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The fact that the local police authorities and local governing officials (like the mayor) were all of the same mindset as the perpetrators and that a deputy sheriff was involved first-hand in the murders virtually ensured that the crimes would remain unsolved unless the investigating authorities deviated from the normal guidelines for criminal investigations.
Nevertheless, the specific tactics used by the FBI agents were themselves criminal actions that, in other circumstances and certainly nowadays, would have resulted in charges of official misconduct, criminal prosecutions of the agents involved ironically) for civil rights violations, as well as civil claims against the agents personally and the Bureau. The agents illegally abducted the mayor and terrorized him with the implied threat of castration. They coerced information from the deputy's wife, (who was not involved at all in the crimes), exposing her to grave danger and causing her to be subjected to a beating…
The 1988 film Mississippi Burning depicts the total infestation of Mississippi government and civic society by racist rednecks. The Ku Klux Klan serves as a quasi-governmental and paramilitary authority that defies federal law. Their total infiltration into local governments makes the KKK an incredibly dangerous and powerful organization.
Civil ights legislation presents real threats to Klan authority. The KKK have no respect for the mandate of the federal government and are more than willing to use tactics like murder, assault, kidnapping, and terrorism in order to consolidate and maintain power. Their murdering of three civil rights activists transcends the gamut of ordinary crime and places the act squarely under the rubric of domestic terrorism. The KKK finds any dissenting opinions to be threatening, which is why Clinton Pell and the other Klansmen kill the civil rights activists.
Given the extraneous circumstances under which the KKK operates in the…
King, W. (1988). Mississippi Burning. The New York Times. Movie Review. Retrieved online: http://movies.nytimes.com/movie/review?res=940DE2DA1F30F937A35751C1A96E948260
Parker, A. (1988). Mississippi Burning. Feature film.
Membership in the KKK implies a support for hate crime; membership in the KKK is equivalent to membership in a domestic terrorist group. No Klan member can plead ignorance about the motives and tactics used by the organization. The organization exists to perpetuate a culture of white supremacy, by whatever means possible. Using violence, intimidation, infiltration of law enforcement, and conspiracy all point to terrorist acts. The KKK is highly organized and systematic, designed with clear motives in mind. One of the reasons why Lester Cowans becomes such a significant character in the film is because he is among the members who does not participate in the murder but whose membership in the Klan becomes crucial to the FBI's case.
The FBI uses ethically questionable tactics in Mississippi Burning. In one of the strongest scenes of the movie, Agent Rupert Anderson tortures one of the prime suspects in the case.…
Mississippi urning is an evocative movie that arouses horror over racial hatred. In fact, Director Alan Parker, in an interview, stated that the film's objective was precisely to "...cause them to react...because of the racism that's around them now..." (King, 1988, para.7). Parker does this by questioning the origins of the hatred through the characters in the film. Ward, the by the book FI agent, expresses it eloquently when he wonders, "Where does it come from, all this hatred?" (Mississippi urning)
One clear implication made by the film is that racism is perpetuated by the ignorant, as evidenced by its depiction of rednecks who, blindly adopting the racist attitude of their forefathers, resort to violence to keep the black community repressed: "These people crawled out of the sewers, Mr. Ward....' Gerolmo attempts a quick-fix enlightenment, blaming poverty and superstition....' (Kempley, 1988. para. 6,10.)
The film further traces the origins of…
Ebert, R. (1988, December 9.) Mississippi Burning. Chicago Sun-Times. Retrieved September, 2003, from the Chicago Sun-Times Web site: http://www.suntimes.com/ebert/ebert_reviews/1988/12/328325.html
King, W. (1988, December 4). Fact vs. Fiction in Mississippi. The New York
Times. Retrieved September 5, 2003, from The New York Times Web site: http://movies2.nytimes.com/mem/movies/review.html?title1=Mississippi%20BURNING%20%28MOVIE%29%20
The efforts of the FBI to solve this case were certainly in the greater good, and they did solve the case, even though the trial was a mockery. It seems the FBI could have done more to have the case moved to a more neutral location to help ensure a fair trial, which certainly did not happen. Indeed, the FBI gave high priority to the case, and even opened an office in Mississippi during the investigation (Editors). It is difficult to see how they could have done more. Not all of their decisions were ethical, but neither was the decision to murder three young men simply because of their convictions.
Was every action ethical? No, they literally paid for confessions and the safety of those who confessed. However, they were dealing with terrorists, and to reach them, they had to think like them, act like them, and do whatever they…
Editors. (2006). Famous American trials: U.S. Vs. Cecil Price, et al. Retrieved from the University of Missouri-Kansas City Web site: http://www.law.umkc.edu/faculty/projects/ftrials/price&bowers/price&bowers.htm2 April 2007.
Mississippi Burning (1988). Dir. Alan Parker. Perf. Gene Hackman, William Dafoe. Hollywood: Orion Pictures.
" The rebel army thought nothing of stealing food and good drinking water from the citizens of Vicksburg. The rebel army authorities put 100 men in charge of securing homes and lives, but "over seventy-five of the men selected" for the policing duty were Creoles who spoke little or no English, and the troops pretty much took what they wanted. Many people became refugees and moved into tent cities outside the range of the Union guns. "There was something tangible about stealing a pig or helping oneself to a buck of water," alker explained on page 123.
Prices for food and other necessary items went through the roof during the build-up to the battle. Brandy was $40 a gallon on December 3; on December 29, "when Sherman was knocking on the gates of the city," brandy went up to $60 a gallon (p. 128). On December 20, the Vicksburg City…
Arnold, James R. Grant Wins the War: Decision at Vicksburg. New York: John Wiley & Sons,
Confederate Military History, Vol. 7, Chapter IX. "The Vicksburg Campaign." The Siege of Vicksburg (May 18 - July 4, 1863). Retrieved 23 Nov. At http://www.civilwarhome.com/siegeofvicksburg.htm .
Faust, Patricia L. "The Battle of Vicksburg." Historical Times Encyclopedia of the Civil War. Retrieved 20 Nov. 2006 at http://www.civilwarhome.com/battleofvicksburg.htm .
Grant, Ulysses S. "The Vicksburg Campaign." The Siege of Vicksburg. Retrieved 22 Nov. 2006 at
Born in Jackson, Mississippi in 9143, Mildred Taylor was no stranger to racism. Discrimination pervaded everyday life in the segregated south. Almost as soon as Mildred was born, her parents ilbert Lee and Deletha Marie Taylor moved to Ohio: part of the great migration of Africa-Americans.
Yet in spite of moving, the family returned to visit friends and family. Staying in contact with her roots led Mildred Taylor to a career in storytelling. "The telling of family stories was a regular feature of Taylor family gatherings. Family storytellers told about the struggles relatives and friends faced in a racist culture, stories that revealed triumph, pride, and tragedy," (Crowe). hile visiting her family, Taylor learned about her ancestral roots and how slavery played a major part in forming the personal and collective identities of African-Americans like herself.
Back in Toledo, Taylor attended the integrated Scott High School and graduated…
Crowe, Chris. "Mildred D. Taylor." The Mississippe Writers Page. Retrieved: http://www.olemiss.edu/mwp/dir/taylor_mildred/
Taylor, Mildred. Quoted in the Penguin Putnam Books for Young Readers. Retrieved online: http://us.penguingroup.com/nf/Author/AuthorPage/0,,0_1000031974,00.html
2 Taylor, Mildred. Roll of Thunder, Hear My Cry. New York: Puffin/Penguin, 1976.
hat Mrs. Pell says to agent Anderson is both poignant and ironic: "Hatred isn't something you're born with. At school, they said segregation what's said in the Bible...Genesis 9, Verse 27. At 7 years of age, you get told it enough times, you believe it. You believe the hatred. You live it...you breathe it. You marry it" (Pell, (www.imdb.com).This movie was not a documentary albeit it did follow the plot of a real life civil rights tragedy. But the lines in the film reflect the reality of life in segregated, Jim Crow-dominated Southern towns during that time in our history.
In "Dances ith olves" the protagonist, John Dunbar, who has been banished to a wilderness post because he tried to commit suicide, has a newfound appreciation for Native Americans. In his life and his army career he has been given the propaganda that all native peoples are criminals and…
Lion's Gate Home Entertainment. "Crash." (2005)
Crash Script. "Dialogue Transcript." Retrieved October 22, 2008, at http://www.script-o-rama.com .
IMDb. "Dances With Wolves." Retrieved October 21, 2008, at http://www.imdb.com .
Ebert, Roger. "Crash." Retrieved October 21 at http://rogerebert.suntimes.com .
They were released only to be followed on the highway and shot dead.
Attorney General Robert Kennedy who was informed of the disappearance of the three men, arranged for Joseph Sullivan of the FBI to go to ississippi and investigate the situation together with FBI eridian-based agent John Proctor. Their findings would be splendidly presented in Court by John Doar, who prosecuted the federal case. Local officials were not sympathetic with the case and showed little interest in finding the ones responsible for the murders. Nevertheless, federal interest in the case was overwhelming, thus the investigation was impressive and finally led to the discovery of the killers.
The population of the country was reluctant to offering any kind of information regarding the killings; in fact, it was children who gave the investigators the most clues. The two agents used tactics such as the observation of the sheriff's behavior as he…
Mississippi Burning." Spartacus Educational. http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/USAburning.htm
Mississippi Burning." AfricanAmericans.com. http://www.africanamericans.com/CivilRightsSlaying.htm
The Ku Klux Klan: A Hundred Years of Terror." Indiana University: Southern Poverty Law Center, 2000. http://www.iupui.edu/~aao/kkk.html
Had the court applied consistency in their different rulings to local hate crimes, this case would have been settled in the lower court. As the previous decisions that Mitchell was using to justify his words; were clearly in appropriate decisions made by the court that did not protect free speech. Instead, it enabled someone to be a racist, because they could hide behind the First Amendment. It is through examining the Supreme Court case Wisconsin vs. Mitchell; in this light that highlights the overall complexity faced by various municipalities in regards to hate crimes ordinances.
arclay vs. Florida. U.S. Supreme Court Justice Center. 2010. 28 Feb. 2010
Dawson vs. Delaware. Cornell Law. 2010. 28 Feb. 2010
Haupt vs. United States. Find Law. 2020. 28 Feb. 2010
New York vs. Ferber. C. 2009. 28 Feb. 2010
R.A.V. Vs. St. Paul. Cornell Law. 2010. 28 Feb. 2010
Wisconsin vs. Mitchell. Cornell…
Barclay vs. Florida. U.S. Supreme Court Justice Center. 2010. 28 Feb. 2010
Dawson vs. Delaware. Cornell Law. 2010. 28 Feb. 2010
Haupt vs. United States. Find Law. 2020. 28 Feb. 2010
New York vs. Ferber. BC. 2009. 28 Feb. 2010
Uncle Tom characters were common in both white and black productions of the time, yet no director before Micheaux had so much as dared to shine a light on the psychology that ravages such characters. By essentially bowing to the two white men, Micheaux implied that Old Ned was less than a man; an individual whittled down to nothing more than yes-man and wholly deprived of self-worth. At this point in the history of black films, with some of the most flagrant sufferings of blacks exposed to the American public, the only logical path forward that African-Americans could take was to begin making cogent demands to improve their collective social situation.
Slowly, black characters in film took on greater and more significant roles in film. Sidney Poitier was one of the most powerful film stars of the mid twentieth century. In roles like the 1950 film by…
Finlayson, R. (2003). We Shall Overcome: The History of the American Civil Rights
Movement. Lerner Publications Company, Minneapolis, MN.
King, Jr., M. And Jackson, J. (1963). Why We Can't Wait. Signet Classic, New York,
Mis) representations of African-Americans in film:
From the Birth of a Nation onward
Recently, the Academy of Motion Pictures awarded 12 Years a Slave the title of Best Picture of the year. However, it is important to remember that the development of American cinema, racism, and the perpetuation of African-American stereotypes in film has a long and ignoble history. In the essay "The Good Lynching and Birth of a Nation: Discourses and aesthetics of Jim Crow," historian Michele Faith allace examines how one of the great silent film epics directed by cinematic master D.. Griffith consciously and subconsciously validated hegemonic racial ideologies. allace argues that when cinema was in its infancy, although African-Americans were portrayed on screen less frequently than whites, they were not addressed in the same derogatory manner as characterized the Griffith epic and Griffith's masterpiece set the tone for decades afterward. "The film's continued notoriety challenges all…
Ebert, Roger. "The Birth of a Nation movie review." Roger Ebert Reviews. 30 Mar 2003
[4 Mar 2014] http://www.rogerebert.com/reviews/great-movie-the-birth-of-a-nation-1915
Gussow, Adam. Seems like murder: Southern violence and the blues tradition. Chicago:
University of Chicago Press, 2002.
3. What was "white backlash"? Give an example of an event that demonstrates "white backlash" and why.
“White backlash” refers to the antagonistic, often violent response of white supremacists to civil rights and social justice. Although the term might apply especially well to the 1960s, the era in which President Johnson passed the landmark Civil Rights Act, white backlash can easily be traced back to the Reconstruction Era and the rise of the KKK. Rather than welcome the potential for an egalitarian and harmonious society, white supremacists clung to racist beliefs and used whatever means possible to retain political and social hegemony. Any resistance to positive social change related to racial parity, social justice, and civil rights can be considered “white backlash.”
In the 1960s, white backlash took on new forms. As legislation at the federal level turned the tide against white supremacy throughout the nation, groups like…
This feeling of anger and resentment is effectively illustrated through the conflict between Abner and the Negro, De Spain's helper.
In this conflict, Abner is seen resisting the Negro's attempt to stop him from trespassing De Spain's home. Evidently, the Negro's status in life is much better than Abner, who has to toil very hard in order for him and his family to survive everyday. This fact infuriates Abner, and his resentment against the Negro's condition in life is reflected in his hateful statement about his poverty and De Spain's seemingly unfair status as a wealthy man: "Pretty and white, ain't it?...That's sweat. Nigger sweat. Maybe it ain't white enough yet to suit him. Maybe he wants to mix some white sweat in it" (175). This statement is Abner's own way of protesting against his condition in life, a bitterness that reflects not only class conflict between the wealthy and…
Fox, R. (1998). A companion to American thought. MA: Blackwell Publishers.
Horton, M. (2000). "Balzacian evolution and the origin of the Snopeses." Southern Literary Journal, Vol. 33, Issue 1.
Kartiganer, D. (1997). Faulkner in cultural context. Mississippi: University Press of Mississippi.
Krevling, M. (1998). Inventing Southern literature. Mississippi: University Press of Mississippi.
' But now he said nothing" (Faulkner). In contrast, the Younger family members also grow and change. Most notably, Walter Lee takes on the role of leader in the family, and makes the right decision for the rest of his family members. Critic Domina notes, "He must become the acknowledged head of his family, and he must also interact with other adult males as an equal" (Domina 113). These two characters gain personal growth and awareness, and the two stories' conclusions depend on this growth and awareness. The young boy will probably never see his dysfunctional family again, while the Youngers will probably face more discrimination and hatred. However, they have both attained their own measure of happiness, and both stories end on a somewhat hopeful note. Critic Ford continues, "Sarty will survive 'the terrible handicap of being young,' will surpass his beleaguered childhood and mature into a worthy human…
Cooper, David D. "Hansberry's a Raisin in the Sun." Explicator 52.1 (1993): 59-61.
Domina, Lynn. Understanding a Raisin in the Sun a Student Casebook to Issues, Sources, and Historical Documents. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1998.
Faulkner, William. "Barn Burning." Northern Kentucky University. 2007. 18 July 2007. http://www.nku.edu/~peers/barnburning.htm
Ford, Marilyn Claire. "Narrative Legerdemain: Evoking Sarty's Future in 'Barn Burning'." The Mississippi Quarterly 51.3 (1998): 527.
Nelson's violent images call upon the reader to behold the corpse of Till, forcing the reader into a state of seismic cultural shock, as America has long been eager to forget its racist legacy (Harold, 2006, p.263). Trethewey's first lines of her book are gentler, but there is always the urge to remember: "Truth be told, I do not want to forget anything of my former life" (Trethewey, p.1)
The calls her poetic collection an act of memory "Erasure, those things that get left out of the landscape of the physical landscape, things that aren't monumented or memorialized, and how we remember and what it is that we forget. I wanted to kind of restore some of those narratives, so those things that are less remembered (Brown, 2007). Her use of the sonnet form over her cycle of poems is not as perfectly consistent as Nelson's, but repetition and remembrance…
Black Soldiers in Blue: African-American Troops in the Civil War Era. Edited by John
David Smith. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2004.
Brown, Jeffery. "Pulitzer Prize Winner Trethewey Discusses Poetry Collection."
Transcript of Online New Hour. 25 Apr 2007. 6 Jun 2007. http://www.pbs.org/newshour/bb/entertainment/jan-june07/trethewey_04-25.html
maturation process, but it comes easily only to a few. Of course there are choices that usually generate little anguish such as what to have for breakfast or which route to take when going home, but when a person is a diabetic or inclement weather makes every road hazardous, even these choices become difficult. This paper discusses a poem and a short story by two of the greatest American authors of the twentieth century. Both Robert Frost's poem "The Road Not Taken" and illiam Faulkner's short story "Barn Burning" are about the difficult choices people are often confronted with. The stories reflect both real and intangible choices that the protagonists had to make (in Frosts poem the main character is assumed to be the author himself) and what the outcome of the choices were. This paper will begin with a literal summary of the two works, the real choices that…
Cornett, Michael E. "Robert Frost on 'Listen America': The Poet's Message to America in 1956." Papers on Language and Literature 29.4 (1994): 417-429. Print.
Faulkner, William. Barn Burning 1939. Web.
Loges, Max L. "Faulkner's Barn Burning." The Explicator 57.1 (1998): 43-46. Print.
Pauwels, Pamela, & Carol Hess. "The Road Less Traveled." Kappa Delta Pi Record 37.4 (2001): 164-170. ProQuest Direct.
Union General William Tecumseh Sherman, commander of the western armies that took Atlanta in 1864. Specifically, it will look at how his capture of Atlanta and eventual March to the Sea eventually ended the Civil War.
GENEAL WILLIAM T. SHEMAN AND ATLANTA
You cannot qualify war in harsher terms than I will. War is cruelty, and you cannot refine it...War is hell" (William T. Sherman).
William Tecumseh Sherman is one of the most well-known and notorious generals of the Union Army in the Civil War. The people of Georgia still speak his name with contempt if they speak it at all, due to his infamous burning of Atlanta and his March to the Sea, which eventually helped bring the South to their knees, winning the war for the North. During his military career, he was hailed as a savior, called "crazy," and demoted; yet, he became one of the best-known…
Bengston, Wayne C. "William Tecumseh Sherman." About North Georgia. 2002. 20 Oct. 2002. http://ngeorgia.com/people/shermanwt.html
Howard, W.P. "Dec. 1864 Account of Destruction of Atlanta." Carl Vinson Institute of Government. 15 Oct. 1999. 20 Oct. 2002. http://www.cviog.uga.edu/Projects/gainfo/atldestr.htm
Sherman, William T. Memoirs of General William T. Sherman. New York: D. Appleton & Company, 1876.
To the Mayor and Councilmen of Atlanta." Nebulae.net. 2002. 20 Oct. 2002. http://www.nebulae.net/calypso/letter-to-atlanta.htm
It was our land, and still they claimed it as if it were their own.
Not many years passed, and these Americans were everywhere among us - killing us, and driving us out of our ancient homes. They sent their soldiers to slaughter us, and later to collect us up to live beside their forts. They killed the buffalo on which so many of us depended for food, and so caused us to starve. And when we complain, when we tried to use their "laws" to help ourselves, they laughed at us, and told us that we had no rights. This land belonged to them. It was their "Manifest Destiny" to expand across the continent, and to take the land from the "savages" that lived there. They would bring God and civilization to all these places. They believed that only they were right, and that only their God was real.…
Cultues in Conflict & Change
William Faulkne leaves us in suspense at the end of a tubulent sequence of events titled "Ban Buning." Who killed whom? We could speculate fom othe books pehaps but those wods ae outside this stoy. Given that stict constaint, we don't eally know. Saty watches De Spain and his hose vanish in the distance and heas thee shots, which he assumes kill his fathe at least, and pehaps olde bothe. This is the widest possible assumption but a fulle analysis would have to exploe othe possibilities. The esult fo Saty is the same: He uns away fom fathe, bothe and the women's cultue egadless who pulled which tigge(s) at the De Spain ban. Abne Snopes will appea hee as 'AS,' De Spain as 'DS' and 'Saty' as 'CSS' fo bevity, but also abstaction, because Faulkne ('WF') sets up abstactions, though symbolic equations that pemeate the…
references and habits; she is only one but the men single her out for different reasons, which were ultimately provoked in fact by an unusual weather event. If the workers ever fry and devour "an egg from some woman," it will not be she who caters to their taste for human flesh.
Civil ights Historical Journal Entry
Tonight I awoke to the unmistakable sounds of long restrained rage being freed from its cage. My neighbors are in the street below the grocery store I've owned for nearly two decades, decent folks who are simply trying to earn a living and raise their families the right way. While most of them are Black, and have been since the bigoted practice of "blockbusting" drove most of the Whites to migrate en masse from the neighborhood of Watts (Simpson, 2012), these people are my neighbors, and in most cases, my dear friends. Tonight though, they have become an angry mob growing larger by the minute, a constellation of fierce eyes flashing amidst the darkness, orbiting slowly around a police car, the White cop driving it, and the young Black man he is trying to arrest. As the screams and shouts become more pitched, and the…
Reitman, V., & Landsberg, M. (2005, August 11). Watts riots, 40 years later. The Los Angeles Times. Retrieved from http://www.latimes.com/news/la-me-watts11aug11,0,673501.story
Simpson, K. (2012, February 15). The great migration: Creating a new black identity in los angeles. KCET Connected, Retrieved from http://www.kcet.org/socal/departures/landofsunshine/portraits/the-great-migration - creating-a-new-black-identity.html
O rother, Where Art Thou?
Homer in Hollywood: The Coen rothers' O rother, Where Art Thou?
Could a Hollywood filmmaker adapt Homer's Odyssey for the screen in the same way that James Joyce did for the Modernist novel? The idea of a high-art film adaptation of the Odyssey is actually at the center of the plot of Jean-Luc Godard's 1963 film Contempt, and the Alberto Moravia novel on which Godard's film is based. In Contempt, Prokosch, a rich American dilettante film producer played by Jack Palance, hires Fritz Lang to film a version of Homer's Odyssey, then hires a screenwriter to write it and promptly ruins his marriage to rigitte ardot. Fritz Lang gamely plays himself -- joining the ranks of fellow "arty" German-born directors who had earlier deigned to act before the camera (like Erich von Stroheim in Wilder's Sunset oulevard, playing a former director not unlike himself, or…
Peter Biskind, Easy Riders, Raging Bulls How the Sex-Drugs-and-Rock'N'Roll Generation Saved Hollywood. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1999. Print.
Cavell, Stanley. Pursuits of Happiness: the Hollywood Comedy of Remarriage. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1984. Print.
Connors, Catherine. Petronius the Poet: Verse and Literary Tradition in the Satyricon. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998. Print.
Doom, Ryan P. The Brothers Coen: Unique Characters of Violence. Santa Barbara, Denver and Oxford: Praeger / ABC-CLIO, 2009. Print.
But the focus of Tim Tyson's book, the North Carolinian veteran Dickie Marrow was attacked and murdered by a gang of white men. The police and the jury system, much like the legislature of the state of Mississippi were complicit in the violence, and eventually the African-Americans of the community rioted in response to the delay and the fact the men were not convicted. On the pretext that Marrow had made an inappropriate comment towards a white woman, he became a subject of vengeance, recalled the author in a 2004 interview with NPR, a white man whose father was an anti-segregation minister, and African-Americans, after initially cooperating with the investigation, felt that they had no other recourse but street violence ("Tim Tyson, 'Blood Done ign My Name,'"2004, NPR: Morning Edition).
Marrow's death came to symbolize all of the oppression and injustice inflicted upon African-Americans, and the deferred promises of the…
Curry, Constance. (1996). Silver Rights. New York: Harvest.
Tyson, Tim. (1994). Blood Done Sign My Name. New York; Crown Books.
Tim Tyson, 'Blood Done Sign My Name'." (10 Nov 2004). NPR: Morning Edition. Retrieved 6 Nov 2007. http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=4162533
By enacting the Black Codes, starting in 1865, following the 13th Amendment, however, and by giving birth, in 1866, to the Ku Klux Klan and its reign of terror over the freedmen, the southern states successfully circumvented the actual enjoyment by blacks of most of the freedoms granted them by the 13th Amendment.
The Constitution of the United tates of America [Article II]. A History of the American People.
Ed. Harry J. Carman et al. 2nd ed. Vol. 1. New York: Knopf, 1960. 776.
Hill, Elias. "Testimony before Congressional Committee Investigating the Ku Klux Klan, 1871." Reading the American Past: elected Historical Documents. Ed. Michael
Johnson. 2nd ed. Vol. 2. New York: Bedford, 2002. 9-13.
Jefferson, Thomas. The Declaration of Independence. A History of the American People.
Ed. Harry J. Carman et al. 2nd ed. Vol. 1. New York: Knopf, 1960. 759.
Mississippi Black Code, November 1865." Reading…
Black Codes in the Former Confederate States." December 15, 2004. http://www.civilwar home.com/blackcodes.htm>. 5 pages.
Brinkley, Douglas. History of the United States. New York: Viking, 2002. 237-8.
Carman, Harry J. et al., Ed. A History of the American People. 2nd ed. Vol. 1. New York:
Knopf, 1960. 738.
Certainly, Lincoln was extremely upset with the notion that while some Americans were free to pursue their own personal agendas, others were not free in any respect whatsoever, these being African-American slaves. Thus, in order to end this situation, Lincoln dedicated his life to seeing the institution of slavery eradicated from the face of the earth which he accomplished in some small measure in 1863 with his Emancipation Proclamation.
Furthermore, in 1860, the editor for the Charleston Mercury, a staunch advocate of slavery, wrote an editorial called "The Terrors of Submission," a reference to the South falling under the control of the abolitionists who wished to see slavery destroyed and the slaves given their freedom. This unidentified editor points out that if Abraham Lincoln becomes President in 1861, then an "immediate danger will be brought to slavery. . . all slave property will be weakened. . . And all the…
"Causes of the Civil War." 2009. Internet. Retrieved May 25, 2009 from http://www.ket.org/civilwar/causes.html .
Horwitz, Tony. Confederates in the Attic: Dispatches From the Unfinished Civil War.
New York: Random House, 2002.
Taylor, Alan. American Colonies. New York: Penguin Group, 2003.
The ethical impact of this movie is relatively central to the work. The moral is not exactly straight forward. Of course the rednecks who did this terrible thing to a little girl deserved to die and her father did not deserve the death penalty for killing them. One moral is that rape and murder are both bad, but that crimes based on a sense of denied justice are more pure than those which are racist and sexist. Perhaps the most profound moral, though, is that racism and injustice in one area of life inevitably will lead to crime and destruction in others. Carl Lee would never have taken the law into his own hands, whether temporarily insane or not, if the law were doing a good job of taking affairs into its hands. If it were not for the ingrained racism of the culture that allowed white men to rape…
Social Analysis of the lues Music in the American Society
The blues, or blues music, has been considered an important and popular music genre in the history of American music. Its history goes back many years ago, during the black slavery period in the American history. lues music was said to have traced its roots in the cotton plantations commonly found in the South, and that blues music sang by the African-American slaves were their forms of protest against the slavery system that the white American society encourages. However, blues music did not proliferate and became prevalent among the black and white American society until after the Emancipation period, wherein most African-American slaves were now freed from bondage to slavery legally, and slavery was now abolished and prohibited to practice in the society, especially in the white American community.
The blues is defined as a "musical style created in response…
David, Angela. "Blues Legacies and Black Feminism." 1998. George Washington University Newsletter Web site: "Women Writers Talk History, Feminism, and Politics." 3 November 2002 http://www.gwu.edu/~wstu/newsletter/spring98/writers.htm .
Douglass, Frederick. E-text of "Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, An American Slave." 1845. Afro-American Almanac Web site. 3 November 2002 http://www.toptags.com/aama/books/book10.htm .
Evans, David. "Demythologizing the Blues." 1999. Institute for Studies in American Music Newsletter. 3 November 2002 http://depthome.brooklyn.cuny.edu/isam/evans.html.
Herman, Hawkeye. "History of the Blues."
Night of the Iguana, by Tennessee Williams. Specifically, it will include the underlying themes that are brought out by Tennessee Williams. What are the playwright's beliefs about humanity, morality, cruelty, and evil in the world? What does the drama say about redemption and healing? "The Night of the Iguana" is more than a play about sex and healing, it is a play about a man who cannot find himself, and so allows others to run rampant over his life.
NIGHT OF THE IGUANA
Night of the Iguana" is a tale about characters, real characters with quirks and mental problems, such as Maxine, the brash hotel owner, and Shannon, the partly deranged tour director. The "iguana" of the title is really Shannon, who is a defrocked Reverend trying to come to terms with his penchant for underage girls, and his need to survive his latest debacle. The characters really make the…
Adler, Thomas P. "Culture, power, and the (En)gendering of Community: Tennessee Williams and Politics." The Mississippi Quarterly 48.4 (1995): 649+.
Crandell, George W., ed. The Critical Response to Tennessee Williams. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1996.
Tischler, Nancy M. Student Companion to Tennessee Williams. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2000.
Williams, Tennessee. The Night of the Iguana. New York: New Directions, 1961.
2). It is clear that the United States looks on this pathetic situation as a place that needs assistance, and the U.S. has provided aid off and on to Sudan through the years of its independence. It may be, Lewis writes, that the U.S. actually did not intervene in any way in the carnage in Darfur until massive international publicity forced America's hand. The 22-year civil war that claimed 2 million lives and "displaced 4 million people" ended in 2005, Lewis explains, but was "scarcely noticed in the West" (Lewis, p. 1).
What has been the U.S. role in the peace accords and Security Council Resolutions?
The U.S. has had its hand in numerous attempts to end the Darfur and Sudan tragedies. Prior to 2005, the year in which the UN Security Council -- along with Sudan and other cooperating nations -- put together the "Comprehensive Peace Agreement" (CPA) the…
ABC News, 2006, 'George Clooney Speaks About Crisis in Darfur -- 4.30.06', Retrieved April 2, 2011, from http://abcnews.go.com .
CBC News, 2005, 'Sudan's mass killings not genocide: UN report'. Retrieved April 3, 2011,
From http://www.cbc.ca/news/world/story/2005/02/01/newdarfur-report050201.html .
Enough Project, 2010, Sudan Peace Watch -- Nov. 4, 2010. Retrieved April 2, 2011, from http://www.enoughproject.org .
The Hartford Convention was a gathering of Federalist Party delegates from five New England states that met in Hartford, Connecticut, between December 15, 1814, and January 5, 1815. Its members convened to discuss their long-held grievances against the policies of the successive Democratic-
Republican administrations of Thomas Jefferson and James Madison.
After that, the party never regained a national following. Its beliefs and actions during the War of 1812 helped seal its fate. y 1828 the Federalists became the first American political party to die out because it could not adjust to an increasingly democratic national spirit, especially in the nation's towns and cities. And among most Americans, mainly farmers suspicious of government, its policies of strong federal involvement in the economy kept it un-popular. Inconsistency in its stance toward military action (first undertaking a naval war with France, then treating for peace with that same nation, then actively opposing…
Alexander Hamilton's Anglo-American vision. (2008, July 26). Retrieved March 31, 2009, from American Founding: http://americanfounding.blogspot.com/2008/07/alexander-hamiltons-anglo-american.html
Corps of discovery: President Jefferson's vision. (2003, October 10). Retrieved March 31, 2009, from Center of Military History - U.S. Army: http://www.history.army.mil/LC/the%20Mission/Expedition/page_2.htm
Democratic-Republican party. (n.d.). Retrieved March 31, 2009, from Law Library - American Law and Legal Information: http://law.jrank.org/pages/6058/Democratic-Republican-Party.html
Federalist party. (n.d.). Retrieved March 31, 2009, from Bookrags.com: http://www.bookrags.com/history/federalist-party-aaw-01/
Silence and Withdrawal - where the man "punishes" the woman for her "behavior" by becoming silent and withdrawn.
Lack of Emotional Connection - where the woman reaches out for support and empathy, and the man withholds it (Chang 73-81).
It is easy to see how these conditions of verbal and mental abuse could lead to feelings of low self-esteem and depression in women. Author Chang quotes a woman stuck in a mentally abusive relationship as saying, "He complained I never communicated with him, but whenever I tried to communicate with him, he would always tell me why I was wrong to think that way. And so it finally reached a point of why bother. You know, I got tired of listening to him criticize me'" (37-year-old nurse) (Chang 73). Studies indicate that abuse in a relationship, no matter what type of abuse, can lead to long-term depression, especially when the…
Ainsworth, Patricia. Understanding Depression. Jackson, MS: University Press of Mississippi, 2000.
Chang, Valerie Nash. I Just Lost Myself. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers, 1996.
D'Mello, Dale a. "1 Epidemiology of Late-Life Depression." Depression in Later Life: A Multidisciplinary Psychiatric Approach. Ed. James M. Ellison and Sumer Verma. New York: Marcel Dekker, 2003. 1-26.
Editors. "Depression: What Every Woman Should Know." National Institute for Mental Health. 2007. 30 Nov. 2007. http://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/publications/depression-what-every-woman-should-know/summary.shtml
In a discussion about life and death, other soldiers talk about the lieutenant's sensibility and wonder whether there was something wrong with them for not feeling as bad as Cross felt.
The young lieutenant blames himself for Lavender's death as he realizes that his love for Martha had prevented him from properly guiding and protecting his men. When the dark falls upon the Alpha Company, Cross digs a foxhole and stands at its bottom weeping. "In part he was grieving for Ted Lavender, but mostly it was for Martha, and for himself, because she belonged to another world [...] and because he realized she did not love him and never would." (O'rien)
The morning following Ted's death, Lieutenant Cross throws Martha's photographs and letters in the foxhole and sets them on fire. This moment represents the character's change in feelings and behavior. Now that he realizes the seriousness of war…
O'Brien, T., the Things They Carried, Broadway, December 29, 1998
Nielson, J., Warring Fictions: American Literary Culture and the Vietnam War Narrative, University Press of Mississippi, December 1998
Talbott, J.E., Soldiers, Psychiatrists and Combat Trauma, Journal of Interdisciplinary History, Volume 27, Number 3, 1997
Hero's Journey in O, Brother! here Art Thou? And The Lion King
The journey home may, at times, be complicated and met with obstacles that must be overcome. O, Brother! here Art Thou?, the 2000 film directed by Joel Cohen, depicts one man's journey to get back to his family after being made part of a chain gang in rural Mississippi during the 1930s . Similarly, the animated Disney picture, The Lion King, released in 1994, depicts a young Simba's quest to return to his home and restore order, eventually regaining his rightful place as king. O, Brother! here Art Thou? And The Lion King explore the protagonist's journey home and the obstacles that must be overcome in order for them to achieve their goals.
The hero's journey is often characterized by a series of steps that must be completed in order to attain a goal and aid the transformation…
Cohen, Joel, dir. O, Brother! Where Art Thou? Touchstone Pictures/Universal Pictures, 2000.
"The Heroic Monomyth." ThinkQuest. Web. Accessed 18 April 2011.
8 billion, and primary metal manufactures, $1.4 billion (Exports pp). Together, these five manufactured product categories accounted for 61% of the state's total exports of goods in for that year (Exports pp).
In dollar terms, the leading manufactured export growth category is transportation equipment, rising $294 million between 1999 to 2003, while others included miscellaneous manufactures, up $248 million, processed foods, up $192 million, and primary metal manufactures, up $171 million (Exports pp). In percentage terms, the fastest growing manufactured export category is fabric mill products, which grew 70%, from $99 million in 1999 to $169 million in 2003, while others included processed foods, up 52%, miscellaneous manufactures, up 48%, and beverages and tobacco products, up 48% (Exports pp).
The Port of Pittsburgh is the largest inland river port in the United States and the 11th largest port of any kind (Water pp). The Port Commission is the central point…
Coal Mining in Pennsylvania." Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection. http://www.dep.state.pa.us/dep/deputate/enved/go_with_inspector/coalmine/Coal_Mining_in_Pennsylvania.htm
This is a web page from the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental
Protection web site. It provides a history of the state's coal mining industry.
Gordon, John Steele. "Iron and Steel Industry." Readers Companion to American History. http://college.hmco.com/history/readerscomp/rcah/html/ah_046100_ironandsteel.htm
US Government and Environmental Ethics
The United States government has had a long history with the environment, beginning with the very beginning of the settlement of the Pilgrims, through the industrialization era, forming the beginning principles of having national parks, and to today with the onset of climate change and the environmental hazards of the 21st century. (National Park Service, 2012) Compared to other countries, the U.S. has had a more favorable view towards the use of the environment for business matters, often leaving entire communities scarred by the unprotected use of machinery and pollution to retrieve coal minerals, build six lane highways through forests, and even building massive subdivisions of buildings so close together that they represent risks of fire and natural disaster. There are several government agencies that have been created through the years to govern the vast territories that have been preserved, but the amount…
American Farmland Trust. (2012). "History of the Farm Bill." Retrieved from, http://www.farmland.org/programs/farm-bill/history/usfarmsubsidies.asp .
The Encyclopedia of Earth. (2008). "Roosevelt, Franklin D. And his Environmental Policies." Retrieved from, http://www.eoearth.org/article/Roosevelt,_Franklin_D ..
The Environmental Protection Agency. (2012). "About Us." Retrieved from, http://www.epa.gov/aboutepa/ .
BBC News. (2011). "What is the Kyoto Treaty?." Retrieved from, http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/2233897.stm .
The media present through radios talked extensively about the trial while print media also gave the event a lot of coverage. In fact media people and many others thronged Dayton to witness the famous trial first hand.
The trial was on for the education system that is whether it is to be ruled by the faith or reason. Darrel held the belief that education system should not be controlled by the bigots and so he grilled Bryan on the issue who in turn gave confusing answers contradicting his own views about the interpretation of Bible. On one hand Bryan failed to impress with his views while n the other hand critics like H.L. Mencken made a mockery of the trial. This whole brouhaha created a picture of a tussle between forward approach of science and backward approach of religion. After the Tennessee Supreme Court verdict federal jurisprudence braced the idea…
Gaffney Jr., Edward (July 12, 1998). Trial of the Century: How the Scopes Trial Framed the Modern Debate over Science and Religion. Los Angeles Times, Retrieved October 23, 2006, at http://www.arn.org/larson/latimes071298.htm
psychological impact of Katrina & Lusitania
Hurricane Katrina which took place in the year 2005 is said to be one of the worst storm disaster that took place in the history of the United States. It led to loss of many lives, and it was unavoidable. The winds both from Louisiana to Alabama caused the level of water to arise at about 80% of the New Orleans and neighborhoods. The tragedy left many people with worries asking how the tragedy like that could happen to threaten the lives of many Americans (Brinkley, 2006).
The sinking of Lusitania on the other hand, contributed to various impacts on America as well as, the World War One. However, the Americans were never interested in joining the war unless they had finished another two years. The Lusitania sinking also enraged many Americans as well as, hastening the people from United States' entrance into the…
Brinkley, D. (2006). The great deluge: Hurricane Katrina, New Orleans, and the Mississippi Gulf Coast. New York: Morrow.
Guterman, P. (2005). Psychological preparedness for disaster. Retrieved October 10, 2012 from http://www.academia.edu/233646/Psychological_preparedness_for_disaster
Gant, P.G., & Gantt, R. (2011). Disaster Psychology. October 10, 2012 from http://www.asse.org/professionalsafety/pastissues/057/08/042_049_F1Gan_0812.pdf .
Ballard, R.D., & Dunmore, S. (2003). Exploring the Lusitania: probing the mysteries of the sinking that changed history. New York: Warner Books.
Business hetoric: Drilling in the Marcellus Shale
and Environmental Politics
Inexpensive energy sources are a requirement if the country is going to continue to thrive the way it has for more than 200 years. The United States is trying to decrease the amount of fossil fuels that it uses in everyday applications. However, the worry is not the fuels themselves, but the costs associated with the fuels. Fossil fuels are a viable resource if they are clean and extracted from the earth in ways that can be shown to be environmentally friendly. Because of these requirements, natural gas has become one of the new class of fuels that is thought of as superior to producing products from crude oil.
Natural gas is a clean energy source that can be extracted more safely than other sources of gas. Another bonus is that the product is very plentiful in the United States.…
American Petroleum Institute (API). (2010). Hydraulic fracturing: Unlocking America's natural gas resources. American Petroleum Institute.
Brown, V.J. (2007). Putting the heat on gas. Environmental Health Perspectives, 115(2), 76-77.
Chambers, A.J. (2007). Report of the international energy transactions committee. Energy Law Journal, 30(1), 207-217.
City of New York. (2010). Natural gas drilling overview. Retrieved from http://www.nyc.gov/html/dep/html/news/natural_gas_drilling_overview.shtml
BP Oil Spill
Strategy and Corporate Governance
The bp oil spill of 2010
British Petroleum (BP) is one of the largest oil exploring companies in the world. It is recognized for its efficient practices. In recent years it has positioned itself as an environmentally responsible company by stressing its commitment to undertaking exploration activities by causing minimum harm to the natural environment. It has also invested in technologies to make drilling under the seabed more secure so that oil spills do not occur. However, these claims were brought into question on April 20, 2012 when a massive explosion and oil spill took place on the Deepwater Horizon oil rig over the Macondo oil well in the U.S. Gulf. There was huge damage to the marine environment and to the livelihood of people living in the coastal communities in Louisiana and other coastal states. The poor response of the company was…
ABC News. (2010, July 27). BP CEO Tony Hayward Gets Golden Parachute. Is $18 Million Too Much? ABC News. Retrieved May 1, 2012, from http://www.abcnews.go.com/WN/bp-ceo-tony-hayward-receive-compensation-world-news/story?id=1257978
Alleyne, R. (2010, July 30). BP Oil Spill: Was Tony Hayward Right After All? The Telegraph. Retrieved May 1, 2012, from http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/northamerica/usa/7918000/BP-oil-spill-Was-Tony-Hayward-right-after-all.html
Arnott, S. (2010, July 28). BP CEO Tony Hayward: In His Own Words. Bloomberg Business Week. Retrieved May 1, 2012, from http://www.businessweek.com/globalbiz/content/jul2010/gb20100728_556093.htm
BBC. (2010, June 1). BP's Shares Fall 13% after Plan to Stop Oil Leak Fails. BBC. Retrieved May 1, 2012, from http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/10202162
2007 Economic Crisis on American Car market
Effect of the 2008 global economic crisis on automotive industries
Crisis in the United States
Crisis in Canada
Crisis in ussia
Crisis in European markets
Crisis in Asian markets
Effects by other related crisis events
In this paper, we will review the effects of 2008 global automotive crisis. Our main focus will be on the American car manufacturers and the negative impact they suffered due to the crisis. We will also have a look at how this crisis had affected car manufacturers in other major markets around the world notably Europe, Canada and the prominent Asian markets such as China and India. Finally, we will look at some of the other factors which were important to this event namely the energy crisis since the cost of fuel is directly related to the car industry.
The automobile industry is a very important part…
Lee, C. (2003). Financial Liberalization and Economic Crisis in Asia. New York: Routledge.
Pempel, T.J. (1999). The Politics of Asian Economic Crisis. New York: Cornell University Press.
Arestis, P. (2001). What Global Economic Crisis? New York: Palgrave.
Liou, K.T. (2002). Managing Economic Development in Asia. Westport, CT: Praeger.
Hispanics Living in Alabama
The United States has a large number of minority groups and the largest among them are the Hispanic population. According to the latest census, the Hispanic population in Alabama now number 75,830. The census authorities in U.S. had coined the term 'Hispanic' to denote specifically the people from 22 countries in Latin America, and living in the United States. The growth of population in this community has been very high during the last ten years - a growth of 247 per cent. They constitute a large consumer market worth $685 million annually, and contribute $251 million to the state and local authorities in taxes. It is obvious that the large growth is due to the classic reasons for migration - poverty. They had an expectation of a new and better life in the United States when they first set foot on U.S. soil.
Of all industries…
healthcare services, many people could encounter some form of discrimination on the basis of their race, gender, or even sexual orientation. Discrimination in healthcare may seem like it is not something that is a major issue. However, it absolutely does come up in many situations, states and environments. hether based on gender, religion, race or sexuality, discrimination happens at overt or implied levels all of the time. In other situations, there are huge disparities in healthcare outcomes from one group to another and many experts say that this can only come from systemic or sporadic instance of racism from the healthcare sphere, from society in general or a combination of the two. hile most people get very good care, there are situations where the healthcare and/or government sectors fall short. It is important to note that although people are not always aware of this; there are various laws that seek…
Cornell Law School. (n.d.). 11 U.S. Code Section 507 - Priorities. Retrieved from www.law.cornell.edu: https://www.law.cornell.edu/uscode/text/11/507
Cornell Law School. (n.d.). 18 U.S. Code Section 152 - Concealment of assets; false oaths and claims; bribery. Retrieved from www.law.cornell.edu: https://www.law.cornell.edu/uscode/text/18/152
lawschoolcasebriefs.net. (2002). Access Now, Inc. v. Southwest Airlines Co. Retrieved from www.lawschoolcasebriefs.net: http://www.lawschoolcasebriefs.net/2013/12/access-now-inc-v-southwest-airlines-co.html
State of California. (n.d.). California Corporations Code. Retrieved from www.leginfo.ca.gov: http://www.leginfo.ca.gov/.html/corp_table_of_contents.html
Non-Indigenous Occupiers of the Hudson iver Valley
There are animals and plants that are often considered to be native to any given region, they are vital to the ecosystem of the regions and need to be kept in balance to perpetuate the ecosystem of the region. When there is an elimination of threat to one of the native occupiers of the region, then there is a potential for risk of decimation of the other members of the ecosystem as well. However, the indigenous occupiers of Hudson Valley have faced threats elimination since the 1930s with the onset of new developments and housing which came along with non-indigenous species some of which were invasive. It is important to know that most of the time, the indigenous species, are considered to be those that are found on the East of Mississippi thriving naturally and can grow well in the prevailing weather in…
Defenders of Wildlife, (2016). Invasive Species in New York. Retrieved February 28, 2016 from http://www.defenders.org/sites/default/files/publications/new_york.pdf
FernCreek Design & Build, (2016). The Role of Native Plants. Retrieved February 28, 2016 from http://ferncreekdesign.org/whygonative.html
Hudson River Garden Calendar, (2016 ). Seedling Sale. Retrieved February 28, 2016 from http://www.hvgardencalendar.com/
Ancient ome openly accepted male-to-female transsexuals, allowing them to assume female identities without negative social repercussions, obviously long before the science existed for them to have gender-reassignment surgery (eitz, 1998). Modern Indian society has Hijiras, transsexuals that, while not always treated with respect, are accorded their own gender identity and not relegated to male or female (eitz, 1998). The Dine/Navajos recognized three sexes: male, female, and Nadles. The Nadles could be intersexed people or transsexual people of either gender (eitz, 1998). The Sioux referred to transsexuals as Winkte, and allowed them to completely assume their preferred gender. "Physical females lived as male warriors, and had wives, while physical males lived their lives completely as women. In Sioux society no special magic was associated with this, it was just considered a way of correcting a mistake of nature" (eitz, 1998). What these examples make clear is that, in a different society,…
NNDB. (2010). David Reimer. Retrieved February 23, 2010 from NNDB
Peirce, K. (1999). Boys Don't Cry. Fox Searchlight Films.
Reitz, J.D. (1998). What is transsexuality? Retrieved February 23, 2010 from Transsexuality.org Website: http://www.transsexual.org/What.html