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Along with this changing ability to help parents deal with their loss have come various rituals. Increasing numbers of parents are recognizing how such rituals provide connection to their community, a sense of the sacred and an outlet to do something about their grief. Some of the rituals actually come from other cultures that are much more open about the subject of death. In Japan, for example, the traditional Jizo ritual has grown considerably over the last couple of decades, since in Japan little distinction is made between pregnancies lost to miscarriage and those to abortion. The ceremony recognizes the need for the mother to apologize for whatever guilt she may be carrying about the pregnancy loss. She may light a candle, make offerings, or tie a red knitted bonnet or bib on a small stone statue. or, the grieving Japanese woman may write the name of a lost pregnancy…
Ascher, Barbara Lazear. Landscape without Gravity New York: Penguin, 1994
Boyle et. al Mothers Bereaved by Stillbirth. (London: Ashgate, 1997
Brin, Deborah "Use of rituals in grieving for a miscarriage or stillbirth," Women in Therapy 27(2004) 123-132
Church, Lisa. Hope is Like the Sun. Finding Hope and Healing After Miscarriage,
Moreover, unprocessed grief can resurface years later, and a common trigger can be a loss or an experience that is similar in circumstance to the original loss (Kader pp). According to Kader, this is the reason some adults who have been functioning well prior to a major traumatic event "will have a tremendously hard time recovering from this stressor while others will not have the same difficulties under similar circumstances" (Kader pp). Therefore, it is important to seek therapy in order for these long-buried wounds to surface so that the healing process can begin (Kader pp).
Even if a miscarriage occurs just days after a positive pregnancy test, the reaction can include a wide spectrum of emotions, for although a woman and/or couple are mourning a baby that was never born, the daydreams about the baby and what kind of parents they would be were well under way (Goff pp).…
Depressive symptoms after miscarriage." American Family Physician. June 01
1992. Retrieved October 04, 2005 from HighBeam Research Library Web site.
Goff, Karen Goldberg. "Miscarriage." The Washington Times. March 26, 2000.
Retrieved October 04, 2005 from HighBeam Research Library Web site.
Civil Liberty? The Trial of Sacco and Vanzetti
During the height of the first so-called "red scare" in the United States from 1919 to 1920, two Italian anarchist immigrants, Nicola Sacco and Bartolomeo Vanzetti, were charged and tried for murder but the evidence against them was spurious (Robbins 178). Throughout what many observers termed "the trial of the century," Sacco and Vanzetti experienced prosecutorial and judicial misconduct. Consequently, these two men were found guilty, sentenced to death and were executed on August 23, 1927 (Bertrand Russell 4). To determine the facts, this paper provides a review of the relevant literature to determine if the charges against Sacco and Vanzetti were valid, and what steps the government took to secure their conviction. A summary of the research and important findings about the "trial of the century" are provided in the conclusion.
Review and Discussion
In reality, Sacco and Vanzetti had the…
Avrich, Paul. Anarchist Portraits. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1990.
Bertrand Russell. (2014). Spartacus Education. [online] available: http://www.spartacus.
Neville, John F. Twentieth-Century Cause Caelaebre: Sacco, Vanzetti, and the Press, 1920-
Miranda Fricker's 'Central Case' of Testimonial Injustice
Considering a case in which Tom, a black man is alleged to have raped a white woman; Miranda explores how injustice happens within the confines of offering testimony. Tom is a black man living in Alabama accused of raping a white woman. Every detail and evidence that tries to bring out Tom as not the possible suspect are disapproved because of Tom's blackness. Tom has no power to harm anyone using some part of his body, a solid and physical prove that he is not the one who might have raped the white woman. The jury is credibly informed that the man in suspect is Tom since they cannot buy into his testimonies because he is considered "black." The testimony is, in some way, affected by the characteristic features of the person giving the testimony. The testimony does not stand on its own…
Injustice in the Supreme Court
Gideon v. Wainwright
This was a case where Gideon was a defendant and was denied the right to have a counsel defending him because he was not charged with a capital offense. The Florida court argued that the court was only obliged to provide him with a counsel if he was charged with a capital offense. However, upon taking the case to the Supreme Court, it was determined that every citizen was entitled to a counsel who would defend him against prosecution. The argument is that justice cannot be achieved without providing the defendant with the right to a fair hearing. On the same note, it is the right of the courts to ensure that even those who are unable to pay a legal counsel to defend them are provided with a public defendant who will ensure that their interests are taken care of (Blount,…
I am not sure what I expected about my check-up. I suppose I thought that the new relationship I had the OBGYN because of my pregnancy would continue on as a special relationship. I was wrong. My visit was, once again, the sterile, medical kind, and not the kind that I had with him while I was pregnant. My OBGYN performed the post surgical exam, and then spoke with me briefly.
"You're healthy," he said, "and I would recommend beginning again, as soon as you're ready, to get pregnant again. If that's what you." Then he was gone, and the nurse came in with a prescription.
"This, she said, is a prescription for a mild pain killer for cramping. Really, it's just a prescription strength aspirin." Then she looked at me and added, "I know what you're going through."
I thought she was the connection I needed. Someone who had…
Kohner, Nancy, and Alix Henley. When a Baby Dies: The Experience of Late Miscarriage, Stillbirth, and Neonatal Death. New York: Routledge, 2001. Questia. 11 May 2009 .
Seftel, Laura. Grief Unseen: Healing Pregnancy Loss through the Arts. London: Jessica Kingsley, 2006. Questia. 11 May 2009 .
hen does insanity excuse criminal liability?
A defendant has an excuse for liability, says Paul Robinson, in his book Criminal Law Defenses, when he or she is acting involuntarily and their own disability causes him or her to mistakenly or unknowingly violate a criminal prohibition. This person does not know whether his or her behavior is wrong or criminal (Robinson 222). This is in contrast to what is called a character-based approach, where a person's adherence to virtues or vices creates a character and a reputation for morality or immorality, upon which they are judged. Finkelstein argues that a system which bases its retributive punishment on a person's character, rather than on the act itself brings about social welfare. Just as one cannot judge a person's moral character upon a single act, one cannot decide the morality or immorality of a person by visible actions. She quotes George Fletcher as…
Article 35 of the NY State Penal Code: Found at http://ypdcrime.com/penal.law/article35.htm .
Finkelstein, Claire. Excuses and Dispositions in Criminal Law. U. Of Buffalo. 14 Apr 2003.
Fletcher, George. Rethinking Criminal Law. 1978.
Hans, Valerie P. And Slater, Dan. "John Hinckley, Jr. And the Insanity Defense: The Public's Verdict," the Public Opinion Quarterly, Vol. 47(2). 1983.
Esperanza took the paperwork home and met with her mother, who obtained the appropriate records for her and went through the class schedule with her, as Esperanza translated the information. Esperanza chose a class schedule that was inclusive of her mother's desire for her to take a part time job, and included all the basic education classes that she would need to move forward as a Junior the following year. Esperanza also signed up for a Spanish class and an ESL program, at the urging of the Latino Club advisor. The Latino Club activities included a small grant to pay ESL students to tutor students of Spanish that were in need of extra help. Though the tutoring paid only minimum wage, it allowed Esperanza to fulfill her mother's desire for her to take a part time job and it would not interfere with school work and did not require her…
Fall, K.A., Holder, J.M., & Marquis, a. (2003). Theoretical Models of Counseling and Psychotherapy. New York: Brunner-Routledge.
Petrocelli, J.V. (2002). Processes and Stages of Change: Counseling with the Transtheoretical Model of Change. Journal of Counseling and Development, 80(1), 22.
physiological perspective, the first trimester of pregnancy is when the majority of fetal development occurs, and also when the full development of the placenta occurs. The first twelve weeks or so after conception see the transformation of a fertilized egg cell into a fetus that shares blood flow with the placenta through the umbilical arteries and vein. As a result, these twelve weeks are particularly crucial for the health and development of the fetus at its most vulnerable stage. Among numerous other physiological changes, the mother's nutritional intake needs (which include vitamins and minerals) increase substantially, so nutrition is crucial. The avoidance of alcohol is necessary to avoid birth defects caused by the substance: as Blackburn notes, "drinking alcohol at any stage of pregnancy can affect the brain and other areas of development" (Blackburn 2007, 221).
Zoey's preganancy undergoes what is termed induced labor, in which she is given a…
Blackburn, ST. (2007). Maternal, fetal, and neonatal physiology: A clinical perspective. St. Louis: Elsevier.
Childress, J. (1997). Practical reasoning in bioethics. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
"It is not just a Catholic and Protestant Debate"(13).
Some Catholic statements, like the 1968 papal encyclical Humanae Vitae, condemn the practice on grounds of the created order, which is thought to be structured in such a way that all sexual expression must be open to procreation. Other statements, notably various declarations issued from 1969 to 1989 by the National Conference of Catholic Bishops (NCCB) in the U.S. appeal instead to the nature of the human person and the idea that life begins at conception. Abortion must be rejected, such statements argue, because it terminates a human life. Yet a third subgroup can be identified. Statements like the NCCB's well-known 1983 pastoral on peace and the Catholic bishops of France's 1979 declaration do not emphasize the doctrines of creation and human persons but argue against abortion by granting priority to the gospel.
In addition, in the Protestant Church, several statements…
Beckwith, F.J. Politically Correct Death: Answering the Arguments for Abortion Rights Grand Rapids, MI: Baker, 1993.
CPN. "Topics." 6, May 2005. http://www.cpn.org/topics/families/prolife.html
Currie, Stephen. Abortion. San Diego, CA: Greenhaven Press, 2000.
Do No Harm. Coalition of Scientists for Research Ethics. 6, May 2005. http://www.stemcellresearch.org/
Research Question and Introduction Development
Topic: Safeguarding the criminal justice system from wrongful convictions through an efficient innocence program
Research Question: What aspects of the innocence program need improvement, and in what ways, in order to guard the judicial system from wrongful convictions? (Rossi, Lipsey & Freeman, 2004)
Wrongful conviction is an abuse of justice. It entails the sentencing and subsequent punishment of someone for crimes they never committed (Huff & Killias, 2013). Wrongful convictions can happen in civil and criminal cases alike. Many criminal justice processes have been tailored to overcome this possibility and overturn such erroneous judicial decisions. It is quite difficult to achieve this, however, due to fundamental challenges in the judicial system. Wrongful convictions may take years or decades to overturn. In some instances the discovery of innocence happens after a person has already served their time in prison, after they are dead or after…
Armstrong's findings additionally relate that due to previous research and the influence of perinatal loss on postpartum depression on partnered relationships. Armstrong states that differences in continued psychological stress between mothers and fathers after a subsequent birth is another area requiring further evaluation. Specifically stated is that it is necessary to evaluate "...the strength of partnered relationships during future childbearing experiences is important to identify any potential influence of the loss on couple, as well as family, outcomes. Understanding possible gender differences may help neonatal nurses and other healthcare providers to recognize couples at risk for discord." (2007)
Neonatal nurses are those who work closely with infants and parents and in the best position to make identification of depression and to pose questions about the individuals symptoms including:
3) energy or fatigue levels;
4) ability to concentrate; and 5) as well the neonatal nurse is in…
Gold, K.J., Dalton, V.K. And Schwenk, T.L. (2007) Hospital Care for Parents After Perinatal Death. Obstetrics and Gynecology Vol. 109. No. 5 May 2007.
Hughes, P., Turton, P., Hopper, E. And Evans, CDH (2002) Assessment of Guidelines for Good Practice in Psychosocial Care of Mothers After Stillbirth: A Cohort Study. The Lancet 2002;360:114-18.
Alexander, K.V. (2001) the One Thing You Can Never Take Away": Perinatal Bereavement Photographs. The American Journal of Maternal/Child Nursing Vol. 26(3) May/June 2001. 2001 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.
Abortion After Prenatal Testing
Methods of Prenatal Diagnosis
There are four methods of prenatal diagnosis that is available to women. The first and most commonly known is ultrasonography, colloquially referred to as "ultrasound." A picture of the fetus is developed through the implementation of sound waves. Ultrasound is used to identify abnormalities that are physically apparent such as deformed limbs, defective chest, and heart. During the fourteenth to sixteenth week of the pregnancy, neural tube defects can also be detected (Cassidy & Gentles, 2002). There are other uses such as detecting multiple fetuses and measuring fetal growth.
The second method is Maternal Serum Alpha Fetoprotein Screening (MSAFP). Its primary purpose is to detect neural tube defects by measuring the alpha fetoprotein levels in the women's blood. High levels of alpha fetoprotein can indicate neural tube defects in the fetus. This exam is typically administered during the fifteenth to seventeenth week…
Cassidy, E., & Gentles, I.J. (2002). Abortion after Prenatal Testing. Women's health after abortion: the medical and psychological evidence (pp. 155-174). Toronto, Ontario, Canada: deVeber Institute for Bioethics and Social Research.
Yashon, R.K., & Cummings, M.R. (2012). Changes in Chromosome Number. Human genetics and society (2nd ed., p. 56). Australia: Brooks/Cole.
family counseling requires a broad and diverse set of tools and techniques. Those tools and techniques should be adaptable to suit the needs of each family, individuals within that family, and also the contextual or environmental variables that impact families. Using a wide range of exercises and interventions, therapists can provide effective and evidence-based practice, as well as offer ongoing assessments and maintenance.
Techniques and exercises that may be particularly useful for families and couples include the oyal Flush exercise for families with young children, the family-based school interventions for children with behavioral or academic performance problems, and the "altering the abyss" exercise for couples. Each of these exercises is rooted in fundamental family practice theory, and each can also yield measurable outcomes that improve the efficacy of the treatment.
The "royal flush" technique is named as such because it uses picture cards, similar to those used in…
American Psychological Association (2015). Managing stress for a healthy family. Retrieved online: http://www.apa.org/helpcenter/managing-stress.aspx
Brimhall, A.S. & Gardner, B.C. (n.d.). Altering the abyss.
Friedman, B.D. & Allen, K.N. (n.d.). Systems theory. Retrieved online: http://www.sagepub.com/sites/default/files/upm-binaries/32947_Chapter1.pdf
Gergen, K.J. (1985). The social constructionist movement in modern psychology. American Psychologist 40(3): 266-275.
Abortions, in addition to being moral and religious wrong, are wrong for the damage that they can cause the woman physically and the emotional scars. Emotionally at the time of the abortion, the feeling may be of relief from the unwanted child but later the feelings can change to depression or guilt. In later life, the abortion can haunt the person especially if she has more children and she has to think about the one she aborted. The feelings are there regarding would my child have had a brother or a sister. Ask any woman who has lost a child during or after childbirth and they will tell you. YOU NEVER FORGET.
A woman considering abortion should take a good long look at the medical complications that can be faced by an abortion. They can affect the health of a woman at the time of the abortion as well as…
Buzzle.com. (2010). "Anti-abortion arguments - Reasons against abortion." Retrieved on April
20, 2010 from http://www.buzzle.com/articles/antiabortion-arguments-reasons-against-abortion.html
Lifestyle.iloveindia.com. (2010). "Reasons against abortion." Retrieved on April
20, 2010 from http://lifestyle.iloveindia.com/lounge/reasons-against-abortion-4507.html
easons to hear victim experiences.
The victims of rape have a right to be heard, and it is not only healthy for their psychological composure, but also for the community to know what menace this is and face it. There are several reasons why the rape victims should be heard, here are some:
A. May inspire others to speak out; this way more of the victims will get the confidence to speak out make the society to embrace the cruelties of the crime and act upon it.
B. Educational purposes- the experiences that the society has had can be used to educate the entire community on the ills of the heinous act and it is an education that cannot be given better than the victims themselves, for a safer future society.
C. Public awareness- the victims should be allowed to speak so as to help heighten the public awareness on…
AFROL (2011). Sierra Leone: Gender Profile. Retrieved March22, 2011 from http://www.afrol.com/Categories/Women/profiles/sierraleone_women.htm
Asencio, M., (1999). Machos and Sluts: Gender, Sexuality, and Violence among a Cohort of Puerto Rican Adolescents. Blackwell Publishing.
Dothaneagle.com, (2011). Apologies issued for unprosecuted rape of black woman in 1944.
Retrieved March22, 2011 from http://www2.dothaneagle.com/news/2011/mar/21/apologies-issued-unprosecuted-rape-black-woman-194-ar-1607570/
If Jane had exhibited a family history of genetic abnormalities then the clinic could easily be held at fault in a court of law.
The doctors might have considered John's cousin but could have just as easily believed that a healthy young couple would not have opted for a voluntary amniocentesis that might place them at risk for miscarriage. fter all, the couple had great trouble conceiving and if they miscarried might never conceive again. The risk for miscarriage as the result of the amniocentesis is, however, relatively low. For this reason, doctors should make a point to suggest the test as an option without mandating the test as a routine course of action.
Doctors should always suggest that a mother's embryo be tested. Yet unless the doctors ignored the standard clinic procedures or their legal obligations then the clinic cannot be held liable. The clinic would have done better…
Although it should have offered the test as an elective option, the clinic is not automatically liable for not testing Jane for two reasons. First, her risk factors were relatively low; and second, the test for the disorder can put the baby at risk. Moreover, Jane's risk factors were low considering her family had no history of Down Syndrome. If Jane had exhibited a family history of genetic abnormalities then the clinic could easily be held at fault in a court of law.
The doctors might have considered John's cousin but could have just as easily believed that a healthy young couple would not have opted for a voluntary amniocentesis that might place them at risk for miscarriage. After all, the couple had great trouble conceiving and if they miscarried might never conceive again. The risk for miscarriage as the result of the amniocentesis is, however, relatively low. For this reason, doctors should make a point to suggest the test as an option without mandating the test as a routine course of action.
Doctors should always suggest that a mother's embryo be tested. Yet unless the doctors ignored the standard clinic procedures or their legal obligations then the clinic cannot be held liable. The clinic would have done better to warn the parents of the possibility of Down syndrome, including what the condition entailed in terms of parenting. Experts agree on this issue: "In 2007, the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists recommended that every pregnant woman, regardless of age, be offered a choice of tests for this common birth defect," (slide 43). The clinic should be advised to offer an amniocentesis test, but must also warn the mother that the test itself can be dangerous. In this case, the clinic should only be held liable if it was not following the proper procedural code.
She had been struck several times in the head with a Toney Penna golf club -- so ferociously that the club had shattered into multiple pieces -- and then stabbed in the neck with the broken shaft the club's handle and part of the shaft had vanished. (Kennedy Jr., 2003, Martha Moxley section, ¶ 1)
From evidence retrieved from the autopsy, police determined Moxley's murder occurred at approximately10:00 P.M..
On July 10, 1998, 23 years after Moxley's murder, "Connecticut authorities convened a one-man grand jury consisting of Judge George Thim. The state's attorney Jonathan Benedict took over the Moxley case and began a multimillion-dollar effort to convict Michael Skakel" (Kennedy Jr., 2003, Mark Fuhrman section, ¶ 5). Until this time, Greenwich police and state investigators considered Ken Littleton as the primary suspect for the murder of Moxley (Fuhrman, cited in Kennedy Jr., Mark Fuhrman section, ¶ 7). According to prosecutors'…
Caldwell, Lori. (2004, June 8). Post-Tribune. Gun missing as evidence, so Gary man acquitted. Post-Tribune (in). Retrieved November 20, 2008 from HighBeam Research database.
Givens, Ann. (2006). Evidence bungled?: Blood work in DWI death trial might have been mishandled, according to testimony of troopers, others. Newsday (Melville, NY). McClatchy-Tribune Information Services. Retrieved November 20, 2008 from HighBeam Research database.
Caldwell, Lori. (2004, June 8). Post-Tribune. "Gun missing as evidence, so Gary man acquitted." Post-Tribune (in). 2004. Retrieved November 20, 2008 from HighBeam Research: www.highbeam.com/doc/1N11032253A4EBD8A1C.html
Complete coverage: Limo crash. (2008). Retrieved November 20, 2008 at http://www.newsday.com/news/local/longisland/ny-licrashsg,0,390101.storygallery?coll=ny-linews-headlines
The authors state, "underlying mechanism through which exposure to childhood abuse is associated with increased risk of panic cannot be determined based on these data alone" (p. 888). They offer several possible explanations. Exposure to abuse as a child may result in an extreme and realistic fear of threat to survival. This may be how panic disorder starts. Later, it may persist, or recur spontaneously, even without abusive conditions. In the face of a real life threat, panic is not pathological, but in childhood panic may make the child more vulnerable to panic later. Exposure to abuse may lead to biochemical changes that increase the risk of a disorder. Because the study was based on interviews with 18 to 21-year-olds, who were asked to recall past experiences, the findings could be contaminated by recall bias in which young people with mental instability might be more likely to report abuse in…
Bandelow, B., Sojka, F. et al. (2006). Panic disorder during pregnancy and postpartum period. European Psychiatry, 21, 495-500.
Biederman, J., Petty, C., Faraone, S.V. et al. (2006). Effects of parental anxiety disorders in children at high risk for panic disorder: A controlled study. Journal of Affective Disorders, 94, 191-197.
Goodwin, R.D., Fergusson, D.M. And Horwood, L.J. (2004). Childhood abuse and familial violence and the risk of panic attacks and panic disorder in young adulthood. Psychological Medicine, 35, 881-890.
Warren, S.L., Racu, C., Gregg, V. And Simmens, S.J. (2006). Maternal panic disorder: Infant prematurity and low birth weight. Anxiety Disorders, 20, 342-352.
Ian Wimut and Keith Campell could effectively clone two sheeps named Megan and Morag in July 1995 from the differentiated emryo cells. (History of Cloning)
Dolly originated on July 5, 1996 as the first organism ever to e cloned from adult cells. Following the announcements for creation of Dolly y Ian Wilmut, an extensive deate on human cloning ethics emerged and that led President Clinton to propose for a five-year moratorium on federal as well as privately invested human cloning research on March 4, 1997. Richard Seed, a Havard graduate could announce on Decemer 5, 1997 aout his ojective of cloning a human eing prior to an of the process y enactment of the federal laws. Following the successful cloning of Dolly, Ian Wilmut and Keith Campell generated Polly, after cloning of a Poll Dorset lam from skill cells grown on a la and with its alteration genetically to incorporate…
bibliography_pages/cloning.html. Accessed on 11 March, 2005
Cloning Fact Sheet" Human Genome Project Information. Retrieved at http://www.ornl.gov/sci/techresources/Human_Genome/elsi/cloning.shtml . Accessed on 11 March, 2005
Cloning: what's stopping us? Law" (22 October, 2004) Ivanhoe Broadcast News. Retrieved at http://www.genpol.org/news55.pdf . Accessed on 11 March, 2005
Economic Analysis" Retrieved at http://www.geocities.com/cheburashinka/economic.html. Accessed on 11 March, 2005
Gabby. (17 May 1999) "Cloning for Medical Purposes" Retrieved at http://www.humancloning.org/gabby.htm . Accessed on 11 March, 2005
There are many of these individuals, and it is time that this is changed.
Parents often look away from these kinds of problems, or they spend their time in denial of the issue because they feel that their child will not be harmed by parental involvement with drugs or alcohol. Some parents have parents that were/are addicts themselves, and some are so busy with their lives that they do not actually realize that their child has any kind of problem with the lifestyle of the parent until it becomes so severe that it cannot be overlooked, or until it is brought to their attention by police, the school, or someone else that has seen it first hand. Parents are not the only ones that overlook this issue, though.
Sometimes siblings and friends also see problems that they ignore, do not understand, or do not talk to anyone about, and the…
Aleman-Padilla, L. 2002. Babies First gets last word on infant care Hundreds recognize groups contribution at fourth annual event. The Fresno Bee.
Anderson, D. 2004. Funding cuts impact health services. Precinct Reporter.
Anderson, S.A. (2000). How parental involvement makes a difference in reading achievement. Reading Improvement.
Baker, P.L. (2000). I didn't know: discoveries and identity transformation of women addicts in treatment. Journal of Drug Issues, 30, 863-881.
According to Ayn and, rights do not relate to a prospective human being, but only to an actual human being. A child cannot attain any right until it is born. It is only on this criterion that we can safeguard the political right of the women to do what she opts for in this matter. No other person including even her husband has the right to influence as to what she may act in respect of her own body. That is a basic principle of right. (Peikoff, 2003)
While many of the endeavors to further confine the abortion rights are justified on the basis of advances being made in fetal medicine, actually they are motivated by a challenge to the right of women to exert regulation over reproduction. eproduction is viewed as a primary activity of the family, a crucial structure that forms society. If women can exercise full option…
Abortion: Definition" Retrieved from www.abcbirth.com/lGlossary.html. Accessed 30 October, 2005
Abortion is every woman's right" (23 April 2004) pp: 6-7. Retrieved at http://www.socialistworker.org/2004-1/496/496_06_Abortion.shtml. Accessed 30 October, 2005 woman's right to choose: Workers Power 299" (October 2005) Retrieved at http://workerspower.com/index.php?id=83,812,0,0,1,0Accessed 31 October, 2005
Choice: Defending a Fundamental American Freedom" Retrieved at http://www.prochoiceamerica.org/generation/faq.cfmAccessed 30 October, 2005
Definitions and associated Formulas" Retrieved at http://scangis.dhec.sc.gov/scan/pregnancy/support/pregndefn.htm. Accessed 30 October, 2005
.. [and after they removed the bandages from his face] I saw a fearful sight...It wasn't him. I knew it. A few minutes later his breathing stopped" (The Lover 23). She still had not searched the upper floor, but the emotion of her search, the suffering of the men on those awful wards, was too much, and so she "left the building."
Dafi describes that when a math teacher is killed in the war, students were suffering over the loss, but, "it's impossible to be only sorry, but we really were stunned and shocked because we remembered him living and standing beside the blackboard not so long ago, writing out the exercises with endless patience...[and though many students went to sleep because of how boring he was] in the middle of all this drowsiness, in the cloud of chalk dust flying around the blackboard, the formulas used to penetrate. And…
Oz, Amos. A Perfect Peace. Orlando, Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1985.
Yehoshua, Abraham B. The Lover. Orlando: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1977.
If the convicted criminal feels that his sentencing was not just and fair, he can 'appeal', and his case would be tried again, if necessary. (Justice and Prisons, how justice works)
It must be remembered that in general, when a crime is committed, it can mean that there has been a violation of a local or a state or a federal law, and for which there was no real justification. However, the term 'justice' can mean different things for different people, and there is no real agreement on what exactly it means. This has what, in fact, led to the many controversies in the criminal justice system today. There are some individuals who conceptualize justice as meaning 'equality for all', that is, everyone must have the same amount, no matter what amounts they have produced. Some others define justice in terms of 'equity' wherein a person must get benefits in…
Baumgarth, William P; Aquinas, Thomas. On law, morality and politics.
Hackett Publishing. 2002.
Feibleman, James Kern. Justice, law and culture.
Birth Problems: Expecting Mothers Taking Illicit Drugs
When women who are pregnant struggle with a drug problem, the drug use does not only affect the mother, it greatly affects the development of the fetus (Ornoy, 2002). This does not only stop during the fetal stage, it goes on until to after the child is born, and the child will then develop a number of physical and health problems during his or her lifetime. This is because the drugs which the mother is taking can cross the placenta, which is where the baby is and gets all his or her nourishments. These drugs can cause direct toxic affects to the fetus during the developmental stages.
A mother who is actively taking illicit drugs during her pregnancy can suffer from a number of high risk diseases, and this will contract to her unborn baby. These risks include: (1) Anemia, (2) Skin infections,…
Drugs Of Abuse Present In 40% Of Newborns (2002). Aphrodite Women's Health. Retrieved from http://www.aphroditewomenshealth.com/news/20020516234829_
Jaudes, P.K., & Ekwo, E.E. (1997). Outcomes for Infants Exposed in Utero to Illicit Drugs, Child Welfare. 76(4).
Ornoy, A. (2000).The Effects of Alcohol and Illicit Drugs on the Human Embryo and Fetus. The Israel Journal of Psychiatry and Related Sciences, 39(2).
Governor of Illinois, not long ago, declared a temporary moratorium on death penalty cases. He then commuted the sentences of all death row inmates in Illinois prisons. This was due to reports of egregious miscarriage of justice. Innocent people were unfairly sentenced. (Davey & Mills, 2003) While this was welcome news to some, it also provoked outrage among those who felt that the "blanket moratorium" was an injustice to the families of victims, especially since the perpetrators were sentenced because they were found guilty without a shadow of a doubt. Capital punishment is a difficult subject to discuss. Groups that support the death penalty and those that oppose it put forth arguments that are then refuted by those on the other side of the divide. Statistics, data and personal testimonies and eyewitness reports are used to support their respective causes. In the U.S., Crimes such as murder, treason and other…
ACLU. (1997). The Case Against the Death Penalty. Washington, D.C.: American Civil Liberties Union.
Bedau, H.A. (1982). The Death penalty in America (3rd ed.), New York, Oxford University Press.
BJS. (1992). Capital Punishment. Washington, D.C.: Bureau of Jutice Statistics, U.S. Department of Justice.
BJS. (1995). Capital Punishment 1979. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Bureau of Justice Statistics.
Religion and Abortion
hen a hospital's moral and ethical decision making process comes into conflict with the source that provides funds for the hospital -- or goes against the grain of the values of the funding source -- the results can expected to be controversial at best and harmful to humans at the worst. Indeed, to be specific, when the Roman Catholic Church provides funds for a hospital, the Church expects that its tenets, canons, codes of belief and moral values will be reflected in the policies of that hospital. Is this fair to the doctors and nurses in the hospital who have their own oaths to guide their professional actions? And is it fair to the patients who come to the hospital with urgent healthcare needs that to them, supersede any spiritual values or creeds that hospital funding sources might expect to be followed? The answer to both of…
American Civil Liberties Union. "Tamesha Means v. United States Conference of Catholic
Bishops." Retrieved December 13, 2013, from http://www.aclu.org . 2013.
Eckholm, Erik. "Bishops Sued Over Anti-Abortion Policies at Catholic Hospitals." The New
York Times. Retrieved December 13, 2013, from http://www.nytimes.com .
It is possible to read Plato's Apology as the best extant textual representation of the legacy of Athens in the fifth century CE in law and politics. The fact is that the Athenians, although they voted to put Socrates to death, might very well agree on principle with this evaluation. The Apology is, after all, a representation of the Athenian system of trial by jury, and it is worth recalling that this judicial system was considered to be a founding myth of Athens itself. Earlier in the century, roughly a decade before Socrates was born, the tragedian Aeschylus in the Oresteia would represent the mythological and divinely-sanctioned origins of the Athenian jury trial, as a replacement for the endlessly bloody cycle of the lex talionis, when the goddess Athena invites a group of Athenian citizens to sit in judgment on Orestes, who killed his mother in revenge for her…
Plato. The Apology. Trans. Benjamin Jowett. Internet Classics Archive, 2009. http://classics.mit.edu/Plato/apology.html
Criminal Cases and Their esolutions
Discuss one (1) real-life criminal case, taken from current events, and identify the court that took jurisdiction. Explain why the court that took the case was the appropriate one for the particular circumstances. (Jodie Arias)
The Jodi Arias case is being tried in Maricopa County by the Maricopa Superior Court. The reason why that court took jurisdiction is because the crime was allegedly committed in Mesa Arizona. Mesa is located in Maricopa County. Part of the reason that the court was tried by the Superior Court was connected to the fact that the Arias was charged with murder in the first and because the state sought the death penalty. Thus, the stakes are high enough to warrant the use of the superior court. "The case has not yet been sent to the jury for their determination on whether Petitioner is not guilty or guilty of…
Doward, J. (2005). 'My home is now my prison cell'. Retrieved from thguardian.com: http://www.theguardian.com/media/2005/feb/20/broadcasting.childrensservices
Newcomb, A. (2013, Jan 27). Former Ms. Washington Takes Plea Bargain in Murder Case. Retrieved from abcnews.go.com: http://abcnews.go.com/blogs/headlines/2013/01/former-ms-washington-takes-plea-bargain-in-murder-case/
Nurmi, L. (2012). APPLICATION FOR INTERLOCUTORY STAY OF AGGRAVATION TRIAL . Retrieved from abc15.com: http://media2.abc15.com/html/pdf/Stay.pdf
Palta, R. (2012, June 13). Researchers say plea bargains actually send innocent defendants to jail. Retrieved from scpr.org: http://www.scpr.org/blogs/news/2012/06/13/6603/plea-bargainings-innocence-problem/
Marital rape is defined as sex without mutual agreement, which can occur through the vagina, anus or even the mouth. The definition is not consistent; it changes from one country to another (ergen, 1996; Russell, 1990). Marital rape is marked as one of the most widespread ways of violation against women with most studies indicating that victims are legally married couples, those separated, divorced or living together. The basic concept is that the different forms of sexual violence between couples who have lived together for long and those that are married remains the same (Mahoney & Williams, 1998). In as much as no publications of marital rape between gay and lesbian couples have been found, am emergence of such literature is slowly coming up (ergen & arnhill, 2006).
The extent of marital rape was brought to light by Diana Russell's research that was done in 1990 in San Francisco. The…
Adams, C.J. (1993). I just raped my wife! What are you going to do about it, pastor? In E. Buchwald, P.R. Fletcher, & M. Roth (Eds.), Transforming a rape culture (pp. 57-86). Minneapolis, MN: Milkweed Editions
Barshis, V. (1983).The question of marital rape. Women's Studies International Forum, 6, 383-93
Basile, K.C. (2002). Prevalence of wife rape and other intimate partner sexual coercion in a nationally representative sample of women. Violence and Victims, 17(5), 511-524
Bergen, R.K. (2005). Studying wife rape: Reflections on the past, present and future. Violence against Women, 10, 1407-1416
Identify the Disease
Graves' disease is a disorder of the immune system that results in too many thyroid hormones being produced, a situation that is called hyperthyroidism. Thyroid hormones impact many different body functions, so the " ... signs and symptoms" that are linked to Graves' disease cannot easily be zeroed in on specifically (Mayo Clinic). Anyone can be stricken with Graves' disease but it is far more common among women who haven't reached the age of 40 yet. To summarize, Graves' is actually caused by a "malfunction of disease-fighting immune system," which is, too many thyroid hormones are being produced.
The Mayo Clinic provides a list of signs and symptoms that a person may have Graves' disease. Some of the signs associated with Graves' disease include: being irritable or anxious; a fine tremor in hands or fingers; sensitive to heat and increased perspiration; losing weight though eating…
Acton, A.Q. (2013). Graves' Disease: New Insights for the Healthcare Professional. Atlanta,
Bahn, R.S. (2015). Graves' Disease: A Comprehensive Guide for Clinicians. New York:
Contextualizing the eality of Teratology
Teratology is the study of physical abnormalities. Such abnormalities occur naturally through physiological means, although the environment and environmental factors -- which can impact an organism's biology and physiology -- plays a part in this study as well. Typically, teratology is concerned with physical deformities in organisms. Initially, such deformities pertained to people, although this particular discipline has evolved to include virtually any sort of living organism. Moreover, teratology is considered with the manifestation and fostering of physical abnormalities throughout the various stages of life. Typically, these deformities begin during the process that occurs immediately after conception in which organisms are developing. However, it can also extend through periods of puberty, and can encompass virtually any stage of life prior to death. It is critical to note that when discussing the natural origin of the deformities that are a part of this science, the environment…
Aston, S. (2014). James G. Wilson's six principles of teratology. The Embryo Project Encyclopedia. Retrieved from http://search.lookseek.com/search5.php?q=six+principles+of+teratology
Marino, T., Ramus, R.M. (2015). Prenatal diagnosis for congenital malformations and genetic disorders. Medscape. Retrieved from
Prostitution: Causes and Consequences
Prostitution has been termed as one of the oldest professions, with its history going back to as early the ancient period. Indeed, records of most ancient societies -- from Greeks and omans to Jews, Hebrews, Asians, and Muslims -- point to the existence of prostitution several thousand years ago (Sanders, O'Neill & Pitcher, 2009). Today, though illegal in some jurisdictions, prostitution is a widespread practice, with virtually every major urban area across the globe having numerous brothels, escort services, and joints disguised as massage parlors. Prostitution is also practiced at the sex worker's or client's residence as well as in adult entertainment locations such as strip clubs. Emanating mainly from individual and socioeconomic factors, prostitution is associated with a number of dangers on the individuals involved, and may expose one to sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). This paper describes the causes and consequences of prostitution, clearly demonstrating…
Elmes, J., Skovdal, M., Nhongo, K., et al. (2017). A reconfiguration of the sex trade: how social and structural changes in eastern Zimbabwe left women involved in sex work and transactional sex more vulnerable. PLoS ONE, 12(2): e0171916
Farrell, A., & Cronin, S. (2015). Policing prostitution in an era of human trafficking enforcement. Crime, Law, and Social Change, 64(4-5): 211-228.
Gorkoff, K., & Runner, J. (2003). Being head: the experiences of young women in prostitution. Winnipeg: Fernwood Publishing.
Jeffreys, S. (1997). The idea of prostitution. 1st ed. Melbourne: Spinifex Press.
Wild Swans: Three Daughters of China
Wild Swans is the story of three generations of women in China in the 20th century. The author is Jung Chang: her autobiography comprises the last third section of the book; the first two sections are devoted to telling the story of her grandmother Yu-Fang and her mother Bao Qin. Instead of writing a straight autobiography, Chang chose to begin her story two generations back—the purpose being to provide not only personal historical context but also a sense of the cultural historical context in which her family came into being. By beginning the book with the statement that her grandmother “became the concubine of a warlord general” at the age of fifteen, Chang immediately gives her story a sweeping, grand epic backdrop: she is no mere commoner of humble origins but rather a figure whose family was right in the heart or thick of…
The plight of American born children forced to reside outside of the United States because of their dependent and minority age statuses, begs the question of whether or not these children, if raised in third world countries like Mexico, Nicaragua, or Columbia, can ever achieve the promise of the American dream upon return to the United States, which has, in their absence, become foreign to them, and they foreign amongst their peer group?
The subject of immigration, especially that which moves daily across the Mexican-American border, is an emotional and tense issue, and one into which a new breath of life is breathed during every presidential election. There is no denying the economic impact of illegal immigration on the United States; it is a serious problem. This, however, does not make it acceptable to wreak potential economic havoc on a U.S. born citizen that is, on an individual level, just…
Rodriguez, Gregory (2008). Mongrels, Bastards, Orphans and Vagabonds: Mexican
Immigration and the . Random House Publishing, New York, NY. Book.
Simon, Julian Lincoln (1999). The Economic Consequences of Immigration, University
of Michigan. Book.
Furthermore, both statutory and tort law at the time were ill-equipped with regard to provision of environmental safeguards and taking care of the fall-out of an environmental crisis . In fact, at the time that Hoover Chemical Corporation was dumping toxins into the canal, there was no law with regard to the disposal or dumping of chemicals; thus, Hoover was acting within its purview since at all times it either had the owner's permission to dump or it was the owner of the property itself. Consequently, in order to avoid this problem in the future, legislation was passed regulating the dumping of hazardous waste. Furthermore, environmental laws were passed such as CECLA (Comprehensive Environmental esponse, Compensation, and Liablity Act, aka Superfund) that held polluters accountable or the damages they caused. Additionally, in the realm of civil tort law, in 1994, a Federal District court ruled that Hooker had been negligent…
30th Anniversary of Love Canal. (2008, June). Retrieved from http://www.chej.org
Blum, Elizabeth D., Love Canal Revisited. Kansas: University Press of Kansas, 2008, p.20-22.
Brown, PhD, P., & Clapp, PhD, R. (2002). Looking back on Love Canal. Public Health Reports, 17, 95-98. Retrieved from Association of Schools of Public Health.
De Angelo, L. (2008). Love Canal, New York. In the encyclopedia of Earth. Washington D.C.: Environmental Information Coalition, National Coalition for Science and the Environment.
There is an increasing recognition of this not only among investigators and regulators, but also among businesses and employees alike.
Clearly, the general attitude of employers and employees towards whistle blowing is changing with time. Generally, this is the result of consequences generated by corporate wrongdoing, and also by the increase of importance attached to ethical business practices. Corporate responsibility in terms of both society and the environment has seen great increases over the last decade. For this reason, the importance of whistle blowing is also increasing. Indeed, it can be seen as the ethical responsibility of employees to disclose activities when they have suspicions regarding certain practices.
By making whistle blowing a standard ethical element of business, the corporate world can ensure that businesses work for the mutual benefit of employers, employees and the public they serve.
BBC News. (2003, Oct. 8). Coke pays off whistleblower. etrieved from…
BBC News. (2003, Oct. 8). Coke pays off whistleblower. Retrieved from http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/business/3175138.stm
Business Link. (2010). Whistle blowing and Dismissal. Retrieved from http://www.businesslink.gov.uk/bdotg/action/detail?itemId=1082104950&type=RESOURCES
CIPD. (2010). Whistle blowing. Retrieved from http://www.cipd.co.uk/subjects/empreltns/whistleblw/whistle.htm
Connor, M. (2010, Apr. 1). Whistle-Blowing found Effective in Targeting Corporate Misdeeds. Business Ethics. Retrieved from http://business-ethics.com/2010/04/01/11414-whistle-blowing-found-effective-in-targeting-corporate-misdeeds/
The police adapting to rapid changes in technology is felt in two ways -- primarily in using the technology that comes with new inventions for the police like better weapons, communication networks and so on for which they have to be thoroughly trained. The specialist has also to be trained in many issues like cyber crimes, and use of sophisticated computers and machines for crime. Police with an up-to-date mass communication system can be easily mobilized and can have faster response to events. The negative aspects of technology cannot be wished away and there must be research done to overcome these defects in communication with the public and also reliance must be placed on more robust methods of data access.
Buzawa, Carl G; Buzawa, Eve S. (1992) "Domestic Violence: The Changing Criminal
Justice." Auburn House: Westport, CT.
Couldry, Nick; Mccarthy, Anna. (2004) "Mediaspace: Place, Scale, and Culture in…
Buzawa, Carl G; Buzawa, Eve S. (1992) "Domestic Violence: The Changing Criminal
Justice." Auburn House: Westport, CT.
Couldry, Nick; Mccarthy, Anna. (2004) "Mediaspace: Place, Scale, and Culture in a Media
Age." Routledge: New York.
these little slivers of plastic provide commerce at the swipe of a wrist, but every time that card is swiped, the time, date, location, value, and often the items of a purchase are recorded several times over, by banks, credit card companies, superstores, fashion chains, transport industries, and many other points on the economic tree (Trango, n.d.). These details, over time, can and are used to create a 'picture' of you and your buying habits; Can you be trusted to pay back a loan? What times do you usually come into a store? Do you take public transport because you can or because its cheaper? What bra size are you? All of these details can be correlated over time, and can often then be sold onto third parties for marketing purposes, and, depending on where you are, that information can all be sold including your name and address. (The EU…
1. Schenkel, G. (2009, September 17). Livewave cctv system. Retrieved from http://www.dhs.gov/xlibrary/assets/privacy/privacy_pia_ice_livewave.pdf
2. Trango, . (n.d.). Wireless surveillance systems & homeland security. Retrieved from http://www.trangobroadband.com/solutions/security-surveillance-cctv-systems.aspx
3. Ng, K. (2010, April 20). Why Cctv is a priority for asian homeland security. Retrieved from http://www.futuregov.asia/articles/2010/apr/20/cctv-priority-asian-govts/
4. Post, . (2002). Cctv. POSTNOTE, (175), Retrieved from http://www.parliament.uk/documents/post/pn175.pdf http://www.thisislondon.co.uk/news/article-23412867-tens-of-thousands-of-cctv-cameras-yet-80-of-crime-unsolved.do
(St. Lawrence). Delivering the intervention while housed in correctional facilities has the advantages of minimizing attrition, maintaining attendance at sessions, successfully delivering greater intervention dosage, and controlling for both the assessments and the intervention delivery. The disadvantages, as indicated above, are twofold: First, incarcerated girls will not have real-world opportunities to practice newly acquired skills between sessions; second, potential concerns exist regarding whether content acquired from an intervention delivered during their incarceration can
be expected to generalize from the institutional setting into their daily lives after they return to their homes (St. Lawrence).
. It is the behaviors of the youth in the gang that are viewed by the larger community as disruptive and harmful to the gang members themselves as well as to the community. Ironically, the sense of solidarity achieved from sharing everyday life with similarly situated people has the unintended effect of drawing many youth into behaviors…
Belknap, Joanne, and Kristi Holsinger. "The Gendered Nature of Risk Factors for Delinquency." Feminist Criminology 1.48 (2006). Print.
Murrish, Helen. "Youth Gang Membership: Gender Difference and Gang Participation." La Follette School of Public Affairs (2001). Web. 15 July 2010.
St. Lawrence, Janet S., Edward C. Snodgrass, Angela Robertson, and Connie Baird-Thomas. "Minimizing the Risk of Pregnancy, Sexually Transmitted Disease and HIV among Incarcerated Adolescent Girls." Criminal Justice and Behavior 35.1500 (2008). Print.
Wingood, Gina, Ralph DiClemente Jr., Rick Crosby, Kathy Harrington, Susan L. Davies, and Edward W. Hook, III. "Gang Involvement and the Health of African-American Females." Pediatrics: Office Journal of the American Academy of Pediatricians 110 (2002). Print.
" The subject describes how his mother also adamantly refused to consent to the use of Novocain or any other anesthetic when he visited the dentist (despite his pleas and pleas from the dentist) because of her distrust of "chemicals."
There is likely a direct connection between the subject's development of a highly abrasive and uncontrollable on-air persona and the degree to which the subject's control over basic aspects of his life was denied to him throughout his formative years (Casement, 1998; Mitchell & Black, 1995). More specifically, the subject was denied the right to express himself and he was often forced to abide by very conservative rules of proper conduct both in the home and also outside the home, such as by his mother's repeated warning that he was her "representative" outside the home. The self that developed seems to reflect both the explicit absorption of certain ideas from…
Andrews, J.D.W. "Integrating visions of reality: Interpersonal diagnosis and the existential vision." American Psychologist, Vol. 44; (1989): 803-17.
Bagarozzi, D.A. And Anderson, S.A. (1989). Personal, Marital, and Family Myths:
Theoretical Formulations and Clinical Strategies. New York: Norton.
Casement, a. (1998). Post-Jungians Today. Papers in Contemporary Analytical
Moreover, the global neglect of women (in terms of science) is reflected in the fact that women have been excluded as experimental subjects in drug research, Rosser continues. Certainly pregnant women have been excluded from experiments with pesticides and radioactive materials, but beyond that Rosser explains that "…these drugs and materials are then used without ever having been tested on women" (1991, p. 143). And yet notwithstanding their exclusion from testing, women's research has led to a vast resource of knowledge vis-a-vis the natural environment.
To wit, Rachel Carson correctly extrapolated the deadly effects on the environment due to agricultural pesticides (DDT in particular), and in fact changed the way the government approached pesticides (1991, p. 144). Indeed, Carson's books ("Silent Spring," "Under the Sea-Wind," and others) had an enormous impact on the nation's grasp of environmental dangers and led eventually to the creation of the Environmental Protection Agency…
Alldred, Pam, and Dennison, Sarah, 2000, 'Eco-Activism and Feminism: Do Eco-Warriors and Goddesses Need it?', Feminist Review, No. 63, 124-127.
Biehl, Janet, 1991, Rethinking Ecofeminist Politics, South End Press, Cambridge MA.
Eaton, Heather, 2005, Introducing Ecofeminist Theologies, Continuum International Publishing Group, New York.
Kheel, Marti, 1993, 'From Heroic to Holistic Ethics: The Ecofeminist Challenge', in Ecofeminism: Women, Animals, Nature, G. Gaard Ed., Temple University Press: New York.
y contrast, this was not found to be true for the Colombian couples. Instead, their level of relationship satisfaction was predicted by having a similar level of expressiveness between spouses, irrespective of whether the level was high, medium, or low (Ingoldsby, 1980). Likewise, Colombian women and men were determined to be are equally likely to say what they feel and to express themselves at the same level as North American males. In the United States, female spouses are typically significantly more expressive as a group than are their male counterparts (Ingoldsby, 1980).
In a significant recent paper, ailey (2006) focuses on biotechnological discoveries in birth control methods that offered women greater power to choose the timing of childbearing. This power may have translated into higher investments in education and increased labor force participation of women. In an excellent paper, among other things, Goldin (1995) focused on technological International Research Journal…
Aptekar, L. (1990). "How Ethnic Differences Within a Culture Influence Child
Rearing: The Case of Colombian Street Children." Journal of Comparative
Family Studies 21(1):67 -- 79.
Balakrishnan, R. (1976). "Determinants of Female Age at Marriage in Rural and Semi-Urban Areas of Four Latin American Countries." Journal of Comparative Family Studies 7(2):167 -- 173.
If we look at one of the absolutes, such as abortion in cultures in which choice is at least generally available about reproductive options abortion is at least relatively unstigmatized and access to it is legal and there are no significant economic barriers, a woman may still have religious or ethical or emotional reasons why she would perceive abortion negatively.
A woman, for example, who has suffered through a number of miscarriages of wanted pregnancies may find herself for various reasons unable or unwilling to carry a pregnancy to term. In such a case, having an abortion may be the right choice for that woman but may still be very painful.
In general, the ways in which sexuality and fertility shapes a woman's relationship with self -- as well as with family and the larger community -- is largely determined by the degree of choice that she has over having…
Hooks, B. (2000). Feminist theory: From margin to center (2nd ed.). Brooklyn, NY: South End Press.
Kesselman, a., McNair, L.D., & Schniedewind, N. (2008). Women images and realities: A multicultural anthology (4th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill
Louise oodward, 2008).
oodward's legal team filed motions after her conviction to the trial court for which a hearing began on November 4th. In the days following the verdict it came out that the jury had been split about the murder charge, but those who had favored an acquittal were persuaded to accept a conviction. This fact was of no legal consequence, however. On November 10th, at a post-conviction relief hearing, Judge Hiller B. Zobel reduced the conviction to involuntary manslaughter, saying that the circumstances in which the defendant acted were characterized by confusion, inexperience, frustration, immaturity and some anger, but not malice in the legal sense supporting a conviction for second-degree murder. He also said that he thought that allowing this defendant on this evidence to remain convicted of second-degree murder would be a miscarriage of justice (Commonwealth of Massachusetts v. Louise oodward, 2008).
oodward's sentence was reduced to…
"Commonwealth of Massachusetts v. Louise Woodward." (2008). 22 February 2010,
Commonwealth v. Woodward. 427 Mass. 659 (Mass. 1998). LexisNexis Academic. Web. 22
It is evident that in his case, he tried to improve his condition by looking at his captors as providing him with guidance, and it is in this perception that Equiano's journey becomes meaningful, both literally and symbolically, as he eventually improved his status in life by educating himself after being a free man.
Bozeman (2003) considered Equiano's experience as beneficial and resulted to Equiano's changed worldview at how he looked at slavery and British society (his 'captors). Bozeman argued that Equiano's worldview became "fluid," wherein
…he is exceptional among his contemporary British brethren: not only is he able to stand both on the inside and outside of the window of British society, Equiano can move efficiently between the two…Accepting the essence of who Equiano is, in the end, is to acknowledge the reality he was a living oxymoron perpetuating a simply complex life (62).
It is this "fluid" worldview…
Bozeman, T. (2003). "Interstices, hybridity, and identity: Olaudah Equiano and the discourse of the African slave trade." Studies in Literary Imagination, Vol. 36, No. 2.
Burnham, M. (1993). "The journey between: liminality and dialogism in Mary White Rowlandson's captivity narrative." Early American Literature, Vol. 28.
Carrigan, a. (2006). "Negotiating personal identity and cultural memory in Olaudah Equiano's Interesting Narrative." Wasafiri, Vol. 21, No. 2.
Derounian, K. (1987). "Puritan orthodoxy and the "survivor syndrome" in Mary Rowlandson's Indian captivity narrative." Early American Literature, Vol. 22.
A newer and easy test is the OSOM Vlue, which mixes a swabbed specimen from the vagina with a reagent. The test yields sialidase activity or presence in the vaginal fluid in 10 minutes. Sialidase is produced by V pathogens (Mashburn).
The most reliable criterion for detecting V is a pH>4.5 (Mashburn, 2007). A normal pH should, therefore, rule out V. A pH >4.5 can also indicate trichomoniasis or muco-purulent cervicitis. Vaginal inflammation more strongly suggests trichomonas or muco-purulent cervicitis, in turn associated with gonorrhea or chlamydial trachomatis (Mashburn).
The patient's pH level is 6, indicating V.
These are an inexpensive and relatively easy screening procedure for the most common sexually transmitted diseases, such as V (Iglesias, Alderman & Fox, 2000). The practitioner should be appropriately trained and experienced in using this procedure. Hence, the proper protocol and quality control are needed to insure accurate diagnosis.…
Alfonsi, G.A.; Cshlay, J., and Parker, S. (2004). What is the best approach for managing
Recurrent bacterial vaginosis? Journal of Family Practice: Dowden Health Media,
Inc. Retrieved on July 7, 2009 from http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0689/is_8_53/ai_n6169486/?tag=content;col1
Brown, M (2007). Treating a case of bacterial vaginosis -- case study. Health and Republic News: Health Republic. Retrieved on July 12, 2009 from http://www.healthcarerepublic.com/res/clinical/article/572868/treating-case-bacterial-vaginosis
However, the reasons why people commit crime are as different as the individuals themselves. Intentional murder comes in two different flavors. The first is the carefully plotted, well thought out, planned act. In this scenario, motivational theory takes over. The person must feel that they will gain some type of value from the action. It may be that they gain something, such as money, or they may feel that eliminating a person will offer them some type of protection. In any case, the person justifies their actions through a perceived reward in the future (Horisch and Strassmair).
In the case of an intentional murder, the death penalty may deter the action. However, several conditions must be met for the fear of death to act as a deterrent. The person must feel that there is a significant possibility that they will be caught and punished for their crimes. In many cases,…
Amnesty International. Death Penalty. 2008. www.amnestyusa.org/death-penalty/page.do?id=1011005).
Death Penalty Information Center. Facts About the Death Penalty. March 1, 2009. http://www.deathpenaltyinfo.org/FactSheet.pdf (Accessed March 10, 2009). (Gumbel, a. The Innocence Project: Guilty Until Proven Innocent. Common Dreams My 4, 2006). http://www.commondreams.org/headlines06/0504-09.htm (Accessed March 10, 2009).
Horisch, H. And Strassmair, C. An experimental test of the deterrence hypothesis. Discussion Papers in Economics. February 27, 2008. University of Munich. http://epub.ub.uni-muenchen.de/2139/2/crime_Munich_DP.pdf (Accessed March 10, 2009).
Radelet, M., Bedau, H., and Putnam, C. In Spite of Innocence: Erroneous Convictions in Capital Cases. Boston: Northeastern University Press, 1992, and Bedau and Radelet, "Miscarriages of Justice in Potentially Capital Cases." Stanford Law Review 40 (1987): 21-179)
Cautiousness towards environmental contaminants in fish and seafood has led pregnant women to limit or eliminate fish and seafood from their diet. The Food and Drug Administration and the Environmental Protection Agency addressed the problem by advising the women to avoid large ocean fish, such as shark, swordfish, king mackerel and fish because of their higher mercury content. According to the agencies, pregnant women may safely consume up to 12 ounces of shellfish or smaller ocean and farm-raised fish, such as salmon and canned light tuna, per week. DHA-enriched eggs, which provide up to 150 mg DHA per egg, are now available for these mothers' diet. DHA supplements may also be taken but sparingly because of their fish oil content (Steele).
Caution Over Vitamin A Supplements
According to the Institute of Medicine, pregnant women do not need vitamin-mineral supplements unless there is a risk for nutritional deficiency (Nutrition Research Newsletter,…
Bates, B.(2005). First trimester stress may prompt early delivery. Clinical Psychiatry
News: International Medical News Group. Retrieved on February 24, 2009 at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_hb4345/is_3_33/ai_n29172851?tag=content;col1
Bennington, L.K. (2001). Pregnancy. Encyclopedia of Nursing and Allied Health: Gale Encyclopedia of Nursing and Allied Health. Retrieved on February 24, 2009 at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qGENH/is_20050229/ai_2699003633?tag=content;col1
Market Wire (2000). Study test. Market Wire: CBC Interactive, Inc. Retrieved on February 24, 2009 at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_pwwi/is_20050229/ai_mark09013907?tag=content;col1
In no way could Brode be considered a justifier of or apologist for slavery, but neither is he willing to condemn the judges who, as he indicates, stood up for the law the way it was written and they way they had sworn to do. As distasteful as it was in the public mouth, Brode contends that extraditing Anderson on the murder charge was the only legally justifiable choice, and that the British court should not have had -- and perhaps did not have -- the authority to reverse the decision of the Anderson when it was made by the Canadian panel.
hroughout the book, Brode's argument is well-reasoned, if a little overloaded with technical details. He is fair in presenting the strong moral case that fueled people's desire to see Anderson remain in Canada, but he is more fair in determining that the law must apply to everyone. Had…
Throughout the book, Brode's argument is well-reasoned, if a little overloaded with technical details. He is fair in presenting the strong moral case that fueled people's desire to see Anderson remain in Canada, but he is more fair in determining that the law must apply to everyone. Had Anderson actually been extradited and stood trial, it might have served to further the cause of the abolitionists even more, and exposed the true injustices of slavery once and for all. Of course, from a vantage point nearly one-and-a-half centuries in the future, we know that the slavery issue was soon to be decided regardless, but Canada at the time had know way of knowing that, and moral justifications cannot lead to a fair execution of the law. This case would still prove to be a sensitive subject today; returning someone to slavery for any reason is certainly abhorrent and something to be avoided. However, Canada's law being what it was at the time, Brode's repeated assertion that extradition was the correct legal choice for Anderson is completely true. A moral system can only work if each moral instance is applied universally; obviously, the system of slavery is immoral by this definition, but if a system of law is to approach morality, it must remain consistent. In the end, a technicality allowed the legal system to behave morally and quasi-consistently, but Brode's tome lets us know it was a close call.
Brode, Patrick. The Odyssey of John Anderson. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1989.
Patrick Brode, the Odyssey of John Anderson. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1989, xi.
"Every year nearly 42 million women decide to have an abortion and about 20 million of them are forced to resort to unsafe abortion, 98% of which are in developing countries. Unsafe abortion was the cause of 66,500 deaths in 2003, representing 13% of all maternal deaths worldwide. Incidence of unsafe abortion is highest in South America and Eastern Africa whereas mortality rates due to unsafe abortion are much higher in Africa than anywhere else in the world." (Unsafe Abortion, 6 December 2008).
Pros of Abortion
Abortion can have a positive as well as a negative impact on the health of a woman. Women suffering from serious health problems like heart disease, kidney disease etc., have a positive impact of abortion on their health. The body has to be well prepared for childbirth, diseases weakens the body and opting for an abortion many a time helps women in avoiding further…
Pros and Cons about Abortion. In Life Style Lounge. Retrieved on 6 December 2008 at http://lifestyle.iloveindia.com/lounge/pros-and-cons-about-abortion-3403.html
Unsafe Abortion. In BNET Journal. Retrieved on 6 December 2008 at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_hb264/is_31_16/ai_n29452317?tag=content;col1
Pros and Cons of Abortion. In the Abortion Info Site. Retrieved on 6 December 2008 at http://tiger.towson.edu/users/bpahl1/pros%20and%20cons%20page.htm
Pros and Cons of Abortion. In Buzzle. Retrieved on 6 December 2008 at http://www.buzzle.com/articles/pros-and-cons-of-abortion.html
The fog is actually generated by two painful experiences in Chief's past: first, the fog in his mind is a recurrence of the brain treatments ordered by Nurse Ratched, and secondly, the fog is a direct reference to the actual fog machine of World War II operated by military intelligence in order to obscure what was occurring on the airfield (Lupack 70) as Chief recalls: "Whenever intelligence figured there might be a bombing attack, or if the generals had something secret they wanted to pull -- out of sight, hid so good that even the spies on the base couldn't see what went on -- they fogged the field" (Kesey 116).
Generally speaking, the themes of a particular novel cannot be fully understood outside the social context of the plot. This also largely applies to "One Flew over the Cuckoo's Nest" whose plot is set in the 1950s which also…
Kesey, Ken. One flew over the Cuckoo's Nest. Penguin Classics, 2003.
Ferrell, William K. "A Search for Laughter: One Flew over the Cuckoo's Nest." Literature and Film as Modern Mythology. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers, 2000. 75-85.
Tepa Lupack, Barbara. "Hail to the Chief: One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest." Insanity as Redemption in Contemporary American Fiction: Inmates Running the Asylum. University Press of Florida, 1995. 63-99.
Valentine, Virginia. "Kesey's One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest." Explicator 41.1 (1982): 58-59.
The First Nuclear Test
Of course, the first nuclear test occurred before the 1950s and was part of the United States' effort to develop an atomic weapon during World War II. This test occurred at 5:30 A.M. On July 16, 1945, at a missile range outside of Alamogordo, New Mexico. Even that test was enough to convince a large group of scientists that the atomic weapon was a dangerous and powerful weapon. "The Franck Report," a petition issued by Leo Szilard and 68 other scientists urged President Truman to first demonstrate the capabilities of the atomic bomb before using it as a weapon against the Japanese, because of the mass destruction that came with the bomb.
This test, known as the Trinity Test, was a tremendous success. "The energy developed in the test was several times greater than that expected by scientific group. The cloud column mass and top reached…
Adams, Cecil. 1984. "Did John Wayne die of cancer caused by a radioactive movie set?" The Straight Dope. http://www.straightdope.com/classics/a2_016.html (Accessed August 19, 2008).
American Cancer Society. 2006. "Radiation exposure and cancer." Cancer.org. http://www.cancer.org/docroot/PED/content/PED_1_3X_Radiation_Exposure_and_Cancer.asp?sitearea=PED (Accessed August 19, 2008).
Ball, Howard. 1996. "Downwind from the bomb." The New York Times. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9A0DEED61438F93AA35751C0A960948260&sec=health&spon=&pagewanted=1 (Accessed August 19, 2008).
Brodersen, Tom. 2002. "Compensation available to fallout cancer victims." Sharlot Hall
Never cold. an'fruit ever'place, an' people just bein' in the nicest places, little white houses in among the orange trees [...] an' the little fellas go out an' pick oranges right off the tree. They ain't gonna be able to stand it, they'll get to yellin' so."(Steinbeck, 95) Their conviction is enhanced by the stories they hear and by false advertisements they are sent. These false advertisements may very well stand for the archetype of contemporary commerce which is dependent on advertisement. California may moreover be a symbol for America itself, which was once seen as a heavenly continent, an unspotted, holy land. Steinbeck thus drafts at once a story of migration and tries to settle and capture the archetypes of the modern world. The story thus focuses on the fall of human life from wholeness into fragmentation: "Carbon is not a man, nor salt nor water nor calcium. He…
Kingston, Maxine. China Men. New York: Vintage, 2002.
Mukherjee, Bharati. Jasmine. New York: Grove Press, 1989
Steinbeck, John. The Grapes of Wrath. New York: Penguin Classics, 1992
In 1976, three years after Roe v. ade, the Court ruled that a married woman did not have to have her husband's permission to get an abortion, if she wanted one (Planned Parenthood of Central Missouri v. Danforth).
Do the policies of the executive branch of government - the hite House - go past just merely being "pro-life" - and into the realm of sexism? That is a good question because military women serving overseas, under the Bush administration, cannot receive safe hospital abortions, even if they pay with their own personal funds, according to NO. hy? To make the point that this administration opposes abortions, Bush restored a Reagan-era policy, and now military wives and women in the service must "travel long distances" to have abortions. They must also get the permission of their commanding officer, which is almost always a man.
Abortion Law Homepage. (2006). Overview.…
Abortion Law Homepage. (2006). Overview. Retrieved 19 Feb. 2008 at http://members.aol.com/abtrbng/
Medical News Today. (2006). Antiabortion Activists Refocusing Strategies After Election
Results; Washington Post Says Democratic-Controlled Congress Might Force Bush to Reconsider. (Nov. 14, 2006). Retrieved 20 Nov. 2008 at http://www.medicalnewstoday.com .
National Organization for Women. (2007). Reproductive Rights Historical Highlights. Retrieved 19 Feb. 2008 at http://www.now.org/issues/abortion/roe30/timeline.html .
(Deuteronomy 22:28-29). hile these Biblical endorsements of unequal treatment may seem historical and antiquated to a modern, estern audience, the fact is that many parts of the world still treat women in a similar fashion, so that the Bible would be useless in helping to determine a standard of human rights for women.
In addition, many human rights activists believe that the death penalty is a de facto violation of human rights, regardless of the guilt or innocence of the person to be executed and the nature of the crime committed by that person. However, the Bible clearly endorses the application of the death penalty. Moreover, the Bible endorses the use of the death penalty in areas where most of the modern world has determined its use to be inappropriate. Amaziah executed his father's assassins, and the Bible described him as doing "what was right in the eyes of the…
Adherents.com. "Major Religions Ranked by Size." Adherents.com. 2007. Adherents.com 28
Sept. 2007 http://www.adherents.com/Religions_By_Adherents.html .
Carlson, Doug. "ENDA: Ending an Important Employer Right." The Ethics and Religious
Liberty Commission of the Southern Baptist Convention. 2007. The Southern Baptist Commission. 28 Sept. 2007 http://erlc.com/article/enda-ending-an-important-employer-right .
Metabolic syndrome is significant for our patient for several reasons. As we have noted, the syndrome is associated with a higher risk of cardiovascular disease. Those patients who have metabolic syndrome tend to develop coronary atherosclerosis at a higher rate than those who have coronary risk factors alone. Obesity increases the risk of metabolic syndrome but so does pre-obesity, or BMI ranging from 25-30. Women who have been diagnosed with polycystic ovarian syndrome are noted to be at increased risk of hypertension, dylipidemia, insulin resistance, impaired glucose tolerance and Type II diabetes. Because of all these comorbidities, women with PCOS also tend to be at greater risk for patients with subclinical carotid atherosclerosis, especially in the premenopausal population (Talbot, et al., 2000). For these same reasons, women diagnosed with PCOS have a 5 fold increased risk for the development of complications of coronary and cerebrovascular atherosclerosis.
Mrs. Stiller has many…
Reaven G. (2002) Metabolic syndrome. Pathophysiology and implications for management of cardiovascular disease. Circulation.106:286-288
Manson JE, Willet WC, Stampfer MJ, Colditz GA, Hunter DJ, Hankinson SE, et al. (2005) Body weight and mortality among women. N Eng J. Med 333:677-85
Juahan-Vague I, Alessi MC. (1997) PAI-1, obesity, insulin resistance and risk of cardiovascular events. Thromb Haemost 78:656-60
Wilson PW. (2004) Estimating cardiovascular disease risk and the metabolic syndrome: a Framingham view. Endocrinol Metab Clin N. Am. 33:467-81
"Accurate descriptions of sex chromosome differences are critical, the decisions potentially regrettable, and the long-term outcomes devastating if a termination is based on the misinformation," that the patient later discovers to be misinformation for instance, "that any of these conditions is comparable to Down's Syndrome" (Biesecker r 2001:2) Conversely, it is also important not to minimize the odds of a potentially fatal genetic condition like Tay Sachs disease.
Providers are obliged to obtain useful up-to-date information and to ensure parents have adequate opportunity to consider their decision with the help of an experienced healthcare provider, preferably in medical genetics, and if necessary, a counselor who is attuned to the cultural assumptions and needs of the couple's population group, and religious beliefs. Certain populations might have a different view and understanding of the real difficulty of raising a child suffering from a heritable disorder, or even the concept of heritability of…
Baker, Schuette & Uhlmann. (Eds.) (1998). A guide to genetic counseling.
Beery, Theresa a & Kerry a. Schooner. (Nov 2004). "Family History: The First Genetic
Screen." Nurse Practioner. Retrieved 23 Jun 2007 at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3958/is_200411/ai_n9469874/pg_5
Biesecker, Barbara. (24 Feb 2001). "Prenatal diagnoses of sex chromosome conditions:
The pro-life arguments state that a fetus is in fact a real-life person in the making. Is true there's no supporting scientific evidence for the beginning of personhood, but what if an unborn child has a soul and can actually feel pain? Isn't then artificial abortion a crime? Just because we are not sure, we should take the most radical solution that we can and are allowed to by law?
This is the first solid argument to sustain the moral impermissibility of induced abortion. Because having an abortion equals the death of a life growing inside, as a natural result of unprotected sexual intercourse. It is therefore considered that the new life, the fetus, did not have a choice. And having an artificial abortion furthermore deprives him/her of the right to chose (whether to live or not). So, if it's about the right to chose and the freedom to decide…
Abortion." Wikipedia. 2007. Wikimedia Foundation Inc. 21 April 2007. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abortion
Abortion debate." Wikipedia. 2007. Wikimedia Foundation Inc. 22 April 2007.
Women who see their physician two times a year for refills would see an individual cost savings of $85 per year for a total cost savings of $307 million for the population. In addition, approximately 2.1 million women would eliminate their annual gynecological visits altogether for an individual cost savings of $85 per year and a total cost savings of $178.54 million (Louis Harris and Associates 1993). Overall, the savings to women who either stop seeing their physician annually or reduce their visits to once a year would equal about $695.3 million.
Assuming the average wage rate is $12/hour and the average amount of time spent at the doctor's office is 11/2 hours (including travel time), women who currently see their physician four times a year for Oral Contraception refills would save 4.5 hours per year or$54 for a total opportunity cost savings of $44.4 million for the population. Five…
Holly Mead, IWPR/GWU Research Fellow. Making Birth Control More Accessible to Women. A Cost Benefit Analysis of Over-the-Counter Oral Conceptive. Feb, 2001. IWPR Publications.
Kate Saunders. New Mobile Clinics to carry out birth control policy in Tibet. July, 2003. Life News
China Forces Abortion, Sterilization on Tibetans Lhasa. Aug, 2000. CW News in collaboration with LSN.
Health Abortion 'part of birth control'. January, 1999. Health Latest BBC Health News.