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Disproportionate Representation of Minorities in Special Education
Special Education is intended to function as a powerful resource for giving extra attention, assistance and educational resource to those with severe and irreparable learning deficiencies. However, there is also a danger that situational learning deficits may be perceived as deficiencies, leading to the incorrect classification of young students as special needs. here improperly classified, the results to one's learning potential and academic advancement may be disastrous. This is why the disproportionately high representation of minorities in American special education contexts is so troubling. As the discussion here will show, this disproportion suggests that there may be some cultural, sociological and global forces that are responsible for an unequal placement of minorities in special education settings.
One of the most compelling theories in circulation in the literature is that of the 'normal child.' As identified in the research by…
Ahram, R., Fergus, E., & Noguera, P. (2011). Addressing racial/ethnic disproportionality in special education: Case studies of suburban school districts. Teachers College Record, 113(10), 2233-2266.
Anyon, Y. (2009). Sociological theories of learning disabilities: Understanding racial disproportionality in special education. Journal of Human Behavior in the Social Environment, 19(1), 44-57.
Gabel, S.L., Curcic, S., Powell, J.J., Khader, K., & Albee, L. (2009). Migration and ethnic group disproportionality in special education: An exploratory study. Disability & Society, 24(5), 625-639.
Hibel, J., Farkas, G., & Morgan, P.L. (2010). Who is placed into special education?. Sociology of Education, 83(4), 312-332.
More specifically, Sections II-VI focus comprehensively on each of the minority groups' backgrounds; histories inside and outside America; typical experiences in America and elsewhere, characteristic challenges, setbacks, prejudices, and other hardships encountered in America and elsewhere, and likely attitudes, both positive and negative, about counseling and other health care in America. These sections, since they are all written by experts with personal as well as professional experience of a given minority group, are especially powerful, memorable, illustrative, and potentially extremely useful within actual future clinical settings.
The first chapter also points out that although "minorities" are frequently regarded, especially by European-descended Caucasian-Americans (still the large majority of counselors in America today), as somehow one large amalgamated block, of people "different from ourselves," the four minority groups discussed within the book are extremely distinct from one another: in values; beliefs; assumptions; attitudes; historical backgrounds, encounters with particular kinds of prejudices, and…
Atkinson, Donald R.
2003. Counseling American minorities. 6th Edition. New York: McGraw-Hill.
The underrepresentation of minorities in college and university faculties has been well documented (Kosoko-Lasaki, Sonnino & Voytko, 2006). Non-whites and women are both underrepresented at the university level. As few as 3.9% of medical school faculty are non-whites or female (Palepu, Carr, Friedman, Ash & Moskowitz, 2000). When women are members of faculty, they often occupy lower ranks of their profession, including assistant professorial roles rather than full tenured posts (Daley, Wingard & eznik, 2006).
This indicates an experience of the glass ceiling, whereby women and minorities secure an entry-level post but fail to be represented or supported and thus fail to move up to more secure ranks of their profession. As a result there is a high rate of "revolving door" patterns for minority and female faculty in higher education (Parker, Clayton-Pedersen, Moreno, Teraguchi & Smith, 2006). This is especially true for first year faculty members, who are…
Daley, S., Wingard, D.L. & Reznik, V. (2006). Improving the retention of underrepresented minority in faculty in academic medicine. Journal of the National Medical Association 98(9): 1435-1440.
Kosoko-Lasaki, O., Sonnino, R.E. & Voytko, M.L. (2006). Mentoring for women and underrepresented minority faculty and students: experience at two institutions of higher education. Journal of the National Medical Association 98(9): 1449-1459.
Palepu, A., Carr, P., Friedman, R., Ash, A. & Moskowitz, M.A. (2000). Specialty choices, compensation, and career satisfaction of underrepresented minority faculty in academic medicine. Academic Medicine 75(2): 157-160.
Parker, S., Clayton-Pedersen, A., Moreno, J.,Teraguchi, D. & Smith, D. (2006). The revolving door for underrepresented minority faculty in higher educaton. Folio.
The first link is developed with cultural differences while the other is associated with organizational problems. It is felt that since people from various ethnic backgrounds believe in traditions and values different from that of Whites, it may cause some problems for them in accessing healthcare services. The organizational problems on the other hand arise from poor training of the staff, location issues and some needs which the organization is not prepared to meet.
Ethnic disparities are common in the UK and they have resulted in strained race relations in the country. The government's efforts to change citizenship status and the general inequalities experienced in various sectors have fuelled anger and resentment within minorities. This was witnessed in the form of increasing ethnic tensions in various parts of Britain at the end of 1990s. To a large extent, this strain was also demonstrated through various terrorist attacks. In…
Luis R. Fraga, Anthony M. Messina, Laurie a. Rhodebeck: Ethnic and Racial Minorities in Advanced Industrial Democracies. Greenwood Press. New York. 1992.
Penn, R. (2000) 'British populations and society in 2025: some conjectures', Sociology, 34(1): 5-18.
Aldous J, Bardsley M, Daniell R, et al. Refugee health in London: key issues for public health. London: Health of Londoners Project, 1999.
Bahl V. Improving access and quality for ethnic minority women. Womens Health Issues 2001;11:348-54
Future of Minorities in the U.S.
The United States can be considered as a melting pot of the world for it comprises diverse nationalities, belonging to the minority groups of the African-Americans, Hispanics, Native Americans, Asians, and Europeans, from nations worldwide. Though some people among these groups struggle against poverty, and some have successfully built their own living, these groups have basically played significant roles in building what the United States of America is today.
African-American and Hispanic Minorities
Currently, two minority groups prevail largely than the other minority groups in America. These are the African-Americans and the Hispanics. The African-Americans, also called as blacks, originated from the racial groups of Africa, who, centuries ago, were illegally brought to America as slaves. They were made to work and cultivate the fields, particularly in the South, and were considered as properties of the slave-holders. It was only after the Emancipation Proclamation…
U.S. Society, African-Americans.
2003. U.S. Diplomatic Mission to Germany. 02 Jan 2004. http://www.usembassy.de/usa/society-blacks.htm
The African-American Population in U.S. History.
2003. Education World. 02 Jan 2004. http://www.educationworld.com/a_lesson/03/lp297-03.shtml
This type of attitude is, in the vision of James J. eid a sort of "mind games" played by the ottomans in the territories of the Kurdish population. However, similar tactics, such as military oppression, prevention of social gatherings would take place in several parts of the empire where religion was not an issue to be different.
By comparison, with the religious minorities such as the Greek Balkan Christians or the Armenian Christians, the most important oppression was the one related to religion because it was also the most important difference. eligion represents a strong connection at the social level especially because it provides the necessary parameters that can be addressed when in times of crisis. Christianity has always been an issue for the Muslim empire particularly because South East Europe was in general, with few exceptions, a Christian region. Therefore, in terms of oppressive measures, religious minorities were forced…
Hobsbawn, E. 1997. The Age of Capital. 1848 -- 1875. London: Abacus.
Reid, J. 2000. Crisis of the Ottoman Empire. Prelude to collaps 1838 -- 1878. Stuttgart: Steiner.
bias against minorities in death penalty sentences. The writer uses a research approach to analyze this hypothesis. One of the things the writer does is critique literature that has already been published about the topic. At that point the writer discusses the literature's impact and validity and draws an independent conclusion. There were seven sources used to complete this paper.
America has waffled on the topic of capital punishment since the nation's infancy. There are some eras in which the nation's people stood firmly behind the death penalty and believed the adage "an eye for an eye," while at other times the voters have stopped the allowance of execution as a punishment. With each change there are those who are advocates and those who are detractors from the principle itself. Whether or not the death penalty is a viable solution for crime diversion is still under debate. In addition to…
Elisabeth Frater, WHITE HOUSE: Testing the Federal Death Penalty., National Journal, 12-02-2000.
Katz, Michael. The Undeserving Poor. New York: Pantheon Books, 1989.
Petersilia, J. "Racial Disparities in the Criminal Justice System: A Summary." Crime and Delinquency 31 (1985): 28.
Social Media: Impact on Youth and Minorities
The purpose of this paper is to review the impact of social media on education, specifically related to youth and minorities including the Asian, Latina and African-American populations. The researcher believes that social media when used correctly has the potential to create great leaders, and provide a forum for ethical decision making and a forum for the voice of the people to be heard. This includes not only people in the U.S. But people throughout the word. There are many different feelings regarding social media; there are some people, including minorities who believe that minorities are under-represented in social media. However a close examination of statistics reveals that social media is very diverse, with youth and minorities taking advantage of technology and using social media as an outlet not simply for expression, but also as an organizational tool and method of free speech,…
Brown, Danny. (2011). Social Media -- It's Not Just for White Folks. Retrieved July 15,
Chelladurai, P. (1987). Multidimensionality and multiple perspectives of organizational effectiveness. Journal of Sport Management, JSM 1:1, 37-41.
Corey, G., Corey, M.S., and Callanan, P. (2011). Issues and Ethics in the Helping
Race and Cultural Minorities
Two centuries ago, Washington and Dubois debated the concept of race, a social construct based on an imagined demarcation that separated one group of human beings from another. Even then, the nuanced paradox of falsehoods and importance were at play; what seemed like a clear difference between some skin colors and ethnic groups was muddied in others, and the socio-cultural ends met by nominal means were indisputable. As human beings trekked across the globe in developmental civilizations, biology created in them differences as intrinsic as those between the continents -- something entirely different, but inherently, exactly the same. Today, different schools of thought debate the "race problem," a matter still highly contentious in even the most academically urbane communities. Anthropologists shun the idea for its lack of concrete theoretical foundation; sociologists accept its recognized place as an ideological tool in society with unending repercussions. The centuries…
Parra, E.j., Kittles R.A., Shriver, M.D. 2004. "Implications of Correlations Between Skin Color and Genetic Ancestry for Biomedical Research." Nat Genet. Vol. 36.
Pgrebin, Robin. 2005. "In Tent Encampments, Frustration Swells." New York Times. Oct. 14, B7.
Robinson, Bernard F. 1941. "The Sociology of Race Riots." Phylon. Vol. 2. No. 2. p. 162-171.
No Child Left Behind
hen it was first initiated, the No Child Left Behind Act was intended to make schools accountable for the education of their students. This federal Elementary and Secondary Education Act was supposed to improve the quality of education for all children in the United States. This paper will show, however, that in many school districts, the No Child Left Behind Act has had the opposite effect. As a result, many minority schoolchildren are left behind in school districts with worsening educational problems.
This paper applies a conflict perspective approach to analyzing education in the United States in general, and the No Child Left Behind Act in particular. The first part of the paper gives an overview of the writings of Karl Marx on social inequity. This section then discusses how this theory and the conflict perspective are applicable to the problems in the American educational system.…
Works Cited look at the no child left behind act. (2004). San Jose Mercury News,. Retrieved Oct 31, 2004, at http://www.mercurynews.com/mld/mercurynews/news/local/10049245.htm ore, Tom. (1996). "Class." In A Dictionary of Marxist Thought, 2nd ed. Tom Bottomore, Laurence Harris, V.G. Kiernan and Ralph Miliband, eds. Oxford and Cambridge: Basil Blackwell.
Farkas, George. 2003. "Racial disparities and discrimination in education." Teachers College Record. 105(6): 119-146. August.
Fletscher, Irving (1996). "Class Consciousness." In A Dictionary of Marxist Thought, 2nd ed. Tom Bottomore, Laurence Harris, V.G. Kiernan and Ralph Miliband, eds. Oxford and Cambridge: Basil Blackwell.
Jacobson, J et al. (2001). "Educational achievement and Black-White inequality." Statistical Analysis Report 2001-061 (July), National Center for Education Statistics, U.S. Department of Education, Washington, DC.
Larrain, Jorge (1996). "Base and Superstructure." In A Dictionary of Marxist Thought, 2nd ed. Tom Bottomore, Laurence Harris, V.G. Kiernan and Ralph Miliband, eds. Oxford and Cambridge: Basil Blackwell.
It is however also a challenge that cannot be ignored in the light of not only cultural change, but also political issues. Establishing trust within the police department itself, as well as between the police and its public is vitally important for current and future security issues.
With the targeted psychological support and counseling for all police officers, as well as a restructured reward and promotion program, I believe it is possible to encourage and effectively recruit all sectors of society to this profession. It is clear that there is no lack of talent, power or skill, but that problems occur mainly as a result of social and cultural values amongst existing police officers. The police force would however be more effective if it were more representative of the society of the 21st century. False beliefs regarding racial minorities or women no longer have a place in the United States.…
Bouza, Chief Anthony V. The Police Mystique: An insider's look at cops, crime and the criminal justice system. New York: Plenum Press, 1990.
Couper, David C. "Seven seeds for policing." In the FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, March 1994.
Polombo, Bernadette Jones (Assisted by Nancy Demarais). "Attitudes, training, performance and retention of female and minority police officers." In Diversity, Affirmative Action and Law Enforcement edited by George T. Felkenes and Peter Charles Unsinger. Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas, 1992.
Trostle, Lawrence C. "Recruitment, hiring, and promotion of women and racial minorities in law enforcement." In Diversity, Affirmative Action and Law Enforcement edited by George T. Felkenes and Peter Charles Unsinger. Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas, 1992.
According to a 2001 study, 86% of protagonists were white males, non-white males were portrayed in stereotypical ways: "seven out of ten Asian characters as fighters, and eight out of ten African-Americans as sports competitors" (Ethnic pp). Roughly nine out of ten African-American females were victims of violence, twice the rate of white females (Ethnic pp). Moreover, 79% of African-American males were shown as verbally and physically aggressive, compared to 57% of white males (Ethnic pp).
According to a 1998 study, children associate white characters with various attributes, such as having lots of money, being well educated, being a leaders, doing well in school, and being intelligent, while they associate minority characters with breaking the law, having a difficult time financially, being lazy, and acting goofy (Ethnic pp). Some researchers argue that if a group is over-represented, they see many opportunities and choices, while if they are under-represented, the reverse…
Analysis: Minorities, media a potent mix." United Press International. July 14
2003. Retrieved August 2, 2005 from HighBeam Research Library Web site.
Brain, Mary. "The Portrayal of Women in U.S. Prime Time Television."
Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media. January 01, 1999. Retrieved August 2, 2005 from HighBeam Research Library Web site.
Minorities in the Field of Library & information science
Crossing the language barrier requires more then moving towards the learning stage. Many of the Native Americans, Asian-Americans and African-Americans may have had the urge to adopt quick learning skills. ALA (American Librarian Association) and many such organizations have provided an identity for the minority librarians, giving them a space to overcome their past struggles, which is why a number of people are being enrolled in this program and enlarging their success rate. Opening new doors to recruit minor graduates in the field of Information Science and giving them an insight of new technologies. hile new graduates seek their opportunity and enroll themselves in the freshmen program and prove their credentials.
Minorities in the Field of Library
There are millions of Native American Indians, African-Americans, Latin
Americans and Asian-American currently residing in the United States, and the number of…
ALA "60.Minority Concerns," last modified on 9 (Dec 2002), Available at http://archive.ala.org/alaorg/policymanual/minority.html
Jones, F. Reinette, African-American Librarians in Kentucky (University of Kentucky). Available at http://www.uky.edu/Subject/aalibky.html
Moritomo, Toyotomi and Nakanishi, Don, Japanese-Americans And Cultural
Continuity: Maintaining Language Through Heritage (Studies in the History of Education), Garland Publishing (March 1997)
Minority Transfers to Four-Year Universities
In California today, over 70% of public school students and 50% of those in community colleges are black and Hispanic and the entire education system suffered greatly because of budget shortfalls in the last three years. Community colleges have an open admissions policy, unlike four-year universities, but also have a high drop-out rate for poor and minority students. According to the UCLA Civil Rights Project, in California, over 70% of minority students in community colleges failed to transfer to four-year universities in six years (Tlatenchi 2012). Most of these students are also low income and from schools that perform poorly at preparing students for university level work, and the education cutbacks have affected them the most, limiting their access to higher education even further. Old affirmative action policies always had the reputation of admitted unqualified students to universities, but new federal rules that still permit…
Tlatenchi, Fredy. "UCLA's Civil Rights Project Reports how Minorities can Transfer to Four-year Universities Quicker." Daily Sundial, March 7th, 2012.
Wong, Linda. "Rule Changes That Could Boost Minority College-Going," January 15, 2012. Think USC.
Minorities in Europe
Europe is a multicultural, multi-ethnic continent that is experiencing significant growth of its immigrant and minority communities. Countries that have not had to contemplate the status of minorities, are now faced with the issue on how to incorporate successfully incorporate them into society. This paper examines two countries, Estonia and Germany, and their approach to minorities and their inclusion into their respective societies.
Estonia is an interesting case because its minorities are Russian; a group that while always small was the dominant political and economic force. The change in status occurred after the fall of the Soviet Union, Estonia once a satellite country, wanted to assert its independence by shedding its Soviet past. Ethnic Russians, on the other hand, did not feel included in Estonia's revival. The issue, according to Greene (2010), is about a people who want to protect their culture and forget its Soviet past…
Greene, David. "Russian Minority Struggles In Post-Soviet Estonia." NPR. NPR, 23 Aug. 2010. Web. 14 Feb. 2014. .
Turton, David, and Julia Gonza-lez. Cultural identities and ethnic minorities in Europe. Bilbao: University of Deusto, 1999. Print.
Timothy, and Brown, Sandra A. (2006). Adolescent Self-Selection of Service Formats:
Implications for Secondary Interventions Targeting Alcohol Use. The American Journal on Addictions, ol. 15, 58-66.
The authors employed three formats of intervention (individual, group, and website) on youth in four schools over a four-year window of time. The results of this survey (which involved "Project Options") of 1,147 students is that minority teens who willingly sought alcohol services preferred to receive interventions in a private context rather than in group therapy.
Gil, Andres G., Wagner, Eric F., and Tubman, Jonathan G. (2004). Culturally sensitive substance abuse intervention for Hispanic and African-American adolescents: empirical examples from the Alcohol Treatment Targeting Adolescents in Need (ATTAIN) Project. Addiction,
This article offers a strategy that (in this case) significantly reduced use of marijuana and alcohol in all ethnic groups involved in the project. Some 213 juvenile offenders participated in…
Von Wormer, Katherine, and McKinney, Robin. (2003). What Schools Can do To Help Gay/
Lesbian/Bisexual Youth: A Harm Reduction Approach. Adolescence, 38(151), 409-420.
Von Wormer asserts through this article that because adjusting to heterosexual environment in public schools -- and dealing with the bias that often is in evidence -- is difficult, it is a "major cause of psychological problems" which leads these minorities to alcohol and drug abuse issues.
It is true, healthcare is not free. Yet, in an environment where so many are uninsured, it is clear that the free market method of private insurance is not working. This is where the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act comes into play. All tax payers will see an increase in tax rates in order to help provide quality healthcare for the millions of uninsured Americans in need. Still, "the wealthiest 2% of Americans will take the biggest hit," with the majority of average Americans seeing very little increases in their taxes (Cass, 2012). This ultimately means that individuals making more than $250,00 annually will take the brunt of the tax increases. Also, increased taxes on certain activities, like smoking and tanning, will also help allocate funding for the healthcare reform bill. Still, the government is also allowing for greater tax credits "that start in 2014 to help them pay…
Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. (2010). Disparities in healthcare quality among racial and ethnic minority groups. National Healthcare Quality and Disparities Report. Web. http://www.ahrq.gov/research/findings/nhqrdr/nhqrdr10/minority.pdf
Cass, Connie. (2012). PPACA's tac hikes are coming" Who pays? Life Health Pro. Web. http://www.lifehealthpro.com/2012/08/09/ppacas-tax-hikes-are-coming-who-pays
Minorities in America 1917-1929
Discrimination ran rampant throughout the era of World War I and the 1920s, having an enormous impact on the lives of minorities living in America and fighting abroad. Black servicemen in the military, though respected by some for their participation in the war effort, often served only in segregated units. They held no positions of command, rather served as mealtime aids, laborers and cargo holders (Azimuth, 2003). Also of significance during this time, a great migration of African-Americans occurred from southern farms to northern cities within the states, sometimes referred to as the "Great Migration" (Azimuth, 2003). Many were looking for bigger and better opportunities. Women, also considered minorities during the 1920s, revolted against their status in "servitude." The era of World War I can only be described as one of radical changes in the racial make up and cultural significance of America.
During the period…
North America 1915-1945" Retrieved February 22, 2003 from, www.bartleby.com/67/2187.html
From Margaret Sanger. Woman and the New Race. New York: Truth Publishing Co., 1921. 1-8.
American Passages." Chapters 22 & 23: Hartcourt College Publishers. Retrieved February 23, 2003 from, http://azimuth.harcourtcollege.com/history/ayers/MainAP/welcome.html
The Nazis, however, were seriously mistaken. According to Thomas D. Morgan, "No group that participated in orld ar II made a greater per capita contribution, and no group was changed more by the war." Native Americans willingly enlisted in the war more than any other group in America. Native American tribes that had a long tradition of warrior culture took up arms to defend the American nation. They also served as communication liaison agents who befuddled German and Japanese code-breakers.
Native American contribution fundamentally changed hite's attitude toward American Indians. Many soldiers referred to Native Americans as "Chefs," as a sign of respect. Holm explains: "hites, who made Indian policies at the time, came out of the war with new, or at least different, images of Indian people. These changed views created an atmosphere in which men of varying motives and goals could institute the termination policy under the cloak…
"America at War: World War II." Digital History. Web. 23 May 2012
Black, Helen K., and William H. Thompson. "A War Within a War: A World War II Buffalo Soldier's Story." Journal of Men's Studies 20.1 (2012): 32-46. Web. 23 May 2012.
Clive', Alan. "Women Workers in World War Ii." Labor History 20.1 (1979): 44. Web. 23 May 2012.
De Graaf, Lawrence B. "Significant Steps on an Arduous Path: The Impact of World War II on Discrimination Against African-Americans in the West." Journal of the West 35 (1996): 24-33. Web. 23 May 2012.
Minority Woman as School Principals and Leadership Challenges Faced by Minority Principals
When compared with corporate America, both the public and private American school systems may have more blatant glass ceiling settings because there are very obvious resistance movements towards gender and minority integration into administrative roles such as principals especially for positions in better schools or systems. The numbers do not lie -- consider the fact that women have traditionally comprised the majority of both the public and private school teaching forces yet, the majority of school administrators for these systems continue to be white males. This report therefore aims to discuss the roles of minority women as school principals, the inherent leadership and administrative challenges they may face as minority principals and what may or may not work for them and why.
Although this report happened to use some examples from the California school system to demonstrate some…
Feistritzer, C.E. (1988). Profile of teachers in the U.S.-1990. Washington, DC: National Center for Educational Information.
Shakeshaft, C. (1989). Women in educational administration (updated edition). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
Sutherland, Billie. (1995). "Recovering illiterates ... 'reconnecting with life' (functional illiteracy)" San Diego Business Journal.
Unknown. (1999). "As California overhauls schools, America watches for lessons" The Christian Science Monitor.
Minority Healthcare Issues in the United States
Minority racial and ethnic groups in the United States have long been subject to disparities in access and deliver of healthcare services (Graham & Dietz, 2011). According to the Kaiser Family Foundation, approximately 33% of Americans self-identify themselves as being African-American, American Indian/Alaska Native, Asian/Pacific American, or Latino (Minority health, 2013). The Kaiser Family Foundation also emphasizes that, "acial/ethnic background is associated with health status, health insurance coverage, and health care access and quality, with people of color consistently faring poorer on many health outcomes" (Minority health, 2013, para. 2).
Although steps have been taken to address these disparities in healthcare outcomes (Smedley, 2006), there remains a lack of consensus among policymakers concerning optimal courses of action (Minority health, 2013). Moreover, many minority members who live in rural American communities remain underserved by the medical profession (Holley, 2013). According to Holley (2013), "This…
Graham, G.N. & Dietz, D. (2011, November/December). And quality healthcare for all:
Reducing health disparities in America. Aging Today, 32(6), 5.
Holley, K.A. (2013, February 15). Rural minority student engagement with a healthcare pipeline program. Journal of Research in Rural Education, 28(4), 1-3.
Komen, S.G. (2003, May). Minority women are less likely than Caucasian women to get mammograms. Marketing to Women, 16(5), 10.
Steven Spielberg's minority report is an excellent movie in many different aspects. esides its delightful entertainment value the movie also serves to highlight some of the important issues that are very pertinent today. The concept of individual freedom, privacy and how governmental authority can easily override these is clearly portrayed. The permanent sentence of suspended animation for the would be criminals is clearly not a healthy solution. Just as incarceration is not regarded as the best criminal justice policy permanently affecting the future of a person is not the rightful solution. Secondly, the existence of 'minority reports' or the possibility of alternative future undermines the whole 'precrime ' concept and incurs the risk of moral liability of punishing an innocent man. The movie also clearly highlights the weaknesses of human character that could seriously undermine the most sophisticated technological systems making them susceptible for corruption.
1) Steven Spielberg,…
1) Steven Spielberg, 'Minority Report', Movie 2002
2) Lester D. Friedman, 'Minority Report: A Dystopic Vision', Accessed Oct 31st, 2010, available at, 'http://archive.sensesofcinema.com/contents/03/27/minority_report.html
3) Philip Jonkers, 'Minority Report', accessed Oct 31st 2010, available at, http://1phil4everyill.wordpress.com/2008/09/07/minority-report-2002/
4) Brian Godawa, 'Minority Report: Openness and Providence', Accessed Oct 31st 2010, Available at, http://www.godawa.com/HW/MinorityReport.pdf
Therefore, in order to achieve equality in right as well, the society must be more educated in the spirit of equality and non-differentiation.
3.State and describe at least three major challenges facing the Latino cultures' ability to prosper in the U.S.A. today?
The Latino population represents one of the most consistent group of immigrants in the United States. Most often, they come from Latin America in search for a better life and democratic environment, given the volatile situation and political conditions that have characterized Latin America in the last decades. However, most of the times, Latin Americans are often faced with the single possibility of undergoing unqualified labor, lack of education, and precarious living conditions.
One of the most important problems facing the Latin American immigrants is represented by the constant growth of the Latin population in the United States. (NPR News, 2011). This is largely due to the fact…
Cristian Links.com. (n.d). Native Americans. Retrieved October 15, 2011, from http://www.crystalinks.com/nativeamericans.html
Harvard University. (2011). The Pluralism Project. Retrieved October 15, 2011, from Struggling against stereotypes: http://pluralism.org/ocg/CDROM_files/islam/struggling.php
News Batch. (2008). Race and Ethnic policy issues . Retrieved October 15, 2011, from http://www.newsbatch.com/race.htm
NPR News. (2011). Michael Martin from Tell Me more News. Retrieved October 15, 2011, from http://www.npr.org/2011/04/01/135042269/population-growth-poses-challenges-for-hispanics
But most people he socialized with were for him members of a secondary group. My friend socialized with them for the purpose of getting used to a new social environment, practice his English, and find new friends. But his relationship with most people in the neighborhood and at school was not based on the kind of social intimacy that characterized his relationship with other Kurdish refugees in the neighborhood. My friend told me often that he was thankful to the United States for welcoming him in this country and that people were generally very friendly. But he also told stories about his school life and some people's treatment which were based on ethnocentrism. Some of his peers looked down upon him because of his foreignness, Kurdish accent while speaking English, and his inability to fully practice dominant American culture. For example, his peers at school sometimes would not allow him…
Minority epresentation in U.S. Politics
On one hand, some have made the argument that the historic election of the nation's first African-American President indicates that we now live in a so-called "post-racial" America. On the other hand, there is a good argument that the election of Barack Obama in 2008 rekindled the antagonism toward minorities in general and African-Americans in particular in those states that were formerly part of the Civil-War-era Confederacy. Immediately after the Obama victory and even before the inauguration of the new President, a contingent of epublican Senators, lead by Kentucky's Mitch McConnell, pledged to make sure that they used their votes in the Senate to block anything the newly-elected President tried to do.
The efforts of those legislators to undermine the presidency of the first black president before he even took office was matched throughout the former Confederate states by a concerted effort by epublican governors…
Bouie, J. "Virginia Republicans move forward with mass disenfranchisement
A Senate subcommittee has recommended a bill to rig the state's electoral vote allocation." The American Prospect (January 23, 2013).
The variations in levels of success of the students that the researcher did find were far more likely to be related to the other variables (i.e. emotional status, peer relationships, preparation for the N program, student/teacher relationships and attitudes of co-workers.). In fact the researcher found that all of the students were able to integrate well into the program as well as the social setting of the school, regardless of their minority status.
Those students who did struggle blamed their problems on a lack of emotional support, time management problems other non-race related variables. In addition, both minority and non-minority students experienced feelings of jealousy from their co-workers who were envious of the fact that the student was advancing his or her career. There were also some difficulties found relating to the nursing skills lab, and certain writing assignments, however these did not appear to be racially influenced either.
Henle, S.A. (2007) the barriers encountered and the factors that contribute to the success of the minority and non-minority licensed practical nurses in a two-year associate degree registered nursing program, (Doctoral Dissertation) Dowling College, Oakdale, NY. UMI Number: 3295361
Personal Introduction and Research Interests
My background is certainly not unique or even rare, at least for many South Africans. When I was born, apartheid was still the law of the land in South Africa and I was classified as "colored" (i.e., neither white nor black) and commonly referred to as "hotnots" (i.e., bastards). As a result, our family was forced to first live in a tiny apartment on the outskirts of Cape Town called Woodstock, or more commonly the "mixed slums." When Woodstock became overcrowded, our family was forcibly relocated to the desert-like Cape Flats, 25 miles further from Cape Town. Because these actions were sanctioned by the government and were therefore "legal," I simply accepted what was happening as a part of the natural course of things. Over time, however, these and other racially motivated incidents during this formative period in my life convinced me that the status…
Diversity in employment within community colleges seems higher than that of four-year colleges and universities on the national level. Research indicates community colleges engage more actively in recruiting and retaining more women and minorities than that of four-year colleges. Recent literature (within the last five years) explains some of the steps communities and community colleges have taken to become more inclusive. This shows not only that community colleges are willing to hire more minorities and women, but that there is also a climate more accepting of hiring minorities and women.
Community colleges undertake a variety of tasks for the satisfaction and success of their students. That is why diversity in faculty may help community colleges achieve their goals. In an article by Hughes, the author explains the need for community colleges to adapt strategies to not only recruit diverse faculty, but also retain them. He also states the inherent challenge…
Does Having a New Black President
Make it Easier for Minorities to Advance to Leadership Roles in Business?
"Excuse me, sir. I'm looking for the Color Line. ould you know where I can find it?" (Miller)
The United States has made great strides in regard to minority relations by electing its first black president. By today's standard, minority entails many different things such as classifying by nationality, race, religious preference, physical disability, gender or sexual preference. Throughout history, there have been many great leaders who came from their respective minority groups. For example, few people are aware of the fact that the Roman Empire had black emperors and even less know that one of them, Septimius Severus, through his legislative changes to military pay scales and community control laws, may not only have been the greatest black emperor, he may actually have been the most influential Roman emperor…
Works Cited, cont.
Rawls, John (1955). "Two Concepts of Rules." The Philosophical Review. Vol. 64, pp. 3-13.
Smith, Virginia Whatley. (1995). "Minorstreaming: Resolving Problems of the Color Line in the 21st." Black Issues In Higher Education 15 June.
Toronto Star. (2009). "Good News On Diversity." Toronto Star (Canada). Section: Editorial, pg. A26, 03190781, November 17, 2009.
U.S. Small Business Administration. (1999). "Minorities In Business." Retrieved on November 20, 2009 from http://www.sba.gov/ADVO/stats/min.pdf .
African-Americans males currently comprise half of the prison inmate population in the U.S., Hispanic youths (18-34) adding another twenty percent to that number.
Unfortunately, many of these inmates are in prison for random or gang-related violence, often between members of the Latino and African-American community. Recently, and especially in California, the number of hate crimes between the Hispanic and African-American communities has been on the rise.
For instance, in early October 2009, Madison WI, a 51-year-old Hispanic man was attacked and mugged by four young black males, in what was a continuing pattern of violent crimes against Hispanics in the area.
In the weeks leading up to this attack, the Madison police had received several reports of groups of young black men attacking and mugging their Latino neighbors.
Part of this racial tension comes from a right of ownership, and the need to assert one's community and culture into a…
BILL NOVAK. (2009, October 1). HISPANIC MAN MUGGED by FOUR YOUNG BLACK MEN. Madison Capital Times, WEB. Retrieved December 2, 2010, from ProQuest Newsstand. (Document ID: 1870939341).
CHUCK RAASCH. (18 November). Obama's challenges are personal, too. Gannett News Service,***[insert pages]***. Retrieved December 3, 2010, from ProQuest Newsstand. (Document ID: 2192583121).
Edmund Tijerina. (2007, March 22). UN POQUITO DE TODO; Latino like me: Obama's experience offers lessons in our culture: [CONEXION Edition]. Conexion, p. 7A. Retrieved December 2, 2010, from ProQuest Newsstand. (Document ID: 1243838071).
noticeable gap when it comes to criminal-justice statistics, specifically police and their use of lethal force. Although statistics exist for several things like arson and homicides, there are no official and reliable tabulation of law enforcement-caused civilian deaths. The Washington Post mentioned in one of their articles, that almost 400 police killings occurred in one year. While this is at least an estimated figure versus unknown, James Comey, an FBI Director confessed he did not know how many of these killing occur every day, every month, or every year. There are just no efforts to collect such data.
Statistics such as these are important. Statistics play an important role in focusing the attention of politicians, defining the public debate, as well as driving the allocation of resources. The work of public officials is often assessed by how these statistics decrease or increase based on the efforts of such public officials.…
Minority Culture in South Dakota
Lifestyles, Values and the Economy of Hispanic-Americans and Indian-Americans in South Dakota
The history of the minority groups in the U.S.A. dates back to historical times in the 1800 and their growth has been somehow stable in USA. It is undisputable that the treatment of the minority groups and the Native Americans and the African-Americans ran out of the borders of the tolerance and freedom. It is however notable that the U.S.A. has all through welcomed huge numbers of diverse immigrants and accommodated them as any other born American. It is no longer viable to ignore the issue of the minority groups in each state since even at the national grid, as U.S. Department of State (2006) indicates, the minority groups have played a significant part in all sectors. For instance Hispanics accounted for nearly half of the U.S.A. population increase between July 1, 2004…
Ann W.C. & Ruben D.N., (2011). Understanding the Hispanic Culture. Retrieved May 22,
2011 from http://ohioline.osu.edu/hyg-fact/5000/5237.html
Bloomberg L.P., (2011). South Dakota Grows as Minority Population Surges, Census Finds.
Retrieved May 22, 2011 from http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2011-02-17/south-dakota-grows-as-minority-population-surges-census-finds.html
Minority Rights Revolution
The Civil Rights movement of the 1960s brought about several concordant social changes in the United States. What began as primarily an attempt to liberate African-Americans from continued systematic oppression in the form of school segregation Jim Crow laws turned out to be as much of a boon to American women and minority groups other than blacks, especially Latinos. Among the issues shared in common by all oppressed groups include voting rights, equal access to education, and equal employment opportunities. Creating social programs and institutions to provide especially for the needs of all minority groups was a logical extension of the Civil Rights movement, which appealed to women and Latinos as well as to African-Americans. The design of blanket-institutions and legislation was definitely a step in the right direction, as oppressed groups do suffer from similar forms and consequences of discrimination. However as John D. Skrentny points…
Majority and Minority Governments
Is a Majority Government Better or Worse than a Minority Government for Canada?
The minorities of Canada function in a very different way than the minority governments of Europe and other countries (Cowdy 2008). The purpose of writing this paper is to find out if majority government is better or worse than a minority government of Canada. Before going in detail, it is important to know that in Canadian Parliamentary system, the party with the majority of the seats forms the majority government. However, when none of the party has majority seats than a minority government is formed by the party that wins half or less than half seats.
The majority government formed is obviously powerful and has ability to bring big changes. Contrary to this, a minority government works hard to maintain the confidence of the legislative assembly in order to stay in power and…
Accountability Measures. (1975). Report of the Independent Review Committee on the Office of the Auditor General of Canada. Report of the Secretary General, Ottawa: Information Canada.
Cody, Howard. (2008). "Minority Government in Canada: The Stephen Harper Experience." American Review of Canadian Studies 38.1 (2008): 27+. Questia. Web. 26 June 2012
Forsey, Eugene. (1964). 'The Problem of "Minority" Government in Canada,' The Canadian Journal of Economics and Political Science 30, 1: 1-11.
Francois, Jean and Hoyland, Bjorn. (2009). Voting Coalitions and Minority Governments in Canada. American Political Science Association Meeting Toronto, September 5.
Thus, the relation between students is imperative for determining such disorders (Organization for Economic Co-Operation and Development, 2007). As with the previous two categories, this is seen as incredibly subjective in the idea that no medical diagnosis or visible physical symptoms are needed to be placed within the category.
Stratification is essentially the ranking of individuals within a hierarchy based on the structures present in a functioning society. Sullivan and Artiles (2011) define stratification as "the patterned and differential distribution of resources, life chances, and costs / benefits among groups of the population" (p 1529). One's rank on this hierarchy determines one's quality of life and opportunities in relation to the structures and the groups these structures serve.
Overrepresentation and Segregation of acial Minorities in Special Education.
According to the research, there are much higher rates of overrepresentation of minorities in what is known as high-incidence categories,…
Anyon, Y. (2009). Sociological theories of learning disabilities: Understanding racial disproportionality in special education. Journal of Human Behavior in the Social Environment, 19(1), 44-57.
Blanchett, Wanda J. (2010). Telling it like it is: The role of race, class & culture in the perpetuation of learning disability as a privileged category for the while middle class. Disability Studies Quarterly, 30(2). Retrieved from http://dsq-sds.org/article/view/1233/1280
Blau, Peter M. (1977). A macro social theory of social structure. American Journal of Psychology, 83(1), 26-54.
Burt, Ronald S. (1995). Structural holes: The Social Structure of Competition. Harvard University Press.
Its main goals are to examine and evaluate the main areas requiring improvements. The technology transfer programs are the key information sources, which enables the veteran access the latest technologies that can lead to improvement of their livelihood standards. The veteran association other goal is to ensure automated and web-enabled activities. This will enable the association allow online submission of ids rather than uploads from emails hence reducing the usage of papers.
According to 2000 census, 12% of the U.S. population is African-American. This figure may be even less because there are some homeless and incarcerated who are not inclusive in the census report. The Africa American veterans mostly affected by depression though most of them believe is a personal weakness. They represent among the veterans who served in the homeless programs making about 11.4%of the veteran population. These veterans make up 35.1%of the homeless veteran population and 18.9%of the…
USDVA, (2013). U.S. Department of Veteran affairs.
Retrieved from http://www.northflorida.va.gov/services/homeless/
Department of Veterans Affairs Office of Research and Development of Office Technology
Transfer Retrieved from http://www.nist.gov/tpo/publications/upload/VA-Tech-Transfer-Plan.pdf
This study has noted that educators are noting better methods to assist these students rather than placing them in special education classes which fail to assist these students in school or across the span of their lifetime endeavors.
Recommendations arising from this review of literature in this study include the recommendation that different methods be utilized in assisting culturally and linguistically diverse students in the school setting. Among these methods are those noted by Knotek (2003) and Craig, Hull, Haggart and Perez-Selle (2000) which involves educators and school counselors assisting in addressing the difficulties faced by these students in the school environment and which may include but are not limited to addressing the needs of students as well as their strengths through strategies of individualized behavior contracts, specialized counseling techniques and culturally appropriate reinforcements that serve to encourage positive behavior on the part of the culturally and linguistically diverse…
Coutinho, M.J. & Oswald, D.P. (1999). Ethnicity and special education research: Identifying questions and methods. Behavioral Disorders, 24, 66-73.
Oswald, D.P., Coutinho, M.J., Best, A.M & Singh, N. (1999). Ethnic representation in special education: The influence of economic demographic variables. Journal of Special Education, 32, 194-196.
Murtagh, Damien (2003) Investigating the Overrepresentation of Ethnic Minorities in Special Education. Graduate Studies. Online available at: www.lynchburg.edu/documents/GraduateStudies/Journal/MurtaghD.doc
U.S. Department of Education. (2000). Twenty-second annual report to Congress on the implementation of the Individuals with Disabilities Act. Washington, DC: Author.
This is because our authority figures are tainted by the same prejudices and discrimination that affect everyone. Thus, preventing these events would have only been possible if the police in the odney King instance didn't act in this manner toward an African-American, and in the Chicago instance, if the police would have arrested the white rock thrower in the first place.
Bush, G. (1992, May 1). Address to the nation on the civil disturbances in Los Angeles,
California. etrieved December 17, 2011 from George Bush Presidential Library
Henry, M. (2004). ace, poverty, and domestic policy. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Keyes, . (2006). The quote verifier: Who said what, where, and when. New York: St.
Kwong, P. (1992). "The First Multicultural iots," in Hazen, D. (ed.) Inside the L.A. riots:
What really happened- and why it will happen again. San Francisco: Institute for Alternative…
Bush, G. (1992, May 1). Address to the nation on the civil disturbances in Los Angeles,
California. Retrieved December 17, 2011 from George Bush Presidential Library
Henry, M. (2004). Race, poverty, and domestic policy. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Minority as Gook, obert G. Lee describes the divided representation of Asian Americas as both the hardworking, upwardly mobile model minority, and the shadowy figure of the Viet Cong, waiting in the darkness to destroy the American soldier. He notes that this representation of Asian-Americans found its roots in the decline of the Fordist structure of the economy, and a destruction of national boundaries. To America, Asians began to represent a return to family values, obedience, and discipline, characteristics seen in the Protestant work ethic. Notes Lee, "the Asian-American model minority is thus a simulacrum of both an imaginary Asian tradition... And an American culture for which it serves as a nostalgic mirror."
Lee argues that the political ight has managed to change issues of race into issues of culture. For example, black families have been labeled as creating a "culture of poverty." With this labeling, the dysfunction of the…
Lee, Robert G. The Model Minority as Gook. In: Asian-Americans in Popular Culture. Temple Univ Press, 2000.
The problems faced by gays and lesbians are multiplied or intensified because stress cannot be reduced in the way it can be by other minority groups. In other words, while other minority groups would find support from families, the same is not true for gays or lesbians who fail to find any support especially if they have been in the "closet."
Harper et al. 2003 writes: "Minority stress has particular manifestations for LGBT people who cope with pervasive oppression, discrimination, and marginalization by remaining closeted. But unlike other marginalized groups, LGBT people often cannot find support in their family and community of origin. While the "closet" is safe it has its own problems -- the increased stress of hiding. Hiding means that ordinary daily interactions become minefields; it requires constant vigilance to avoid mentioning partners, same-gender attractions or dating experiences, as well as other activities that involve a LGBT community."…
Brooks, V.R. (1981). Minority stress and lesbian women. Lexington, MA D.C. Heath.
Donna Chrobot-Mason, Scott B. Button, and Jeannie D. Diclementi, (2001) "Sexual Identity Management Strategies: An Exploration of Antecedents and Consequences," Sex Roles: A Journal of Research
Gary W. Harper, Margaret Schneider; Oppression and Discrimination among Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgendered People and Communities: A Challenge for Community Psychology. American Journal of Community Psychology, Vol. 31, 2003
Gonsiorek, J.C. (1991). The empirical basis for the demise of the illness model of homosexuality. In J.C. Gonsiorek & J.D. Weinrich (Eds.), Homosexuality: Research implications for public policy (pp. 115-136). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
DMC & African-American Community
Disproportionate Minority Confinement
Disproportionate Minority Confinement / Contact
Disproportionate Minority Confinement in U.S.
Effects on African-American Community
Disproportionate minority confinement has been one of the popular topics in the social sciences' study. With an increasing degree of cultural diversity in United States, a need for tolerance shown towards ethnicity and race is required to be shown. However, various researches have revealed that there is an increasing disparity in the confinement of African-American youth in local judicial system where the reported abuse and drug addiction is seven times higher in Whites. This disproportionate confinement has its negative consequences which results in undesired impacts on the African-American community when they are operating in the role of a client, a social work practitioner and a citizen.
Disproportionate minority confinement refers to the overrepresentation of African-Americans and other minorities at all judicial levels. Although substantial research has been done and…
Cole, D. (1999), No equal justice: race and class in the American criminal justice system, New York: The New Press.
Firefax County. (2012), Disproportionate minority contact for African-American and Hispanic youth: the story behind the numbers and the path to action, Centre for the study of social policy.
Owens, G. (2007), Disproportionate minority representation and disparity, Issues for Discussion and Consideration Citizens Review Panel, Office of Children and Family Services, Interagency Group.
Reamer, F.G. (2003). Boundary issues in social work: Managing dual relationships. Social Work, 48, 121-132.
Psychology of Multiculturalism: Identity, Gender, And the Recognition of Minority Rights
This paper looks at the issue of multiculturalism, its development, its use by society and the ways in which the field of psychology have reacted towards, and used, multiculturalism. Firstly, a brief history of the meaning of multiculturalism will be entered in to, next a brief discussion of the work of five authors (in particular Kymlicka, Taylor and Gerd) who have been influential in the development of research about multiculturalism will be presented, and then the psychology of multiculturalism will be discussed, from the viewpoint of how multiculturalism has been embraced by psychologists.
What exactly is multiculturalism? Everyone has a different idea of the meaning of this word in their minds, and consequently many different meanings of multiculturalism float around in the literature and in popular speak. Multiculturalism has gained particular significance in the United States, where there have…
Gerd, B. (1999). The Multicultural Riddle: Rethinking National, Ethnic, and Reliogious Identities (Zones of Religion). Routledge.
Gordon, W and Newfield, W. (2000). Mapping Multiculturalism.
Kymlicka, Will. (1995). Multicultural Citizenship: A Liberal Theory of Minority Rights. Oxford University Press.
Kymlicka, W. And Norman, W. (2000). Citizenship in Diverse Societies. Oxford University Press.
" (Gordon, 1990) Gordon also notes that if there were enough low-income housing there would still be the unaddressed needs of housing in terms of it being located near enough places of employment that women with children could work full-time employment schedules and as well housing would need to be geographically located near enough places of employment so that minority women in poverty who had no transportation could either take public transportation or walk to work. Gordon states that "policies not currently on the agenda of either poverty or women's right organizations, such as unemployment compensation reform, may be central to an agenda dealing with women's poverty." (1990)
The work of Alvi, Schwartz, DeKeseredy and achaus (2005) entitled: "Victimization and Attitudes Towards Women Abuse of Impoverished Minority Women" states that the links existing "between poor minority women's attitudes towards women abuse and their experiences of mistreatment have not been the…
Gordon, Linda (1990) Women, the State and Welfare. University of Wisconsin Press.
Alvi, Shahid, Schwartz, Martin D., Dekeseredy, Walter, and Bachaus, Jacqueline (2005) Victimization and Attitudes Towards Woman Abuse of Impoverished Minority Women. Western Criminology Review 6(1), 1-11 (2005).
2010. Ethnic Groups in Germany: Sorbs, altic Germans, Turks in Germany, Chinese People in Germany, Vietnamese People in Germany, Circassians. General ooks LLC.
Coe, M. Neil., Kelly, F. Phillip., and Yeung, Wai-Chung, Henry. 2007. Economic geography: a contemporary introduction. Wiley-lackwell.
Scheffler, Julia. 2009. Welcomed Or Rejected? The Situation of Turks in Germany. GRIN Verlag.
Schumann, Stefanie. 2011. Hybrid Identity Formation of Migrants: A Case Study of Ethnic Turks in Germany. GRIN Verlag.
ooks, LLC., and General ooks LLC, Ethnic Groups in Germany: Sorbs, altic Germans, Turks in Germany, Chinese People in Germany, Vietnamese People in Germany, Circassians, (General ooks LLC, 2010), 23.
ooks, LLC, Islam in Germany: Turks in Germany, Central Council of Ex-Muslims, Khadija Mosque, Udo Ulfkotte, Zentralrat Der Muslime in Deutschland, (General ooks LLC, 2010), 56.
ooks, LLC., and General ooks LLC, Ethnic Groups in Germany: Sorbs, altic Germans, Turks in Germany, Chinese People in Germany, Vietnamese People…
Author Books, LLC. 2010. Turks in Germany: Necla Kelek, the Edge of Heaven, Solingen Arson Attack of 1993, Alpay Ozalan, Turkiyemspor Berlin, Berlin Ak 07, Cem Ozdemir. General Books LLC.
Books Llc. 2010. Germany-Turkey Relations: Turks in Germany, German-turkish Relations, Mehmet Ali Irtemcelik, Turkish-Islamic Union for Religious Affairs. General Books LLC.
Books, LLC. 2010. Islam in Germany: Turks in Germany, Central Council of Ex-Muslims, Khadija Mosque, Udo Ulfkotte, Zentralrat Der Muslime in Deutschland. General Books LLC.
Books, LLC., and General Books LLC. 2010. Ethnic Groups in Germany: Sorbs, Baltic Germans, Turks in Germany, Chinese People in Germany, Vietnamese People in Germany, Circassians. General Books LLC.
It was this same concept which began to impose harsh discriminatory
tactics against homosexuals. In fact, in a most ironic twist referent to
Nazi sadism, the treatment of homosexuals was often documented to exceed in
its abuse but also in its sexual manipulation, this group. Specially
recipient of abuse in the concentration camps, homosexuals were guilty of a
crime against Germany in their simple state of being, even as this
discrimination was not passed along to German SS guards and other Nazis
notoriously documented as having sodomized and sexually abused homosexual
inmates. In addition to their relegation to concentration and death camps,
homosexuals were subjected to the abuse of German's Nazified medical
community. To this end, "in 1935, a new law legalized the 'compulsory
sterilization (often in fact castration) of homosexuals.' A special
section of the Gestapo dealt with them.Along with epileptics,
schizophrenics and other 'degenerates', they were being eliminated."…
Laska, V. (1983). Women in the Resistance and in the Holocaust.
Speigel Online. (2007). New exhibition documents forced prostitution in
concentration camps. Speigel.de.
Traditional Values Coalition (TVC). (2005). Hitler targeted the
(Coleman et al., 2006) there are more significant differences between race and ethnic groups in beliefs about intergenerational assistance than are expected by chance the differences are not large. As expected, White European-Americans perceive that less help should be given to older adults than is true of African-Americans and Asian-Americans. Unexpectedly, European-Americans and Latinos rarely differ in their beliefs about intergenerational assistance. When differences exist among the three minority groups, it is typically because African-Americans and Asian-Americans perceive that more help should be given to older family members than Latinos. The family plays a unique role in forming and sustaining intimate relationships; however, there have been notable changes in the family in the past 50 years. As marriages are being delayed, birth rates are decreasing, and maternal employment, divorce, cohabitation, and births to single mothers are increasing, the course of intimate relationships is becoming more diverse and less stable and…
Bean, R.A., Crane, D.R., & Lewis, T.L. (2002). Basic research and implications for practice in family science: A content analysis and status report for U.S. ethnic groups. Family Relations, 51, 15-21.
Bramlett, M.D., & Mosher, W.D. (2001). First marriage dissolution, divorce, and remarriage: United Stales (Advanced Data from Vital and Health Statistics No. 323). Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics.
Chadiha, L.A., Veroff, J., & Leber, D. (1998). Newlywed's narrative themes: Meaning in the first year of marriage for African-American and White couples. Journal of Comparative Family Studies, 29, 115-130.
Coleman, M., Ganong, L.H., & Rothrauff, T.C. (2006, December). Racial and Ethnic Similarities and Differences in Beliefs about Intergenerational Assistance to Older Adults After Divorce and Remarriage. Family Relations, 55(5), pp. 576-587.
Byars-Winston, A., Estrada, Y., Howard, C., Davis, D., & Zalapa, J. (2010). Influence of social cognitive and ethnic variables on academic goals of underrepresented students in science and engineering: a multiple-groups analysis. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 57(2), doi:10.1037/a0018608
• This article explores how both social cognitive and ethnic variables can play a part in determining the academic goals of people and groups that are "under-represented" within the academic sphere. The groups centered on this study include Africa-Americans, Latinos, Southeast Asians and Native Americans. There were 223 people in the study and the study itself was centered on what is known as the social cognitive theory, as proposed and discussed by Lent, Brown and Hackett in 1994. There was a significant relationship found between outcome expectations, interests and goals. Self-efficacy and efficacy-mediated relationships were also in play. One area that is touched upon with fervor in this study is…
Wearin' of the Green
An Irish-American's Journey
Margaret-Mary clutched her daughter's tiny hand. Watched with pride as the five-year-old waved the little Irish Flag in her other hand. It was a cold, blustery day, but then it always was on St. Patrick's Day. Yet as Margaret-Mary braved the wind and the crowds, she didn't feel the least bit cold. Never did, but especially not today. It wasn't just that today she was sharing a special moment -- a communion if you will -- with all her Irish brothers and sisters the world over. No, it was more than that. This was a day long looked forward to, a day that had demanded special preparations like getting up at five in the morning, wrapping Colleen in the embracing warmth of a sweater of real Irish wool -- green of course --and rushing off into the frigid pre-dawn to wait for the…
Tokenism: The ole and Experiences of Minority Teachers in Predominantly White Schools
The Problem and Its Setting
The past generation has seen the integration of America's public schools. Such integration has presented challenges and opportunities not only for the Minority students now enrolled in predominantly White schools, but also for the Minority teachers who find themselves assigned to those same schools. While opening up new horizons for many Minority educators, the purposeful placing of Minorities in majority White schools has also raised the issue of tokenism. The question remains as to whether these Minority teachers are being treated equally with their White counterparts, and whether their assignment to mostly White schools is based upon real ability and genuine need, or whether such assignments are merely reflective of well-meaning social policy gone awry. Many capable Minority teachers find themselves to be victims of the same sort of discrimination that…
1. Bush, Laura. (2002). "Troops to Teachers Available to Reserve Components: America Needs You!" URL:
2. Donaldson, K.B. (1996). Through Students' Eyes: Combating Racism in United States Schools. Westport, CT: Praeger.
3. Gibson, Rich. (1992). "Let's Create Schools for Real Change." Partisan Education: Taking Sides in the Schools. Alexandria, Va. 1997: Renaissance Community Press. URL: http://www.pipeline.com/~rgibson/partisan/section2.html.
Criminal Justice System Has Had on Minorities
History and the Effects of the Criminal Justice System on Minorities -- 1940 to 1960
The 20-year period from 1940 to 1960 represented a crossroads for the United States in terms of engagement in an enormously costly world war as well as the social upheavals that resulted from the manner in which minorities in general, and Asian and African-Americans in particular, had been historically treated. While blacks had historically been the target of much of the racist views and violence in the U.S. through the mid-20th century, Asian-Americans were never far behind in the social mix and the attack on Pearl Harbor in 1941 just made matters worse for all concerned. Indeed, tens of thousands of Japanese-Americans were interred during the war "for their own protection," but many observers suggested this fundamental abrogation of these citizen's constitutional rights was tantamount to illegal imprisonment…
Bailey, F.Y., & Green, A.P. (1999). Law never here: A social history of African-American responses to issues of crime and justice. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers.
Black's law dictionary. (1990). St. Paul, MN: West Publishing Company.
Bouza, A.V. (1990). The police mystique: An insider's look at cops, crime, and the criminal justice system. Cambridge, MA: Perseus Books.
Collins, D.E. (1985). Native American aliens: Disloyalty and the renunciation of citizenship by Japanese-Americans during World War II. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.
The Bangladesh culture and minority affairs
The minority tribes of Bangladesh have over the years faced numerous systemic and traditional challenges. These minority tribes have been scattered on the hilly parts of Bangladesh particularly in the districts of Rangpur, Dinajpur, Rajshahi, Mymensigh, Sylhet and Chittagong Hill Tracts (CHTs). The known groups under this minority category are the Chakmas, marmas, Marungs, Chaks, Bowns, Pankoos among other tribes. The basic human rights of these groups are violated often. These violations are perpetrated by private companies and even the government agencies and if not then state agencies fail to conclusively investigate the violations. There are other third parties who are involved in the violations like the Bengali settlers, private companies, illegal land grabbers as well as the local administrations.
The minority tribes have seen massive displacements over the years. For the CHT people it can be said that since the 1940s the CHT…
healthcare services, many people could encounter some form of discrimination on the basis of their race, gender, or even sexual orientation. Discrimination in healthcare may seem like it is not something that is a major issue. However, it absolutely does come up in many situations, states and environments. hether based on gender, religion, race or sexuality, discrimination happens at overt or implied levels all of the time. In other situations, there are huge disparities in healthcare outcomes from one group to another and many experts say that this can only come from systemic or sporadic instance of racism from the healthcare sphere, from society in general or a combination of the two. hile most people get very good care, there are situations where the healthcare and/or government sectors fall short. It is important to note that although people are not always aware of this; there are various laws that seek…
Cornell Law School. (n.d.). 11 U.S. Code Section 507 - Priorities. Retrieved from www.law.cornell.edu: https://www.law.cornell.edu/uscode/text/11/507
Cornell Law School. (n.d.). 18 U.S. Code Section 152 - Concealment of assets; false oaths and claims; bribery. Retrieved from www.law.cornell.edu: https://www.law.cornell.edu/uscode/text/18/152
lawschoolcasebriefs.net. (2002). Access Now, Inc. v. Southwest Airlines Co. Retrieved from www.lawschoolcasebriefs.net: http://www.lawschoolcasebriefs.net/2013/12/access-now-inc-v-southwest-airlines-co.html
State of California. (n.d.). California Corporations Code. Retrieved from www.leginfo.ca.gov: http://www.leginfo.ca.gov/.html/corp_table_of_contents.html
Cultural Capital Enrichment of Underrepresented Minority Undergraduates
by Sarah M. Ovink and Brian D. Veazey
he study in the paper presented above focuses on what the authors call an area of "acute concern," namely the "lack of underrepresented minority (URM) students pursuing careers in scientific and biomedical fields."
he paper follows a very organized outline that mirrors the conventional research article form, which starts with an introduction, and continues with a review of literature, and various other analysis in regards to the research question, such as methodology, results, discussion and conclusions.
he essay's introduction is very comprehensive and does provide a thesis statement, thereby clarifying the purpose of the essay. According to the authors, the study is needed because of the fact that minority participation in "doctoral-level scientific or biomedical research" is not only underrepresented, but, according to the authors, it can broaden scientific inquiry and thereby serve to better…
The paragraphs that follow present analysis on proposed methods, with a specific focus on research methods, which explain the data sampling technique, and data collection and analysis further, and very comprehensively. Though the authors include sometimes paragraphs of quotations that could be more succinctly summarized, these sections of further description and analysis provide for a clear understanding of the subject, and do not allow for any gaps in research, as well as constantly reiterate the purpose of the paper so as to remind the audience. In short, the latter sections of the paper form a clear, cohesive presentation of strategies utilized to study and give fantastic recommendations on the problem in the discussion and conclusion sections.
Please note that all quotations in the paper were from the following source, the essay itself, which was provided by the customer (i.e. no outside sources were consulted): Ovink, S.M. & Veazey, D.B. (2010). More Than "Getting Us Through:" A Case Study in Cultural Capital Enrichment of Underrepresented Minority Undergraduates. Res. High Educ. (2011) 52: 370-394.
Please note that the research essay format was also referenced from the source that follows, provided by the customer: McMillan, J.H. & Wergin, J.F. (1998). Understanding and evaluating educational research. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill.
Hispanics have become the largest minority group in the United States (Grow 2004). Like every immigrant group before them, they have faced obstacles assimilating and adapting to life in the United States; from overt discrimination to subtle discrepancies in lifestyle, life in a different nation than that of one's origin is never easy. Business practices have been significantly influenced by the Hispanic demographic, however, and in larger and more noticeable ways than any immigrant group before them. This essay will explore a few ways that Hispanics have influenced the business world as well as ways in which their difference in terms of background has been a factor in their treatment.
There are three major ways that Hispanics have influenced business practices: products demanded, languages available, and as business owners and entrepreneurs. These changes are especially significant because the type of demographic shift that the increasing numbers of Hispanics represents is…
Armendariz, Yvette, 2005. "Latino entrepreneurs are focus of new study," The Arizona Republic, October 2, 2005.
Dougherty, Tim, 2001. "Hispanic Purchasing Power Takes Off," published online at http://www.hispanicbusiness.com/news/news_print.asp?id=4564, June 2001.
Grow, Brian, 2004. "Hispanic Nation," in Business Week, March 15, 2004 issue.
"Virginia Agency Sued for Procurement Discrimination," published online at http://www.hispanicbusiness.com/news/newsbyid.asp?id=23258, no date.
African-American Mental Health Problems
The article I selected for this assignment is Smith's "Mental health care services for African-Americans: Parity or disparity?" It predominantly addresses the social determinants of culture -- specifically African-American culture and experiences with mental health care services in the United States. Additionally, this article also addresses the social determinant of social norms and attitudes of African-Americans in regards to mental health care services. One of the principal points examined in this article is the stigma that African-Americans have about mental health care -- which, in certain instances, also includes a stigma about health care services in general.
The article's fundamental premise is that there is a disparity in mental health care services provided to African-Americans. This disparity stems from the fact that the very field of mental health was largely pioneered by Caucasians from the western section of Europe, whose "theories, strategies, and techniques…were based on…
Smith, J.R. (2015). "Mental health care services for African-Americans: Parity or disparity?" The Journal of Pan African Studies. 7(9): 55-63.
HHS Prevention strategies that is of interest to you and relevant to advance practice nursing
I CHOSE DIAETES PREVENTION
Diabetes disease management in the setting of a clinic is a multicomponent, proactive and organized approach in order to deliver healthcare to every member of the society who has diabetes. Every aspect of the healthcare delivery system is embraced by the management with care focusing on the entire range of the disease along with its complications and preventions. The main goal of this prevention program is to improve the long and short-term economic or health outcomes among the diabetic population. The main elements of a disease management are: to identify the population of individuals with diabetes; using performance standards or guidelines to manage the people identified with diabetes; an information system to monitor and track the interventions and results; management and measurement of population and patient outcome. Other than that, the…
Chou, C. H., Burnet, D., Meltzer, D., & Huang, E. (2015). The effectiveness of Diabetes Prevention Programs in Community Settings. NYS Health Foundation.
Diabetes. (2014). Retrieved from Healthypeople.gov: http://www.healthypeople.gov/2020/topics-objectives/topic/diabetes
NIH. (2013). Diabetes Prevention Program. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases.
Sepah, C., Jiang, L., & Peters, A. (2015). Long-Term Outcomes of a Web-Based Diabetes Prevention Program: 2-Year Results of a Single-Arm Longitudinal Study. JMIR Publications.
Chinese' Food and the Model Minority study in ethnic cuisine and culture, marginalization and commercialization, and the paradox of exoticism.
The anthropological theme studied for this work was that of the ethnic compromises and paradoxes inherent in creating a "Chinese" restaurant in America, for Americans. In every English speaking country from England to Canada, Chinese food is a huge business. For many immigrants it is one of the only businesses ready and willing to take them in. Most Chinese restaurants strive to present themselves as cultural representations where the American connoisseur can have a legitimate cross-cultural experience. The more I researched the actual traditions of Chinese and Asian cuisine and the way in which Western prejudices and expectations shape the presentation of this experience, the more it became apparent that --like so many other cultural phenomena-- the cultural relevance of the Chinese-food experience is far from untainted. Repeated immersion at…
About, Inc. "Eating Patterns: You call this Progress?" What You Need To Know About.
2003. Accessed at http://nutrition.about.com/library/weekly/aa070201a.htm
Hung-Youn, Cho. "Traditional Way of Life in East Asia." Korea Focus Vol.9 No.1. 2000.
Acessed at http://www.kofo.or.kr/koreafocus/content.asp?no=354
homosexuals in the school system. The writer explores how the mindset of the system as well as the attitudes of fellow students impacts their self-esteem, and their educational experience. There were five sources used to complete this paper.
America is recognized worldwide for its acceptance and encouragement of diversity. One of the final frontiers along those lines has been in the arena of homosexuality. Advocates of the homosexual community have lobbied for the equal treatment of homosexuals in the work place, in civic duty and even in the legal recognition of couples. With all of the advances that have been made in the area of homosexuality there is still a stigma for homosexuals within the American school system. From dealings with administrators, to the bullying that occurs to the bias in general education regarding gender issues, homosexual students are often caught in a compulsory system that makes them feel self-conscious…
ATTWOOD Steve, Headmaster blasts gay school report., Sunday Star Times (New Zealand), 03-31-1996, pp 8.
Gay-books sale hits opposition, Gay-books sale hits opposition., The Washington Times, 07-22-2002.
Gay California teachers 'come out' in classroom, Gay California teachers 'come out' in classroom., The Washington Times, 05-25-2002.
Tolerance in schools a homosexual ploy, conservatives say, Tolerance in schools a homosexual ploy, conservatives say., The Washington Times, 05-07-2002.
¶ … disobedience between individuals and it deals with unjust authority. An experimental scenario was set up by the authors in order to see -- from a group of 149 individuals -- how many of them would obey an "unethical request" and how many would not obey, and would instead blow the whistle on the request.
The authors did this study because they believe that there has not been enough research into the "nature of disobedience to unjust authority," and the bottom line it seems is this: who are the whistleblowers and how are they different from those who go along with unfair, immoral, or unjust demands?
Summary of the procedure used by the authors: The authors explain on page 37 that the whistleblower doesn't get off just because he revealed a situation that is wrong or unjust; rather, the whistleblower must expect to have "future involvement" with the authorities…