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She believes that the leadership, order, and willingness to follow someone else that make military campaigns successful are also what make political campaigns successful, though she acknowledges that, at least for the individuals involved, the direct and immediate consequences of failing to follow the leader are less severe in a military campaign. Modern political campaigns frequently follow the military model, but Jackson's campaign was the first to really do so. In fact, the 1828 campaign differed significantly from prior candidacies. Jackson's campaign featured coordinated media, fund-raising, rallies, political polls, paraphernalia, and ethnic voting blocks, image-making, smear tactics, dirty tricks, and opposition research. (Parsons, 2009, p.133). Jackson's supporters introduced many of these tactics. However, Parsons makes it clear that they were not doing something unethical when they did so. On the contrary, Jackson and his supporters had to deal with a dramatically expanding electorate. One of the conclusions that these campaigners…
Parsons, Lynn. The Birth of Modern Politics: Andrew Jackson, John Quincy Adams, and the Election of 1828. New York: Oxford University Press, 2009.
But the real world was a whole and perfect entity." (Philosophy Is a Way of Life)
The theory of dualism and its implications in term ethics and politics can be derived from the following concise but insightful analysis.
A dualistic view of reality understands there to be two (thus dualism) levels of existence. The top level... is ultimate reality, and consists of ideas, such as truth, beauty, goodness, justice, perfection. In other words, the ultimate reality is non-corporeal, or non-physical. It is the level of spirit and deity. The lower level is the physical world which in which we live. It is the opposite of ultimate reality, thus it is not real in the sense that it is not ultimate. It contains the imperfect physical manifestations of the ideas that exist in the perfect plane, so by definition it is characterized by falsehood, ugliness, evil, injustice, imperfection.
Allen DG. (2006) Whiteness and difference in nursing. Nurs Philos. 7(2):65-78. Bratcher D. Body and Soul. Greek and Hebraic Tensions in Scripture: Thoughts on the Di-/Trichotomous Debate. Retrieved July 19, 2008, at http://www.cresourcei.org/bodysoul.html
Chadwick, Henry. (1984) Early Christian Thought and the Classical Tradition:
Studies in Justin, Clement, and Origen. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Engebretson, Joan.(2002) Hands-on: The persistent metaphor in nursing.
Modern Political Thought
The transition from a feudal serf economy to a capitalist market economy was one of the fundamental shifts which have produced modernity as we know it. This essay aims to understand how the authors of The Prince and Leviathan, Niccolo Machiavelli and Thomas Hobbes would think about the transition and how these two great minds would relate to the issue of capitalism. Capitalism is a funny game that continually creates a series of boom and bust cycles throughout our modern history. Take the 1926 real estate craze that occurred in Florida. The United States economy was cooking along on all cylinders and good times were everywhere. No one was thinking about the Great Depression that would occur just a few years later. The rich and happy of 1926 figured that all was well as often is the case in Capitalism. Prosperity and growth were infinite --…
Works Cited, continued
Solomon, Jay. (2009). "U.S., India Expand Counterterrorism Cooperation." Wall Street Journal Online. (2009). Retrieved on November 25, 2009 from online.wsj at http://online.wsj.com/article/SB125907299030362349.htmlWallerstein , Immanuel. (1983): "Historical Capitalism." Thetford Press, Limited: Norfolk.
White, Michael (2007). "Machiavelli, A Man Misunderstood." Abacus.
Six Questions & Discussion on American Politics
During the U.S. Constitutional Convention of 1787, two primary plans were forwarded that shaped the development and discussion at the convention that would forever impact the shape of American politics. The first plan, the Virginia Plan, introduced by Governor Randolph, was an effort to simply revise the existing Articles of Confederation. It was characterized by three major points: the structural exclusion of states from elections and representation at the national level, reductions of powers to individual states, and the abandonment of the some national features of republicanism like institutional separation of powers. The Virginia Plan was countered by two alternative plans, and a division at the Convention: the New Jersey Plan that believed the Virginia Plan went too far in affording power to the national government, and the Hamilton Plan that argued the Virginia Plan didn't go far enough (Lloyd).…
Burner, David and Rosenfield, Ross. "Polling." Dictionary of American History. 2003. 15 Dec. 2009 .
"Evolution of American Political Parties from the Revolution to the Reconstruction." 2003. 15 Dec. 2009 .
Follesdal, Andreas. "Federalism." The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. 2006. 15 Dec. 2009 .
Green, John, Smidt, Corwin, Guth, James, and Kellstedt, Lyman. "The American Religious Landscape and the 2004 Presidential Vote: Increased Polarization." 15 Dec. 2009 .
The question of who rules whom in the aster-slave relationships is fairly straightforward. In the case of a natural master and a natural slave (neither of which Aristotle sufficiently explains, presumably assuming that birth or subsequent circumstance rightly assigned these roles), it is the master that rules unequivocally over the slave, though ostensibly to their mutual benefit. The same is true of the man over his wife and children, though with a greater desire for their good than his own. Political rule requires a larger group in order to refrain from despotism; though it comes with many complications, Aristotle insists, "the principle that the multitude ought to be supreme rather than the few best is one that is maintained" (III.11).
The master-slave relationship as described by Aristotle has given modern scholars the most trouble, for there is very little basis for it in Aristotle's logic. He seems to assume that…
Politics, Literature & the Arts: Modernism has been discussed as a reaction to modernity: from the following works, is this a fair description?
Modernism is often defined as a chaotic, pastiche-style of rendering the difficulties of modern, industrialized life. The attempted regimentation of modernity becomes, in modernism, exposed for the absurdity that it is through the surrealist and other modernist aesthetics, such as the improvised jazz riff. For example, in the 1928 film "The Andalusian Dog" by the surrealist artist Salvador Dali and the surrealist director Louis Bunuel the pace of the film's absurd depiction of life is harsh, fragmented and full of confusion. It seems to exist in no certain time, place, or within a conventionally identifiable range of historical or social images, and thus is coherent with the impersonal nature of modern life. It is like, to cite Ken Burn's documentary on music, a "jazz" riff on the…
"The Andalusian Dog." Directed and written by Salvador Dali and Louis Bunuel. 1928.
Benjamin, Walter. "Surrealism and Adorno. " in Critical Theory and Society. Edited by Bronner and Kellner.
"Jazz: A Documentary." Directed by Ken Burns, 2002.
Politics, literature and the arts -- Transformation, Totalitarianism, and Modern Capitalist life in Franz Kafka's "Metamorphosis," Fritz Lang's "Metropolis," and Albert Camus' Caligula
At first, the towering heights of the German director Fritz Lang's "Metropolis" may seem to have little to do with the cramped world of the Czech author Franz Kafka's "Metamorphosis." Fritz Lang portrayed a humanity whereby seemingly sleek human beings were dwarfed by towering and modernist structures, where one class of thinking humans were drunk on pleasure while others suffered in pain so that the upper classes or regions of Metropolitan society might prosper. Franz Kafka portrayed a man named Gregor Samsa who became a grotesque creature, increasingly beset upon by his tiny and encloistered environment until he is transformed into a gigantic cockroach. Rather than focusing on the higher echelons of society, Kafka focused on its lower elements immediately.
In Kafka, the transformed Gregor Samsa becomes…
Camus, Albert. "Caligula." 1936.
Kafka, Franz. "Metamorphosis." Translated by Ian Johnston. Released October 2003. http://www.mala.bc.ca/~johnstoi/stories/kafka-E.htm
'Metropolis." Directed by Fritz Lang. 1926.
As governments look to eradicate deficits, it is often organization that fall under discretionary spending categories that bear the brunt of those cuts. Not only does the productive capacity of these organizations suffer but so, too, does morale. ith declining funding, public sector organizations also often have difficult recruiting top talent into their organizations.
Another issue that arises with public organization decline is that there is a lack of motivation and a lack of innovation. Innovation in particular is a challenge. hen considering Sayre's Model it is not hard to see how excessive bureaucracy can stifle the innovative capabilities of public organizations. Pathak (2007) argues that middle management needs to take a lead role in not only keeping up morale, but encouraging high levels of performance in public organizations as a policy to stem decline.
Cutbacks can be particularly challenging for public organizations. The most important aspect of cutbacks is…
McCarthy, R. & Aronson, J. (2001). Analyzing the balance between consumer, business and government: The emergent Internet privacy legal framework. IACIS 2001. Retrieved November 19, 2012 from http://iacis.org/iis/2001/mccarthy275.PDF
Padhi, N. (2010). The eight elements of TQM. iSixSigma.com. Retrieved November 19, 2012 from http://www.isixsigma.com/methodology/total-quality-management-tqm/eight-elements-tqm/
Pathak, P. (2007). The decline of public sector organizations: Can middle managers play the role of saviour? Indian School of Mines. Retrieved November 19, 2012 from http://www.ediindia.org/Creed/data/Govind%20Swaroop%20Pathak%20&%20Pallavi%20Pathak.htm
Sheppard, G. (2009). Public sector reward: More than motivation. Personnel Today. Retrieved November 19, 2012 from http://www.personneltoday.com/articles/06/07/2009/51319/public-sector-reward-more-than-motivation.htm
Cinema and American Politics
The modern politics of the U.S. and their imperialistic manifestations within the global political economy (GPE) have often been reflected in the mainstream Hollywood films of the era yet simultaneously criticized and satirized by auteur and/or independent filmmakers, such as Kubrick with his 1964 Dr. Strangelove or Oliver Stone's JFK. While political science is a field in which the dynamics of political discourse may be examined more directly, an analysis of the cinematic representation of American politics as depicted in film can provide an alternative assessment of the life of U.S. political forces, how they are perceived to operate in popular film, and how popular political beliefs are shaped and communicated to citizens as a result. For instance, Spielberg's Lincoln and his recent ridge of Spies are two films that celebrate some aspect of the American political ideal (such as freedom, unity, integrity, and democracy). Yet…
Benoit, William; Nill, Dawn. "Oliver Stone's Defense of JFK." Communication
Quarterly, vol. 46, no. 2 (1998): 127-143.
Cole, David. Republican Party Animal. WA: Feral House, 2014.
Elliott, William; Schenck-Hamlin, William. "Film, Politics and the Press: The Influence
This contrasts completely with another theory of modern warfare put forth by Samuel Huntington, who agrees that warfare is transitioning away from its previous incarnation(s) but actually sees war and conflict increasing in its scope, especially from an ideological perspective. In Huntington's view, war in the modern era (beginning in the seventeenth century) has moved from wars between princes or monarchs (wars between individuals in authority, such as the animosity between certain French and English rulers of the period, for instance) to wars between nation-states (wars between peoples, such as the American Revolution as one example) to wars of ideology that involved several or many nations on both sides of the engagement (the two World Wars and even the Cold War serve as examples). Now, Huntington contends, warfare is continuing this trajectory of an increasing scale by becoming wars of civilization: essentially wars between Western and non-Western civilization(s). The commonality…
A favorite target for conspiracists today as well as in the past, a group of European intellectuals created the Order of the Illuminati in May 1776, in Bavaria, Germany, under the leadership of Adam Weishaupt (Atkins, 2002). In this regard, Stewart (2002) reports that, "The 'great' conspiracy organized in the last half of the eighteenth century through the efforts of a number of secret societies that were striving for a 'new order' of civilization to be governed by a small group of 'all-powerful rulers.' The most important of these societies, and the one to which all subsequent conspiracies could be traced, is the Illuminati founded in Bavaria on May 1, 1776 by Adam Weishaupt" (p. 424). According to Atkins, it was Weishaupt's fundamental and overriding goal to form a secret organization of elite members of Europe's leading citizens who could then strive to achieve the Enlightenment version of revolutionary social…
American Psychological Association. (2002). Publication manual of the American Psychological
Association (5th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.
Anderson, J. (1981, 1723). The charges of a Free-Mason extracted from the ancient records of lodges beyond the sea, and of those in England, Scotland, and Ireland, for the use of the lodges in London: To be read at the making of new brethren, or when the master shall order it. Reprinted in The Radical Enlightenment: Pantheists, Freemasons, and Republicans, by M.C. Jacob, 279-285. London and Boston: Allen & Unwin in Harland-
Jacobs at p. 237.
evolution of political parties from the Federalists and Democratic-epublicans to the political parties that exist today.
The binary differences between the Federalists and the Democratic-epublicans led to the formation of the first political parties in the United States, and essentially created the norm for a two-party system. Even as the names and ideological platforms of American political parties changed over time, a two-party system has persisted and continues to characterize American politics.
The early Federalists stood for a strong central government to create a more unified system of governance and economics, and also to create more consistency in law, politics, and finance. On the other hand, the earliest epublicans favored states' rights and mistrusted a strong centralized government. By the early 19th century, though, the Federalists and epublicans fell apart. Two new political parties emerged: the Democrats and the Whigs. The Whigs assumed many of the political platforms that the…
Patterson, T. (2013). The American Democracy. 11th Edition. McGraw-Hill.
politics is and what it is not. Some definitions of politics are examined. The applications of politics in society are explored. The paper also looks at some of the things that are not politics, and examines why these things are not politics. The role of politics is distinguished from the role of government, and the reasons for this are looked at more closely.
This is a paper written in Harvard style that is actually three five page essays in one. These three essays all answer specific questions about politics, particularly the theories of elitism and pluralism.
What is Politics?
Many people believe that politics is simply the workings of the government, the ins and outs of the daily process of making, enforcing, and interpreting the laws. This is certainly one aspect of politics. However, politics encompasses so much more than just this. Politics also takes into account the structures of…
Dahl, R., "Pluralism revisited," Comparative Politics, 10, (1978)
Dunleavy, Patrick and O'Leary, Brendan, Theories of the State, (London, Macmillan, 1987). Chapters 2 and 6.
Schwarzmantel, J., The State in Contemporary Society (Harvester, 1994). Chapter 3
Totalitarianism's Controversial Notions
The human social animal's capacity for collective tyranny and violence in Hannah Arendt's seminal work
Since the publication of her 1951 work on The Origins of Totalitarianism, Hannah Arendt has received much criticism as a philosopher and an historian for her theory of the human, historical development of notions of society or what Arendt terms 'the social.' From the social organizations of the salon, which were loose and diffuse, and based on ideological alliances, human beings evolved in their organization, she suggests, to alliances upon material interests in the forms of classes. But the nationalist and imperialist movements of the 19th century perverted these previous mental and material social alliances in history, to create the manifestation of 'the masses' that enabled totalitarianism to take hold in Germany, Russia, and other areas of the world.
Critical to Arendt's conception of totalitarianism is her notion of the…
Arendt, Hannah. The Origins of Totalitarianism. Harcourt and Brace, 1951.
Arendt, Hannah. The Human Condition. U of Chicago Press, 1998. Originally Published 1958.
If there is anything that we as a society love deeply…it's a hero. Both children and adults alike are drawn to heroes in both reality and fantasy. Children grow up being regaled by stories of the prince saving the princess and adults beam over happy endings in movies where the hero saves the day. Most people would describe the role as hero as someone, who defies the odds, is a champion for the people, and who physically or possibility even emotionally or spiritually rescues others. A hero may even possess unconventional ethics and approaches, but the constant is that a hero looks out for the greater good of others, particularly the minority whose voices have been silenced by the majority. This paper will provide a subjective definition of a "modern heroine" as well as present a discussion of an protagonist I deem a hero in Alice alker's novel "The…
Gates, Henry Louis, and Anthony Appiah. Alice Walker: critical perspectives past and present. New York: Amistad:, 1993. Print.
Walker, Alice. Her blue body everything we know: earthling poems, 1965-1990 complete. San Diego: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1991. Print.
Walker, Alice. The color purple. Repr. ed. London: Women's Press, 1993. Print.
"Women of the Century: 100 Years of American Heroes - DiscoverySchool.com." Free Teacher Resources | Discovery Education N.p., n.d. Web. 14 May 2012.
However, she concludes that the effect of PMCs, as a whole, cannot be determined by this one example. Supply in the current PMC market has a tendency to self-perpetuate. As more PMCs enter the market, new threats are developed that the firms provide protection against. "Moreover, demand does not penalize firms that service 'illegitimate;' clients in general. Consequently, the number of actors who can wield control over the use of force is limited mainly by their ability to pay." (605). This results in a draining of current security institutions resources. Their security coverage is worsened. By increasing the availability of military force, more actors are involved in conflict and less reason is needed to contest existing institutions, destabilizing nations.
Herz (1957) was correct in his understanding that the territorial states of yesteryear are forever changed. Sovereignty in today's world is tenuous at best. International law has been created to…
Arquilla, J. & Ronfeldt, D. "Cyberwar is Coming!" Comparative Stategy. 12.2. (Spring 1993): 141-165.
Herz, J. "Rise and Demise of the Territorial State." World Politics 9.4. (Jul 1957): 473-493.
Homer-Dixon, T. "The Rise of Complex Terrorism." Foreign Policy. 128. (Jan-Feb 2002): 52-62.
Leander, a. "The Market for Force and Public Security: The Destabilizing Consequences of Private Military Companies." Journal of Peace Research. 42.5. (2005): 605-622.
I do not feel that the state should be allowed to draft marriage terms that do not adequately protect the liberty and equality of each spouse. I believe that cultures of the world are slowing moving towards a global culture that embraces liberty and equality through globalization and advances of information technologies. In fact, this point seems evident in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Article 16 of this document states (the United Nations, N.d.):
(1) Men and women of full age, without any limitation due to race, nationality or religion, have the right to marry and to found a family. They are entitled to equal rights as to marriage, during marriage and at its dissolution.
(2) Marriage shall be entered into only with the free and full consent of the intending spouses.
(3) the family is the natural and fundamental group unit of society and is entitled to protection…
Exploring Constitutional Conflicts. (N.d.). The Right to Marry. Retrieved from Exploring Constitutional Conflicts: http://law2.umkc.edu/faculty/projects/ftrials/conlaw/righttomarry.htm
The United Nations. (N.d.). The Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Retrieved from the United Nations: http://www.un.org/en/documents/udhr/index.shtml
Younus, F. (2013, January 28). Why Ban Cousin Marriages? Retrieved from Huffington Post: http://www.huffingtonpost.com/faheem-younus/why-ban-cousin-marriages_b_2567162.html
Compare and contrast Mao's ideal of China to the variety sought by Deng Xiaoping. hat advantages and disadvantages did the Maoist system have? hat advantages did the Dengist system have?
Chairman Mao and Deng Xiaoping were two of the most influential leaders of modern Chinese history. Both men believed that they were acting in the best interest of their citizens but had vastly different ways of pursuing this goal. Each man was a member of the Chinese Communist party and built and government system based on Marxist teachings. However the two men had different ideas about what it meant to have a Communist regime and the types of policies which would best suit the needs of the people.
Chairman Mao led China during the period of Communist revolution. He completely revitalized the political, economic, cultural, and sociological system of the country. Mao's policies were concerned with the social…
"China: From Mao to Deng." (1997). International Socialist Review. 1.
The survival of Jordanian monarchy is determined by its capability to capture power and regulate over the political process, its efficacy in stabilising the negative forces of trans-national ideologies on the domestic arena between the early 1950s and the early 1970s coupled with the coming out of a feeling of loyalty to the state and nationhood etc. (Salloukh, 1996)
King Hussein is magnanimous than the Jordan itself. The great talent of Hussein was his diplomacy in dealing with the people that are antagonistic to one another mercilessly and fundamentally that he approved wholly with them. Normally, the people were never aware of the impossibility of the agreement due to his effectiveness in dealing. The diplomacy is not normally related to integrity but in case of Hussein it was not true. (Foster, 1999) the efforts of King Hussein in prevailing peace in the region were internationally acclaimed. (Aquino, 2002) the stability…
Allman, T.D. (1974) in Defense of Monarchy from J.J. Ray (Ed.) "Conservatism as Heresy." Sydney: A.N.Z. Book Co.
Aquino, Nucha. (2002) "The World's Monarchy" Retrieved at http://fun-articles.elaguna.net/culture/worlds_monarchy.htm. Accessed on 21 November, 2004
Burns, John. F. (June 28, 1999) Heir to Morocco's Throne Is Playing a Larger Role. The New York Times Company. Retrieved at http://home1.gte.net/eskandar/kinghassan.html. Accessed on 21 November, 2004
Clarke, L. (9 April, 1999) "Abdullah's Jordan: Assessing the First Two Months" the Estimate. Volume: 11; No: 8; pp: 27-35
Theory (MPT) and its role in asset allocation and diversification. The paper reviews arguments in favor of and against MPT, in addition to reviewing how MPT affects portfolio management.
MPT describes a theory on how risk-averse investors can build portfolios that optimize or maximize expected return based on a given level of market risk, while emphasizing that risk is an inherent factor of higher reward. MPT posits that it is possible to construct an "efficient frontier" of optimal portfolios that offer the maximum possible expected return for a given level of risk (Modern portfolio theory, 2011).
Modern Portfolio Theory
Typically, an investor looking for the ideal investment, would choose one whose attributes included high returns coupled with low risk. The ideal investment probably does not exist, but the search for it has caused financial managers and investment analysts to spend time to develop methods and strategies, many of which are…
Bernstein, W.J. (1996). The expected return of precious metals equity. Retrieved May 31, 2011 from http://www.efficientfrontier.com/ef/197/preci197.htm
McClure, B. (2011). Modern portfolio theory: why it's still hip. Investopedia Web site. Retrieved May 31, 2011 from http://www.investopedia.com/articles/06/MPT.asp
Modern portfolio theory: Dynamic diversification for today's investor. Vision Financial Markets. Retrieved May 31, 2011 from http://www.usafutures.com/modernportfoliotheoryinvesting.pdf
Modern portfolio theory -- MPT. (2011). Investopedia Web site. Retrieved May 31, 2011 from http://www.investopedia.com/terms/m/modernportfoliotheory.asp
Neo-fundamentalism's pan-Islamic ideology has a profound appeal only for such displaced Muslim ethnic groups, as is also evidenced in Palestinian radical mobilization in such groups as Hamas.
But for Algerian Muslims living happily in Algiers, in comparison, this is not often the case. In fact, the author points to the behavior of the Algerians during their last election, noting that many nationals were openly calling for greater democratization in the street. They did not see this as incompatible with an Islamic state, necessarily, because they were more secure in their fused national and Islamic identity, and did not need neo-fundamentalist Islam to be the main source of their status and identity. The more secure, nationalistic, and unified the Islamic populace, the less appeal neo-fundamentalism's pan-Islamic ideology has, while "deterritorialism" has produced the transformation of Islamic conservatism into terrorist, radical Islam united across borders, as migrant and alienated Islamic ethnicities strive…
public sphere and the culture industry: has the former been fundamentally corrupted through the latter? Are there new possibilities that the culture industry has to offer politics?
The public sphere of artistic discourse is one in which, according to Theodor Adorno, the culture industry sells its commodity goods that masquerade as truth and art. here the media and world of art should speak to a kind of anti-structured and individualistic discourse, according to Adorno, allowing the words of the artist to rally against the common and stereotyped patterns that are tempting for citizens to fall into, instead the culture industry merely reaffirms and panders to these preexisting tropes, and makes viewers feel comfortable with what they consider to be the truth, although these truths are often of a nature that 'America is good,' or 'America is beautiful.' Adorno's student Habermas, although less skeptical of the Enlightenment than his founding teacher,…
Adorno, Theodore. "The Culture Industry Reconsidered" In Critical Theory and Society. Edited by Bronner and Kellner.
Habermas, P. "The Public Sphere." In Critical Theory and Society. Edited by Bronner and Kellner.
"Hearts and Minds." Directed by Peter Davis. 1974
Catholic Church in Mexico underscored both its conquest and its independence. Organizationally, the church prior to the liberation theology of the 20th century has always been more cogent than the Mexican government. The church has traditionally been amalgamated with conservative interests that include the military and wealthier landowners. The institution of tithing and the role of the church as a colonizer through its missions helped to make the church the most powerful pre-revolutionary institution in Mexico. Additionally, at a time before the existence of broad-based commercial lending, the church not only acted as the principal lender in the colony and early republic, but served as the nexus for all public activity in many smaller communities. However, the influence of the church was severely limited under liberalism. Although the iaz government returned to the Catholic church some of its former glory, the 1916 Constitution ultimately spelled an end to the church's…
Despite this relatively recent accommodation, the Church has not remained quiet on the issue of poverty. Historically, as the government failed to care for the people, the Church assumed greater responsibility and became more vocal in complaining about the government's shortcomings. Today the Church, which once strove mainly to preserve its own authority, has emerged as an outspoken opponent of the government. Yet aggressive Church actions were evident early in the century, both in opposition to the anti-clerical language of the 1917 constitution and in the violent Cristero rebellion of the 1920s. From 1926 to 1929 Mexico faced strong resistance by Catholics who opposed the anticlerical component of the Constitution of 1917 that regulated the affairs of the Catholic Church. After the emergence of liberation theology among Latin American Catholic priests in the 1970s, Mexican clerics became vocal in their condemnation of oppressive government policies. In 1991 clerical officials leveled a broad range of charges against the government including torture, abuse of prisoners, political persecution, corruption, and electoral fraud. These charges were repeated by Pope John Paul II in his 1999 visit when he called for an end to "violence, terrorism, and drug trafficking." The Church has been critical of the government by supporting the rebellion in the southern state of Chiapas. Tension between church and state emerged again as recently as 1994 when the government attempted to blame the Chiapas uprising on the language and actions of various clerics.
Traditionally regarded as a woman's issue, birth control has become a mainstream political issue since the 1970s. After all, through the combined effects of cultural expectations to raise large families and the Catholic Church's ban on birth control, the population grew dramatically. Women who chose not to have children resorted to crude abortions. In 1970, the year Luis Echeverr'a became the first Mexican president to call for a reduction in the nation's population, as many as 32,000 Mexican women died from abortion complications. Although discussions of population control have long been taboo by the Catholic Church, 1972 saw a reversal when Mexican clerics called for reduced family size. Thereafter government support enabled family planning clinics and educational programs to be developed. By 1988 the Mexican annual population growth rate was nearly halved, to 1.8%.
Women in Mexico have been pushing for significant changes within the political and social arenas, and they are slowly gaining access to previously male-dominated spheres. For example, they are now elected as state governors and as representatives in the Chamber of Deputies. Increasingly they are leaving bad marriages in spite of condemnation from the Church and hostility from their own families. Indeed, there is growing liberation from the traditional roles and expectations for women in Mexican society.
One of the reasons for the formation of the National Organization for Women was the fact that, despite legislation like the Equal Pay Act of 1963, there were still many disparities in the way women were treated both in the halls of government and the offices and boardrooms of the corporate world. his Act was passed by Congress in order to ensure the equality of wages based on gender, but many women activists were angered by the fact that the legislation was not really enforced, and companies often got away with disparities in pay and even in hiring practices. itle VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 was even more sweeping in its condemnation of discriminatory practices based on gender in many matters of business, including employment, wages, banking decisions, etc. yet despite such hard-won legislation, the issue of gender equality in this country is still far from over.…
The National Woman Suffrage Association was formed in 1869, with a focus on achieving a constitutional amendment granting women in the United States the right to vote. The American Woman Suffrage Association was formed alter in that same year, and its efforts were directed at achieving individual state amendments or laws allowing women to vote -- a tactic that would prove more successful for several decades. In 1913, however, here still had not been a significant amount of progress made, and a more radical group was formed. The Congressional Union for Women's Suffrage was more vocal in their fight, but also slighted women of color as a means of retaining popularity in the South. The struggle continues with such organizations as the National Organization for Women, which was founded in the 1960s in an effort to establish true equality and freedom from discrimination for women.
One of the reasons for the formation of the National Organization for Women was the fact that, despite legislation like the Equal Pay Act of 1963, there were still many disparities in the way women were treated both in the halls of government and the offices and boardrooms of the corporate world. This Act was passed by Congress in order to ensure the equality of wages based on gender, but many women activists were angered by the fact that the legislation was not really enforced, and companies often got away with disparities in pay and even in hiring practices. Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 was even more sweeping in its condemnation of discriminatory practices based on gender in many matters of business, including employment, wages, banking decisions, etc. yet despite such hard-won legislation, the issue of gender equality in this country is still far from over.
The first woman was elected to Congress in 1917, and the struggle for equality within the government itself has been in full force ever since. Currently, there are seventeen female U.S. Senators and seventy-four women sated in the House of Representatives, making for the highest number of women ever serving in the U.S. Congress in the nation's history. Nancy Pelosi is also the first female Speaker of the House, a very powerful political position (and second to the Vice President in terms of ascension to the Presidency). Still, given that these numbers represent far less than half of the available Congressional seats, it is clear that equality is not really a state that has been reached in terms of gender. The struggle for women's rights and equality continues with more political force today, however, thanks to the work of those in the past.
yan Dawson (2011) helps illustrate the way ideology shapes foreign policy by digging into Project for a New American Century files and showing how the PNAC reports are basically a lobbying tool for Israel. Dawson refers viewers of his documentary to PNAC many times in his attempt to show how the papers lay out the blueprint for American foreign policy post-9/11: "The policy of 'containment' of Saddam Hussein has been steadily eroding over the past several months. As recent events have demonstrated, we can no longer depend on our partners in the Gulf War coalition to continue to uphold the sanctions or to punish Saddam when he blocks or evades UN inspections." Such reports coupled with the yellow cake uranium story and the WMDs hoax, and of course the "harboring terrorists" myth, and the American public was read to back a war against Iraq -- even though Iraq was no…
1962-Year in Review. (2011). Retrieved from http://www.upi.com/Audio/Year_in_Review/Events-of-1962/Cuban-Missile-Crisis/12295509437657-6/
BusinessMate. (2009). Max Weber's Theory of Bureaucracy. BusinessMate.org.
Retrieved from http://www.businessmate.org/Article.php?ArtikelId=30
Chayevsky, P. [writer]. (1976). Network. Los Angeles: MGM.
Second orld ar, Japan was a traditional absolute monarchy but since the adoption of a new constitution in 1946, Japan has become a constitutional monarchy in which the emperor serves as symbolic head of state and the legislature or Diet is parliamentary in nature. The Constitution of Japan expressly outlines the role of the emperor as "symbol of the state and of the unity of the people," (cited by Michigan State University 1). The Emperor serves in ceremonial functions such as the awarding of special honors and providing the ceremonial appointments of the Prime Minister and Supreme Court judges. Emperor Akihito is the reigning monarch; successors are hereditary.
Therefore, Japan possesses a similar system to the one used by Britain and its commonwealth countries. The current system of Japanese government was actually established during the Allied occupation of Japan in 1946 ("Government" 1). According to the Consulate-General of Japan in…
"Background: Politics and Political Campaigns in Japan." PBS: POV. Retrieved online: http://www.pbs.org/pov/campaign/campaign_background.php
Consulate-General of Japan in San Francisco. "Government/Political System." Retrieved online: http://www.sf.us.emb-japan.go.jp/en/e_m08_01_08.htm
Darlington, Roger. "A Short Guide to the Japanese Political System." 2015. Retrieved online: http://www.rogerdarlington.me.uk/Japanesepoliticalsystem.html
Goel, M. Lal. "Observations on Japanese Culture and Politics." Retrieved online: http://uwf.edu/lgoel/documents/AObservationsonJapaneseCulturePol.pdf
Political Framework of Islam
The Peninsula states of Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, ahrain, Qatar, the United Arab Emirates (UAE), and Oman are under growing pressure from outspoken critics who use the language and authority of Islam in these overwhelmingly conservative Muslim societies to call for political and economic reform. The rise of a radically activist Islamic politics predates the 1979 Islamic revolution in Iran, but Sunni and Shia Muslim radicals received significant boosts from the establishment of Islamic government in Tehran and, more recently, from the Gulf War in 1990-91.
Regional specialists from the government, the academic community, and the private sector debated the impact of radicalized Islamic politics on the regimes and U.S. interests in recent roundtables at the Institute for National Strategic Studies (INSS). They agreed that Islamic radicals throughout the region have common perceptions of the causes of their societies' ills. These include dissatisfaction with ruling families that…
jazz and the culture industry? Is Adorno simply an elitist or is there something useful you can appropriate from his argument? What connections can you draw from Benjamin and the "Andalusia Dog?"
Theodor Adorno was clearly inspired by Walter Benjamin, from whom he founded his philosophy of modern art, versus fine or popular art. Adorno constructed a theory of the modern art movement, as embodied in such early surrealist films as "The Andulasian Dog," that stressed that fine art was primarily characterized by a sense of formal autonomy within its structures. This is unlike modern art, which was the social antithesis of society. Jazz, for example, in its ideal form, is atonal and improvisational in its nature. It is of the moment, and of the individual artist's creation, rather than a creation of formal structures purely and calculatedly designed to please the larger populace. In its purest form, jazz is…
Dada or Dadism is a form of art that was considered very controversial when it was created due to the political and cultural statements that it made. Dadism was a protest of the violence of human nature specifically war and its atrocities. Personally I feel that Dadism is a form of art that should be cherished, preserved and appreciated because it has a lot to offer not only in a historical and political sense but also culturally and artistically. I enjoy the liberty and style of Dadism although many times it is not aesthetically pleasing; it is interesting, provoking and enjoyable. I especially enjoy the fact that works of Dadism leave their interpretation open to the viewer due to their abstract composition. Essentially Dadism was a movement that protested contemporary politics and modern art. It was designed to be a social commentary on what Dada artist felt was wrong with…
Legal egulation Conservation Laws on UN Countries Territories
For a long time, the roles of the UN in managing state affairs and world peace have evolved. There are more state and non-state actors in the process of developing and imposing UN laws in sovereign states. This research paper aims at evaluating legal regulation of the conservation laws of UN of the countries territories. The essay argues that the regulations are not sufficient in conserving country progress.
ussia is noticeable in the modern world through its interventions during the post-Soviet era with the special focus of the current leadership. China is trending towards becoming increasingly authoritarian through its military-geopolitical or oil/gas-motivated expansionist diplomatic offensives on neighboring or trading countries propelled by the current leader. The authoritarian behavior appears to be supported by a strong sovereignty sense (Ferris, 2011). The UN has taken it to be a case of economic weakness within…
Browne, M.A. (2011). United Nations Peacekeeping: Issues for Congress. New York: DIANE Publishing.
Ferris, E.G. (2011). The Politics of Protection: The Limits of Humanitarian Action. New York: Brookings Institution Press.
Freedman, R. (2013). The United Nations Human Rights Council: A critique and early assessment. New York: Routledge.
Ramcharan, B.G. (2009). The Protection Roles of UN Human Rights Special Procedures. New York: BRILL.
The fact that communism still dominates affairs in the country can limit or discourage foreign investors. This is probably one of the main reasons for which large corporations are hesitant about investing large amounts of money in China (eatherbee & Emmers 42).
The masses no longer express interest in U.S. cultural values because it appears that the U.S. has experienced significant problems consequent to the 9/11 events. This enabled China to step forward and pose into a body that no longer had problems because of its communist background and that was ready to join other international actors in assisting society progress. The fact that China progressed significantly while the U.S.' image suffered meant that things would change significantly in Southeast Asia. Fair play is one of the main points of interest at this point, as "the concern in Southeast Asia is that the United States, rather than accommodating to a…
Brook, Daniel, (2005) "Modern Revolution: Social Change and Cultural Continuity in Czechoslovakia and China," University Press of America
Fitzgerald, Charles Patrick, (1966), "The birth of Communist China," Michigan University
Li, Mingjiang, (2009), "Soft Power: China's Emerging Strategy in International Politics," Lexington Books
Tang, Wenfang and Holzner, Burkart (2006) "Social Change in Contemporary China: C.K. Yang and the Concept of Institutional Diffusion" University of Pittsburgh Pre
As Japan became a modern state under this period, a status system was formed, which designated specific sectors of the society into various classes and functions. he status system was composed of the samurai, the commoners (peasant farmers, merchants, and artisans), and the daimyo, the land-holding class. During the Meiji period, the samurai class had the highest position and the most favorable privilege among the classes. However, as the country moved toward modernization in the 20th century, this status system was dissolved and a new social order emerged. he commoners and daimyo became more successful than the samurai because of the former's economic wealth and capabilities, as compared to the samurai who have only status but still depend on the daimyo for money.
Modern Japan no longer subsisted to this kind of social stratification. No classes in society were created, be it in terms of religion, race, business affiliation, or…
The Liberal Democratic Party was an example of a political entity which has cultivated a corporatist nature to its politics. The LDP being the oldest and strongest political party in Japan, it dominated and controlled the Diet for many years since the emergence of 20th century. As the 20th century prepared for the coming of the 21st century, LDP had been the focus of political scandals, wherein its strong connections with businesses and corporations revealed that Japanese politics was controlled not by the LDP, but its sponsor businesses instead. In 1998-2001, it was found that LDP had been involved in the long history of corruption and bribery from businesses and corporations in exchange for a promise in deregulation in specific sectors of the business/economic society (e.g., banking and financing and manufacturing).
The social structure of Japan at present was not as hierarchical and stratified as it was during the Meiji Restoration period. As Japan became a modern state under this period, a status system was formed, which designated specific sectors of the society into various classes and functions. The status system was composed of the samurai, the commoners (peasant farmers, merchants, and artisans), and the daimyo, the land-holding class. During the Meiji period, the samurai class had the highest position and the most favorable privilege among the classes. However, as the country moved toward modernization in the 20th century, this status system was dissolved and a new social order emerged. The commoners and daimyo became more successful than the samurai because of the former's economic wealth and capabilities, as compared to the samurai who have only status but still depend on the daimyo for money.
Modern Japan no longer subsisted to this kind of social stratification. No classes in society were created, be it in terms of religion, race, business affiliation, or political affiliation. Perhaps the most evident form of class stratification was geographical in nature: there is the "burakumin" or "hamlet people," which was stratified as such because they lived in segregated villages in the country. The burakumin was the equivalent of America's ghettos, wherein most of the minority members of the society live. Not only are the burakumin segregated geographically, they are also marginalized in the sense that burakumin people are assigned jobs and activities that are considered "unclean" by the Japanese, that is, menial working such as cleaning, slaughtering animals, and disposing of the dead. This stratification in Japanese society has little influence in politics, mainly because they are not active participants and involved in Japanese politics. The burakumin, in effect, are not represented in Japanese politics.
Global Law and Politics:
Political and legal institutions and communications have played an integral role in the development and provision of legitimacy in contemporary societies. This has been through the development of obligatory collective decisions, general legal principles, exercise of political power, and resolution of conflicts. In the new global system, these legal and political institutions have created and conveyed social values, political power, and social meaning in every sector of the society. Both of the institutions are considered as legitimate because they have been established on core values that are related to essential freedoms, the rule of law, and democracy.
Aspects of a New Global System:
Modern societies across the globe are faced with critical issues and problems that are dealt with at the global level by the establishment of laws and policies, which are developed in various institutions. Global law and politics has had a significant impact on…
Concannon, T (2004), Chapter 5 - Resource Exploitation in Nigeria, Pambazuka News, viewed
27 December 2011,
Ejimeke, A (2010), The Oil Spills We Don't Hear About, The New York Times, viewed 27
" The problem seen with such systems is that they are characterized by competitive elections that install governments dedicated to maintaining political stability and labor discipline but not to expanding democratic freedoms or instituting needed changes. The Mexican state shows clearly the way the prevailing political culture can shape and give direction to political institutions. The political institutions of Mexico are similar to those of the United States, but as Cornelius and Craig note, what seems the same on paper is not the same in operation because the prevailing political culture is one-party rule at all levels: "Until recently, selection as the candidate of the official party has been tantamount to election, except in some municipalities and a handful of congressional districts where opposition parties are so strong that they cannot be ignored" (Cornelius and Craig 25).
The prevailing features of the system are found in the following elements common…
Burnaby, Barbara and Thomas Ricento. Language and Politics in the United States and Canada: Myths and Realities. Mahwah, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1998.
Camp, Roderic Ai. Politics in Mexico: The Decline of Authoritarianism. New York: Oxford University Press, 1999.
Carroll, Michael P. "Who Owns Democracy? Explaining the Long-Running Debate over Canadian/American Value Differences."
The Canadian Review of Sociology and Anthropology, Volume 42, Issue 3 (2005). March 26, 2007. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5012185252 .
Features of Modern / Post-Modern Period
Most historians term the era after the Middle Ages and the Early Modern Period, i.e., after the mid-18th century as the Modern Period in history; a period that has seen tremendous changes in politics, sciences, economics, commerce, society and technology. Some of the salient features of the Modern / Post-Modern period have been explained in this essay.
New Standards for Governance:
The American Revolution (1776) and the French Revolution (1789) were significant political and social developments in the later part of the 18th century, which signaled the weakening of powers of monarchies and ushered in new standards for governance and society such as democracy, liberty, equality and fraternity -- standards that have empowered the people and symbolize the Modern Age. Such a new form of government is typified by the nited States of America which adopted a constitution that guaranteed the inalienable rights of…
Unprecetended developments in the communication technologies (the computer and the Internet) in the last few decades and the eclipse of controlled economies has opened up an age of globalization which has contracted distances, promoted world trade and given rise to a global culture. It also has its downsde -- as it threatens to exacerbate social and economic inequalities and provides new opportunities for global terrorists.
The Post-Modern period generally refers to the period after 1960 but there is no clear cut-off point between the Modern and the Post-Modern eras.
Fascism was successful in gaining power in Italy, Spain and Germany during the period between the two World Wars and Fascist movements also emerged in other European countries.
Therefore, for the international scene to actually consider that change is taking place in Cuba none of Fidel Castro's men should be part of the government or the administration.
In trying to establish an ascendant trend for the Cuban national and international image, Raul Castro must also deal with the issue of totalitarian rule and that of the state authoritarian leadership in a different manner that one which destroys his authority as state ruler. However, any such measures must include a combination of the implementation of slow democratic measures, and the maintenance of a certain authority especially from the perspective of any political forces that may rise against the system. This is part of the model implemented in China, whose aim was precisely that of controlling the political power while being committed to opening up to foreign investments and western influence.
The international reaction to the rise of Raul Castro…
CBS. U.S.: Raul Castro a "Fidel Lite" Ailing Communist Leader Resigns Post; Fidel's 76-Year-old Brother, Raul, the Heir Apparent. 2008. http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2008/02/19/world/main3843492.shtml?source=RSSattr=HOME_3843492
Ratliff, William. Raul, China, and Post-Fidel Cuba. Raul Castro will likely implement Chinese-style, market-oriented economic reforms. 2006. 10 March 2008 http://www.latinbusinesschronicle.com/app/article.aspx?id=369
Shlaes, Amity. "Cuba Crisis is Avoidable if Bush Can Copy Poppy." Bloomberg. 2008. http://www.cfr.org/publication/15543/cuba_crisis_is_avoidable_if_bush_can_copy_poppy.html?breadcrumb=%2Fregion%2F213%2Fcuba
Sweig, Julia E. "Fidel's Final Victory." Foreign Affairs. 2007. http://www.cfr.org/publication/12362/
In addition to these external factors, Thomson (202) notes two colonial and post-colonial economic policies and developmental strategies that proved to be erroneous in the long-term, having an ultimately damaging effect upon the ability of African countries to make sound, profitable investments. The first of these is that African governments focused excessively upon import substitution, while the second is that too much revenue was invested in the expansion of state institutions. This paradigm emerges from the success of European and other Western economic developments. However, such strategies were far from suitable for the African continent, as it resulted in a lack of investment in Africa's richest resources: agricultural and mineral development.
Maponga and Maxwell (97) mention the concentration of national economies as a further factor that may lead a lack of concomitant growth for countries (and in particular African countries) that are rich in natural resources. In addition to the…
Maponga, Oliver & Maxwell, Philip. Are Abundant Mineral and Energy Resources a Catalyst for African Development? (Issue 6). Minerals and Energy, 2001.
Thomson, Alex. An Introduction to African Politics. London & New York: Routledge, 2004.
In the Politics, and the Constitution of Athens (Politeia), Aristotle lays out a number of ideas. In this short essay, the author will attempt to answer the question of whether or not man is a political animal." Further, if this is the cause, we will explore whether or not Aristotle's politics allow man enough room to live up to this nature. It is this author's contention that Aristotle answers that man is a political animal and then goes on to describe the ideal state so that man can realize this goal.
The Politeia was written in the late 4th century BCE by Aristotle or possibly by a student disciple at Plato's academy. This was a treatise where Aristotle expressed his view that the ideal of a perfect political government structure was a mixture of democracy and oligarchy. In this vein, he sees man as a political animal. In the…
Aristotle, & Everson, S. (1996). Aristotle: The politics and the constitution of athens. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press.
Cass Sustein's Politics By Other Means, which was published in New Republic in 2002; Mark Green's The Evil of Access, which was published in The Nation in 2002; Bill Moyers' Journalism and Democracy, which was published in The Nation in 2001; Anthony King's Running Scared, which was published in Atlantic Monthly in 1997; and, Peter Ford's Why Do They Hate Us?, which was published in the Christian Science Monitor in 2001.
The paper includes a synopsis of the main points of each essay, and an evaluation of the main points of each essay.
Cass Sustein's Politics By Other Means, is basically a review of Kenneth Starr's book First Among Equals: The Supreme Court in American Life. The essay looks at the Rehnquist Court and its successor, and compares the two, from the viewpoint of the author, and also of Starr, through the review of his book. It is argued that…
Democracy and Economic Inequality in America
The fundamental aim of democracy in political governance is to ensure elected officials represent the interests of their constituents in the legislature. This means that the votes taken by members of Congress should reflect the policy preferences of their constituents. In reality, however, there is often disconnect between what legislators vote for and what their constituents prefer. In his book Unequal Democracy: The Political Economy of the New Gilded Age, Bartels argues that the increasing economic inequality in the US is evidence that legislators do not in reality represent the interests of their interests -- they represent the interests of more powerful groups or entities as opposed to the average citizen. With reference to matters of economic inequality, this paper discuses the discrepancy between the choices of legislators and the policy preferences of their constituents.
Who actually governs in the American political system remains…
According to a famous architectural scholar, the architectural industry's slow growth results from wanting political goodwill (Jencks 1973). A good relationship between the two realms is critical to architectural designs' progress, and the stakeholders in both disciplines should understand the underlying relationship (Milne 1981). Goodman first explained the possibility of politics affecting architecture in 1947, but up to now, many have not realized the existing connection between the two domains (Goodman and Goodman 1947.
In this study, the relationship between politics and architecture will explain how architecture is used to play political games and how architecture designs are based on the political environment. The study will also highlight the contribution of politics to modern architectural designs.
The best way to understand how architecture and politics have been relating over the years is to observe different past occurrences concerning the two domains. It is worth noting that the point of…
Architecture Foundation, 2020, November 22. Caruso St John: Yesterday and Today - In conversation with Nana Biamah-Ofosu and Ellis Woodman. YouTube. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dpCpl-L7iNg&feature=emb_logo
Beyonce, 2018, June 16. APES**T - THE CARTERS. YouTube. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kbMqWXnpXcA
Cornea, N., 2019. Urban Political Ecology. Oxford Bibliographies Online. DOI: 10.1093/OBO/9780199874002-0203.
Goodman, P., and Goodman, P., 1947. Communitas: Means of livelihood and ways of life. New York: Vintage.
Jencks, C., 1973. Modern movements in architecture (Vol. 5). Editions Mardaga.
Kwinter, S., 2010. Notes on the third ecology. Ecological Urbanism, pp.94-105.
Lnag, C., 2018 June 19. Art History Experts Explain the Meaning of the Art in Beyoncé and Jay-Z's 'Apesh-t' Video. Time. Retrieved from https://time.com/5315275/art-references-meaning-beyonce-jay-z-apeshit-louvre-music-video/
Milne, D., 1981. Architecture, politics, and the public realm. Canadian Journal of Political and Social Theory, 5(1-2), pp.131-146.
This time period also marked a great deal of expansion for different European nations. This expansion occurred through the conquering of certain territories.
Machiavelli believed that great leaders had to possess certain attributes. He asserted that a "leader needs an analytical attitude without a sense of shame or guilt. Political calculation is required to control, rather than be victimized by events (Deluga, 2001)." In other words, a Machiavellian leader believes that the end justifies the means. These individual tend to have extremely charismatic personalities and that power to persuade large populations of people that there actions are justified.
The Machiavellian Leaders chosen for the purpose of this discussion will be Elizabeth I, Peter the Great and . Queen Elizabeth I was loved by the people of England to the extent that she had completely loyal subjects. She used her leadership qualities to defeat Spain. In addition she was…
Deluga, R.J. (2001)American presidential Machiavellianism: Implications for charismatic leadership and rated performance. The Leadership Quarterly
Volume 12, Issue 3, Autumn 2001, Pages 339-363
Grell, O. P Bob Scribner. (2002) Tolerance and Intolerance in the European Reformation. Cambridge Press
King Phillip II. Retrieved February 22, from: http://www.elizabethan-era.org.uk/king-philip-ii-spain.htm
eligion and Politics
All religions aim to provide a code of life for mankind. Apart from other tenets, this code establishes laws that govern all areas of man's life. Thus the laws established by the religion Islam are termed as Shariah. The term Shariah means all of the Islamic Laws and is derived from four basic sources. These sources are The Holy Quran, Sunnah, Ij'ma (consensus) of the Companions (Sahabah) and Qiyas or analogical deduction. These laws are not just limited to areas such as marriage or divorce; rather, the Islamic laws cover every action performed by an individual or a society. The term Shariah is also synonymous with Fiqh. However the term Fiqh means knowledge of all the Islamic Laws (Shariah). It can also be taken to mean the Knowledge of the sources from where the Islamic Laws (Shariah) have been extracted.
Shariah or Islamic Laws are divine ways…
S.Q. Fatimi, Islam Comes to Malaysia. Malaysian Sociological Research Institute, (MSRI), Singapore. 1963;
EDITH M. LEDERER, Associated Press Writer, U.N. Development Fund for Women protests stoning sentence against Nigerian woman., AP Worldstream, 08-28-2002.
Author not available, Mexico's president to fight death penalty in Nigeria., AP Worldstream, 08-28-2002.
D'ARCY DORAN, Associated Press Writer, Nigerian government 'totally opposed' to death by stoning sentence., AP Worldstream, 08-22-2002
This is mainly because of several key elements which portray Huston as a friendly and safe city over other locations which prove less appealing to homeowners and other residents.
In terms of the increase of the Latino population, this is a trend which has been occurring elsewhere in the nation for the past few generations. In 1990, the largest immigrant wave was recorded entering into U.S. soil. It was with this new and modern wave of immigrants that we see the new conception of the Latino immigrant within modern American culture. In fact, in the last decade of the twentieth century, the Latino population within the United States as a whole grew by almost 58%. That is a huge increase within the short span of only ten years. And so, it can be assumed that the large increase of Hispanic and Latino immigrants into the Huston are has also been…
Every aspect of sociology is somehow affected by sexual politics and this can be seen in every postmodern representation of sexuality. Media is particularly dependant on sexual politics as a thematic representation and as a guiding force for human emotion. This is particularly true with regard to dramatic representations in film. The two films discussed above can be seen as examples of this thesis and illuminate both postmodernism and sexual politics in the modern world.
Cohen, Eric S. "To onder Again." First Things: A Monthly Journal of Religion and Public Life May 2000: 23.
Films That Go Thud; Some Actors Can Survive Bomb or Two." The ashington Times 5 Aug. 2003: B05.
Green, J. Ronald. "Always Already: Affinities between Art and Film." Afterimage 25.5 (1998): 8.
Hausladen, Gary J., and Paul F. Starrs. "L.A. Noir." Journal of Cultural Geography 23.1 (2005): 43.
Kipnis, Laura. Bound and Gagged: Pornography…
Cohen, Eric S. "To Wonder Again." First Things: A Monthly Journal of Religion and Public Life May 2000: 23.
Films That Go Thud; Some Actors Can Survive Bomb or Two." The Washington Times 5 Aug. 2003: B05.
Green, J. Ronald. "Always Already: Affinities between Art and Film." Afterimage 25.5 (1998): 8.
Hausladen, Gary J., and Paul F. Starrs. "L.A. Noir." Journal of Cultural Geography 23.1 (2005): 43.
As detailed quite eloquently in Chapter 15 of Haywood's text, having political power is not simply getting one's way in a crude and overt manner, like passing or pushing a bill through congress. Rather, power also involves the task of agenda-setting itself, putting an idea upon the national platform of discourse. The author additionally cites Bacharatz and Baratz as critical in defining not simply making yes or no the key player in politics -- for instance, for many years, the discrimination against Black Americans was not even part of the national discussion, until the civil rights movement. (126) Black Americans were an invisible political voice, though a sizable minority in America.
Application of agenda-setting to today's political life
Today, the role of military service and how it affects one's fitness as commander in chief is part of the national debate. The right to rule (129) is equated with…
Governing Race: Politics, Process and the Politics of Race by Nina M. Moore. Specifically, it will contain a detailed book report on the book. "Governing Race" is an important and viable book for any Black Studies student, especially if they are interested in why race relations came to a head in the 1960s. "Governing Race" gives a unique viewpoint on the "politics of race," and is valuable reading for this alone. However, there is much more for the reader to discover as they move through the pages of this book.
The author's thesis is quite clear from the very beginning of this book. She asserts, "race presents a challenge too difficult for American governing institutions to meet" (Moore xiv) in the ntroduction of the book, and further asserts, "true socioeconomic and political race reform will remain a laudable, but elusive, goal of government policymakers" (Moore xv). Therefore, her book concentrates…
In conclusion, Moore's book is a compelling and sometimes distressing look at politics and race in America today. While the successes in race relations are certainly to be celebrated, it is clear from reading this book that Americans still have a long way to go in truly understanding and reforming the relationship between the races. Some of this book is difficult reading, because it seems more should have been done to equalize things politically and fundamentally. Reading this book gives a greater understanding of why things are the way they are, whether Americans agree or not.
Moore, Nina M. Governing Race: Policy, Process, and the Politics of Race. Westport, Conn.: Praeger, 2000.
Lebanon's politics today, and how Lebanese politics has evolved over time to become what it is today. Lebanese politics is extremely complicated, and revolves around several different political parties that essentially are formed around religious beliefs. One common element of Lebanese politics is violence, from civil war to Syrian occupation over Lebanon's history. Today, Lebanese politics is complex and volatile, a combination that is not healthy for the country or her people.
Modern Lebanon came to be in 1920, when the League of Nation mandated France to create Lebanon and Syria. Lebanon is made up of what used to be the province of Mount Lebanon, along with the provinces of north Lebanon, south Lebanon, and the Biqa, which was historically part of Syria. This set the stage for ongoing conflict between Lebanon and Syria. By 1926, the State of Lebanon had formed, and they had enacted a Constitution. In 1940,…
Arsan, Andrew. "Lebanon's Shi'as: A Long March out of the Shadows While Hezbollah Again Hit the Headlines during the Summer, Its Historical Roots Are Less Familiar." History Today Dec. 2006: 12+.
Editors. Lebanon Election Guide. Middle East and North Africa Election Guide. 2009. 11 Aug. 2009.
Editors. "Timeline: Lebanon." BBC.co.uk. 2009. 11 August 2009.
It is simply how the world works, and how humans interact with the world.
One of the speaker's main points is that developing countries alter their political and government arenas as they develop. She believes that the government, which regulates taxes and other economic incentives, has the power to attract or repel business investment in their developing countries. She writes, "If taxes, industrial policy, environmental regulation, or industrial relations in any society are too costly or constraining, investors will pull up stakes and transfer them elsewhere; workers cannot move so easily" (Berger 2010, 51). She contends that as government leaders gain more power through technology, taxes, and investment in their country, they become less trustworthy to their citizens. Another group of writers note, "More than anybody else, government officials, as defined above, are responsible for words and action that influence the developmental direction of society. The decisions that they have…
Berger, S. 2010. Globalisation and politics. Annual Review of Political Science. 2000. 3:43 -- 62.
Hafsi, T., and Mehdi F. 2005. Applicability of Management Theories to Developing Countries: A Synthesis. Management International Review 45, no. 4: 483+.
Hyden, G. Court, J., and Mease, K. 2003. Government and Governance in 16 Developing Countries. [Online] Available at: http://www.odi.org.uk/resources/download/3140.pdf [Accessed 14 May 2010].
Perkins, R. 2008. Incentivizing Climate Mitigation: Engaging Developing Countries. Harvard International Review 30, no. 2: 42+.
ith the difficulties of resolving budget controversies, contending with myriad resource shortfalls and enduring a federal economic perspective toward education that is today, inconsistent at best, criminally negligent at worst, the superintendent must sometimes make decisions which are responsible but reprehensible to those without a full appreciate for the centricity required of the position. To this end, one journal published superintendent conceded that "partisan politics sometimes forces the superintendent of schools into a dilemma in which he must champion disgusting leadership in his party simply for the sake of being regular and therefore to hold his position as a school leader and through this leadership to do what he can to carry forward a decent program for education in his community." (Hall, 241) Such is to say that the superintendent must be conscientious of and willingly participatory in the political process if he is to survive in the position.
AP. (2004). Georgia considers banning 'evolution.' CNN. Online at http://www.cnn.com/2004/EDUCATION/01/30/striking.evolution.ap/index.html.
Bjork, L.G. & Kowalski, T.J. (2005). The Contemporary Superintendent. Corwin Press.
Danitz, T. (2000). States Confronting School Superintendent Shortage. Stateline. Online at http://www.stateline.org/live/ViewPage.action?siteNodeId=136&languageId=1&contentId=13937 .
Edwards, M.E. (2006). The Modern School Superintendent: An Overview of the Role and Responsibilities in the 21st Century. iUniverse, Inc.
Thirdly, the growing up-to-the-minute exposure of the journalists to the physicality of the war detracted from the big picture and instead exaggerated the importance of singular happenings and specific events.
It is in the loss of the big picture that the Bush regime is most able to capitalize on its military's control of the press. While in the 1990s, the President's father struggled with "pooled" journalists and the lack of coherent and stable eye witness accounts, the current President instead embedded an army of over 700 journalists inside the United tate's military campaign as they waged war on the unsuspecting Iraqis.
There is a pretty fine line between being embedded and being entombed," observed Dan Rather in response to the Gulf War of the 1990s.
With the American journalists and those internationally desiring the protection of the winning force fully embedded with the American soldiers at war, the military operation…
Sides, Hampton. "Unembedded." The New Yorker. March 24, 2003.
Jamail, Dahr. "Fallujah: How not to Handle Insurgency." The Arab-American News, April 27th.
Morford, p. 2.
There is an obvious contradiction between what we think of Muslim women and their actual life. In order to better understand them and their social and civil life, we need to understand their religion and the way of thinking for both men and women.
In the introductory chapter of the book "The war of Muslim Minds, Islam and the West," Gilles Kepel talks about the online article "Knights under the Prophet's anner," published on the Internet in December 2001 by Ayman al-Zawahiri, Al Qaeda's most valued ideologue and Osama bin Laden's mentor.
According to his statements, the explanation for the attack of September 11 on the World Trade Centre is a simple and rather nationalistic one. Jihad activists came to face the disappointing conclusion that wherever they would go, Afghanistan, osnia or Saudi Arabia, jihad activist were unable to motivate and gather up the masses in order to fight…
Gilles Kepel, "The War of Muslim Minds, Islam and the West," The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts and London, England, 2004
Bernard Lewis and Robin Wright, Laith Kubba, "Islam and Liberal Democracy: Recognizing Pluralism," Journal of Democracy 7.2 (1996) 86-89
Meria, Middle East Review of International Affairs, Journal, Volume 3, Number 1, March 1999, Article "Islam, Islamists and democracy," by Ali R. Abootalebi
Zuleyha Keskin, "Status of Women in Islam," 2005
The release of fossil fuels has been driving industrial and civic expansion for the past century and a half, and there is therefore a compelling reason to deny such causes: "some corporations whose revenues might be adversely affected by controls on carbon dioxide emissions have also alleged major uncertainties in the science (Oreskes). Just as in the debate over the heliocentric solar system, issues of political and/or economic motive are raised to cloud the science at issue.
hat truly separates the global warming debate from the issues that Galileo dealt with, however, is that there really is hard science at the base of both camps with vastly different interpretations. This has made the contention all the more fierce, and personal accusations only seem more rampant now than during Galileo's trial due to the increased difficulty of a scientific attack. One example of this is Gore's insistence on using Revelle's name…
Coleman, John. "The Amazing Story behind the Global Warming Scam." http://www.kusi.com/weather/colemanscorner/38574742.html
"Gore's Grave New World." http://www.americanthinker.com/printpage/?url=http://www.americanthinker.com/2006/06/gores_grave_new_world.html
Henderson, Mark. "Why Global Warming is Not Natural." http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/world/article516179.ece
Oreskes, Naomis. "Beyond the Ivory Tower: The Scientific Consensus on Climate Change." http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/reprint/306/5702/1686.pdf
Gender Politics and the Nation
The historical development of the nation has impacted the ability of women to participate in contemporary politics by reinforcing gender roles in the public sphere. Traditionally, the exclusion women from the international community was linked to ideas of gender roles and today, these ideas continue to exclude women from international politics.
Traditionally, colonialism was driven by the Enlightenment ideal of using reason to obtain goals, a view that also saw females as irrational and emotional. Enloe notes, "Perhaps international politics has been impervious to feminist ideas precisely because for so many centuries in so many cultures it has been thought of as a typically 'masculine' sphere of life" (4).
Enloe argues that the status of diplomatic wives is tied closely to ideas of women as loyal supporters of their men, who were busy at the business of international relations. This view clearly shows the pervasiveness…
Enloe, Cynthia. 2001. Bananas, Beaches and Bases: Making Feminist Sense of International Politics Updated Edition with a New Preface. University of California Press.
Most Israelis do not desire assimilation into a common whole, given that they hold the other components of their identity equally dear as their Jewish heritage and their Israeli citizenship. A Russian Jew may have more in common with fellow Russians than an Ethiopian Jew and an Israeli may be an atheist yet a member of a religious state.
Does an Israel national identity still exist, asks Yehoshua? He does not ask this question of the Palestinian nationals, who clearly see themselves as apart from Israeli society, both legally and in terms of how they profess their own citizenship and nationhood. However, even for Jews, Israel proposes an interesting question of what constitutes a nation. Israel gives refuge and citizenship to every Jew, no matter where he or she may hail from, but the state of Israel also has civic institutions that are limited to professed nationals, some of whom…
. . ' Their authority may only be of the order and breadth determined by the Idea of the whole; they may only 'originate from its might'. That things should be so lies in the Idea of the organism. But in that case it would be necessary to show how all this might be achieved. For conscious reality must hold sway within the state." (Marx, 77)
This suggests that independence is a pathway to authoritarian tyranny, whereas the 'might' of the state is accorded only by a collective population supporting this right. this resonates most closely with my own personal perspective, denoting something of a universal order in which central authority is necessary to retain civility but in which collectivism is elevated over materialism as a way of empowering such leadership.
The spread of capitalism as both a chief ideology and an aggressive response to the mores of socialism…
Eksteins, M. (2000). Rites of Spring: The Great War and the Birth of the Modern Age. Mariner Books.
Gerth, H.H.; Mills, C.W. & Weber, M. (1958). From Max Weber: Essays in Sociology. Oxford University Press.
Hachmeister, L. (2006). The Goebbels Experiment. First Run Features.
Marx, K. (1992). Early Writings. Penguin Classics.
difficult to find a time in which political ideals were not present in then-current writings. In the poems and papers presented for review, the writers key on the differences that exist between ideas. It does not seem to matter in which time period a person lives, there is always a difference in political opinion because there are always differing circumstances among people. Two poems and a weekly paper are the subject of this paper and they are examined regarding the dichotomies they seem to suggest.
In the present political landscape, the gap between wealthy and poor receives a great deal of press. As one would imagine, this is a common theme throughout history as demonstrated by the two poems -- The Friend of Humanity and the Knife Grinder and Village Politics. In the first poem, the questioner shows concern for the knife grinder. Apparently it was an occupation that was…
Canning, George. "The Anti-Jacobin." Web.
Frere, John Hookham. "The Friend of Humanity and the Knife Grinder." Web.
More, Hannah. "Village Politics." 1793. Web.
This in turn will lead to a rift between civilizations, one that would encourage them to rediscover their own individual cultural identity. Therefore, the globalization of the world can mean the fragmentation of cultures and the possibility of new conflicts along civilization lines.
The theory of Samuel Huntington however has had several critics who argue that in fact the neo-liberal approach of world economics and politics will increase the financial resources of the world and thus foster the creation of a global culture based on similar moral values and norms. However, it is less likely for the neo-liberal practices to have this effect on the short-term because it is rather clear from the image of today's world that globalization has led, in a constant manner, to inequality. This consideration is rather simple and revolves around the issue of the distribution of resources. More precisely, the developed world has limited resources…
Ayres, J.M. (2004) "Framing Collective Action Against Neo-liberalism: The Case of the "Anti-Globalization" Movement." Journal of World- Systems Research.. 14 May 2008. http://jwsr.ucr.edu/archive/vol10/number1/pdf/jwsr-v10n1-ayres.pdf
Forum Barcelona. (2004) "Theme 2: Is There a Global Culture? The Globalization of Media and the Culture of Societies." Session summaries. 14 May 2008. http://www.barcelona2004.org/eng/banco_del_conocimiento/documentos/ficha.cfm?IdDoc=1676
Huntington, S.P. (1996) the Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of World Order, New York, Simon & Schuster.
Modelski, G.(n.d.) the four dimensions of globalization. 14 May 2008 https://faculty.washington.edu/modelski/Global4.html. html
Voting to Violence, Jack Snyder starkly poses some of the most vexing questions for foreign policy analysts during the 1990's. Why was this decade, despite the collapse of the totalitarian system of communism and an overall greater global potential for democratic involvement, marked by a worldwide increase in ethnic conflict and hatred in Europe and across the larger world?
Why did this "the process of democratization" become seemingly "one of its own worst enemies," because of its populist nature of the democratic politics that seemed to point towards peace and freedom, rather than conflict. Why has the promise of democracy leading to a more stable worldwide peace seemingly inevitably become "clouded with the danger of war?" (Snyder 2000: 21)
In another section of Snyder's book, the author states that "the transition to democratic politics is meanwhile [still] creating fertile conditions for nationalism and ethnic conflict, which not only raises the…
However, this valuation of the individual must be for all individuals for this world democratic peace to ensue. In other words, new democracies must be rights-based rather than purely populist and ethnically based, otherwise an 'us vs. them' ethnic ideology will lead to warfare. In an ethnic democracy, the security of one's ethnic state becomes based in the stamping out of all ethnic groups, groups who were historically, previously opposed to one's own ethnic identity. What is called upon is not a naive liberal faith in the value of a democracy, but an intelligent understanding of the complications of democracy, a belief in a rights-based system with a questioning eye upon simple ethnic majority populism. (Snyder 2000: 16-17)
Snyder and Dahl's analysis is so cogent because their words explain why democracy does not automatically produce a "democratic peace," only a rights-based "civic democracy" as distinguished from an "ethnic democracy" can do so. (Snyder 2000: 353) In contrast, ethnic democracies undermine a democratic peace because they "deactivate the mechanisms that keep relations between democracies peaceful," in other words for ethnically-based democratic movements and states, the individual's rights is only valued if that individual is part of a specific ethnic frame of reference. Rather than civic or rights-based and individualistic liberal democracies, when democracies evolve in an ethnic-based conflict, they are not more likely to be at peace with one another. Instead, contending rival ethnic democracies are more likely to be at war with one another, reviving ancient hatreds. They are additionally more likely to have a perceived stake in the ethnic conflicts of wars outside their borders.
Synder and Dahl's analysis should not be read as a simply validation of the United States liberal political system, after all the U.S. is hardly free of inter-ethnic conflicts of its own. Instead, their books are intended as warnings to makers of United States policy who may have been too quick in the past to support movements simply because they are democratic, without looking into the specific ethnic tensions of various regions and regional movements. Only through a specific understanding of different country's ancient histories, histories that often stretch far back beyond that of the United State's own conception, can a truly democratic and peaceful world be orchestrated by the stable democracies of the current world order.
Types of Takeovers
There are several consequences of whether a takeover is considered hostile or friendly. These consequences are more in the practical business realm than legal ones. Hostile takeovers are riskier for the acquirer than friendly ones. In a friendly takeover, the bidder will have a better chance to examine the company and its health. If the board is amicable to the situation, they will provide a full disclosure of the company's strengths and weaknesses. In a hostile takeover, the bidder only has access to publicly available information. There may be situations within the company that have not been disclosed. This can be good or bad depending on the situation. The acquirer might get a pleasant surprise, or they might find out that they have bought a sinking ship. Due to the risk involved in a hostile takeover, it is often more difficult to obtain financing than for a…
Anheuser-Busch Wins Bidding for Chinese Brewery" (2004). Money. 3 June 2004. USA
Today. Accessed 22 May 2007 at http://www.usatoday.com/money/industries/food/2004-06-03-china-brewer_x.htm .
CBR Staff Writer (2005). Shanda poised for hostile takeover bid of Sina. 23 February 2005. The Chronline. Accessed 23 May 2007 from www.cbronline.com/article_news.asp?guid=612C6FC4-9F8F-4057-83E8-10CA399A7B7A
ChrStaff Writer (2006). Motorola and Shanda enter mobile gaming partnership. 31 July 2006.