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Disproportionate Representation of Minorities in Special Education
Special Education is intended to function as a powerful resource for giving extra attention, assistance and educational resource to those with severe and irreparable learning deficiencies. However, there is also a danger that situational learning deficits may be perceived as deficiencies, leading to the incorrect classification of young students as special needs. here improperly classified, the results to one's learning potential and academic advancement may be disastrous. This is why the disproportionately high representation of minorities in American special education contexts is so troubling. As the discussion here will show, this disproportion suggests that there may be some cultural, sociological and global forces that are responsible for an unequal placement of minorities in special education settings.
One of the most compelling theories in circulation in the literature is that of the 'normal child.' As identified in the research by…… [Read More]
More specifically, Sections II-VI focus comprehensively on each of the minority groups' backgrounds; histories inside and outside America; typical experiences in America and elsewhere, characteristic challenges, setbacks, prejudices, and other hardships encountered in America and elsewhere, and likely attitudes, both positive and negative, about counseling and other health care in America. These sections, since they are all written by experts with personal as well as professional experience of a given minority group, are especially powerful, memorable, illustrative, and potentially extremely useful within actual future clinical settings.
The first chapter also points out that although "minorities" are frequently regarded, especially by European-descended Caucasian-Americans (still the large majority of counselors in America today), as somehow one large amalgamated block, of people "different from ourselves," the four minority groups discussed within the book are extremely distinct from one another: in values; beliefs; assumptions; attitudes; historical backgrounds, encounters with particular kinds of prejudices, and…… [Read More]
The underrepresentation of minorities in college and university faculties has been well documented (Kosoko-Lasaki, Sonnino & Voytko, 2006). Non-whites and women are both underrepresented at the university level. As few as 3.9% of medical school faculty are non-whites or female (Palepu, Carr, Friedman, Ash & Moskowitz, 2000). When women are members of faculty, they often occupy lower ranks of their profession, including assistant professorial roles rather than full tenured posts (Daley, Wingard & eznik, 2006).
This indicates an experience of the glass ceiling, whereby women and minorities secure an entry-level post but fail to be represented or supported and thus fail to move up to more secure ranks of their profession. As a result there is a high rate of "revolving door" patterns for minority and female faculty in higher education (Parker, Clayton-Pedersen, Moreno, Teraguchi & Smith, 2006). This is especially true for first year faculty members, who are…… [Read More]
The first link is developed with cultural differences while the other is associated with organizational problems. It is felt that since people from various ethnic backgrounds believe in traditions and values different from that of Whites, it may cause some problems for them in accessing healthcare services. The organizational problems on the other hand arise from poor training of the staff, location issues and some needs which the organization is not prepared to meet.
Ethnic disparities are common in the UK and they have resulted in strained race relations in the country. The government's efforts to change citizenship status and the general inequalities experienced in various sectors have fuelled anger and resentment within minorities. This was witnessed in the form of increasing ethnic tensions in various parts of Britain at the end of 1990s. To a large extent, this strain was also demonstrated through various terrorist attacks. In…… [Read More]
Future of Minorities in the U.S.
The United States can be considered as a melting pot of the world for it comprises diverse nationalities, belonging to the minority groups of the African-Americans, Hispanics, Native Americans, Asians, and Europeans, from nations worldwide. Though some people among these groups struggle against poverty, and some have successfully built their own living, these groups have basically played significant roles in building what the United States of America is today.
African-American and Hispanic Minorities
Currently, two minority groups prevail largely than the other minority groups in America. These are the African-Americans and the Hispanics. The African-Americans, also called as blacks, originated from the racial groups of Africa, who, centuries ago, were illegally brought to America as slaves. They were made to work and cultivate the fields, particularly in the South, and were considered as properties of the slave-holders. It was only after the Emancipation Proclamation…… [Read More]
This type of attitude is, in the vision of James J. eid a sort of "mind games" played by the ottomans in the territories of the Kurdish population. However, similar tactics, such as military oppression, prevention of social gatherings would take place in several parts of the empire where religion was not an issue to be different.
By comparison, with the religious minorities such as the Greek Balkan Christians or the Armenian Christians, the most important oppression was the one related to religion because it was also the most important difference. eligion represents a strong connection at the social level especially because it provides the necessary parameters that can be addressed when in times of crisis. Christianity has always been an issue for the Muslim empire particularly because South East Europe was in general, with few exceptions, a Christian region. Therefore, in terms of oppressive measures, religious minorities were forced…… [Read More]
bias against minorities in death penalty sentences. The writer uses a research approach to analyze this hypothesis. One of the things the writer does is critique literature that has already been published about the topic. At that point the writer discusses the literature's impact and validity and draws an independent conclusion. There were seven sources used to complete this paper.
America has waffled on the topic of capital punishment since the nation's infancy. There are some eras in which the nation's people stood firmly behind the death penalty and believed the adage "an eye for an eye," while at other times the voters have stopped the allowance of execution as a punishment. With each change there are those who are advocates and those who are detractors from the principle itself. Whether or not the death penalty is a viable solution for crime diversion is still under debate. In addition to…… [Read More]
Social Media: Impact on Youth and Minorities
The purpose of this paper is to review the impact of social media on education, specifically related to youth and minorities including the Asian, Latina and African-American populations. The researcher believes that social media when used correctly has the potential to create great leaders, and provide a forum for ethical decision making and a forum for the voice of the people to be heard. This includes not only people in the U.S. But people throughout the word. There are many different feelings regarding social media; there are some people, including minorities who believe that minorities are under-represented in social media. However a close examination of statistics reveals that social media is very diverse, with youth and minorities taking advantage of technology and using social media as an outlet not simply for expression, but also as an organizational tool and method of free speech,…… [Read More]
Race and Cultural Minorities
Two centuries ago, Washington and Dubois debated the concept of race, a social construct based on an imagined demarcation that separated one group of human beings from another. Even then, the nuanced paradox of falsehoods and importance were at play; what seemed like a clear difference between some skin colors and ethnic groups was muddied in others, and the socio-cultural ends met by nominal means were indisputable. As human beings trekked across the globe in developmental civilizations, biology created in them differences as intrinsic as those between the continents -- something entirely different, but inherently, exactly the same. Today, different schools of thought debate the "race problem," a matter still highly contentious in even the most academically urbane communities. Anthropologists shun the idea for its lack of concrete theoretical foundation; sociologists accept its recognized place as an ideological tool in society with unending repercussions. The centuries…… [Read More]
No Child Left Behind
hen it was first initiated, the No Child Left Behind Act was intended to make schools accountable for the education of their students. This federal Elementary and Secondary Education Act was supposed to improve the quality of education for all children in the United States. This paper will show, however, that in many school districts, the No Child Left Behind Act has had the opposite effect. As a result, many minority schoolchildren are left behind in school districts with worsening educational problems.
This paper applies a conflict perspective approach to analyzing education in the United States in general, and the No Child Left Behind Act in particular. The first part of the paper gives an overview of the writings of Karl Marx on social inequity. This section then discusses how this theory and the conflict perspective are applicable to the problems in the American educational system.…… [Read More]
It is however also a challenge that cannot be ignored in the light of not only cultural change, but also political issues. Establishing trust within the police department itself, as well as between the police and its public is vitally important for current and future security issues.
With the targeted psychological support and counseling for all police officers, as well as a restructured reward and promotion program, I believe it is possible to encourage and effectively recruit all sectors of society to this profession. It is clear that there is no lack of talent, power or skill, but that problems occur mainly as a result of social and cultural values amongst existing police officers. The police force would however be more effective if it were more representative of the society of the 21st century. False beliefs regarding racial minorities or women no longer have a place in the United States.…… [Read More]
According to a 2001 study, 86% of protagonists were white males, non-white males were portrayed in stereotypical ways: "seven out of ten Asian characters as fighters, and eight out of ten African-Americans as sports competitors" (Ethnic pp). Roughly nine out of ten African-American females were victims of violence, twice the rate of white females (Ethnic pp). Moreover, 79% of African-American males were shown as verbally and physically aggressive, compared to 57% of white males (Ethnic pp).
According to a 1998 study, children associate white characters with various attributes, such as having lots of money, being well educated, being a leaders, doing well in school, and being intelligent, while they associate minority characters with breaking the law, having a difficult time financially, being lazy, and acting goofy (Ethnic pp). Some researchers argue that if a group is over-represented, they see many opportunities and choices, while if they are under-represented, the reverse…… [Read More]
Minorities in the Field of Library & information science
Crossing the language barrier requires more then moving towards the learning stage. Many of the Native Americans, Asian-Americans and African-Americans may have had the urge to adopt quick learning skills. ALA (American Librarian Association) and many such organizations have provided an identity for the minority librarians, giving them a space to overcome their past struggles, which is why a number of people are being enrolled in this program and enlarging their success rate. Opening new doors to recruit minor graduates in the field of Information Science and giving them an insight of new technologies. hile new graduates seek their opportunity and enroll themselves in the freshmen program and prove their credentials.
Minorities in the Field of Library
There are millions of Native American Indians, African-Americans, Latin
Americans and Asian-American currently residing in the United States, and the number of…… [Read More]
Minority Transfers to Four-Year Universities
In California today, over 70% of public school students and 50% of those in community colleges are black and Hispanic and the entire education system suffered greatly because of budget shortfalls in the last three years. Community colleges have an open admissions policy, unlike four-year universities, but also have a high drop-out rate for poor and minority students. According to the UCLA Civil Rights Project, in California, over 70% of minority students in community colleges failed to transfer to four-year universities in six years (Tlatenchi 2012). Most of these students are also low income and from schools that perform poorly at preparing students for university level work, and the education cutbacks have affected them the most, limiting their access to higher education even further. Old affirmative action policies always had the reputation of admitted unqualified students to universities, but new federal rules that still permit…… [Read More]
Minorities in Europe
Europe is a multicultural, multi-ethnic continent that is experiencing significant growth of its immigrant and minority communities. Countries that have not had to contemplate the status of minorities, are now faced with the issue on how to incorporate successfully incorporate them into society. This paper examines two countries, Estonia and Germany, and their approach to minorities and their inclusion into their respective societies.
Estonia is an interesting case because its minorities are Russian; a group that while always small was the dominant political and economic force. The change in status occurred after the fall of the Soviet Union, Estonia once a satellite country, wanted to assert its independence by shedding its Soviet past. Ethnic Russians, on the other hand, did not feel included in Estonia's revival. The issue, according to Greene (2010), is about a people who want to protect their culture and forget its Soviet past…… [Read More]
Minority Groups: Why They Have Failed to Make Significant
Gains despite Having Lived in the U.S. For A Longer Time
The fact that minority groups have failed to make it up the ranks in the U.S. stratification system remains a query everyone has to battle with. One cannot stop to imagine how such old groups would fail to make the gains that the ordinary u.s citizens and the recent immigrants. It will be noted that the two major minority groups are African-Americans and Native Americans. The Native Americans, it is their land for all intends and purposes and still they are considered a minority group. For the African-Americans it is still a big headache for those who are studying the reasons why they have failed although there are several factors. Therefore in this topic there will be an in depth look into the reason why these groups have failed to…… [Read More]
Review of Cummins' "Empowering Minority Students"
Jim Cummins, professor at the Ontario Institute for Studies in Education, considers that the personal and institutional methods of providing instruction to minority students must be redefined to improve their educational performance outcomes. He theorizes that past failures in compensatory and bilingual education has been a result of "bicultural ambivalence" and the current methodology must be reformed to empower minority students by encouraging them to embrace their native language and culture. He believes that this requires improved interactions at three levels: between teacher and student, schools and minority communities, and the cultural groups to the larger society. The framework Cummins proposes to rework the educational institution for the benefit of the minority student involves incorporating the student's language into the school program, encouraging the participation of the minority community with the school, promoting the student's use of language to improve his learning…… [Read More]
Timothy, and Brown, Sandra A. (2006). Adolescent Self-Selection of Service Formats:
Implications for Secondary Interventions Targeting Alcohol Use. The American Journal on Addictions, ol. 15, 58-66.
The authors employed three formats of intervention (individual, group, and website) on youth in four schools over a four-year window of time. The results of this survey (which involved "Project Options") of 1,147 students is that minority teens who willingly sought alcohol services preferred to receive interventions in a private context rather than in group therapy.
Gil, Andres G., Wagner, Eric F., and Tubman, Jonathan G. (2004). Culturally sensitive substance abuse intervention for Hispanic and African-American adolescents: empirical examples from the Alcohol Treatment Targeting Adolescents in Need (ATTAIN) Project. Addiction,
This article offers a strategy that (in this case) significantly reduced use of marijuana and alcohol in all ethnic groups involved in the project. Some 213 juvenile offenders participated in…… [Read More]
It is true, healthcare is not free. Yet, in an environment where so many are uninsured, it is clear that the free market method of private insurance is not working. This is where the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act comes into play. All tax payers will see an increase in tax rates in order to help provide quality healthcare for the millions of uninsured Americans in need. Still, "the wealthiest 2% of Americans will take the biggest hit," with the majority of average Americans seeing very little increases in their taxes (Cass, 2012). This ultimately means that individuals making more than $250,00 annually will take the brunt of the tax increases. Also, increased taxes on certain activities, like smoking and tanning, will also help allocate funding for the healthcare reform bill. Still, the government is also allowing for greater tax credits "that start in 2014 to help them pay…… [Read More]
Minorities in America 1917-1929
Discrimination ran rampant throughout the era of World War I and the 1920s, having an enormous impact on the lives of minorities living in America and fighting abroad. Black servicemen in the military, though respected by some for their participation in the war effort, often served only in segregated units. They held no positions of command, rather served as mealtime aids, laborers and cargo holders (Azimuth, 2003). Also of significance during this time, a great migration of African-Americans occurred from southern farms to northern cities within the states, sometimes referred to as the "Great Migration" (Azimuth, 2003). Many were looking for bigger and better opportunities. Women, also considered minorities during the 1920s, revolted against their status in "servitude." The era of World War I can only be described as one of radical changes in the racial make up and cultural significance of America.
During the period…… [Read More]
The Nazis, however, were seriously mistaken. According to Thomas D. Morgan, "No group that participated in orld ar II made a greater per capita contribution, and no group was changed more by the war." Native Americans willingly enlisted in the war more than any other group in America. Native American tribes that had a long tradition of warrior culture took up arms to defend the American nation. They also served as communication liaison agents who befuddled German and Japanese code-breakers.
Native American contribution fundamentally changed hite's attitude toward American Indians. Many soldiers referred to Native Americans as "Chefs," as a sign of respect. Holm explains: "hites, who made Indian policies at the time, came out of the war with new, or at least different, images of Indian people. These changed views created an atmosphere in which men of varying motives and goals could institute the termination policy under the cloak…… [Read More]
Minority Woman as School Principals and Leadership Challenges Faced by Minority Principals
When compared with corporate America, both the public and private American school systems may have more blatant glass ceiling settings because there are very obvious resistance movements towards gender and minority integration into administrative roles such as principals especially for positions in better schools or systems. The numbers do not lie -- consider the fact that women have traditionally comprised the majority of both the public and private school teaching forces yet, the majority of school administrators for these systems continue to be white males. This report therefore aims to discuss the roles of minority women as school principals, the inherent leadership and administrative challenges they may face as minority principals and what may or may not work for them and why.
Although this report happened to use some examples from the California school system to demonstrate some…… [Read More]
Minority Healthcare Issues in the United States
Minority racial and ethnic groups in the United States have long been subject to disparities in access and deliver of healthcare services (Graham & Dietz, 2011). According to the Kaiser Family Foundation, approximately 33% of Americans self-identify themselves as being African-American, American Indian/Alaska Native, Asian/Pacific American, or Latino (Minority health, 2013). The Kaiser Family Foundation also emphasizes that, "acial/ethnic background is associated with health status, health insurance coverage, and health care access and quality, with people of color consistently faring poorer on many health outcomes" (Minority health, 2013, para. 2).
Although steps have been taken to address these disparities in healthcare outcomes (Smedley, 2006), there remains a lack of consensus among policymakers concerning optimal courses of action (Minority health, 2013). Moreover, many minority members who live in rural American communities remain underserved by the medical profession (Holley, 2013). According to Holley (2013), "This…… [Read More]
Steven Spielberg's minority report is an excellent movie in many different aspects. esides its delightful entertainment value the movie also serves to highlight some of the important issues that are very pertinent today. The concept of individual freedom, privacy and how governmental authority can easily override these is clearly portrayed. The permanent sentence of suspended animation for the would be criminals is clearly not a healthy solution. Just as incarceration is not regarded as the best criminal justice policy permanently affecting the future of a person is not the rightful solution. Secondly, the existence of 'minority reports' or the possibility of alternative future undermines the whole 'precrime ' concept and incurs the risk of moral liability of punishing an innocent man. The movie also clearly highlights the weaknesses of human character that could seriously undermine the most sophisticated technological systems making them susceptible for corruption.
1) Steven Spielberg,…… [Read More]
Therefore, in order to achieve equality in right as well, the society must be more educated in the spirit of equality and non-differentiation.
3.State and describe at least three major challenges facing the Latino cultures' ability to prosper in the U.S.A. today?
The Latino population represents one of the most consistent group of immigrants in the United States. Most often, they come from Latin America in search for a better life and democratic environment, given the volatile situation and political conditions that have characterized Latin America in the last decades. However, most of the times, Latin Americans are often faced with the single possibility of undergoing unqualified labor, lack of education, and precarious living conditions.
One of the most important problems facing the Latin American immigrants is represented by the constant growth of the Latin population in the United States. (NPR News, 2011). This is largely due to the fact…… [Read More]
But most people he socialized with were for him members of a secondary group. My friend socialized with them for the purpose of getting used to a new social environment, practice his English, and find new friends. But his relationship with most people in the neighborhood and at school was not based on the kind of social intimacy that characterized his relationship with other Kurdish refugees in the neighborhood. My friend told me often that he was thankful to the United States for welcoming him in this country and that people were generally very friendly. But he also told stories about his school life and some people's treatment which were based on ethnocentrism. Some of his peers looked down upon him because of his foreignness, Kurdish accent while speaking English, and his inability to fully practice dominant American culture. For example, his peers at school sometimes would not allow him…… [Read More]
Minority epresentation in U.S. Politics
On one hand, some have made the argument that the historic election of the nation's first African-American President indicates that we now live in a so-called "post-racial" America. On the other hand, there is a good argument that the election of Barack Obama in 2008 rekindled the antagonism toward minorities in general and African-Americans in particular in those states that were formerly part of the Civil-War-era Confederacy. Immediately after the Obama victory and even before the inauguration of the new President, a contingent of epublican Senators, lead by Kentucky's Mitch McConnell, pledged to make sure that they used their votes in the Senate to block anything the newly-elected President tried to do.
The efforts of those legislators to undermine the presidency of the first black president before he even took office was matched throughout the former Confederate states by a concerted effort by epublican governors…… [Read More]
empowering minority students with first language different from the language of instruction. The author maintains that despite the development or incorporation of various programs for minority students, it appears that there exists a significant achievement gap between majority and minority students indicating something inherently wrong with the measures adopted so far. The author rejects both the "inadequate exposure" and "linguistic mismatch" arguments because it appears that both have their fair share of merits and demerits. Cummins suggests that we incorporate his theoretical framework in educational programs and instruction methods so minority students can be empowered. His framework consists of four essential steps that he believes "contribute to the extent to which minority students, are empowered or disabled." Cummins suggests adoption of an additive approach rather than a subtractive approach. "Educators who see their role as adding a second language and cultural affiliation to their students' repertoire are likely to empower…… [Read More]
The variations in levels of success of the students that the researcher did find were far more likely to be related to the other variables (i.e. emotional status, peer relationships, preparation for the N program, student/teacher relationships and attitudes of co-workers.). In fact the researcher found that all of the students were able to integrate well into the program as well as the social setting of the school, regardless of their minority status.
Those students who did struggle blamed their problems on a lack of emotional support, time management problems other non-race related variables. In addition, both minority and non-minority students experienced feelings of jealousy from their co-workers who were envious of the fact that the student was advancing his or her career. There were also some difficulties found relating to the nursing skills lab, and certain writing assignments, however these did not appear to be racially influenced either.
Implications…… [Read More]
Personal Introduction and Research Interests
My background is certainly not unique or even rare, at least for many South Africans. When I was born, apartheid was still the law of the land in South Africa and I was classified as "colored" (i.e., neither white nor black) and commonly referred to as "hotnots" (i.e., bastards). As a result, our family was forced to first live in a tiny apartment on the outskirts of Cape Town called Woodstock, or more commonly the "mixed slums." When Woodstock became overcrowded, our family was forcibly relocated to the desert-like Cape Flats, 25 miles further from Cape Town. Because these actions were sanctioned by the government and were therefore "legal," I simply accepted what was happening as a part of the natural course of things. Over time, however, these and other racially motivated incidents during this formative period in my life convinced me that the status…… [Read More]
acism affecting Native and African-American in the U.S.
The topic that was chosen for this essay is minority groups that have failed to make broad gains in the United States stratification system. The essay delves into the reasoning behind why African and Native Americans struggle despite each groups long residence in America. The Native Americans have been persecuted since the white man came to the United States, which is ironic because some Native American tribes helped the Americans in several battles during the evolutionary war with Great Britain. African-Americans were generally brought to the United States to participate in the slave trade business and thus lived lives as slaves (odriguez, 2007).
The reason the topic about minority groups that have failed to make broad gains in the United States stratification system was picked is because the topic generates a great deal of interest and research ability. Three questions that generate…… [Read More]
This encouragement and the ability to have opportunities are at the heart of what Conchas (2006) is trying to say.
There are many individuals who are for the tracking system, and many who are against it. They all have their reasons, and while most of them are good ones, both sides cannot always be correct. One case raised in favor of tracking is based on the research information that students who are low achievers or have low abilities often benefit from being in a class where other individuals are of the same ability level. While some opponents argue that this does not allow children who are doing poorly to have meaningful interaction with those that are doing well, the research findings state that children who are doing poorly often improve when they are placed in classes that are designed for remedial students. In other words, they need to be involved…… [Read More]
Does Having a New Black President
Make it Easier for Minorities to Advance to Leadership Roles in Business?
"Excuse me, sir. I'm looking for the Color Line. ould you know where I can find it?" (Miller)
The United States has made great strides in regard to minority relations by electing its first black president. By today's standard, minority entails many different things such as classifying by nationality, race, religious preference, physical disability, gender or sexual preference. Throughout history, there have been many great leaders who came from their respective minority groups. For example, few people are aware of the fact that the Roman Empire had black emperors and even less know that one of them, Septimius Severus, through his legislative changes to military pay scales and community control laws, may not only have been the greatest black emperor, he may actually have been the most influential Roman emperor…… [Read More]
Diversity in employment within community colleges seems higher than that of four-year colleges and universities on the national level. Research indicates community colleges engage more actively in recruiting and retaining more women and minorities than that of four-year colleges. Recent literature (within the last five years) explains some of the steps communities and community colleges have taken to become more inclusive. This shows not only that community colleges are willing to hire more minorities and women, but that there is also a climate more accepting of hiring minorities and women.
Community colleges undertake a variety of tasks for the satisfaction and success of their students. That is why diversity in faculty may help community colleges achieve their goals. In an article by Hughes, the author explains the need for community colleges to adapt strategies to not only recruit diverse faculty, but also retain them. He also states the inherent challenge…… [Read More]
African-Americans males currently comprise half of the prison inmate population in the U.S., Hispanic youths (18-34) adding another twenty percent to that number.
Unfortunately, many of these inmates are in prison for random or gang-related violence, often between members of the Latino and African-American community. Recently, and especially in California, the number of hate crimes between the Hispanic and African-American communities has been on the rise.
For instance, in early October 2009, Madison WI, a 51-year-old Hispanic man was attacked and mugged by four young black males, in what was a continuing pattern of violent crimes against Hispanics in the area.
In the weeks leading up to this attack, the Madison police had received several reports of groups of young black men attacking and mugging their Latino neighbors.
Part of this racial tension comes from a right of ownership, and the need to assert one's community and culture into a…… [Read More]
noticeable gap when it comes to criminal-justice statistics, specifically police and their use of lethal force. Although statistics exist for several things like arson and homicides, there are no official and reliable tabulation of law enforcement-caused civilian deaths. The Washington Post mentioned in one of their articles, that almost 400 police killings occurred in one year. While this is at least an estimated figure versus unknown, James Comey, an FBI Director confessed he did not know how many of these killing occur every day, every month, or every year. There are just no efforts to collect such data.
Statistics such as these are important. Statistics play an important role in focusing the attention of politicians, defining the public debate, as well as driving the allocation of resources. The work of public officials is often assessed by how these statistics decrease or increase based on the efforts of such public officials.…… [Read More]
Minority Culture in South Dakota
Lifestyles, Values and the Economy of Hispanic-Americans and Indian-Americans in South Dakota
The history of the minority groups in the U.S.A. dates back to historical times in the 1800 and their growth has been somehow stable in USA. It is undisputable that the treatment of the minority groups and the Native Americans and the African-Americans ran out of the borders of the tolerance and freedom. It is however notable that the U.S.A. has all through welcomed huge numbers of diverse immigrants and accommodated them as any other born American. It is no longer viable to ignore the issue of the minority groups in each state since even at the national grid, as U.S. Department of State (2006) indicates, the minority groups have played a significant part in all sectors. For instance Hispanics accounted for nearly half of the U.S.A. population increase between July 1, 2004…… [Read More]
Minority Rights Revolution
The Civil Rights movement of the 1960s brought about several concordant social changes in the United States. What began as primarily an attempt to liberate African-Americans from continued systematic oppression in the form of school segregation Jim Crow laws turned out to be as much of a boon to American women and minority groups other than blacks, especially Latinos. Among the issues shared in common by all oppressed groups include voting rights, equal access to education, and equal employment opportunities. Creating social programs and institutions to provide especially for the needs of all minority groups was a logical extension of the Civil Rights movement, which appealed to women and Latinos as well as to African-Americans. The design of blanket-institutions and legislation was definitely a step in the right direction, as oppressed groups do suffer from similar forms and consequences of discrimination. However as John D. Skrentny points…… [Read More]
Majority and Minority Governments
Is a Majority Government Better or Worse than a Minority Government for Canada?
The minorities of Canada function in a very different way than the minority governments of Europe and other countries (Cowdy 2008). The purpose of writing this paper is to find out if majority government is better or worse than a minority government of Canada. Before going in detail, it is important to know that in Canadian Parliamentary system, the party with the majority of the seats forms the majority government. However, when none of the party has majority seats than a minority government is formed by the party that wins half or less than half seats.
The majority government formed is obviously powerful and has ability to bring big changes. Contrary to this, a minority government works hard to maintain the confidence of the legislative assembly in order to stay in power and…… [Read More]
Thus, the relation between students is imperative for determining such disorders (Organization for Economic Co-Operation and Development, 2007). As with the previous two categories, this is seen as incredibly subjective in the idea that no medical diagnosis or visible physical symptoms are needed to be placed within the category.
Stratification is essentially the ranking of individuals within a hierarchy based on the structures present in a functioning society. Sullivan and Artiles (2011) define stratification as "the patterned and differential distribution of resources, life chances, and costs / benefits among groups of the population" (p 1529). One's rank on this hierarchy determines one's quality of life and opportunities in relation to the structures and the groups these structures serve.
Overrepresentation and Segregation of acial Minorities in Special Education.
According to the research, there are much higher rates of overrepresentation of minorities in what is known as high-incidence categories,…… [Read More]
Its main goals are to examine and evaluate the main areas requiring improvements. The technology transfer programs are the key information sources, which enables the veteran access the latest technologies that can lead to improvement of their livelihood standards. The veteran association other goal is to ensure automated and web-enabled activities. This will enable the association allow online submission of ids rather than uploads from emails hence reducing the usage of papers.
According to 2000 census, 12% of the U.S. population is African-American. This figure may be even less because there are some homeless and incarcerated who are not inclusive in the census report. The Africa American veterans mostly affected by depression though most of them believe is a personal weakness. They represent among the veterans who served in the homeless programs making about 11.4%of the veteran population. These veterans make up 35.1%of the homeless veteran population and 18.9%of the…… [Read More]
Preventing Dropouts Among Minority Middle School Students
The dropout rate of minority middle school students is rising. This can be contributed to a number of factors that cultivate frustration and develop low self-esteem among minority adolescent students. Middle school students already struggle with self-image issues, but when the added pressure of factors such as low literacy skills, poverty within the home, early pregnancy and low regard for education are also introduced, these students become lost in the system and develop the desire to give up or dropout thus eliminating their opportunity to break the cycle of poverty by becoming educated and obtaining higher level paying employment.
Statement of Significance
The educational sector is under pressure to meet the new federally mandated guidelines of the "No Child Left Behind" legislation. Early childhood education has previously been the focus of the national goal that every child will read by the time they…… [Read More]
This study has noted that educators are noting better methods to assist these students rather than placing them in special education classes which fail to assist these students in school or across the span of their lifetime endeavors.
Recommendations arising from this review of literature in this study include the recommendation that different methods be utilized in assisting culturally and linguistically diverse students in the school setting. Among these methods are those noted by Knotek (2003) and Craig, Hull, Haggart and Perez-Selle (2000) which involves educators and school counselors assisting in addressing the difficulties faced by these students in the school environment and which may include but are not limited to addressing the needs of students as well as their strengths through strategies of individualized behavior contracts, specialized counseling techniques and culturally appropriate reinforcements that serve to encourage positive behavior on the part of the culturally and linguistically diverse…… [Read More]
A very large number of Mexicans and Puerto icans came into the country in order to get away from poverty and to find a way to make a living. The 20th-century Cuban migration, which started in 1959 when Fidel Castro took over the government of Cuba, was mostly for political motivations (The Story of Hispanics in the Americas, n.d.).
According to data collected by the United States Department of Commerce, Hispanics are a younger, less well off, and less educated group than the rest of the population. Their median age is about 23. Sixty-three percent were under age 30 in 1992, and 40% were 18 or younger. The median family income was $23,400. This was higher than the median for blacks but lower than the rest of the non-Hispanic median of $35,200. Of the three groups, Mexican-Americans, Puerto icans, and Cubans, the Puerto icans had the lowest incomes and the…… [Read More]
An Example of Stereotypical Humor
A little Mexican boy goes into the kitchen where his mom is baking. He puts his hand in the flour and wipes it all over his face and says, "Look mom, I'm a white boy!" His mom slaps him in the face and says, "Go show your father." He goes to his dad in the living room and says, "Look Dad, I'm a white boy." His dad slaps him hard in the face and says, "Go show your grandmother." The boy goes into his grandmother's room and say, "Mira, Abuelita, I'm a white boy." His grandmother slaps him in the face and sends him back to his mother. His mother says, "See, did you learn anything from that?" To which the boy replies, "Sure did! I have only been white for five minutes and I already hate you Mexicans!" ("Mexican Jokes.").
This…… [Read More]
This is because our authority figures are tainted by the same prejudices and discrimination that affect everyone. Thus, preventing these events would have only been possible if the police in the odney King instance didn't act in this manner toward an African-American, and in the Chicago instance, if the police would have arrested the white rock thrower in the first place.
Bush, G. (1992, May 1). Address to the nation on the civil disturbances in Los Angeles,
California. etrieved December 17, 2011 from George Bush Presidential Library
Henry, M. (2004). ace, poverty, and domestic policy. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Keyes, . (2006). The quote verifier: Who said what, where, and when. New York: St.
Kwong, P. (1992). "The First Multicultural iots," in Hazen, D. (ed.) Inside the L.A. riots:
What really happened- and why it will happen again. San Francisco: Institute for Alternative…… [Read More]
Minority as Gook, obert G. Lee describes the divided representation of Asian Americas as both the hardworking, upwardly mobile model minority, and the shadowy figure of the Viet Cong, waiting in the darkness to destroy the American soldier. He notes that this representation of Asian-Americans found its roots in the decline of the Fordist structure of the economy, and a destruction of national boundaries. To America, Asians began to represent a return to family values, obedience, and discipline, characteristics seen in the Protestant work ethic. Notes Lee, "the Asian-American model minority is thus a simulacrum of both an imaginary Asian tradition... And an American culture for which it serves as a nostalgic mirror."
Lee argues that the political ight has managed to change issues of race into issues of culture. For example, black families have been labeled as creating a "culture of poverty." With this labeling, the dysfunction of the…… [Read More]
Lastly, there are also rather small communities of: Turkish, Greek, Arabic, and Jewish
Marketing to ethnic minorities," n.d.).
As Larry Light, McDonald's executive vice president and global chief marketing officer, noted at a speech to the Association of National Advertisers Annual Conference, in 2004, "Mass marketing is a mass mistake" (cited "Multichannel," 2005). What Light understood is that only through multidimensional, multi-segment marketing can organizations hope to compete in an ever diversifying world.
Ethnic minority marketing is not a new concept for McDonald's (Cebrzynski, 1998). It has utilized highly targeted advertising and marketing communications in the past, with great success. This has led the company to its global success, with a ranking, by Interbrand, as the 7th most powerful brand in the world. One way the company has accomplished this is with their unique form of ethnic minority marketing in the form of 'brand journalism' ("Multichannel," 2005). In fact, one…… [Read More]
Marketing Research on Three Minority Groups
Minority Research Paper
The following report is purposed on undertaking marketing research and gaining knowledge regarding different consumer markets. In particular, the report provides information about the size, location, purchasing power, and the market potential for the three largest minority target markets in the United States. These target markets include African-Americans, Hispanic-Americans and Asian-Americans. In addition, the report will expound and give detained analysis information of business potential for each minority target market.
Total numbers in the U.S.
million (United States Census ureau)
Percent of the total U.S. population
% (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)
Rate of growth
The U.S. Census ureau forecasts that by the year 2060 there will be approximately 74.5 million African-Americans comprising those of more than one race in the United States, a figure that will constitute about 17.9% of the total U.S. population (United States Census ureau)…… [Read More]
The problems faced by gays and lesbians are multiplied or intensified because stress cannot be reduced in the way it can be by other minority groups. In other words, while other minority groups would find support from families, the same is not true for gays or lesbians who fail to find any support especially if they have been in the "closet."
Harper et al. 2003 writes: "Minority stress has particular manifestations for LGBT people who cope with pervasive oppression, discrimination, and marginalization by remaining closeted. But unlike other marginalized groups, LGBT people often cannot find support in their family and community of origin. While the "closet" is safe it has its own problems -- the increased stress of hiding. Hiding means that ordinary daily interactions become minefields; it requires constant vigilance to avoid mentioning partners, same-gender attractions or dating experiences, as well as other activities that involve a LGBT community."…… [Read More]
DMC & African-American Community
Disproportionate Minority Confinement
Disproportionate Minority Confinement / Contact
Disproportionate Minority Confinement in U.S.
Effects on African-American Community
Disproportionate minority confinement has been one of the popular topics in the social sciences' study. With an increasing degree of cultural diversity in United States, a need for tolerance shown towards ethnicity and race is required to be shown. However, various researches have revealed that there is an increasing disparity in the confinement of African-American youth in local judicial system where the reported abuse and drug addiction is seven times higher in Whites. This disproportionate confinement has its negative consequences which results in undesired impacts on the African-American community when they are operating in the role of a client, a social work practitioner and a citizen.
Disproportionate minority confinement refers to the overrepresentation of African-Americans and other minorities at all judicial levels. Although substantial research has been done and…… [Read More]
Psychology of Multiculturalism: Identity, Gender, And the Recognition of Minority Rights
This paper looks at the issue of multiculturalism, its development, its use by society and the ways in which the field of psychology have reacted towards, and used, multiculturalism. Firstly, a brief history of the meaning of multiculturalism will be entered in to, next a brief discussion of the work of five authors (in particular Kymlicka, Taylor and Gerd) who have been influential in the development of research about multiculturalism will be presented, and then the psychology of multiculturalism will be discussed, from the viewpoint of how multiculturalism has been embraced by psychologists.
What exactly is multiculturalism? Everyone has a different idea of the meaning of this word in their minds, and consequently many different meanings of multiculturalism float around in the literature and in popular speak. Multiculturalism has gained particular significance in the United States, where there have…… [Read More]
" (Gordon, 1990) Gordon also notes that if there were enough low-income housing there would still be the unaddressed needs of housing in terms of it being located near enough places of employment that women with children could work full-time employment schedules and as well housing would need to be geographically located near enough places of employment so that minority women in poverty who had no transportation could either take public transportation or walk to work. Gordon states that "policies not currently on the agenda of either poverty or women's right organizations, such as unemployment compensation reform, may be central to an agenda dealing with women's poverty." (1990)
The work of Alvi, Schwartz, DeKeseredy and achaus (2005) entitled: "Victimization and Attitudes Towards Women Abuse of Impoverished Minority Women" states that the links existing "between poor minority women's attitudes towards women abuse and their experiences of mistreatment have not been the…… [Read More]
2010. Ethnic Groups in Germany: Sorbs, altic Germans, Turks in Germany, Chinese People in Germany, Vietnamese People in Germany, Circassians. General ooks LLC.
Coe, M. Neil., Kelly, F. Phillip., and Yeung, Wai-Chung, Henry. 2007. Economic geography: a contemporary introduction. Wiley-lackwell.
Scheffler, Julia. 2009. Welcomed Or Rejected? The Situation of Turks in Germany. GRIN Verlag.
Schumann, Stefanie. 2011. Hybrid Identity Formation of Migrants: A Case Study of Ethnic Turks in Germany. GRIN Verlag.
ooks, LLC., and General ooks LLC, Ethnic Groups in Germany: Sorbs, altic Germans, Turks in Germany, Chinese People in Germany, Vietnamese People in Germany, Circassians, (General ooks LLC, 2010), 23.
ooks, LLC, Islam in Germany: Turks in Germany, Central Council of Ex-Muslims, Khadija Mosque, Udo Ulfkotte, Zentralrat Der Muslime in Deutschland, (General ooks LLC, 2010), 56.
ooks, LLC., and General ooks LLC, Ethnic Groups in Germany: Sorbs, altic Germans, Turks in Germany, Chinese People in Germany, Vietnamese People…… [Read More]
It was this same concept which began to impose harsh discriminatory
tactics against homosexuals. In fact, in a most ironic twist referent to
Nazi sadism, the treatment of homosexuals was often documented to exceed in
its abuse but also in its sexual manipulation, this group. Specially
recipient of abuse in the concentration camps, homosexuals were guilty of a
crime against Germany in their simple state of being, even as this
discrimination was not passed along to German SS guards and other Nazis
notoriously documented as having sodomized and sexually abused homosexual
inmates. In addition to their relegation to concentration and death camps,
homosexuals were subjected to the abuse of German's Nazified medical
community. To this end, "in 1935, a new law legalized the 'compulsory
sterilization (often in fact castration) of homosexuals.' A special
section of the Gestapo dealt with them.Along with epileptics,
schizophrenics and other 'degenerates', they were being eliminated."…… [Read More]
(Coleman et al., 2006) there are more significant differences between race and ethnic groups in beliefs about intergenerational assistance than are expected by chance the differences are not large. As expected, White European-Americans perceive that less help should be given to older adults than is true of African-Americans and Asian-Americans. Unexpectedly, European-Americans and Latinos rarely differ in their beliefs about intergenerational assistance. When differences exist among the three minority groups, it is typically because African-Americans and Asian-Americans perceive that more help should be given to older family members than Latinos. The family plays a unique role in forming and sustaining intimate relationships; however, there have been notable changes in the family in the past 50 years. As marriages are being delayed, birth rates are decreasing, and maternal employment, divorce, cohabitation, and births to single mothers are increasing, the course of intimate relationships is becoming more diverse and less stable and…… [Read More]
Byars-Winston, A., Estrada, Y., Howard, C., Davis, D., & Zalapa, J. (2010). Influence of social cognitive and ethnic variables on academic goals of underrepresented students in science and engineering: a multiple-groups analysis. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 57(2), doi:10.1037/a0018608
• This article explores how both social cognitive and ethnic variables can play a part in determining the academic goals of people and groups that are "under-represented" within the academic sphere. The groups centered on this study include Africa-Americans, Latinos, Southeast Asians and Native Americans. There were 223 people in the study and the study itself was centered on what is known as the social cognitive theory, as proposed and discussed by Lent, Brown and Hackett in 1994. There was a significant relationship found between outcome expectations, interests and goals. Self-efficacy and efficacy-mediated relationships were also in play. One area that is touched upon with fervor in this study is…… [Read More]
Wearin' of the Green
An Irish-American's Journey
Margaret-Mary clutched her daughter's tiny hand. Watched with pride as the five-year-old waved the little Irish Flag in her other hand. It was a cold, blustery day, but then it always was on St. Patrick's Day. Yet as Margaret-Mary braved the wind and the crowds, she didn't feel the least bit cold. Never did, but especially not today. It wasn't just that today she was sharing a special moment -- a communion if you will -- with all her Irish brothers and sisters the world over. No, it was more than that. This was a day long looked forward to, a day that had demanded special preparations like getting up at five in the morning, wrapping Colleen in the embracing warmth of a sweater of real Irish wool -- green of course --and rushing off into the frigid pre-dawn to wait for the…… [Read More]
Tokenism: The Role and Experiences of Minority Teachers in Predominantly White Schools
The Problem and Its Setting
The past generation has seen the integration of America's public schools. Such integration has presented challenges and opportunities not only for the Minority students now enrolled in predominantly White schools, but also for the Minority teachers who find themselves assigned to those same schools. While opening up new horizons for many Minority educators, the purposeful placing of Minorities in majority White schools has also raised the issue of tokenism. The question remains as to whether these Minority teachers are being treated equally with their White counterparts, and whether their assignment to mostly White schools is based upon real ability and genuine need, or whether such assignments are merely reflective of well-meaning social policy gone awry. Many capable Minority teachers find themselves to be victims of the same sort of discrimination that…… [Read More]