairs to aspects like conflict and peace. International relations field is closely linked administratively to political science departments (O'Connor, 2010). Actually, the field of international relations traces its origin from various subfields including international law, diplomatic history, and international economics. While it's still early to consider international relations as a sovereign field of study, it has broken from the analytical procedures of economics and law as well as the ongoing process of breaking from political science. Consequently, this field has become an important facet because of the conceptualizations of…
Ahmed, S. Keating P. & Solinas, U (2007), 'Shaping the Future of UN Peace Operations: is there
A Doctrine In the House?' Cambridge Review of International Affairs, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 11-28, viewed 26 November 2011,
Cristol, J (n.d.), International Relations Theory, Oxford Bibliographies Online, viewed 26
Military Leadership Merits of General George S. Patton, Jr.
One aspect of cultural development which seems to be universal throughout the course of humanity's history is the innate desire of society to lionize the accomplishments of triumphant military leaders. Perhaps owing to a subconscious desire for the implicit protection provided by effectual wartime figures, nearly every civilization from the ancient Greeks to contemporary suburban Americans has placed its generals, admirals, and other military authorities on a proverbial pedestal, lauding their preternatural ability to motivate men during the heat of battle while achieving strategic victories. Among this nation's long lineage of military leaders -- which begins with George Washington's revolutionary heroics and includes famed generals like Andrew Jackson and William Tecumseh Sherman -- one of the most competent and accomplished figures to ever lead American troops on the field of battle was also considered to be among the most controversial. General…
Atkinson, R. (2007). The Day of Battle: The War in Sicily and Italy, 1943 -- 1944 (The Liberation
Trilogy). New York, NY: Henry Holt and Company, LLC.
Axelrod, A. (2006). Patton: A Biography. London, England: Palgrave Macmillan.
Blumenson, M. (1974). The Patton Papers 1885-1940. Vol. I.