According to Lutgen & Tarbuck (2011) "the properties of minerals include crystal shape (habit),luster, color, streak, hardness, cleavage, fracture, and density or specific gravity. In addition, a number of special physical and chemical properties (taste, smell, elasticity, feel, magnetism, double refraction, and chemical reaction to hydrochloric acid) are useful in identifying certain minerals. Each mineral has a unique set of properties that can be used for identification " (p.24).
If, as a scientist studying minerals, I wished to identify an unknown sample mineral, I would use the aforementioned criteria to help classify the example in question. In order to fully explain this technique, I will take each quality and explain in detail the fundamental properties of that quality .
Luster: I would check the mineral for its ability to reflect light. A mineral's luster is its shininess and its ability to shine and gloss.
Color: The color of a…… [Read More]
In the daily life of an Average American there are numerous materials one encounters which are extracted from minerals that are mined. For the purpose of example, the following materials will be discussed with specific investigation of the minerals mined to supply each of these materials. The materials are limestone, salt, plaster, copper, and graphite, each is encountered on a daily basis and are extracted from certain minerals that are mined.
Limestone is the first material that will be discussed and has a number of uses including "road aggregate, as building stone, and as the main ingredient in portland cement." (Lutgen, 2011, p.31) It is in it's form as portland cement that the average American encounters limestone. Portland cement is used in the construction of many of the buildings an average person will enter from shopping malls, office buildings, or many other types of structures. It is nearly impossible…… [Read More]
Deerside is a mineral water firm that is marketing a premium mineral water from the Republic of Georgia that has minerals known to contribute to colon and intestinal health. The high cost of bringing this water from Georgia to the United States, combined with its curative properties, necessitates a premium position in the market, so that that the high cost of shipping the water can be recouped in the market. There is a unique challenge in marketing this water in that FDA approval is required for any food or beverage product that is deemed to be a dietary supplement. Thus, if Deerside wishes to make claims with regards to the health benefits of the water, it must apply for FDA approval as a supplement. The company can market the water without this approval, but must tread carefully with the wording of its promotions.
There are a number of…… [Read More]
The reason behind the apparent shortage of minerals, and generally of all commodities (petroleum, natural gas, coal, and so on) is the corporate interest of using this artificial situation to enable the profit creation, for the company and its shareholders. The mining industry is estimated to possess raw materials for a maximum period of 20 years. Another example is platinum, subject again to Cohen's theory, that declares that 90% of world reserves are concentrated in only one location - ushveld complex in South Africa, so new discoveries and possible manufacturing changes are virtually impossible. Also the article stipulates that on average the platinum and gold mines have a depth of 4 kilometers, while in South Africa the depth is only 2 kilometers. This is clear evidence that producers do not have the motivation to continue the investments for exploring purposes, due to the profit maximization purposes.
Another element of discussion…… [Read More]
Apex Minerals, Australia
Mining can be an iffy science due to the fact that indicators of the ore, whichever ore happens to be the focus of the endeavor, can be misled. If this is the case then a mine may have to be abandoned or shafts excavated in new areas around the original to uncover what is known to be there. If the ore is coal, then it is probably plentiful in a specific area, but more precious ores may be more elusive. Gold mining is one of the types.
Gold mining does occur on the micro-level of a single miner panning or digging for gold in an area that is known to contain ore. Claim are made, and the individual miners and their families work the claim or claims until there is nothing else to be had there easily. Then the miners move on to other areas. But, this…… [Read More]
The mineral water market is highly competitive, so Deerside will require a comprehensive strategy in order to excel in the marketplace. There are a number of different theoretical approaches that can be taken in order to understand the strategy that the firm should undertake in order to carve out its niche in this market. Before working with these approaches, Deerfield management needs to understand its product and the consumer base for mineral water in general. The product is a mineral water from the Republic of Georgian. As there are few Georgian people in the U.S., there is no inherent appeal to this water on the grounds of its national origins. The primary appeal of this water is expected to be the content of the water. This water is rich in ingredients that have been proved to be good for the human digestive system and the prevention of colon…… [Read More]
Sustainably Optimizing Mineral Nutrition in Lactating Cows
The literature on animal nutrition has comprehensively addressed the nutrients that cattle must have for healthy growth, reproduction, and lactation. Considerable research has been conducted to determine the amounts of specific nutrients that must be part of any formula for "economically efficient diets" (Weiss, 2010). Both short-term and long-term metrics must be accounted for when developing adequate feeding diets for livestock. This means that the nutrient quantities must not be excessive, but must contribute to the profitability of the livestock raising or dairy operations while simultaneously seeking to minimize the environmental impact of these activities.
Feeding Diet Trace Minerals for Lactating Cows
Trace minerals -- those required in only minute quantities such as milligram or microgram -- needed by lactating cows have been identified through research. Nine trace minerals are thought to be essential for healthy lactating cows. While it is entirely possible…… [Read More]
Financial Analysis of a Mineral Resources Opportunity on the North Ridge of Mt. Zircon
Engineers working for Peru Resources have proposed a new mine on the North Ridge of Mt. Zircon. They have discovered a vein of transcendental zirconium ore that led them to believe that there was a sufficient amount to produce roughly 340 tons of this mineral per year for a seven-year period. Furthermore, it was believed that this vein may also contain hydrated zircon gemstones however this mineral resource is more difficult to predict beforehand and a conservative estimate of one hundred fifty pounds of this mineral could be sourced from this site on an annual basis.
The current market price for transcendental zirconium is ten thousand dollars per ton while the current price of hydrated zircon gemstones is three thousand three hundred dollars per pound. However, these prices are heavily dependent on…… [Read More]
e. counting carbohydrates and monitor the number of carbohydrates that are in my diet. Another thing to watch is fat intake (Whitney & olfes, 1999, pp.580-581).
5. Doing this assignment has proven that my diet has not been as good as it could be. It has come to my attention that some foods and lack of activity could possibly be leading to problems further down the road. I also realize now why it is so important to follow my diet plan, get plenty of exercise, and drink lots of water, considering this all plays an important role in my overall well being. Now I now to make healthy smart decisions and always consider the long-term effects of what I put into my body.
7-day meal journal
Cup of frosted flakes
Cup of whole milk small apple
8 oz juice
Mashed potatoes…… [Read More]
Whole Food-Based Supplementation vs. Fragmented Vitamin and Mineral Supplementation
Americans' interest in nutrition has grown in proportion to their waistlines over the last 30 years or so. Further, as healthcare in general improves and the population ages, problems associated with old age which were relatively rare in the past (because few people lived to see their 80th birthday) have become increasingly common. This has also contributed to the growing interest in nutrition among Americans. Unfortunately, this interest has most frequently taken the form of an act of desperation -- people look for a silver bullet to slay the monster of obesity or senescence (Tomlin, 2001). The silver bullet itself most often takes the form of a nutritional supplement or a fad diet. People seldom address the root cause of their obesity or medical problems, usually a lack of self-discipline at the dinner table and/or the gym. Even when embracing a…… [Read More]
Obsidian is volcanic glass and igneous rock formed from silicon-rich molten magma. Although the most common or well-known obsidian is black, the volcanic glass does come in different colors including “mahogany, red, flame, midnight lace, jet black, pumpkin, brown, rainbow, gold sheen, silver sheen, green, lizard skin, snowflake and more,” (Miller 1). The color variations are due to the iron, magnesium, and other “impurities,” (“Obsidian: Definition, Properties & Uses”). As a glass, more than 70% of obsidian is comprised of silicon dioxide (silica), but unlike quartz, obsidian does not crystallize. Obsidian is formed from magma that cools relatively close to the surface, in the absence of water but in the presence of oxygen, resulting in the creation of polymer chains (“Obsidian: Definition, Properties & Uses”). Unlike pumice and other volcanic rocks, though, obsidian has no gas bubbles.
Obsidian is chemically similar to granite, which can also form from magma. However,…… [Read More]
Conflict with Getting Minerals from the DRC (Democratic Republic of Congo) is Important to China's Economy
Globalization is a significant part of the business world. It offers many opportunities for change and growth, and helps people connect to one another even if they are across the world from each other. eing able to buy something from the next town over or the other side of the world can make a person very happy, and can also help companies expand and gain new clients. However, what the person is buying and where the items are coming from is very important. Some globalization has resulted in a desire for items that are coming from countries where the people are not being treated well. When that happens, it can be a serious violation of human rights and can cause a significant number of problems in the country from which the items are being…… [Read More]
vitamin and mineral supplement products which are presently used, and compare and analyze its' amount of nutrients with the generally established nutrient guidelines per day, specifically by considering the DA or AI and UL of the nutrients in question as related to women from 19 to 30 years of age, together with evaluating the daily use of those two products of choice.
The first supplement brought into question is Caltrate 600+D3, whose quantity of nutrients in a single tablet amounts to 800 IU of vitamin D3 and 600 mg of calcium. According to a 2010 re-evaluation of dietary reference intake, the Council for esponsible Nutrition agreed that the adequate value of calcium nutrient for women aged 19 to 50 falls between the AI of 1000 mg and the UL of 2500 mg (Dickinson, 2012). Thus, the recommended dose of one tablet of Caltrate 600+D3 per day would provide 60% of…… [Read More]
The variability of salt consumption in horses makes it difficult to use salt as a carrier for other nutrients. It is preferable to offer a balanced feed that is designed for the type of horse you are feeding and simply provide free choice white salt" ("Don't forget the salt," CFC, 2006).
Treatment and prognosis for recovery
Horses that are salt starved "must be introduced to salt slowly. Salt poisoning is possible if salt is suddenly available. Symptoms of salt poisoning are digestive upset and cramps" if the horse indulges in too much salt at once ("Horses and salt," University of isconsin, 2010). Salt is the only mineral which horses know they need. "Horses can be deficient in copper or any other mineral and not consume the needed amounts when they are available. But horses will eat salt if their body needs it" ("Horses and salt," University of isconsin, 2010). hen…… [Read More]
"Analytical data on fluid inclusions are needed to understand the chemical and physical processes involved in the formation of economic mineral deposits. These data are also critical in understanding modern mineral-deposit models, which promote cost-effective mineral exploration vital to our healthy industrial economy" (Analysis of fossil fuels, 2008). Because fluid inclusion research can provide scientists with details about the past and can help provide helpful information about the present-day, and perhaps the future, it is an important area of geological study.
Air bubbles, amber, and dinosaurs. (2008). etrieved March 14, 2009 from USGS.gov. Web site: http://minerals.cr.usgs.gov/gips/na/amber.html#amber
Analysis of fossil fluids and gases from tiny time capsules. (2008). etrieved March 13, 2009 from USGS.gov. Web site: http://minerals.cr.USGS.gov/gips/na/fluid.html#fluid
Bubble, bubble, toil and trouble. (2009). etrieved March 15, 2009 from Institute of Geosciences, University of Leoben, Austria. Web site: http://institute.unileoben.ac.at/mineralogie/Fluid_Inc_Lab/Flinc_Lab.html#what
Carey, P. And Parnell, J. (2004). Fluid inclusion analysis. etrieved March 15,…… [Read More]
Metamorphic, Igneous, And Sedimentary Rocks and Their Application to Planets in the Solar System
The objective of this study is to examine metamorphic, igneous, and sedimentary rocks and their application to planets in the solar system.
There are reported to be three primary classes of rocks, which are classified according to their origination. The three rock types are metamorphic, igneous, and sedimentary rocks. Igneous rocks are formed when bodies of magma cool. As time passes and the rocks undergo process due to various weather cycles the igneous rocks erode and the particles and chemicals, which settle into beds, become compressed or cemented forming into what are known as sedimentary rocks. In the event igneous rocks are buried and then undergo a high state of heating and compression they form into what are known as metamorphic rocks. Eventually, the rocks undergo heat and compression and then melt with the molten rock…… [Read More]
These worms play an integral part of the community. They do not have any digestive capacities, as they lack mouths and digestive systems. ather, they absorb the nutrient-rich waste products of the bacteria through their epidermal layers. They use hemoglobin produced inside their bodies to combine hydrogen sulfide, which is a necessity of many of the bacteria living in and around the vents. The worms transfer this hydrogen sulfide to the bacteria upon contact, and in return, the absorb the nutrients being produced by the bacteria. Additionally, one study examining vents off the coast of South Africa also found the presence of a new species of nematode, known as Halicephalobus mephisto (Borgonie et al., 2011). There are also a number of annelids as well as typical crustaceans, like snails, crabs, and shrimp are often common (Edmonds et al., 2003). There are also species of fish and octopi that form some…… [Read More]
According to the National Institute of Health (NIH) "Brazil nuts may contain as much as 544 micrograms of selenium per ounce. They also may contain far less selenium. It is wise to eat Brazil nuts only occasionally because of their unusually high intake of selenium."
The reasons that selenium is so effective in cancer prevention are uncertain, although it has been speculated that it possesses anti-oxidant properties, "especially when used in conjunction with vitamin C, vitamin E and beta-carotene" and "works to block chemical reactions that create free radicals in the body (which can damage DNA and cause degenerative change in cells, leading to cancer)" (Black 2006). Selenium has also been found to prevent damaged DNA molecules from reproducing, thus preventing the development of tumors as well (Black 2006). This is supported by a University of Arizona-Cornell research team which linked low selenium levels in the blood to increased risk…… [Read More]
Colonies existed to increase the economic well-being and political strength of their mother countries. Their production and markets were intended to benefit solely their metropolises which regulated trade and imposed taxes to transfer colonial wealth to themselves ... Spain's experience in much of the New World largely revolved around the precious metal (Pp 157).
This excerpt serves to illustrate the sole purpose of the large expeditions that the colonialists were generally involved in, and the central reason was the exploration of the minerals that existed in the Brazil and other regions that they colonized. The minerals were explored in large quantities and transported back to their mother countries in Europe. Gold was one of the most treasured minerals by that time and the value of gold production exceeded that of silver by far before 1540. Large sums, to the tune of 5 million pesos worth of gold was legally exported…… [Read More]
This historian continues, "A sugar-loaf could weigh anything between one pound and 20 pounds, but whatever it weighed it was worth that weight in silver" (Toussaint-Samat 555). By the sixteenth century, it was discovered that sugar cane grew amazingly well in the New World Christopher Columbus had discovered, especially in the Caribbean areas. Toussaint-Samat notes, "in 1506 one Pedro d'Arrance took sugar cane to Hispaniola, now the Dominican epublic. It grew there so profusely that by 1518 the island had eight sugar plantations" (Toussaint-Samat 556). Sugar grew in popularity as it became more readily available, and it also began to drop in price, so the middle class could afford it. As early as 1600, one early historian notes, "That which was once a remedy now serves us as food'" (Toussaint-Samat 557). Sugar cane became another form of currency, and entire economies were built on it before it dropped in price…… [Read More]
Dancers depend on their bones and skeletal system. Bones in turn depend on key nutrients and micronutrients to maintain their density and their ability to carry out the dancers' often extreme demands. Because bone is living tissue, a thorough understanding of how bone density is created and maintained is essential for all dancers. Female dancers need to be especially aware of the impact of diet, lifestyle, and hormones on their bones. A clinically defined syndrome known as Female Athlete Triad refers to the three main variables that impact female bone mineral densities including disordered eating, irregular menstrual cycles, and osteoporosis. The triad itself also refers to energy availability, menstrual function, and bone health (Mountjoy et al., 2014). Bone health can be easily conceptualized as the balance between dietary energy intakes and energy expenditures. Maintaining balance and biological equilibrium can promote maximum health in professional dancers. Because the triad…… [Read More]
This solution is then subjected to a process called solvent extraction (SX). The SX process concentrates and purifies the copper leach solution so the copper can be recovered at a high electrical current efficiency by the electrowinning cells. This is accomplished by adding a chemical reagent to the SX tanks, which selectively binds with and extracts the copper. This reagent is easily separated from the copper (stripped), as the operation looks to recover as much of the reagent as possible for re-use. The concentrated copper solution is dissolved in sulfuric acid and then sent to the electrolytic cells for recovery as copper plates (cathodes).
The Morenci operation has quite a large crusher, which can output at maximum approximately 63,000 tons of ore per day. This crusher pulverizes the ore and more conveyors send it to a nearby stump-leaching site called the Stargo leaching pad. This ore is agglomerated and made…… [Read More]
While the "quality and the craftsmanship [of Tiffany & Co.'s products] must stand the test of time," the conscience of a socially responsible attitude towards its products becomes an even more important element in order to make the customers appreciate the true value of its offer.
The added value of an "industry leader" approach concerning the social responsibility issues involved by the industry is also a desired course of action, as it brings positive effects on the environment and the fulfillment of ethical promises by the company, its ambassadorship within the industry brings even greater environmental benefits, through a stronger alliance to lobby and fight for the environment.
From a business point-of-view, it brings Tiffany's a differentiation point, giving it a competitive advantage in front of its competitors, something that just working with price, placement, promotion and products (marketing mix elements) can not entirely achieve.
This brings us to the…… [Read More]
The natural environment provides students with a calm and quiet place to unwind from the noises of the classroom. It nurtures and supports animal-life all year round. This is critical for areas where commercial and residential development is reducing most natural areas. Wildlife especially needs help during the cold and snowy months. Students can also see how it benefits the environment. It also helps connect students to the world of nature. Increasingly, because children are spending more and more times indoors, they are losing touch with nature.
Humans, because they spent their first 14,000 years in nature, have a special bond with the outdoor world. When they are taken away from this environment, through cities, lack of parks, no outdoor play, there can be psychological affects. When taking time to enjoy nature, children will feel better about themselves and the world at large.
We are also going to put a…… [Read More]
Fluvial Landscape: Chino Hills State Park
Chino Hills State Park is located in the Chino Hills, which are in the foothills of the Santa Ana Mountains. Chino Hills State Park is located almost entirely in the city of Chino Hills, California. Chino Hills State Park is a link in the Puente-Chino Hills ildlife Corridor, which enables migrating wildlife to retain their normal migratory patterns despite widespread human habitation in the surrounding area. It provides open space for human recreation, but its most important functions are to provide a natural habitat for native vegetation, water resource protection, and wildlife protection.
Chino Hills State Park is just over 14,000 acres and can be found near where Orange, Riverside, and San Bernardino Counties intersect. The park includes some of the Santa Ana Mountains and a significant portion of the Puente-Chino Hills Located in the hills; it is no surprise to find a wide…… [Read More]
("Fossil Fuels and Minerals," n.d., 173 -- 215)
The impact of wind farms on the natural landscape is troubling. This is because some communities think that the sight of large fields is destroying the scenery. Evidence of this can be seen in Martha's Vineyard. What happened is many residents began to oppose these kinds of projects out of concerns about how this will impact their views. This led to animosity about where to place wind farms. As a result, proponents argue that establishing these fields in different locations will be challenging. This is when the project will face increased delays and higher costs. ("Fossil Fuels and Minerals," n.d., 173 -- 215)
Advantages of Wind Power
Despite the claims of opponents, the reality is that the use of wind power is a viable resource. A good example of this can be seen with Denmark (who produces 20% of their total energy…… [Read More]
Matt gave Ed two eggs on toast with half-a-grapefruit and orange juice for breakfast (Independent on Sunday, 2002). Ed took fish oils and multivitamins on a daily basis. These were immediately followed by a good fiber and protein meal in minutes or strength during his warm-up sessions. Matt gave Stu chicken, basmati rice, couscous and egg and Jaffa cakes for his "insulin." Matt's intention was to bring extra protein straight into Stu's tired muscles. He also served Stu with nuts for his snacks (Independent on Sunday).
Commercial high-carbohydrate electrolyte sports drinks fill the football player's need, especially within the first 15 minutes after strenuous activity. These drinks also appeal more than plain water while contributing their value (Mannie, 2001).
usiness Wire (2004). 3-a-day dairy teams up with national football league to tackle kids' nutrition and fitness in schools. usiness Wire: Gale, Cengage Learning.
Retrieved on April 4, 2009 from…… [Read More]
consultancy firm expertise international business challenges issues. You present analysis a business report. Your report focus identification discursive analysis main issues include conclusions recommendations.
isk analysis: Australia vs. Colombia and the Democratic epublic of Congo
New taxes are always worrisome, and the Australian government's recent decision to pass a 30% tax on profits from iron ore and coal have left many investors scurrying in search of other investment opportunities in alternate countries with lower tax rates and labor costs (Scott 2011). However, simply looking at a balance sheet to determine average tax rates and wages is only a small component of deciding whether a country is a worthwhile investment. With this caveat in mind, it must be cautioned that the proposed decision to shift resources to investing in the coal mining sector in Colombia and the iron ore sector in the Democratic epublic of Congo is neither viable nor cheaper…… [Read More]
Water, Gatorades and Powerades
I am a registered dietician, presenting my piece of work on the different types of beverages. I am giving this presentation because water is an overlooked nutrient in the hydration process while it can be an excellent sports beverage. Water is the most essential nutrient in the body because death can occur rapidly in the absence of water than any other nutrient. Knowing this, does not take much imagination when dehydration occurs during sports performance or training. Around 60% of the human body is inside water called intracellular cells, and the muscle tissues have 70% of water which is critical during exercise.
Gatorade and PowerAde contain added proteins, sodium and carbohydrates, which help in increasing blood glucose levels and high cycling performance. PowerAde has low calories while Gatorade is lightly flavored with enhanced vitamins also with low calories. These power drinks are moderately isotonic because, they…… [Read More]
Solid Waste is generally described as:
• Trash (for instance dairy boxes and even coffee grounds)
• eject (for instance metallic scrap, wall panel, and even empty storage containers)
• Sludges coming from waste materials treatment facilities, drinking water supply clarification facilities, or air pollution control establishments (for instance scrubber slags)
• Manufacturing waste products (for instance manufacturing process contaminated waters and non-waste-water sludges as well as solids)
• Other dumped supplies, such as liquid, semisolid, solid, or even contained gaseous supplies caused by industrial, business, mining, farming, and local community pursuits (for instance boiler slags).
The phrase solid waste isn't restricted to waste products which are physically solid. Numerous solid wastes tend to be liquid, whilst some others happen to be semisolid or even gaseous.
The word solid waste, as based on the Statute, is extremely wide-ranging, including not just the conventional non-hazardous solid waste products, like…… [Read More]
The already shaky relationship between the Qatar state and Iranian society was further undermined by the Western exploitation of Iranian resources during the second half of the nineteenth century.
From 1918 until 1921 "British subsidies kept the government afloat, and British military and administrative advisers attempted to reorganize Iran's army and to manipulate the various political factions within the country to British advantage" (Cleveland, 185)*. When Britain added insult to injury by offering Iran a loan in exchange for exclusive advisory privileges, anti-imperial demonstrations broke out in several cities. Widespread discontent grew further. The Qatar government was regarded as ineffective and pro-British. A determined military commander finally took action and put a stop to the chaos.
Reza Khan used the political climate to advance from the position of commander and chief of the army in 1921 to that of the shah of Iran in 1925. His election overthrew the Qatar…… [Read More]
These human actions that alter the living and nutrient conditions of soil organism include the repetitive tillage or burning of vegetation, soil erosion, overusing the land without replenishing it with humus or plant compost, clearing of forests. What can be done to solve this problem is to replenish the land with humus or plant compost, give the land rest after excessive use, planting of trees to reduce soil erosion etc. The soil organic matter is linked to the atmosphere; hydrosphere, biosphere and climate change in that the carbon cycle is the biogeochemical cycle by which carbon is exchanged among the hydrosphere, biosphere and atmosphere of the earth.
The following are the strategy that I feel should be taken to restore the regions of Udaipur in India. In this area it is evident that the unnecessary human activities of over grazing, slash and burn farming, and activities causing soil erosion have…… [Read More]
Moreover, the study did not take into consideration the fact that certain persons are more at risk for later bone loss due to osteoporosis, because of frame size and genetic history (Caucasian and Asian women are at particular risk), or because they cannot take in enough calcium through normal food sources, due to lactose intolerance. Rather than attempting to prevent fractures later in life, after bone mass is already on the decline, it might be better for a nutritionist to stress the need to get enough calcium, early on, when bones are still being built. "At this time, the most effective treatment of osteoporosis is prevention. The stronger the bones are when people are young, the less likely they are to fracture easily later in life," and one preventative method is meeting the individual's daily calcium needs, along with weigh-bearing exercise, to aid in the development of bone mass. (Heinz,…… [Read More]
The current construction of World-Systems analysis holds that core countries, including America, Europe's thriving economies, and developed nations in Africa and Asia, derive enormous economic and political power from "the axial division of labor of a capitalist world-economy (that) divides production into core-like products and peripheral products" (Wallerstein 28). Madagascar's relative abundance of untapped natural resources, in the form of massive "old-growth" tropical rainforests, and deposits of minerals like chromite and titanium ore which are now used in the construction of cellular telephones and laptop computing devices, represent peripheral products that can be exploited for the ongoing manufacture and distribution of the core products driving the engine of globalized commerce.
(America, China, India)
Babones, Salvatore J., and Maria Jose Alvarez-ivadulla. "Standardized Income Inequality Data for Use in Cross-National esearch." Sociological Inquiry 77.1 (2007): 3-22.
Chase-Dunn, Christopher, Yukio Kawano, and Benjamin…… [Read More]
Abnormal Uterine Bleeding and Issues
Reproductive Tract Diseases for human females are typically focused in the upper reproductive tract or the lower reproductive tract. The upper tract includes the fallopian tubes, ovary and uterus, while the lower reproductive tract focuses on the vagina, cervix and vulva. There are three major types of infections: endogenous, iatrogenic and sexually transmitted diseases. Endogenous diseases arise from internal cellular structures and may be bacterial, viral or genetic, usually the most common and arise from an overgrowth of organisms that are already present in the vagina; iatrogenic diseases are the result of medical or surgical treatment, and sexually transmitted diseases occur between humans as a result of sexual behavior. In addition to infections, there are congenital abnormalities, cancers and functional problems. Each infection has its own specific cause and symptoms; caused by bacteria, virus, fungi or other organisms. Indeed, some are easily treatable and cured,…… [Read More]
Political, Social and Economic Plan
Our country has the potential of becoming one of the most important nations of the world since it has all the resources that few others have been blessed with. We have countless mineral reserves, a rich soil and a supportive climate that makes it ideal for agriculture.
Most of all, we have a young and talented population that is a priceless resource. In order to transform this undoubted potential into a concrete reality, however, we need to adopt the right policies. We are passing through a critical phase of not just our own history but also the history of the entire mankind in which we have the choice of either seizing the moment or missing the opportunity. The 'opportunity' is offered by the unprecedented technological developments in communication technologies and the lowering of trade barriers around the world.
Our failure in the past has been…… [Read More]
AFICA'S PETOLEUM AND CHINA'S ECONOMIC GOWTH AND DEVELOPMENT
How Africa's Petroleum Supply Is Important to China's Economic Growth and Development
While China continues to grow, its oil demand is poised to grow rapidly. For China to ensure its oil security, it must obtain oil from the global world because it lacks adequate domestic resources to quench the thirsty appetite of the country's rapid economic development. Any approach for growth that the country takes in its demand for oil is likely to affect the global oil market and influence existing system and order of international oil. As one of its oil strategy, China's firms are reaching every corner of the world to purchase oil or invest in oil fields showing to have opportunities disregarding the possible enormous risks. Some of China's national oil enterprises have made outstanding investment activities in African countries (Ma, 2010). Today, China's largest imports from Africa continue…… [Read More]
A mineral is a compound of different elements. There are a number of elements that are common in the earth's crust, and a mineral is a compound of these. Crystals are a type of mineral that has specific physical features, in particular flat faces that meet at regular angles. Crystals are a subset of minerals. A rock is a composite structure, usually with many different types of minerals in it. There are specific minerals that are most common in rocks, but the composition of any given rock will vary.
A polymorph is a mineral that converts from an unstable state to a stable state at a specific temperature. Graphite and diamonds in particular are crystals, formed in high-pressure, high-temperature environments. Both are made from carbon.
b) Diamond has a cubic structure to its molecules, while graphite has a hexagonal structure.
c) The different structures impact their perceived colours. The…… [Read More]
International egulation of Tourism in Antarctica
Since the mid-1980s, Antarctica has been an increasingly popular tourist destination, despite the relative danger of visiting the largest, least explored -- and arguably least understood -- continent on earth. Beginning with the 1959 treaty establishing Antarctica as an international zone free of claims of sovereignty by nation's that had been instrumental in establishing research stations there, there has been almost constant negotiation about how to administer regulations pertaining to the preservation of life forms on the continent, what those regulations should be, and what sanctions should be applied and by whom.
To understand the depths of the negotiations, and the potential for discord, it is necessary to understand what the continent offer the 65% of global nations that are party to the 1959 and all subsequent treaties. To understand the possible future of Antarctica, it is necessary to outline treaty attempts to minimize…… [Read More]
In the period between 2002 and 2012, Australia experienced a mining boom; a period in which the level of exports increased more than threefold and also the investment made in mining as a percentage of the nation’s GDP increasing from 2 percent to 8 percent. Imperatively, during the mining boom period, there was a significant increase in demand for minerals. This is because of the demand for minerals not only locally but also internationally. Therefore, this caused a rightward shift in the demand curve. This leads to the positioning of a new equilibrium price. The comparative theory best explains the exportation of minerals by Australia and the importation of other commodities from other nations. In this regard, Australia is considered to have a comparative advantage in the production of minerals because it can produce minerals at a relatively lower opportunity cost compared to China. Another aspect that was influenced…… [Read More]
insect with the highest protein content was the caterpillar, with 28.2 grams of protein per 100g. Americans at this point are unlikely to adopt insects as food in the near or even medium term. Objectively, the squeamishness factor doesn't make sense -- how on earth can someone eat a Big Mac and not eat a chapulines taco? Insects are infinitely cleaner and healthier than some of the crap people eat, and realistically ground beef that has been sprayed with ammonia, had color added back into it, and was raised pumped full of antibiotics and hormones is pretty nasty stuff. Bugs are nothing compared to that. There are a lot of people who are open-minded about food, but to overcome barriers is going to require creativity. Yes, chapulines are tasty, and in Vietnam they fry up locusts with pork fat, and these things are delicious, but Americans will need to see…… [Read More]
Some of these factors enhance the ability to detect geothermal activity in an area, while others impede it. he presence of these factors must be taken into consideration as they relate to the specific area being surveyed. A complete study of these factors and their potential affects on the ability to use remote sensing techniques will have to be explored in order to understand how they affect the use of satellite for remote sensing in Malawi.
he use of thermal infrared (IR) data from ASER spaceborne instrumentation was used successfully to detect surface temperature anomalies in the Coso geothermal field in eastern California (Eneva, Coolbaugh, & Bjornstad et al., 2007, pp. 335). One of the key difficulties that was found in the use of IR data from ASER is that thermal inertia from different types of vegetative matter can make true geothermal anomalies difficult to identify using spaceborne data alone…… [Read More]
Industy analysts pedict that moe touble lies ahead fo the mining industy in Austalia as well, but given its poduction of many of the wold's stategic mineal esouces that ae needed fo a wide ange of industial pocesses, it is likely just a matte of time befoe companies such as Rio Tinto witness a esumption of demand by its majo expot patnes in the futue.
Austalia. (2009). U.S. govenment: CIA wold factbook. [Online]. Available: https://www.cia.
The Austalian mineals industy and the Austalian economy. (2009). Mineals Council of Austalia. [Online]. Available: http://www.mineals.og.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/
Austalian mining industy diminished by almost 5% in 2008. (2009). Coobe Pedy Regional
Times. [Online]. Available: http://coobepedyegionaltimes.wodpess.com/
Condie, B. (2007, July 10). BHP and Blackstone may link fo 20 billion pound ALCOA bid. The Evening Standad (London), 29.
Messenge, J.C. (2004). Woking time and wokes' pefeences in industialized counties:
Finding the balance. New Yok: Routledge.…… [Read More]
"Individual odor thresholds range from 1 to 13 parts per million. Between 50 and 100 parts per million, it causes mild inflammation on the membrane joining eyeball and eyelid after an hour, loss of smell in two to 15 minutes and can burn the throat" (Lucas, ¶ 4-5). A person can tolerate a maximum concentration of 170 to 330 parts per million for approximately one hour without serious consequences. At 500 parts per million, however, the person loses reasoning and balance and possibly experiences respiratory disturbance. When a person is exposed to 700 to 1,000 parts per million for up to an hour, death may occur within minutes. Emissions In the journal publication, "A Guide to geothermal energy and the environment," Alyssa Kagel, Diana Bates, and Karl Gawell (2007), all of the Geothermal Energy Association, explain that the visible plumes rising from some thermal power plants consists of water vapor…… [Read More]
Chen, Ho, Lam, Ho, & Woo, 2003)
The article used for this research is a free full-text manuscript that may be found on PubMed.
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of dietary intake of soy isoflavones on bone loss in postmenopausal women. Subjects were aged 48 to 62 years and within 10 years of natural menopause. Exclusion criteria for this study included any diseases or medications, including use of exogenous estrogens, corticosteroids, thiazine, or any medication known to effect bone mass. This trial was a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized study that examined two doses of isoflavones (40 mg and 80 mg daily) and placebo on bone mass maintenance in early postmenopausal women. The alternate hypothesis of this study was that dietary isoflavone supplementation would prevent bone mineral loss in early postmenopausal women.
Subjects in the three intervention arms of the study had similar demographic characteristics. Annualized…… [Read More]
The larger particles can influence the absorption rates of solar energy by a factor of three over particulates such as phytoplankton and minerals (Stramski and Woz'niak, 2005). This means that a small concentration of these particles can do a lot for the absorption rates of the water they are suspended in. The smaller particles can also have this effect, but their concentrations need to be proportionately higher to exact this same influence. The smaller particles are more influential as far as backscattering is concerned, and represent a massive shift in the way that scientists think about light diffusion and backscattering within the ocean. Previously, scientists thought that only the larger of these particles combined with other particulates were responsible for most of the solar radiation absorption (Bricaud, a., Morel, a. And Prieur, L., 1981). Now scientists understand that in shallow, mineral-rich waters, even a small presence of these tiniest of…… [Read More]
WHY DO THE JAPANESE LIVE LONGE?
NUTITIONAL BENEFITS OF SOY:
As an annual Asian legume (meaning that it grows in a pod), soy is one of the most amazing members of the bean family, due mostly to its significant health benefits. Many studies done by nutritionist worldwide have confirmed that a plant-based diet is the most healthful choice. Soybean and its extracts, such as soybean oil, provide high-quality protein that is equal to that found in poultry, milk and other animal-based foods. However, not all soyfoods are low in fat, but most of them are cholesterol-free. An added bonus is that soybean and its byproducts do not contain saturated fat unless it is added during the processing stage or is combined with other ingredients containing saturated fat.
Because many forms of soy are low or modest in total fat, a person's overall diet will be inclined toward…… [Read More]
formed to what their value is as well as the characteristics of diamonds.
Diamonds are forever! They are the most beautiful, extraordinarily brilliant, hardest, and highly desired out of all the gems. The word "diamond" holds many different meanings for many different people. The meaning of the gem depends on the occasion or interest one holds in the gem. On wedding and engagement ceremonies, diamonds are given to the couple because for one's fiancee or wife, a diamond is symbolizes purity and commitment to never-ending love. We often hear the brand mantra of De Beers "A Diamond is Forever." For the Sports Fan, a diamond is the focus of American baseball; to the gambler or bridge addict, it signifies a suit of playing cards; to the rich and famous, the commodity represents wealth and status; to the monarchist, its beauty, rarity and durability symbolize royalty. However, the question we…… [Read More]
Target Market Segment
The fitness drink market is highly segmented, and one of these segments includes energy drinks. However, energy drinks are not exclusively subsumed by the fitness drink product category; energy drinks overlap to some degree with other product categories such as soft drinks. An example of an energy drink that represents the overlap of both fitness and soft drink categories is Red Bull.
Not only is the market segmented according to usage, but also by ingredients into a spectrum with distilled water at one end and sugary drinks like Gatorade and Red Bull at the other. Somewhere in between we find the mineral waters, vitamin enhanced water, vitamin and mineral enhanced water, flavored vitamin and mineral enhanced water, sweetened and unsweetened varieties of the same, sugary and sugar-free varieties, and so forth. Propel is a popular vitamin and mineral enhanced flavored bottled water while…… [Read More]
Milk from the cow is one of the most versatile and important substances in the human diet as well as in the diets of many animals and in particular in the diet of poultry that are being raised as layers, broilers or for other purposes. The fact that this milk can be processed into many different forms adds to its versatility and provides a wide array of by-products from which specialized uses can be determined. Understanding the basic array of materials that can be obtained from processing milk is the first step in understanding how those products can be used in the diets of poultry. The next step of understanding the relationship between dairy by-products and the benefits they can provide to poultry comes through examining the nutritional content of those by-products for the feeding and development of poultry. As these two explanations are provided it becomes evident in…… [Read More]
Currently, the cytotoxicity of chrysotile, which is a type of asbestos, as well as Rockwool along with other man-made vitreous fibers (MMVFs) have been evaluated by cell magnetometry. This method established cytoskeleton-dependent functions of macrophages, which contribute to a significant role in phagocytosis, and is used to assess the degree of harm caused on macrophages (Kudo, Kotani, Tomita and Aizawa, 2009).
Biological consequences of MMVFs have to be looked at not only at the cell level but also in the lung. To date there have been no studies done to look at the safety of Rockwool by way of lung magnetometry. In a study done by Kudo, Kotani, Tomita and Aizawa, 2009, rats were forced to inhale Rockwood a nose-only inhalation exposure system, and then looked at by lung magnetometry, a biopersistence test and pathological examination. The well-being features and safe utilization of mineral wools have been looked at for…… [Read More]
The effects of liquids are not a factor in regional metamorphism as fluids cannot circulate due to the effects of pressure upon the rocks, which seal in the circulation of moisture. egional metamorphism occurs in areas of heavy tectonic activity, near the places where the earth's plates rub up against one another. "egional metamorphism can be subdivided into different pressure-temperature conditions based on observed sequences of mineral assemblages. It may include an extreme condition, where partial melting occurs" (Jessey & Tarman 2010). egional metamorphism is commonly found in mountain regions (hence the name regional metamorphism), consisting of foliated rocks developed under medium to high temperatures. "The accompanying pressures vary from low to high. Geothermal gradients, which are likewise moderate to high, produce Buchan and Barrovian Facies series. Because the pressures of Buchan and Barrovian Facies series are commonly higher than are those of Contact Facies Series, they may contain different…… [Read More]
China's Rise: The strategic Stake
While we have so far discussed the positive economic impact of a growing China from the perspective of Australia, there are also some concerns about China's growing stature and the changing strategic balance. As a communist nation, the U.S. And its allies including Japan have always viewed China with caution. China has repeatedly claimed that it is fully committed to peaceful economic growth as Zha Peixin, the vice president of CPIFA (Chinese people's institute of foreign Affairs) stated, "China will stick to the peaceful development, opening up, and building a harmonious society domestically and promoting a harmonious world internationally." However, the recent arrest of the Australian mining giant Rio Tinto's executive officer in China over charges of espionage has created some friction in the relationship. The recent issues involving Australia granting of visa for Rebiya Kadeer, the human rights activist from China, much against the…… [Read More]
Since taconite iron ore can be attracted by magnets, it is called a magnetite. Magnetite is abundant in the Minnesota Iron ange as well as the Michigan Iron ange that is located next to Marquette as well as in the Penokee ange in Wisconsin, Minnesota. In Wisconsin-Minnesota's Gogebic-Penokee ange, the taconite iron ore deposits are concentrated on the bands that run from the Mellen area in Ashland County up to the area near Upson in the Iron County.
The taconite iron ore extraction process
The mining of taconite iron ore in the Gogebic-Penokee ange is carried out by means of open-pit mining methods. The mining process commences by the drilling of a hole into the ground in order to determine the exact location and quality of the iron ore deposit. The drilling also reveals the characteristics of the rocks that surround the ore. For the rather large modern mines, there…… [Read More]
Pacific Northwest [...] role natural resources played in the peopling of the Pacific Northwest, including the natural resources that became commodities and how the commercialization of those resources affected interactions between various groups. What impact did the exploitation of natural resources have on the region's environment? The Pacific Northwest is a diverse area full of natural resources that helped it grow and prosper as the population forged west. Many of these resources have been exploited for years, at the expense of the area and her people.
Comprising the areas of Oregon, Washington, Idaho, Montana, and Canada's British Columbia, the Pacific Northwest is an area known primarily for its natural resources and relationship to the environment. The area is primarily broken into two parts by the ridge of the Cascade Mountains. To the west lies the humid and lush western coast, and to the east lies the drier, arid eastern plains.…… [Read More]
Management and Control of Quality
The HMO pharmacy crisis
One has to understand the role played by the science of statistics in managerial decision-making. It is vital that managers think statistically in order for them to understand the processes, which would offer the context to determine variation effects and proper managerial actions. Looking at work as a process, a manager can apply the tools of statistics to identify consistent, predictable processes. Armed with such information or knowledge they would be able to study and improve upon the processes. Variation does occur everywhere, but many business decisions fail to account for variation. It is vital that one understand the variation nature for them to concentrate on reducing variation.
Dover was able to pick up some solid statistical thinking when he attended the "Statistical Thinking for Continuous Improvement" course offered to all employees of the organization. From the course, he also received…… [Read More]
Boron is a mineral that has seen some controversy in the past. Seen as a poison for bug eradication and a cleaning agent in laundry, boron is often seen as something that should not be ingested when it is called ‘Borax’. However, boron has several uses and ingesting the mineral can be beneficial for those dealing with problematic bone metabolism and osteoporosis. Several new studies have shown boron’s positive effect on bone metabolism in both human studies and rat studies.
One study aimed to understand potential effects of daily boron on postmenopausal women. They saw a positive effect from daily boron use. “Serum osteocalcin level in the CC genotype was significantly higher compared to the TC genotype in boron-exposed group (P???0.05). Our study suggests that daily boron intake of 1?mg/L may affect bone metabolism in postmenopausal women positively” (Boyacioglu, Orenay-Boyacioglu, Yildirim, & Korkmaz, 2018, p. 52). Boron allows the minerals…… [Read More]
Just as the physical properties of ocean water and lake water differ from one another in some ways but relatively similar in others, that is also the case with much of the biological life in the respective environments. On one hand, many freshwater animals (such as beaver, muskrat, mink, and otter) typically live in lakes but also spend a significant amount of time on land. Meanwhile, ocean seals and penguins spend much more time in the water by comparison. Likewise, the organisms living in the ocean tend to grow much larger than their freshwater counterparts.
On the other hand, some of the freshwater dolphin, sharks, and other lake and river-dwelling species also grow quite large. Furthermore, there is also reliable evidence that some of the largest saltwater predators such as bull sharks sometimes hunt in freshwater environments as well. Other similarities between saltwater and freshwater species are quite evident even…… [Read More]
Woods up with an exercise group close to her house, or a support group
who could help her with adjusting to her new diagnosis and give her
support. The social worker and the nursing staff would also be able to
educate Mrs. Woods' family on the condition and what needs to be done to
maximize her bone health.
5. Should Mrs. Woods have a history of renal calculi; care will be
taken for the administration of calcium supplements. Any supplement she
would take would need co-administration of Vitamin D for proper absorption.
Hormone replacement therapy is no longer considered to be a stable of
treatment due to concerns about heart disease. Additionally, there was no
significant evidence of fracture reduction of the HES study, so the risk
of thrombosis and breast cancer probably outweighs the need for HT.
Selective estrogen receptor modifiers are other alternatives which preserve
bone density but…… [Read More]
Polish Companies Reacted to Ethical Issues and Changes in usiness Standards Since the Fall of Communism in 1989?
Poland's Economy Pre-Communism's Fall
Poland's Natural Resources
Minerals and Fuels
The Polish Economy Under Communism
The Centrally-Planned Economy
Establishing the Planning Formula
Retrenchment and Adjustment in the 1960s
Reliance on Technology in the 1970s
Reform Failure in the 1980s
Poland's Economy After the Fall of Communism
Poland After the Fall of Communism
Fall of Communism
Marketization and Stabilization
Required Short-Term Changes
Section 2.3.2. The Shock Strategy
Section 2.3.3. Initial Results
Section 2.3.4. Long-Term Requirements
Section 2.4. Macroeconomic Indicators for 1990-91
Section 2.4.1. Price Increases
Section 2.4.2. Impact on Productivity and Wages
Section 2.4.3. Statistical Distortions
Section 2.4.4. Agricultural Imbalances
Section 2.4.5. Causes of Decline
Section 2.5.The Polish Post-Communism Privatization Process
Section 2.6. Structure of Poland's Economy: Post-Communism
Section 2.6.1. Fuels and Energy
Section 2.6.2.…… [Read More]