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International style of architecture was a major style that emerged, and rose in popularity, in the 1920s and 1930s. he term "International Style" stems from the name of a book by Henry-Russell Hitchcock and Philip Johnson written to record an International Exhibition of Modern Architecture that was held at the Museum of Modern Art. his occurred in New York City in 1932. his International Exhibition not only identified, but categorized and expanded upon characteristics common to Modernism. he impact was felt across the world. Hitchcock's and Johnson's goals were to define a style of that time, which would encompass this new, modern architecture. hey identified three unique principles: "the expression of volume rather than mass, balance rather than preconceived symmetry and the expulsion of applied ornament" (Henry Russell Hitchcock).
All the works which were displayed as part of the exhibition were carefully selected, as only works which strictly followed the…
This work is one of the most influential works of architectural criticism and history of the twentieth century. Initially produced as a catalog to accompany a controversial and groundbreaking 1932 Museum of Modern Art show of the then new architecture emerging in Europe and America, The International Style quickly became the definitive statement of the principles underlying the work of such giants as Mies van der Rohe, Le Corbusier, Walter Gropius, and other pioneers. This new edition has been completely redesigned and reset, and it features a new foreword by Philip Johnson, who reflects on the legacy of the International Style and examines the still-precarious power of architecture.
Jobst, R. "Charm is Not an Antiquated Notion." FFWD Weekly 31 March 2005.
In criticizing the neo-traditional design of Tonko's 17th Avenue and 7th Street S.W. project, the Beltline planning group's Bob van Wegen maintains that all new buildings should be designed in a contemporary style. To reference historic styles in new buildings is, he argues, akin to stuffing the pet cat after it dies. People have learned through decades of bitter experience that new buildings will almost certainly be inferior to what stood before. Brick gives way to stucco, quality loses out to "economic feasibility" and charm is expunged by an architectural elite who seems to dismiss it as an antiquated notion.
It is interesting to learn that Mid-Century modern is really an architectural, interior and creation purpose procedure that normally defines mid-20th century expansions in modern blueprint, architecture, and urban expansion from approximately 1933 to 1965. The period, occupied as a style descriptor even during the mid-1950s, was reiterated in 1983 by author Cara Greenberg in the name of her manuscript, Mid-Century Modern: Furniture of the 1950s, which celebrating the style which is now documented by researchers and museums all over the world as a noteworthy design movement. ith that said, this paper will discuss the architecture of the Stahl and Neutra Houses that were visited on a tour in Los Angeles, California.
One of the first stops that we landed at was the Stahl house which we learned had a very interesting background. Upon entering, it was brought our attention that a man named Julius Shulman, who…
Gislason, Neil. "Building Paradigms: Major Transformations in School Architecture (1798-2009)." Alberta Journal of Educational Research 55.2 (2009): 230-48.
Guillen, Mauro, F. "From Autos to Architecture: Fordism and Architectural Aesthetics in the Twentieth Century." Contemporary Sociology 39.4 (2010): 445-7.
Hobbs, Stuart D. "Exhibiting Antimodernism: History, Memory, and the Aestheticized Past in Mid-Twentieth-Century America." The Public Historian 23.3 (2001): 39-61.
Kaufman, P. "American Glamour and the Evolution of Modern Architecture." Choice 48.3 (2010): 488-9.
Federal Hall National Memorial
The New York City Hall was located at the 26 all Street prior to the construction of the classic column building by Town & Davis. The City Hall was later on known as the Federal Hall. The Bill of Rights was written by the First Congress of America in this building and the first presidential oath was taken by George ashington in here. Although it was in 1812 that the Federal Hall was demolished however, the stone slab that ashington stood upon is still kept safe in the present building's rotunda. The statue of ashington stands outside. Presently, the 26 all Street is maintained as the Federal Hall Museum and Memorial by the United States Department of the Interior and the National Park Service as a symbol of honour to the very first President that America had as well as the start of United States of…
Craven, Jackie. About.com. Walking Down Wall Street.Retrieved November 22nd, 2013. http://architecture.about.com/od/usa/ss/Wall-Street-Buildings_6.htm
New York Architecture.Federal Hall National Memorial. Retrieved November 22nd, 2013 http://www.nyc-architecture.com/LM/LM050-FEDERALHALL.htm
Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History.The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Retrieved November 23rd, 2013 http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/davs/hd_davs.htm
Dunlap, W. David.Federal Hall Is Uplifted, First by Steel, Then by Art; Paintings from the Uffizi to Arrive.The New York Times. 2004. Retrieved November 24th, 2013
Architectural historian Charles Jenks praises the radical eclecticism of the new movement although he takes a more measured view of the purpose of architecture, suggesting that taste and function often do have a role in many postmodern constructions.
The composite, collage, 'anything goes' approach of postmodernism has caused some critics to deny that it is a style at all, merely a broad statement applied to architecture since the 1970s, continuing through today. How can postmodernism be a style if it is no style at all? Because it arose during the historic preservation movement and embraces the old, not the new, it merely seems to feed off of the old rather than make a new contribution to the architectural cannon (Paradis, 2003). However, even postmodernism's critics admit that it would be difficult to mistake a postmodern structure for a historic structure of another era. Rather than showing one period, or reviving…
Art and culture: Postmodern architecture." Arts & Culture Website. 10 Oct 2007. http://www.artandculture.com/cgi-bin/WebObjects/ACLive.woa/wa/movement?id=131
Foster, Hal. "(Post) Modern Polemics.'" Perspecta 21:1984.
Jencks, Charles. "Post-Modern Space,' & 'Conclusion - Radical Eclecticism?' From the Language of Post-Modern Architecture. London, 1977, pp118-126 & 127- 132.
McLeod, Mary. 'Architecture and Politics in the Reagan Era: From Postmodernism to Deconstructivism.' Assemblage. 8: 1989.
As a result, it gives off the appearance of being somewhat economical in its use of space. In spite of its enormity, it does not loom like a shadowy giant in a city of low-register structures. Rather, it somewhat gracefully stretches lengthwise, taking on a majestic but unassuming centricity in the otherwise modest Milan skyline.
This is an important feat because, as with most of Europe's older urban centers, it would be designed to achieve economic modernization without imposing callously over some of the remarkable historical structures that make Milan one of the world's most elegant cities. Another example of such architecture, "Philip Johnson's At&T Headquarters is often cited as an example of postmodernism. Like many buildings in the International Style, the skyscraper has a sleek, classical facade. At the top, however, is an oversized 'Chippendale' pediment." (Craven, 1) This reflects a flourish of subtle variation on a model which…
Craven, J. (2007). Postmodernism: Picture Dictionary of Modern Architecture. About Architecture. Online at http://architecture.about.com/od/20thcenturytrends/ig/Modern-Architecture/Postmodernism.htm
MiMoa. (2008). Pirelli Tower. Mi Modern Architecture. Online at http://www.mimoa.nl/projects/Italy/Milan/Pirelli%20tower
Paradis, T.W. (2007). Architectural Styles of America. Northern Arizona University. Online at http://jan.ucc.nau.edu/~twp/architecture/postmoderncom/
Wolfe, Tom. (1981). From Bauhaus to Our House. Farrar, Strauss and Giroux.
ole of Architecture in the Progress of Society
Architecture can be defined as "the masterly, correct and magnificent play of masses seen in light" (Conway and oenisch 9). In other words, it is an experience that is emotional and artistic. Some people agree that architecture is the amalgamation of building and art. However, many do not agree with this opinion (Conway and oenisch 9). According to Britannica Encyclopedia, architecture is "the art and technique of designing and building" ("architecture") whose practice "is employed to fulfill both practical and expressive requirements, and thus it serves both utilitarian and aesthetic ends" ("architecture"). Therefore, every society has a spatial connection to the natural world. The sort of architecture and the produced structures reflects history, culture, environment, traditions, ceremonies, customs and artistic sensibility of a society ("architecture").
Buildings keep people warm and dry and are directly involved in the reasonableness and feasibility of living.…
"architecture." Encyclopaedia Britannica. Encyclopaedia Britannica, Inc., 2012. Web. 2 Aug 2012. .
"architecture." Questia. Columbia University Press, 2012. Web. 2 Aug 2012. .
Ballantyne, A. Architecture: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002. Web. 1 August 2012. .
Conway, H., & Roenisch, R. Understanding Architecture: An Introduction to Architecture and Architectural History. New York: Routledge, 1994. Web. 1 August 2012. .
The advent of modernity has wrought massive changes in human society. New forms of transportation and communication, for example, have changed the way people work, learn, conduct business and organize into communities. Technological advances in medicine have resulted in new forms of treatment for disease and longer life spans. Upheavals such as the women's movement and the civil rights movement have challenged prevailing norms and transformed social relations.
The field of architecture is no exception. The modern architecture movement is also largely a response to the availability of new technologies and the changing social needs. The first part of this paper looks at the various definitions of what constitutes "modern" architecture. The next part then looks at how the various styles sought to take advantage of new material and to address changing social needs.
In the last part, the paper examines how modern architecture is responding to new concerns,…
Cannon-Brookes, Peter. "Modern architecture, modern materials and modern technology." European Business Review. 14(3). Proquest Database.
Kuipers, Marieke. "The modern movement." The Unesco Courier. September 1997. Proquest Database.
Lacayo, Richard. "Buildings that breathe." Time Magazine. August 26, 2002. Proquest Database.
Larkin, David. Frank Lloyd Wright: The Masterworks. New York: Rizzoli, 1993.
Ecological urbanism is, as Mostafavi describes it, a "sense of sensibilities' that specifically influence urban design and development in a way that will more effectively address the growing number and diversity of urban community needs.
Ecological urbanism is thus a conscious architectural and design trend that addresses the issues exposed more spontaneously by practices classified as everyday urbanism.
Le Parc de la Villette
The Parc de la Villette in Paris, France was designed by Bernard Tschumi and constructed in the 1980s and early 1990s, and can in many ways be seen as an early example of the trends of ecological urbanism and even everyday urbanism to various degrees.
Located at the edge of the city on land that was formerly occupied by slaughterhouses and other industrial structures, the park was part of a very deliberately designed urban renewal project meant to provide public space that was culturally relevant and accessible…
Galinsky. (2006). "Le Parc de la Villette." http://www.galinsky.com/buildings/villette/
Galinsky. (2006). "Le Parc de la Villette."
Currently, the cytotoxicity of chrysotile, which is a type of asbestos, as well as Rockwool along with other man-made vitreous fibers (MMVFs) have been evaluated by cell magnetometry. This method established cytoskeleton-dependent functions of macrophages, which contribute to a significant role in phagocytosis, and is used to assess the degree of harm caused on macrophages (Kudo, Kotani, Tomita and Aizawa, 2009).
Biological consequences of MMVFs have to be looked at not only at the cell level but also in the lung. To date there have been no studies done to look at the safety of Rockwool by way of lung magnetometry. In a study done by Kudo, Kotani, Tomita and Aizawa, 2009, rats were forced to inhale Rockwood a nose-only inhalation exposure system, and then looked at by lung magnetometry, a biopersistence test and pathological examination. The well-being features and safe utilization of mineral wools have been looked at for…
Baldwin, Stephen Andrew. (2010). "List of Materials to Build a Vocal Booth," viewed 20
October 2010, < http://www.ehow.com/list_6299897_list-materials-build-vocal-booth.html>
"CSR Building Materials Rockwool Insulation," 2008, viewed 20 October 2010,
Adele Weder might have had this renovation in mind, when she described D'Arcy's constructions as being Modernistic, graceful, and well-proportioned. The lightness of his touch and grace illuminates this dwelling.
The Cowboy cabin
Set squarely in the woods, the Cowboy cabin is a flat-pack cabin, one-story, well proportioned as all of D'Arcy creations are, and resonating with its landscape and surroundings by the use of scrubbed, unadorned wood.
D'Arcy shocks again by shifting the entrance door from its familiar place, and by transforming a tectonic structure into something that is 'light and minimal' and blends into its surroundings.
Totally scorning conspicuousness, the unadorned structure merges light and air (in its breadth of light material to portray a modernistic dwelling that focuses on simplicity and primal value and by doing so it becomes one with the wood around it, humbly fitting in and becoming part of its context.
Canadian Architect. "The Cowboy." Retrieved March 3, 2011 on from:
D'Arcy Jones Design Inc. Retrieved March 3, 2011 on from:
Rem Koolhaas: A survey of his work and aesthetic philosophy
The radical Dutch architect and architectural theorist Rem Koolhaas is often called one of the world's best -- and one of the world's most controversial -- architects. Koolhaas is as much known for his aesthetic philosophy as he is for his work. "Koolhaas' most provocative -- and in many ways least understood -- contribution to the cultural landscape is as an urban thinker…he has written half a dozen books on the evolution of the contemporary metropolis and designed master plans for, among other places, suburban Paris, the Libyan desert and Hong Kong" (Ouroussoff 1). Koolhaas does not merely wish to create buildings but also change the way in which the world conceptualizes buildings and aesthetic space.
One of Koolhaas' most famous buildings is the French convention hall the Congrexpo, located in Euralille, a shopping and entertainment complex in Lille, France.…
Craven, Jackie. "Metabolism." About.com.7 Apr 2014.
"Interview with Dutch Architect Rem Koolhaas: 'The World Needs Europe'." Spiegel Online.
30 October 2008. Retrieved on 6 Apr 2014. http://www.spiegel.de/international/europe/interview-with-dutch-architect-rem-koolhaas-the-world-needs-europe-a-587436.html
Materiality is a tool in which should be incorporated into the performative deign, but also allows a design to enhance a form or space and invoke different emotions.
"First, material artifacts engage us with all our senses. Materiality comprise physical properties such as texture (roughness or smoothness, details), geometry (size, shape, proportion, location in space, and arrangement in relation to other objects), material (weight, rigidity, plasticity), energy (temperature, moisture), as well as dynamic properties. Many of these properties are 'dimensions of touch'. Secondly, our interactions with materials are not just 'physical' but they spur our thinking, help us communicate ideas that would be difficult to communicate through words alone, adding an 'experiential' dimension to our action. hile the concept of affordances of artifacts is fundamental to an analysis of the use of material artifacts, it is not sufficient for addressing the very intricate interrelationships that emerge in people's interactions with…
Bonet, Llorenc. Exhibition Design. Gloucester: LOFT Publications, 2006.
Giulio Jacucci, Ina Wagner. "Performative Roles of Materiality for Collective Creativity." C & C (2007): 73-82.
Hertzberger, Herman. Space and the Architect: Lessons in Architecture 2. Vol. 2. Rotterdam, 2010.
Holl, Stephen. Anchoring. New York: Princeton University Press, 1991.
3. Curriculum or Method of the Study
The research methodology that was applied in this study was essentially an inclusive, extensive and comparative overview of the literature on the subject. Various sources were consulted, which included books and scholarly articles on the column in architectural history. Also included in the literature survey was information and data from online databases and verified websites.
The information gleaned about columns and their historical context was extrapolated and then entered into a free-from database for further analysis. This resulted in an overall survey of the progression and evolution of various forms and types of columns, from the Egyptian column to the present day. A comparative method of analysis was employed in order to ascertain the commonalities as well as the differences between the various types and forms of this architectural structure.
What should also be mentioned is that the focus of the research, and…
Ancient Roman Architecture. Retrieved from http://www.crystalinks.com/romearchitecture.html
Architecture of ancient Greece. Retrieved from http://upge.wn.com/?t=ancientgreece/index12.txt
Barry C. What Are the Types of Architectural Columns? Retrieved from http://www.ehow.com/about_5453707_types-architectural-columns.html
Column: New World Encyclopaedia. Retrieved from http://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Column
A fact of history is that enaissance marked a new emerging base towards the already established architecture of antiquity that was rooted in thorough recovery of the past and new inventiveness, but it was because of this that the great cities of Europe gathered much of their form that is admired by the world today. The word renaissance has entered the minds of people with dominant positive connotations of pure genius and renewal. (Campbell, 2004)
enaissance architecture is the architecture of the early 15th to 17th centuries in different areas of Europe which demonstrated a revival of elements of the ancient Greek and oman thought and culture. First established in Florence by Filippo Brunelleschi, the renaissance spread like wild fire to other parts of Italy as well and from there the style was carried to France, England, ussia, Germany and other parts of Europe. (Gromort)
During the enaissance,…
Campbell, G. (2004). Renaissance art and architecture . (1 ed., p. 318). Oxford University
Gromort, G. Italian renaissance architecture: A short historical and descriptive account.
Hersey, G.L., &, F. (1993). High renaissance art in st. peter's and the vatican, an interpretive guide. University Of Chicago Press.
According to a famous architectural scholar, the architectural industry's slow growth results from wanting political goodwill (Jencks 1973). A good relationship between the two realms is critical to architectural designs' progress, and the stakeholders in both disciplines should understand the underlying relationship (Milne 1981). Goodman first explained the possibility of politics affecting architecture in 1947, but up to now, many have not realized the existing connection between the two domains (Goodman and Goodman 1947.
In this study, the relationship between politics and architecture will explain how architecture is used to play political games and how architecture designs are based on the political environment. The study will also highlight the contribution of politics to modern architectural designs.
The best way to understand how architecture and politics have been relating over the years is to observe different past occurrences concerning the two domains. It is worth noting that the point of…
Architecture Foundation, 2020, November 22. Caruso St John: Yesterday and Today - In conversation with Nana Biamah-Ofosu and Ellis Woodman. YouTube. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dpCpl-L7iNg&feature=emb_logo
Beyonce, 2018, June 16. APES**T - THE CARTERS. YouTube. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kbMqWXnpXcA
Cornea, N., 2019. Urban Political Ecology. Oxford Bibliographies Online. DOI: 10.1093/OBO/9780199874002-0203.
Goodman, P., and Goodman, P., 1947. Communitas: Means of livelihood and ways of life. New York: Vintage.
Jencks, C., 1973. Modern movements in architecture (Vol. 5). Editions Mardaga.
Kwinter, S., 2010. Notes on the third ecology. Ecological Urbanism, pp.94-105.
Lnag, C., 2018 June 19. Art History Experts Explain the Meaning of the Art in Beyoncé and Jay-Z's 'Apesh-t' Video. Time. Retrieved from https://time.com/5315275/art-references-meaning-beyonce-jay-z-apeshit-louvre-music-video/
Milne, D., 1981. Architecture, politics, and the public realm. Canadian Journal of Political and Social Theory, 5(1-2), pp.131-146.
Ancient Chinese Architecture
Modern Chinese Architecture
Ancient Chinese architecture is considered to be an important part of the world architectural system along with architecture in Europe and Arabian architecture. Over centuries, the construction and architecture of China has developed in to a style of its own and is often characterized by the heavy timberwork that combines with stone carving and rammed earth construction and bucket arch buildings and other techniques that make it unique (Guo, 2005).
The Great Wall, Forbidden City and the Mausoleum of the First Qin Emperor are some of the examples of ancient Chinese architectural miracles that were created by the laboring people of the country.
The rampant use of timber framework was the primary and significant characteristic of ancient Chinese architecture. In order to make the buildings more beautiful and attractive the ancient Chinese architects used paintings and carvings that were put up into…
Guo, Q. (2005). Chinese architecture and planning. Stuttgart: Edition Axel Menges.
Lou, Q., & Chen, P. (2002). Ancient Chinese architecture. Beijing: Foreign Languages Press.
Lu, D. (2007). Architecture and global imaginations in China. The Journal Of Architecture, 12(2), 123-145. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13602360701363411
Wang, Q. (2011). Chinese architecture. New York: Better Link Press.
architects in the 21st century is the issue of sustainability. Not only is there no consensus opinion on how to approach the issue of sustainability in academic circles but there is also no formula of integrating sustainability into architectural curriculum (Wright, 2003). This deficiency underscores an even more stressing problem, however: as Edwards and Hyett (2010) note, "the techniques and technologies of green design are now generally understood -- what is still lacking is an architecture profession which gives priority to ecological issues" (p. 5). In other words, there is no connection between the myriad academic approaches and the professional architectural life. Wheeler (2015) asserts that this issue is due to an inadequate definition of sustainable architecture. In the capitalistic, consumerist global environment of the 20th century, the concept of preservation and connectivity to nature was largely overshadowed by corporate demand and higher margins.
Yet the end of the 20th…
About SsD. (2016). SsDArchitecture. Retrieved from http://www.ssdarchitecture.com/about/
Botsman, R. (2010). What's Mine is Yours: The Rise of Collaborative Consumption.
Bovill, C. (2014). Sustainability in Architecture and Urban Design. NY: Routledge.
The other structures of Teotihuacan use the same architectural language in varying forms and to differing scales. Residential buildings stand upon platforms and are arranged around depressed courtyards; palaces follow a pattern of low buildings arranged around columned patios, creating a unified, enclosed form; ceremonial structures use the talus-and-tablero profile and large flat platforms. The earliest period of construction was the most austere, with little decoration, but later structures - from around 300 a.D. - are marked by decorative friezes and other sculpture, and traces of painted decoration.
The architectural influence of Teotihuacan can be seen throughout Central America in the Classic period and later. The economic importance of the city was echoed in its cultural and religious influence, seen in the wide dissemination of the Feathered Serpent, originating with Teotihuacan's Quetzalcoatl, as a symbol of religious and political authority throughout Mesoamerica. The basic form of the Teotihuacan temples,…
Adams, Richard E.W., Ancient Civilizations of the New World (Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1997)
Headrick, Annabeth, Rex Koontz and Kathryn Reese-Taylor, Landscape and Power in Ancient Mesoamerica (Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 2001).
Kowalski, Jeff Karl, Mesoamerican Architecture as Cultural Symbol (New York: Oxford University Press, 1999).
Kubler, George, the Art and Architecture of Ancient America: the Mexican, Maya and Andean Peoples (London: Penguin, 1962).
pecifically, James describes a variety of buildings to demonstrate the various elements that Kahn uses in his architecture. One building of particular interest is his Yale Center for British Arts. Here, the cylindrical stair tower in the courtyard of the Center introduces an imposing note (James, p. 49). In contrast, and indeed according to Khan's ideal, the facades are understated and reserved. The elevations of the courtyard and galleries adhere to the principle of study, providing a quiet space for students to focus their thoughts and their subdued conversation. As such the courtyard focuses the purpose of the rest of the building. In the interior, daylight is filtered to a soft hue through skylights, where as the oak and fabric paneled walls as well as chamber music further focuses the atmosphere inward, towards a contemplative and peaceful design. patial emphasis is placed upon the aesthetic displays of the galleries within…
The Museum of Modern Art, New York. (2004). Curator's Statement. http://www.moma.org/expansion/charette/statement.html
James, Kathleen (1995, Sep). Louis Kahn's Indian Institute of Management's Courtyard: Form vs. Function Journal of Architectural Education Vol. 49, No. 1. pp. 38-49.
Ricciotti, Dominic (1985, Summer). The 1939 Building of the Museum of Modern Art: The Goodwin-StoneCollaboration American Art Journal, Vol. 17, No. 3. pp. 50-76.
The men had returned from the war, Americans were buying homes and putting all their energies in to building a nest for the family filled with all sorts of creature comforts. The female form reflected these comforts: it was round and healthy. On the other hand, the 1960s and 1970s signaled the rampant winds of change; while some people attribute it primarily to the debut of Twiggy, the skinny supermodel of the era other reasons are relevant to examine as well: "popular during the 1960's because of the increasingly popularity of self-expression and women's rights movements during this time that allowed women to shed clothes and bare more body. Being thin allowed them to comfortably wear clothes like the mini-skirt, which maybe at that time stood for some sort of freedom and self-expression. Being thin and shedding weight may have given some women the ability to feel better about themselves.…
Bennett, B. (2011). it's All About Art Deco. Retrieved from galleryatlantic.com: http://www.galleryatlantic.com/Its-All-About-Art-Deco.html
Boyars, M. Gothic Fantasy: The Films of Tim Burton.
Street in Columbus, Ohio, the humbly named Broad Street Presbyterian Church was built in 1887, but has had several additional architectural elements added since then, including structural and functional spaces beyond the main apse and nave, ranging from a large north side parking area to the multiple annexes and entryways. The Broad Street Presbyterian Church occupies a relatively large footprint, spanning about four acres of urban land. On the south side of the street, the Broad Street Presbyterian Church receives an ample amount of sunlight throughout the day, which gleams and glows as it reflects on its flagstone finish. On its centennial in 1987, the church was formally added to the National Register of Historic Places in spite of its numerous modern additions, solidifying the church in Columbus's urban landscape. In fact, the Broad Street Presbyterian Church shares the street with four other landmark churches in Columbus, all built within…
Some have described this facade as "a showy and impressive piece of Tuscan architecture,' with arched doors surrounded by elaborate floral carvings, twisting columns, and shell-topped niches for statuary" (Tarin). However, I find the facade quite common and uninteresting. I would much prefer to see a more ornate and intricate style, such as the style I employed in my final plans of the Piazza del Campidoglio in ome, which was completed after my death. ather than rely on the "traditional" as the style of this early Texas mission relies, I used other, new techniques that would live on after I was gone. One expert writes of my work on the Piazza, "[H]e articulated his new ground floor loggia with a lintel instead of the usual arches, supported by Ionic columns. The bays are divided by an order of colossal Corinthian pilasters that rise through both stories to support a magnificent…
De Tolnay, Charles. The Medici Chapel. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1948.
Hibbard, Howard. Michelangelo. 2nd ed. Cambridge, MA: Harper & Row, 1985.
Tarin, Randall. "The Mission San Antonio de Valero." Personal Web Page. 2004. 18 March 2005. http://www.geocities.com//adp/history/mission_period/valero/valero.html
Walters, Colin. "Michelangelo: One Artist, Three Worlds." The Washington Times 7 Feb. 1999: 6.
The question of what constitutes 'interface culture' is constantly debated in the field of interactive design. Modern technology allows us to communicate more frequently with one another but it is uncertain if we are actually growing closer to our friends and associates; we may be growing farther apart and more isolated in our virtual worlds. There are both positive and negative sides to modern technology; at minimum we need to have a dialogue about interactive technology's effect on social interactions and culture.
As designers, we must be more aware of the needs of others and the human social and political environment. Art has often been viewed as the primary teaching tool to reveal insights about the human condition but technological design can have the same potential. It is true that design is more interactive than personal like art. But technological design in all its forms encompasses outreach through…
Mies van der ohe was one of the most well-known architects of 20th century. His birth took place in Germany and it was in 1938 that he came to United States. Mies van der ohe is commonly known as "Mies" or "Ludwig Mies van der ohe." He had an approach of constructing and designing buildings as a part of international style movement, and this had a grand impact on country's architecture. Farnsworth house is an example of contemporary architecture world. "Less is more" is a statement of Mies, which was adopted as a motto for all the modern artists all over the world (The Chicago Architecture Foundation, 2007).
It was in 1945 when a doctor of Chicago hired Mies to design a home for her in the country side, which should be around 60 miles away from southwest of Chicago, i.e. near Plano, Illinois. The doctor's name…
Farnsworth House. (1995). Probing Architecture's Anatomy. Progressive Architecture, pp 58, 59.
Feldman, G.C. (2002). Fallingwater is no longer Falling. The Structure Group Companies.
MetLife. (2012). Rogerson Communities' Farnsworth House in Boston is Recognized by MetLife Foundation and Enterprise Community Partners for Exemplary Work in Senior Housing and Successfully Incorporating Green Components in its Housing: Wins 2012 MetLife Foundation Award for Excellence in Affordable Housing, $50,000. Press Release.
The Chicago Architecture Foundation. (2007). Farnsworth House: Meet The Buildings. The Architecture Handbook: A Student Guide to Understanding Buildings.
The history from the Renaissance to the Machine Age was defined by major technical and stylistic advances that allowed for much larger, taller, more elegant buildings, and higher degrees of functionality and architectural expression.
In cultural and scientific matters, the Modern Era was characterized by an increasingly rationalistic trajectory of thought which was based on an ethos of the humanistic exploration of reality and truth. While in a cultural sense religion still played a significant role, the Industrial Revolution as well as the advent of the Machine Age and the predominance of empirical science and the scientific method, had overtaken the norms and values of the rural and agrarian worldview. There were many other factors that played an important role in the scientific culture of this era, including the rise of Capitalism and international trade. This in turn is linked to other concomitant factors such as the use of steam…
In keeping with the functionality and mechanization of the time, Wright used simple materials such as brick, wood and plaster to create a sense of the natural in his work. M
This form is exemplified in the architect's Zimmerman house, which is a long, low house, with an interior space that is not immediately apparent from the outside. While performing the functional purpose of shelter and protection, the interior of the house also focuses on open, shared space; an idea inspired by the prairie fields of the United States. Hence, mechanization and functionality are integrated into the architect's design.
Like Wright, Mies van de ohe is also concerned with maintaining simplicity in the interest of material honesty and structural integrity (Matthews, 2011). The drive towards this simplicity is also inspired by mechanization, where industrialization has created a faster pace in life, work and art. Using simple materials provides for the…
Kahn, L.I. Monumentality.
Le Courbusier. Towards a New Architecture. New York: Dover Publications, Inc.
Matthews, K. (2011). Zimmerman House. Retrieved from: http://www.greatbuildings.com/buildings/Zimmerman_House.html
Matthews, K. (2011). Tugendhat House. Retrieved from: http://www.greatbuildings.com/buildings/Tugendhat_House.html
Fear of the Return of Totalitarian Architecture Due to Technological Advancements
This paper examines some of the different aspects of the coming worldwide technological totalitarianism and the expanding of it influence. The argument that this is both a conscious and accidental program of influential individuals and organizations carried out through the procedure of reification of philosophical beliefs which are misshapen into institutions, services, technologies policies and in the end, culture. Some experts that have explored this topic believe that by pay no attention to the costs of new technologies, what there may be some kind of loss in the bargain and that it can lean so something that is immeasurable and potentially disastrous. It is obvious that history was not or is not all the way inevitable, however, it is likewise a question of human values in connection to changes that are looked at as being natural. Although there have…
Carpo, Mario. "Architecture in the Age of Printing." The History of Architectural Theory. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data, 6 March 1998.
-- . "The Alphabet and the Algorithm." Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data. The MIT Press, 7 May 1995.
Giroux, Henry. Totalitarian Paranoia in the Post-Orwellian Surveillance State. 14 Feruary 2014. http://billmoyers.com/2014/02/11/totalitarian-paranoia-in-the-post-orwellian-surveillance-state/ . 18 March 2014.
Keller, Marcello Sorce. "Why is Music so Ideological, Why Do Totalitarian States Take It So Seriously: A Personal View from History, and the Social Sciences",." Journal of Musicological Research, XXVI 2.3 (2007): 91 -- 122.
It is impossible to have one without the other. The progression of shadows is used to indicate the passage of time in Ando's work. One can watch the progression of shadow across a light piece of concrete and track the passage of time.
It can be said that light represents the concept of somethingness and shadow represents the concept of nothingness. It is the nothingness that humans seek to understand in their spiritual endeavors. The world of somethingness represents the reality that we know in our physical world. Light allows us to see our world and the things in it. Darkness, however, masks these objects. The objects themselves are still there, only we cannot see them until it is light again. Shadow represents the human journey into the nothingness of the soul. hen we sit in the shadow and cannot see our physical world, we are forced to confront the…
Altsai, A. "The Church on the Water." MIT Department of Architecture. Last Updated
December 10, 1999. Accessed January 7, 2007. Available at http://cat2.mit.edu/arc/gallery/4203_final/gal_altsai/andoinfo.html
Barandon, J. "Tadao Ando." The Architect. Mit Department of Architecture. Last updated
November 25, 2001. Accessed January 7, 2007. Available at http://architecture.mit.edu/~barandon/4.203/overview_page.htm
Romantic and Modern Design Styles
Comparing the Ornate and the Natural: A Study of Two Theories of Design
History often dictates societal mentality more so than current climate, yet in times of peace, it seems that the beautiful and the artful flourish. This very concept is debatable, especially in interior design, where the fashions of the time very often have a much-felt impact upon design theories and the way in which they are carried out. Yet it is in history that one finds inspiration, or the contradiction thereof. For instance, during the mid to late 19th century, it was against history that romanticism was born. Yet in the early 20th century, immediately following this period of romanticism, it was out of a societal need for simplicity prior to the two Great ars that a more natural aesthetic was born, expressed so perfectly by the architect Frank Lloyd right. The following…
1. Customer Notes -- Provided by Customer from Academic Notes and Books
2. Britannica Encyclopedia, (2012). Interior Design: The Romantic Movement and the Battle of the Styles. Retrieved from, http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/290278/interior-design/74226/The-Romantic-movement-and-the-battle-of-the-styles-1835-1925
3. Frank Lloyd Wright Foundation, (2012). Wright's Life and Work. Retrieved from, http://www.franklloydwright.org/web/Home.html
4. Pile, J. (1997). Color in Interior Design. McGraw-Hill: New York.
The Turbine Factory and its use of industrial material on a very grand scale is able to evoke feelings of machinery and production and how it changed society, or rather, how it controlled society at that time. Behrens was able to transform architecture by creating designs that reflected the changing culture.
Frank Lloyd Wright and Peter Behrens were pioneers in the innovation of functionalism. While Wright used more organic elements into his design to give the feeling that architecture and nature should go hand-in-hand, Behrens was creating designs out of more industrial materials that reflect the era and the culture of an era. However, both of these architects considered function as the dominating principal of building structures even though they essentially came to their way of designing via different ways of thinking (nature and organics vs. industry and function).
Both Wright and Behrens were innovative designers and architects and their…
McCarter, R. ( 2010) "Wright, Frank Lloyd." Encyclopedia of Aesthetics. Ed. Michael
Oxford Art Online. Retrieved Sep. 20, 2010, from .
Leon attista Alberti and Claude Perrault viewed the beauty and order of architectural in different terms. Alberti's perspective represented the High Renaissance's love of classicism and mathematical precision. Thus, Alberti viewed architectural order and beauty as being rooted in mathematical symmetry and harmony. Perrault, on the other hand, represented a worldview that came two hundred years later, after Europe had already been split apart by the Protestant Reformation, the Scientific Revolution, and now embarked upon the Age of Enlightenment (which would lead directly into the Romantic Era). Perrault's perspective was shaped less by the order and mathematical discipline that Alberti associated with architectural order and more by the perception of beauty and the impression of spatial dimension and order. Perrault understand how the Greeks played tricks on the eyes by adhering not to a formulaic structure but rather to a consideration for the viewer, placing columns, for instance, in…
Alberti, L.B. (1980) On the Art of Building in Ten Books. Cambridge: MIT Press.
Alberti, L.B., Rykwert, J. (1955) Ten Books on Architecture. UK: Tiranti.
Allais, L. (2005) Ordering the Orders, Future Anterior, 2(2): 53-74.
Ching, F., Jarzombek, M., Prakash, V. (2011) A Global History of Architecture. NY:
An integrated system was used in buildings where columns, pilasters, and entablatures came together as support. Arches were also used in building churches and other such structures. Semi-circular or segmental vaults were used which were mostly without ribs. In this era domes were not only used in churches but they were also used in building secular structures. Doors and windows usually had square lintels in the buildings of the era. Cravings and decorations also became prominent part of the structures taking their inspiration from the classic structures. Though Florence was the place where renaissance started but Italy embraced renaissance and effects of classic architecture as opposed to Gothic architecture. enaissance style further gave way to baroque style in the 17th-century. The Georgian style became notable in the 18th-century while the 19th century was given over to the classic revival and the Gothic revival.
Though our current architecture is derived…
Architecture History'. Wikipedia Encyclopedia. Available at http://en.wikipedia.org
They displayed great knowledge of architecture, and their building style had been noteworthy.
As the Roman Empire began to take shape, Romans built several wonderful architectural structures for their time. They built city walls, fortifications, temples, bridges, and pavements. Most of the structures were built using large stones which were gently cut. Romans are also among the first nations in the world to have built a functional sewer system. Their remaining of their architectural structures withstood the passing of millennia and survived till today. Christian churches and even apartments buildings were built over Roman temples and other public buildings with some of them, like the Theater of Marcellus being functional even today.
1 H.R. Hitchcock, Seton Lloyd, David Talbot Rice, Norbert Lynton, Andrew Boyd, Andrew Carden, Philip Rawson, John Jacobus 1963. "orld Architecture: An Illustrated History." McGraw-Hill.
2. Hamlin, Talbot 1940 "Architecture through the Ages." G.P. Putnam's Sons,…
1 H.R. Hitchcock, Seton Lloyd, David Talbot Rice, Norbert Lynton, Andrew Boyd, Andrew Carden, Philip Rawson, John Jacobus 1963. "World Architecture: An Illustrated History." McGraw-Hill.
2. Hamlin, Talbot 1940 "Architecture through the Ages." G.P. Putnam's Sons,
H.R. Hitchcock, Seton Lloyd, David Talbot Rice, Norbert Lynton, Andrew Boyd, Andrew Carden, Philip Rawson, John Jacobus. "World Architecture: An Illustrated History." McGraw-Hill, 1963.
Talbot Hamlin. "Architecture through the Ages." G.P. Putnam's Sons, 1940.
The post modern era has seen drastic improvements and rapid developments in the field of Information Technology. As a result of this rapid development of Information Technology and the increasing rate of Globalization and faster communication methods, business practices in the corporate world have evolved to a significant degree, and are consistently in the process of information. Only a few decades ago, corporate houses were oblivion to terms such as Management Information Systems, Organizational Information Management. Today, effective management of information systems within an organization and efficient incorporation of Information Technology is an integral part of any business strategy and have also become a center of attention for many researchers. It all started from telephones, telex and facsimile and today it has reached the level of video conferencing and hand held tablets.
The concept of Enterprise Architecture is a relatively new one and is still in…
Enterprise Architecture Center. (2010). Enterprise Architecture Organizational Readiness and Change Management. Retrieved from http://www.enterprisearchitecturecenter.com/enterprise-architecture-blogs/enterprise-architecture-organizational-readiness-and-change-management.
Nobel, C. (2010, November, 1). How IT Shapes Top-Down and Bottom-Up Decision Making. Harvard Business School.
Rettig, C. (2007). The trouble with enterprise software. MIT Sloan Management Review, 49(1), 21-27.
Graham, P. (2006). Linking information architecture to enterprise strategy. Business Intelligence Journal, 11(4), 46-50.
The ancient cities of ome and Florence are layered ones. If one has the chance to walk the streets of these cities it is clearly that the they have had far more than the nine lives of the feline: Layer upon layer of human life and human ingenuity is displayed in the many different styles that line the streets. While we may tend to think of ome and Florence as the classical city that they once were (and of which they still bears many elements) they are also in many ways Gothic cities, for some of the cities' finest examples of architecture date from the Gothic period. This paper examines two particular Gothic churches - Santa Maria Maggiore in ome and the church of S. Maria del Fiore in Florence is no exception. Each church is examined for the combination of specific historical forces and styles, the building…
Brown, Peter. "A Dark Age Crisis." English Historical Review 88 (1973), 1-34.
Cameron, Averil. "The Virgin's Robe: An Episode in the History of Seventh-Century Constantinople." Byzantion 49 (1979), 42-56.
Croddy, S. "Gothic Architecture and Scholastic Philosophy." The British Journal of Aesthetics 39 (3), 263-272.
Davis, Michael, Science, Technology, and Gothic Architecture. Avista 8 (2) (1994/95), 3-6. http://www.area.fi.cnr.it/bivi/eng/schede/Toscana/Firenze/17cattedrale.htm
perceived superiority of modern Western civilization is unfounded. There is little evidence to suggest that our cultures are any more advanced than the ancient cultures of the Fertile Crescent, Greece, or Rome. The argument for a linear progression or an evolution of civilization can be countered by evidence to the contrary in areas as diverse as science, politics, philosophy, art, and architecture. Although definite improvements have been made in women's rights, forced labor, and governmental systems, for instance, the accomplishments of ancient cultures rival our own. They may not have possessed microchips or jet engines in ancient Athens, but they did create the structures upon which we base our society today. We are still reaping the rewards that ancient civilizations sowed millennia ago. In fact, Mesopotamia, Sumeria, Babylon, Egypt, Assyria, Israel, Greece, and Rome comprise the beginnings of Western civilization.
Ancient civilizations possessed a remarkable understanding of nature and the…
This spacious building is open-sided and resembles a pavilion in appearance more than a formal, permanent structure. Its walls are open. The building has a jutting foyer with two flanking sides. It seems designed for outdoor use. There are elaborate rods holding up the ceiling. The ceiling, unlike the walls, is not transparent, but seems to be made of smoked glass. The shape of the large, tunneled halls is rounded although it comes to a peak at the top.
Surmise: Building and history
This building looks similar to a temporary structure designed for an outdoor festival. It is located amongst verdant grass and gardens. It would be an ideal place for a band to play, or to house an exhibition, allowing the crowds to dart in and out of the covered area. The building is more elaborate than a temporary tent: there is a suggestion of…
A Comparative Discussion of Modern Art Museums
The Modern Museum of Art (MoMA) in New York City and Tate Modern in London have a number of major features in common that help to define the visitor's experience. Perhaps most importantly, both are considered among the most important collections in the world and both institutions are highly regarded not just for their conservation of art but for the usability of their facilities and the considerable educational, informational, cultural and recreational resources contained there within. hat strikes one as most compelling about both collections is that they trace their respective origins to the efforts of extremely wealthy philanthropists but that each offers a collection rife with examples of resistance, protest and rejection of established values. Indeed, this is perhaps the most unifying condition defining modern art in evidence at both sites.
Founded and overseen by members of the Rockafeller family, the…
Modern Museum of Art. (2013). Homepage. Moma.org.
Tate Modern (2013). Homepage. http://www.tate.org.uk .
Another political and public sidewalk mural done by Beever is his Politicians Meeting Their End, drawn on the night of the 1997 General Elections outside the Bank of England. In this work, Beever creates the illusion of a deep well in the middle of the sidewalk with unpopular politicians being pulled in. Again, like most of his works, this one demands the viewers attention and gives a clear message.
ulian Beever's work encompass several post-modern ideas. First, his works is often focused on current events or celebrities, and therefore encompass the pop-art trend often found in postmodern art. Further, his work is a type of installation art in that it is created and displayed in extremely public places, often causing a disruption in the general flow of the area it is placed. As such, his work is the essence of post modern's focus on the real and the current, making…
Julian Beever's Home page: http://users.skynet.be/J.Beever/
Images of Julian Beever's chalk art:
Ernestine Friedl's 1962 text Vasilika: a Village in Modern Greece discusses an anthropological case study which showcases how one city in Greece was evolved from its ancient origin and compares to other modern cities in the country. Vasilika in Boeotia, Greece has a population of 216 people and consequently the interactions between the individual members of the village are intricately connected to one another, but are also limited by the sociology and architecture of the location. Greece is a nation which has existed for centuries and yet the city of Vasilika is still mostly the same as it was before the advent of modern technologies. One of the most important aspects of community-building that Friedl discusses is the random orientation of the building constructions in the village. Unlike some recently designed cities, the random conflagration ensured that the stone materials used and the random spacing severely limited "the ability…
Friedl, Ernestine. Vasilika: a Village in Modern Greece. New York, NY: Holt, Rinehart and Winston. 1962. Print.
CPU design has primarily been a function of two separate factors. Like trying to decide how to get across town, on a bus, taxi or personal auto, the process of getting from point a to Point B. In computer terminology has been dependant to two extrinsic factors. First, CPU architecture has been influenced by the technology available at the time of manufacture. Although the growth curve regarding semiconductor closely resembles a straight line - one that goes straight up - at the time of any chips manufacture, the technology which could be employed during the manufacturing process was the single most delimiting factor.
The second influence on the CPU's design architecture is based on the type of applications which the computer would be expected to process. CPU's which would be called upon to perform repetitive, analysis type processing when any given report is requested are bounded by different parameters than…
Burskey, D. (5/13/1996) CPU enhancements speed up multimedia, communications algorithms. (central processing unit) Electronic Design.
Kepple, R. (7/20/1998) 64-bit RISC supercharges network Electronic Engineering Times.
Lardear, J. (6/16/1995) When CPUs share.(Symmetric Multiprocessing and its hidden problems) Midrange Systems.
Nass, R. (11/18/1996) High-end boards continue to raise performance bar. Electronic Design.
De Stijl (The Style) movement of was founded in 1917 by a group of young Dutch architects, among whom the most important are Piet Mondrian, Theo Van Doesburg, and Bart Van Der Leck. In the magazine they founded ( De Stijl), they first displayed their paintings, sculpture, and architectural design. They were eager that their new aesthetic conceptions should embrace everything from city panning to applied arts and philosophy. The main ideas around which they worked (based closely on Mondrian's theory of Neo-Plasticism) highlighted simplicity of line, form and color. Straight lines, primarly colors, and reduced forms were emphasized. Art was viewed as a collective project, and therefore the romantic conceptions of the "personal" artwork were downplayed in favor of a more impersonal approach. It will be seen that the De Stijl ideas had a major influencce on the Bauhaus style in Germany.
hile Constructivism cannot be considered as a…
Raizman, David. History of Modern Design . New Jersey: Prentice Hall Inc., 2004.
One of my central reasons for wishing to study art at UCLA is creative and imaginative exploration. I have always been fascinated by all aspects of art, including art theory as well as the technical side and processes of art itself. These two areas, art theory and art practice, and the interaction between them constitutes the fulcrum around which my fascination with art revolves.
I view the theoretical aspect of art as essentially an exploration of the world around us, as well as the way we relate to this world from various perspectives. These perspectives include our psychological, sociological and spiritual relationship with the world which is mirrored in the various theories of art.
I am particularly interested in the Surrealistic school of thought and art. As Andre reton, the founder of the Surrealism stated "The admirable thing about the fantastic is that it is no longer the…
Chipp, H (1968) Theories of Modern Art. London. University of California Press.
Criminal Justice, Prison Architecture
The evolution of prison architecture is a reflection of societies changing attitudes toward crime and punishment. Prisons have progressed from simple places for incarceration where the primary purpose is to protect the public to instruments of punishment where the loss of freedom is penalty for breaking the law, to institutions for reform dedicated to mould the guilty to conform to society's norms. Initially imprisonment was a means of detaining debtors to ensure payment, the accused before trial, or the guilty before punishment. Courts imposed sentences including fines, personal mutilation such as flogging or branding, or death. In 18th-century England transportation to penal settlements in the Thirteen Colonies and later Australia, became an increasingly popular penalty because it removed the guilty from local society; length of sentence and destination reflected the severity with which the court viewed the offence. Eventually a new type of prison,…
Johnson, D. (2011) Prison architecture. The Canadian encyclopedia. Retreived October 16, 2011, from http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.com/index.cfm?PgNm=TCE&Params=A1ARTA0009130
Lewis, J. (2009, june 10). Behind bars…sort of. The New York times magizine. New York Times. Retrieved October 16, 2011, from http://www.nytimes.com/2009/06/14/magazine/14prisons-t.html?pagewanted=all
City of Ambitions.
By the early 20th century, photography had established itself as more than a means of documentary evidence. The medium had the potential to convey the artist's impressions as well as political content. Photographers like Alfred Stieglitz capitalized on the power of the medium to depict social and political realities without sacrificing aesthetics. "The City of Ambitions" is one example of Stieglitz's early work, a large portion of which uses urban life as its focus.
"The City of Ambitions" is New York, the American -- even global -- hub of capitalist enterprise. Stieglitz captures New York's industrial side. Not only does the photographer wait for the time of day during which factory smoke is at its most visible, but Stieglitz also includes in the composition multiple features of urban architecture including the river dock and the burgeoning high rises sprouting up around it…
"Bauhaus." The Art Story. Retrieved online: http://www.theartstory.org/movement-bauhaus.htm
Duchamp, Marcel. "Fountain." Sculpture. 1917.
"Early Documentary Photography." The Met. Retrieved online: https://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/edph/hd_edph.htm
Gropius, Walter. "Bauhaus Building in Dessau." [Building]. 1926
Lawrence in Arabia: War, Deceit, Imperial Folly and the Making of the Modern Middle East
Lawrence never received formal military training, but he achieved the rank of Colonel in the British Army. Discuss how he achieved the rank and compare his training to yours.
Lawrence initially studied archeology and architecture at Oxford; these pursuits first drew him to the Middle East. The knowledge he gained was instrumental in his securing a military position in the Middle East. Thanks to his knowledge of the Arab world and the Ottoman Empire, "he was sent to nurture the Arab revolt against Turkish rule, started by Sherif Hussein of Mecca with the aim of creating a single Arab state stretching from Syria to Yemen"(MacIntyre 2010). In contrast to my own training, the knowledge Lawrence obtained was largely experiential -- he did not study military theory in-depth or go through basic training and was iconoclastic…
Anderson, S. (2013). Lawrence in Arabia: War, deceit, imperial folly, and the making of the modern Middle East. New York: Doubleday.
MacIntyre, B. (2010). Arabian knight. The New York Times. Retrieved from:
In the modern era, it is important that government from the federal to the local level have risk management plans in place for natural disasters, man-made issues and of course, terrorism. Generally speaking, risk management helps identify, prioritize and put plans in place regarding areas of risk that can impact the community. The overall purpose of risk management is so that agencies can be proactive in their identification and implementing plans for disasters and risks since in the modern world these plans involve numerous agencies and complex coordination. Thankfully, standards have been developed that organize risk management by looking at six general paradigms: 1) Identifying risks in the context of the area (e.g. flood planning is less important in Arizona than in Louisiana); 2) Planning a process to mitigate the situation (who is in charge); 3) Mapping the objectives of stakeholders (who will be involved); 4) Developing a…
Colorado Division of Emergency Management. (2013). News, Info and Preparedness.
Retrieved from: http://www.coemergency.com/
Drabek, T., et.al.. (1991). Emergency Management: Principles and Practices for Local Government. International City Management Association.
Frenkel, M., Hommel, U., & Rudolf, M. (Eds.). (2005). Risk Management - Challenge and Opportunity. New York: Springer.
The Architecture of the Maya
Deep in the tangled rainforests of Guatemala and the Yucatan, the Maya made some of the greatest contributions to world architecture. Their stone cities complete with temples, palaces, tombs, and ball courts are fitting monuments to the complex, and highly sophisticated civilization that existed in these regions many centuries before the arrival of the Spanish. Mayan priest-astronomers made elaborate calculations to catalog the passage of time. Great warrior kings immortalized themselves and their deeds on stelae, recording for future generations the contributions they had made toward maintaining the cosmic order. The Maya were the only Pre-Columbian people to ever have invented a complete system of writing. Their glyphs, only recently translated, reveal a people concerned above all with the maintenance of a grand cosmic order. It was an order that was based upon cycles of time - the reason for the…
http://www.questia.com/PageManagerHTMLMediator.qst?action=openPageViewer&docId=91864073"Baldwin, Neil. Legends of the Plumed Serpent: Biography of a Mexican God. New York: PublicAffairs, 1998.
Carter, Milton. Mayan Religion. Unicoi, TN: University of East Tennessee: 26 April 1996 www.questia.com/PageManagerHTMLMediator.qst?action=openPageViewer&docId=97622794"Gossen, Gary H., ed. South and Meso-American Native Spirituality: From the Cult of the Feathered Serpent to the Theology of Liberation. New York: Crossroad, 1993.
Gowen, Sir Lawrence, Ed. A History of Art. Abingdon, Oxfordshire, England: Andromeda Oxford, Ltd., 1995.
Inomata, Takeshi, and Houston, Stephen D. Royal Courts of the Ancient Maya. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 2000. Kowalski, Jeff Karl, ed. Mesoamerican Architecture as a Cultural Symbol. New York: Oxford University Press, 1999.
Dada and Degenerate Art in Germany
At the end of WW1, Germany found itself in a period of transition. Held responsible for the war and forced to pay reparations, the Weimar Republic was in a disastrous state. The Kaiser Willelm II had abdicated, hyperinflation decimated the value of the mark, and erlin was fast becoming vice capital of the world with "New Frau" poster-girl Anita erber taking pride in her position as the high priestess of immorality.[footnoteRef:1] It was a new Germany in every respect -- but not one that was destined to last: it was new in the sense that for the first time in its culture, the Germans were embracing the end -- the end of the old order, of the old code, of the old art and moral imperatives; life was short and falling apart at the seams as fast as the mark was becoming worthless. Jobs…
Altshuler, Bruce. The Avant-garde in Exhibition. NY: Abrams, 1994.
Barron, Stephanie. Degenerate Art: The Fate of the Avant-Garde in Nazi Germany. NY:
Droste, Sebastian; Berber, Anita. Dances of Vice, Horror and Ecstasy. UK: Side Real
obert Gober - MOMA
To fully appreciate the art of obert Gover, it is necessary to have at least a rudimentary grasp of the terms modernism and post-modernism. The term modernism is cast variously by the disciplines that frame and articulate it. Generally, modernism is considered a philosophical movement spun from the Age of Enlightenment, even though modernism would come to reject the religious underpinnings of Enlightenment thinking. Tremendously influential changes in the late 19th and 20th centuries transformed cultures and societies as they absorbed and redefined new ways of thinking. Industrialization was a catalyst for the rapid and extensive growth of cities, and the subsequent horrors of the World Wars. Where once there had been certitude, nihilistic thinking eroded convention, irreversibly impacting art, architecture, literature, philosophy, religion, science, and social organization. Convention no longer seemed to fit with the emerging industrialized existences that people found themselves living, and the…
Hughes, Robert. The Shock of the New: Art and the Century of Change. London: Gardners Books. 1991.
Sheleg, Bambi Gaining clarity: After postmodernism. Eretz Acheret Magazine. 12 October 2009. 23 November 2014.
Why does Greenough object to American architects borrowing styles from Europe? Which of his reasons do you consider valid, and which are unconvincing?
The main objection Greenough has to American architects borrowing styles from Europe is that these styles are unsuited for the American background which is vast, open and different from Europe in terms of climate. Furthermore, unlike the religiously homogenous states in Europe, America is very diverse and therefore much of ecclesiastical architecture has no application. Furthermore the author sees the misappropriation of designs for purposes other than their original purpose as the surest sign of decline. I am not convinced that the issue of appropriateness of a certain kind of architecture to its purpose is a legitimate objection. Consider for example the rotunda of the Capitol Hill and compare it to the Vatican City's architecture.
Why does Fathy consider the plant is a good analogy for…
One of the impressive features of the Villa Savoye is its transparency in design. You are able to observe multiple sides of the house from different positions. For instance, from the perspective of the sunroom, one gets a good view of the second story terrace and the ramp that leads out to the garden on the roof.
Overall, Le Corbusier's Villa Savoye is marked by its retro-futuristic design - a look that has become synonymous with modern architecture. elonging neither to the future nor to the past, the Villa Savoye offers us a fascinating insight into one architect's dream of fusing top-notch aesthetic sophistication with the ultimate in functionality.
Out of all of Le Corbusier's building, the Villa Savoye was the only building to have effectively captured the essence of the aesthetic the architect put forth in his famous work, Towards a New Architecture. As Le Corbusier famously…
Bhatt, Anand. "Villa Savoye." Available at http://www.ab-a.net/index.cgi-Villa_Savoye
Le Corbusier. Towards a New Architecture. New York: Dover Publications, 1985.
Claude Perrault and why it supports Perrault's ideas which marked the origins of modern reflection on the theory of architecture. The paper also presents fundamental proves and the reason why Perrault's theory of architecture were very controversial in the past. The paper also talked about Parallel and the buildings measured According to Claude Perrault's Theory and it achievement which led to the establishment of modern reflection of architecture.
The concept of architecture theory has been in existence for many decades. It takes the whole point of architecture as a matter of understanding the application in the field which belongs both to the practice and to the knowledge. However, as stated by (Onefrei, 12) architecture theory can be defined as the action of coming up with an idea, discussing and writing about certain architecture. The theory attempts to offer more details on why certain structures look unique and the reason why…
Alberto Perez-Gomez, Architecture and the Crisis of Modern Science (Cambridge:MITPress, of 1983, which offered an argument that is modeled closely on Edmund Husserl'sCrisis of the European Sciences in 1939 and Evanston Northwestern University Oct.1970.
Claude Perrault, Ordinance des CincEspeces de Colonnes (Paris, 1683). Herrmann is not only aware of these facts, but he has written about them in a very detailed article: W. Herrmann, "Antoine Desgodetz and the Academia Royale Architecture," The Art Bulletin, XL (1958), 23-53.
Lucius Allais. Claude Perrault Ordinance for the five kinds of Columns after the methods of the Ancients authored on October 4, 2008, pg. 6-24. Volume 2.
Herrmann Wolfgang. Theory of Claude Perrault, A journal of the Society of Architectural Historians. Published by the University of California Press on behalf of the Society of Architectural Historians Stable on the 3 October 1976, pg 2-24.Vol. 25.
Architecture is rightly considered as one of the most important of the Art categories. Unlike a painting or a sculpture, it is not something passive that can be hung on the wall or kept in a museum; they do little to impact us or our environment in a manner that Architecture is able to do so. Therefore it is not surprising that Architecture and the creators of it, which is the Architect, seem to have such an important place in the world of Arts.
Architecture has been defined as the very container of space in which we act, move, sleep and live our overall life; therefore, it becomes an important epicenter of our life. e interact with a space day in and day out, and therefore it should be functional and have the necessary details that are instrumental in fulfilling human needs. Sometimes these needs can be more…
Alvar Aalto. n.d. http://www.aalto-alvar.com / (accessed October 26th, 2011).
Bowring, Jacky. "Sensory Deprivation: Globalisation and the Phenomenology of Landscape Architecture." Lincoln University. n.d. http://researcharchive.lincoln.ac.nz/dspace/bitstream/10182/61/1/sensory_deprivation.pdf (accessed October 25th, 2011).
Fascia, Flavia. "Alvar Aalto." Napoli.
Fores, Jamir J. Ferrer. "Tradition in Nordic Architecture."
Likewise, without the roof, the facade could just as easily been a copy of the rest of the gallery, intended to look like a straightforward expansion rather than the addition of a new, distinct yet related wing. Together, they serve to highlight and celebrate the temporal flux of the museum space itself, where contemporary visitors go to enjoy and interact with considerably older works. Once again, Venturi's work embraces the complex and contradictory nature of human experience in order to reify those contradictions into concrete forms that might serve to generalize human experience, such that anyone viewing the building might instantly find some kinship with its seamless integration of old and new, even before considering the actual formal elements of the design.
By embracing the notion that "less is a bore," obert Venturi revolutionized both the theory and practice of architecture. In his "gentle manifesto," Venturi opposed the rigid structures…
Bachman, Leonard R. 2008. Architecture and the four encounters with complexity. Architectural Engineering and Design Management 4, (1): 15-30,
Goldberger, Paul. 1982. Architecture view; robert venturi-in love with the art of building. New York Times, Sep 19, 1982.
Goldberger, Paul. 1991. ARCHITECTURE VIEW; robert venturi, gentle subverter of modernism. New York Times, Apr 14, 1991.
Lawson, Bryan. 2002. The subject that won't go away but perhaps we are ahead of the game.; design as research. Arq: Architectural Research Quarterly 6, (2): 109-114
Architecture through the Ages
Construction in ancient times is second only to agriculture-it reaches back as far as the Stone Age and possibly further (Jackson 4). Before the existence of master builders in design and construction the Code of Hammurabi (1795-1750 B.C.) referred to design and construction as a simple process (Beard, Loulakis and undrum (13). Hammurabi was the ruler of Babylon, the world's first metropolis and he codified his code of laws (Beard 13). This is the earliest example of a ruler introducing his laws publicly. The code regulated the organization of society including the extreme punishments for violating the law. The builder's work is addressed in the code, however faulty design and improper construction were viewed as one (13). Six specific laws address the builder. These laws are;
228. If a builder build a house for some one, and does not construct it properly, and the house…
"Albert the Great." The Masonic Trowel. Web. 26 Mar. 2010. .
"Architecture and the Medieval Builder." Wikipedia The Free Encyclopedia. Web. 26 Mar. 2010. .
"Basilica of Santa Maria Novella." Wikipedia The Free Encyclopedia. Web. .
Beard, Jeffrey, Michael Loulakis, and Edward Wundrum. Design-Build:planning through Development. McGraw-Hill, 2001. Print.
The Critique of Pure eason proposed and researched, highlighting expertise of how the mind's synthetic framework makes up the world. As a review of taste, such a technique does not try to separate some home that is distinct to beautiful items, however rather intends at exposing how the mind discovers specific items beautiful. Kant thinks that this is possible since the intellect that is associated with common spatiotemporal experience, so it is just fitting to look initially at the nature of these professors prior to continuing to how they associate with aesthetic judgments. An additional reason to continue in this way is that the Critique of the Power of Judgment is scant when it concerns explicating the complimentary play of the creativity and understanding Kant anticipates that his readers have actually accumulated this from the first Critique.
In the Critique of Pure eason we see that in determinative judgments the…
Aristotle (1980). Metaphysics, the Loeb Classical Library (trans. H. Tredennick). Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1 933 / 1980 . 1029a20ff.
Crawford, D.W. (1974). Kant's Aesthetic Theory (London: The University of Wiscon-sin Press).
De Blaas, Eugene, God's Creatures, oil on canvas, 1877, private collection
Kant, I. (2000a). Critique of the Power of Judgment, trans. Paul Guyer and Eric Matthews, ed. Paul Guyer (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).
In contrast, English baroque has been described as being more secular, with a higher degree of classical inspiration. However, as Daniells states, this form of the Baroque style is not easy to categorize with finality (Daniells). Wellek uses the term 'restraint' to characterize English baroque (Wellek). With regard to the period of the Scientific Revolution, English Baroque drew inspiration from renaissance geometry. As in the Italian or Roman Baroque, there is a strong religious element that permeates all the designs.
The form of Baroque is exemplified by work of Sir Christopher Wren and buildings like St. Paul's Cathedral. The following summary by Soo is reiterated as it encapsulates the link between English baroque and the religious and scientific values of the period. "...as the result of a compromise between native medieval tradition and continental classicism, reconciled by creating a disunity between appearances and reality, the final design of St. Paul's…
architect antiago Calatrava. It has 3 sources.
An analysis of Calatrava's works as an entirety; based on his major ideas, the nature of his works, his clients, culture, origin and development, thematic progression, the values represented and legacy of the architect to modern architecture.
Born in Valencia, 1951, antiago Calatrava is one of pain's most celebrated architects. His works and projects can be found throughout pain, as well as Europe and across the Atlantic in N. America. ome famous works by Calatrava are the BCE Place Mall in Toronto, Bach de Roda Bridge in Barcelona, the Oriente Railway tation in Lisbon, Bridge of Europe in Orleans, France, and the Milwaukee Art Museum, UA. In addition to this, Calatrava has also staged exhibitions of his sculpture in Florence, Texas and Athens.
Calatrava's implemented his innovative and original ideas through his many works. The major concepts of Calatrava's design are found…
Matthews, Kevin. Great Buildings.com, Santiago Calatrava. 2003. http://www.greatbuildings.com/architects/Santiago_Calatrava.html
Architect Week, Calatrava Recognized. 2000. http://www.architectureweek.com/2000/1115/index.html
Gibson, Frederick Clifford. Calatrava Resources, 2000. http://www.gibson-design.com/resource-calatrava.html
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Florence train station and its qualities. The Florence train station might be expected to be designed in the classic or even art deco style, but instead, it is a classic and well-known example of Italian modernism.
The Firenze Santa Maria Novella or the Stazione di Santa Maria Novella is the main train station in Florence. A group of Italian architects called the Gruppo Toscano (Tuscan Group) completed it in 1934. Architects Giovanni Michelucci and Italo Gamberini were two of the members of this group. Italian Dictator Benito Mussolini approved of the final design of the station after a controversial competition, and many architects believe the Tuscan Group modeled their design after Viennese modern architecture and America's Frank Lloyd Wright, known for his modern and novel architecture. The Tuscan Group only designed the front of the building, the platforms, waiting areas, and such were designed by an Italian Ministry of Communications…