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Intrinsically Photosensitive Retinal Ganglion Cell Recent Studies
Words: 3683 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 55971983
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Intrinsically Photosensitive etinal Ganglion Cell

ecent studies on biological anatomy of the eye discovered an additional photoreceptor within the mammalian eye. The cells discovered mediate the primary non-image visual activities with the vision system. The functioning of these cells aids in various significant processes including the regulation of the papillary reflex activity in response to light, as well as, the circadian photo entrainment. These cells, called the intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells respond to more than the absolute light. The ipGCs have a unique feature of activity, as they differ from the usual photoreceptor cells of cones and rods. The rods and cones mediate on the vision of images by signaling the contrasts in light after adaptation. Interestingly, the ipGCs also do adapt to light contrast. The cells show sensitivity to flash of light, as is the case with other photoreceptors. The factor of action of the intrinsically photosensitive ganglion…

References

1. Bellintani-guardia, B., & Ott, M. (2002). Displaced retinal ganglion cells project to the accessory optic system in the chameleon (chamaeleo calyptratus). Experimental Brain Research, 145(1), 56-63. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00221-002-1091-z 

2. Ben Simon, G.,J., Hovda, D.A., Harris, N.G., Gomez-Pinilla, F., & Goldberg, R.A. (2006). Traumatic brain injury induced neuroprotection of retinal ganglion cells to optic nerve crush. Journal of Neurotrauma, 23(7), 1072-82. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/neu.2006.23.1072 

3. Engelund, A., Fahrenkrug, J., Harrison, A., & Hannibal, J. (2010). Vesicular glutamate transporter 2 (VGLUT2) is co-stored with PACAP in projections from the rat melanopsin-containing retinal ganglion cells. Cell and Tissue Research, 340(2), 243-55. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00441-010-0950-3 

4. Henderson, D., & Miller, R.F. (2003). Evidence for low-voltage-activated (LVA) calcium currents in the dendrites of tiger salamander retinal ganglion cells. Visual Neuroscience, 20(2), 141-52. Retrieved from  http://search.proquest.com/docview/198275379?accountid=458

Alternative Approach to Computerized Tomography in Forensic
Words: 1983 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Article Review Paper #: 82013039
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altenative appoach to Computeized Tomogaphy in foensic pathology.

Thomsen, A.H., Juik, A.G., Uhenholt, A.G., Vesteby, A. (2009).

Jounal: Foensic Science Intenational.

Publication Infomation: 2008, 183, 87-90.

Publishe Infomation:

The main pupose of this aticle is to see whethe o not CT scans ae necessay as a means of augmenting autopsies. The eseach question is: do the benefits of CT scans match the effot equied to implement this technology? Thee is no hypothesis fo this aticle; the authos wee cetainly non-patisan in thei appoach and assumptions. The sample was 20 dead bodies (including 15 males) with CT scans pefomed by the Depatment of Radiology at Aahus Univesity Hospital. I eviewed this aticle to ascetain the elevance of CT scans to foensic pathology.

Abstact: This aticle denotes the boons and the detiments associated with using CT scans as compaed to, and augmenting the usage of conventional autopsies fo foensic pathology. Oiginal eseach…

references to certain applications dating back to the 1980s. In this respect the article was extremely comprehensive in its scope, although perhaps it may have been better suited focusing on more contemporary applications. Still, for the variety of knowledge it covered and the degree of insight it shed, it is certainly an excellent starting point for research into this field, and helps to synthesize the various points of relevance of the other articles explicated within this assignment.

Bruised witness: Bernard Spilsbury and the performance of early twentieth-century English forensic pathology

Author(s): Burney, I., Pemberton, N.

Journal: Medical History

Publication Information: 2011, 55, 41-60.

Detection of the Borna Disease Virus Relating
Words: 6358 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 80489172
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detection of the Borna disease virus relating them to the epidemiology.

The first cases of Borna disease were descried in the 17-19th century in Southern Germany. It was discovered to e a fatal disease affecting the neurological systems of horses and sheep, (Ludwig et al., 1985; Durrwald, 1993) causing ehavioral and neurological symptoms. It was proven to e caused y a 2003]

Today it is eing realized that the scope of the disease is not limited to just a few countries as was previously elieved ut encompassed the world. Also it was realized that far from affecting just horses and sheep as was originally thought virus, the Borna Disease Virus (BDV) in the early 1900's y Zwick and his team in Giessen Germany. [Author not availale, it in fact affected other animals and even human eings.[Staeheli, Sauder; Schwemmle, et al., 2000]

Research into the epidemiology and pathogenesis of the BDV…

bibliography. Journal of Veterinary Medicine Series B. 44, 147-184.

3.Staeheli, P., Sauder, C. Schwemmle, M. et al.,[2000]. Epidemiology of Borna disease virus, J Gen Virol 81: 2123-2135

4.Author not available, [2003] Diagnostic Methods In Virology, accessed at  http://virology-online.com/general/Tests.htm 

5. Nakamura, K., Takahashi, H., Shoya, Y., Nakaya, T., Watanabe, M., Tomonaga, K., Iwahashi, K., Ameno, K., Momiyama, N., Taniyama, H., Sata, T., Kurata, T., de la Torre, J.C. & Ikuta, K. [2000]. Isolation of Borna disease virus from human brain. Journal of Virology 74, 4601-4611.

6. Zimmermann, W., Durrwald, R. & Ludwig, H. (1994). Detection of Borna disease virus RNA in naturally infected animals by a nested polymerase chain reaction. Journal of Virological Methods 46, 133-143

Genome Sequencing and Comparative Genomics
Words: 2012 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 94040147
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Genomes and Comparative Genomics

Over the last decade we have achieved rapid strides in the field of genetic engineering. The study of molecular biology has been fairly advanced mainly aided by the unprecedented growth in information technology. Today bio-informatics has opened new vitas for us and we are already progressing in investigating and in the comparative study of genomes. This has shed new light up on our knowledge of the evolutionary process and the important concepts such as protein folding and selective expression, which have so far eluded our understanding, are beginning to unfold. Let us have a brief overlook of the subject.

The Role of DNA

One of the greatest achievements of the twentieth century has been the unraveling of the mysteries behind the DNA and the mechanism of protein synthesis. Genes are the fundamental units of biological inheritance and are made up of Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). Genes are…

Bibliography

Mullis, KB (1990), Scientific American, April 1990, 56

Hecht, J., 19 May 2003, Chimps are human, gene study implies, New Scientist

Cohlan, A., 30 May 2002, "Just 2,5% of DNA turns mice into men," New Scientist

TK Attwood & DJ Parry Smith, "Introduction to bio Informatics," Published by ADDison Wesley Longman Ltd., 1999

Technology in the Classroom to
Words: 1375 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 72617322
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As students interact with the website and take assessments, the teacher is notified of the student's progress. Once the student submits his assessment, Molecular Workbench (2010) reports, "SAM activities end by generating a report that includes answers to multiple choice questions, annotated snapshots, and the text of open responses. These reports are emailed to the teacher. Students have a chance to edit reports before they are submitted." Use of this website could produce the next generation of scientists.

Technology used directly in the classroom to allow students and teachers to interact with each other includes the Audience Response System. According to Turningtechnologies.com (2010) the function of the system is declared, "TurningPoint audience response system integrates 100% into Microsoft® PowerPoint® and allows audiences and students to participate in presentations or lectures by submitting responses to interactive questions using a ResponseCard ™ keypad or other hand-held/computer devices." Made up of three basic…

Bibliography

Audio Response System. (2010). Retrieved on April 16 from  http://www.turningtechnologies.com 

DIIGO. (2010). Retrieved on April 16 from  http://www.diigo.com/learn_more 

Klopfer, E.; Osterwell, S.; Groff, J.; and Haas, J. (2009). "The Instructional Power of digital games, social networking, simulations and How Teachers Can Leverage Them."

Retrieved on April 12, 2010 from http://education.mit.edu/papers/GamesSimsSocNets_EdArcade.pdf

Proton and Carbon NMR in
Words: 2198 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 11539669
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This information is utilized to create new products and substances that are used on a regular basis. For example, chemists could use the COSY process to understand how to create a new kind of raincoat that will be even more water resistant. To determine this, the protons inside the molecules of the raincoat would have to be examined through the COSY process. This will identify the peaks inside the protons and what specific attributes are similar to other compounds. Once this happens, is when scientists can use this as a way to create specific attributes that they are looking for (i.e. A raincoat that is more waterproof). This is significant, because it is showing how the contribution of the COSY methodology allows chemists to create new compounds with specific attributes. ("Thomaston," 2006)

HETCO is useful in understanding the genetic composition of a substance and the compounds that are used to…

References

Introduction to NRM Spectroscopy. (2003). UWI. Retrieved from:  http://wwwchem.uwimona.edu.jm/spectra/nmrintro.html 

Nuclear Magnetic Resonance. (2010). MSU. Retrieved from:  http://www2.chemistry.msu.edu/faculty/reusch/VirtTxtJml/Spectrpy/nmr/nmr1.htm 

Two Dimensional NMR. (2005). BBK. Retrieved from:  http://www.cryst.bbk.ac.uk/PPS2/projects/schirra/html/2dnmr.htm 

Bachovchin, W. (2001). Contributions of NRM Spectroscopy. Magnetic Resonance in Chemistry, 39, (1), 199 -- 213.

Alopecia Areata Is a Systemic Hair Loss
Words: 2403 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 97622246
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Alopecia areata is a systemic hair loss disorder, which affects roughly around 4.7 million people in the United States alone. [NAAF]. It is characterized as an autoimmune disease that leads to either localized or complete hair loss. The disease is independent of race, gender or age specifications, and hence affected people represent a diverse group. The effects of the disease may either be permanent or reversible depending on the nature and extent of damage to the hair follicles. It is believed that both genetic as well as environmental factors have an influence in the onset of the condition. However, the pathology of the disease is yet to be ascertained concretely. Though there is no physical distress accompanying the disease the psychological devastation suffered by the affected person is debilitating. Let us have a brief overview of the different types of alopecia before we discuss in detail the possible pathophysiology and…

Bibliography

1) NAAF, "What is Alopecia Areata," Accessed on March 8th 2005,

 http://www.naaf.org/default2.asp 

2) Ralph Paus, M.D and George Cotsarelis, M.D, "The Biology of Hair Follicles," NEJM, Vol 341, No 7, Pg 491.

3) Kyle Kennedy, M.D, "Management of Alopecia," Accesses on March 9th 2005,

Collision Model
Words: 1178 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 65327499
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Collision Model: Explanation and Application

The Collision Model is the theory that chemical reactions are the result of collisions between molecules. These molecular collisions must be strong enough to break bonds in the reacting substances. Breaking the bonds result in a rearrangement of the original configuration of atoms and a new product or products is formed ("Collision Model," Answer Corporation, 2006). Not every collision between molecules will create new products. In fact, the vast majority of collisions do not because they are not strong enough to break the existing bonds, which are often quite strong between molecules. For the collision to be successful, the molecules have to be oriented in such a way that the activation energy is sufficient to generate a reaction in the substance in question. Temperature, the presence of catalysts, the concentration of the substance, and other factors affect activation energy. Also, the molecules within molecular bonds…

Works Cited

Akeson, Wayne H. "Application of the Arrhenius Equation to rat tail tendon collagen."

Nature. 199, 185-186. 13 July 1963. 1 Oct 2008.  http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v199/n4889/abs/199185a0.html 

The Arrhenius Equation." IUPAC Compendium of Chemical Terminology. 2nd Edition. 1997.

Oct 2008.  http://www.iupac.org/goldbook/A00446.pdf

Transcription Is a Process That Genetic Information
Words: 3089 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 29595548
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Transcription is a process that genetic information on the DNA copies into NA and the DNA acts as the template for the new molecules of NA. Transcription process begins with the DNA double helix unwinding as the hydrogen bonds holding the opposing bases breaks and the DNA strands are uncoupled. The process occurs within the cytoplasm of a prokaryote and in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells. Transcription process consists of three steps; initiation, elongation, termination, and are regulated by transcription factors that include protein products of the genes. The protein products regulate at postranscriptional levels every time.

Initiation of transcription begins with enzyme NA polymerase that identifies and attaches to DNA at the promoter and transcription of the DNA template starts. An initiation complex forms by association of 50 proteins different from each other required by NA polymerase II. NA polymerase synthesizes polynucleotides of NA from the template of DNA.…

References

Latchman, D. (2009). Eukoryotic Transcription Process. New York: Cengage Learning.

Alvis, F. (2010). New Approach to Translation Process. Chicago: Chicago University Press.

Singer, M. (2011). Genes and Genomes. New York: Cengage Learning.

Campbell, M. (2009). Biochemistry. London: Oxford University Press.

JD Watson
Words: 1917 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69450001
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James Dewey atson

The Discovery of DNA was one of the most important discoveries in the history of Humanity, and it was accomplished by James atson and Francis Crick. Their discovery of the structure of DNA allowed scientists to begin to understand the mechanism behind inheritance. hile many scientists over the years had studied heredity, beginning with Gregor Mendel, no one had been able to discover the exact mechanism for how heredity actually works. It was not until the technology of the time advance to a point where scientists could determine the structure of molecules that the discovery of the structure of genetic material could be determined. After much research, and some failures, two scientists, working together, finally determined the molecular structure of the genetic molecule, allowing for the study of the exact mechanism to begin. James atson was one of the scientists responsible for the discovery of the DNA…

Works Cited

"Biography James Watson." Nobelprize.org. Nobel Prize Organization. 1964. Web. 14 April 2011.

 http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1962/watson-bio.html 

"James D. Watson, Chancellor Emeritus" Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory. Web. 15 April 2011.

 http://www.cshl.edu/gradschool/Non-Research-Faculty/james-d-watson

Luminous Bacterium Vibrio Fischeri Vibrio
Words: 2011 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 30709179
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The chemical was found to turn on quorum sensing in V. fischeri, whereas it inhibited pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Also, the slow-release was shown to be far more effective than by applying the chemical directly as an aqueous solution. Since quorum sensing is also important for pathogen establishment this application could be important for inhibiting pathogenic bacteria from colonization of internal medical devices.

In summary, the V. fischeri and squid symbiotic relationship is an important model host-bacteria system. Aspects of colonization of host-symbiont and host-pathogen have been shown, using the V. fisheri and squid model, to be the same. Therefore, understanding the mechanism and complex transcriptional regulatory systems of V. fischeri could lead to potential new therapies and pharmaceutical applications. Likewise, understanding the environmental factors necessary for successful host-bacteria interactions could lead to novel drug targets. In addition to being important in understanding other harmful host-bacteria relationships the V. fischeri and…

References:

Breitbach, a.S., Broderick, a.H., Jewell, C.M., Gunasekaran, S., Lin, Q., Lynn, D.M., & Blackwell, H.E. 2010. Surface-mediated release of a synthetic small-molecule modulator of bacterial quorum sensing: Gradual release enhances activity. Chem Comm.

Chun, C.K, Troll, J.V., Koroleva, I., Brown, B., Manzella, L., Snir, E., Almabraz, H, Scheetz, T.E., Bonaldo, M.F., Casavant, T.L., Soares, M.B., Ruby, E.G., & McFall-Ngai, M.J. 2008. Effects of colonization, luminescence, and autoinducer on host transcription during development of the squid-vibrio association. PNAS 105(32): 11323-11328.

Lyell, N.L., Dunn, a.K., Bose, J.L., Stabb, E.V. 2010. Bright mutants of Vibrio fischeri ES114 reveal conditions and regulators that control bioluminescence and expression of the lux Operon. J. Bacteriol. 192(19): 5103-5114.

Murray, P.R., Rosenthal, K.S., Kobayashi, G.S., Pfaller, M.A. 1998. Vibrio, Aeromonas, and Plesiomonas. In M. Brown (Ed.), Medical Microbiology Third Edition (pp. 245-250). St. Louis, MO: Mosby.

Hexabromocyclododecane
Words: 1939 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 1303447
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Hexabromocyclododecane

Chemical Formula: C12H18Br6

Molecular eight: 641.70

3D Rendering using Chemitorium:

Functional Groups: bromo, cyclo

Shape and Geometric Features: The atom is always a 12-sided figure with six Br vertices. It takes the shape of an octagon that is connected to a hexagon on one side. In a three-dimensional rendering, the molecule takes on a more oval shape rather than the stricter appearance of the two-dimensional rendering.

Chiral Properties and Isomers:

Isomers:

Isomers are the addition or subtraction of electrons in the molecule. The below are the most common isomers of Hexabromocyclododecane. These are coded as alphahexabromocyclododecane, betabromocyclododecane, and gammabromocyclododecane. These indicate which portion of the Bromine in the molecule has been affected by the electron changes.

Chiral Diastereomers: -, ?-, and ?- HBCD

Chirality, by definition is a type of molecule that lacks an internal plane of symmetry. The chirality of Hexabromocyclododecane yields many pollutants which have an adverse…

Works Cited:

Arnot, John. "An Evaluation of Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) for Persistent Organic

Pollutant (POP) Properties and the Potential for Adverse Effects in the Environment." European Brominated Flame Retardant Industry Panel (EBFRIP). 2009. Print.

"Chemical Book: Hexabromocyclododecane." Web. Apr. 30, 2011.

 http://www.chemicalbook.com/ChemicalProductProperty_EN_CB4363332.htm

Discovery of the Structure of
Words: 1672 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 81223929
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However, the use of this technology has also introduced a whole host of ethical and health issues. This is important, because how these issue are wrestled with in the future, will determine the way this technology will be applied to daily life.

A bibliography that includes all references cited in the report and a 1-2 sentence summary of what information was gained from each reference.

20 Questions on Genetically Modified Foods. (2010). HO. Retrieved from: http://www.who.int/foodsafety/publications/biotech/20questions/en/

This source identified specific ethical and health issues that are affecting the use of genetic engineering. It was useful in recognizing specific factors and issues that could be affecting the way genetic engineering is impacting daily life.

The Search for the Structure of DNA. (2010). Online Ethics. Retrieved from: http://www.onlineethics.org/Education/precollege/scienceclass/sectone/cs4.aspx

This source was useful in providing background as to when DNA was discovered and what compounds were looked at before its discovery.

Ejelonu, A.…

Works Cited

20 Questions on Genetically Modified Foods. (2010). WHO. Retrieved from:  http://www.who.int/foodsafety/publications/biotech/20questions/en/ 

The Search for the Structure of DNA. (2010). Online Ethics. Retrieved from:  http://www.onlineethics.org/Education/precollege/scienceclass/sectone/cs4.aspx 

What is DNA. (2010). NIH. Retrieved from:  http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/handbook/basics/dna 

Ejelonu, A. (2002). What is the Human Genome Project. Serendip. Retrieved from:  http://serendip.brynmawr.edu/biology/b103/f01/web1/ejelonu.html

Antimicrobial Agents in Household Use Triclosan
Words: 746 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 2679510
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Antimicrobial Agents in Household Use: Triclosan

Describe how Triclosan works on a molecular level. Explain how Triclosan differs from soap and bleach in its antimicrobial activity.

Triclosan blocks the active site of the enoyl-acyl carrier protein reductase enzyme (EN), this is the vital enzyme in the synthesis of fatty acid in bacteria (Levy et a, 1999). Blocking this active site by triclosan leads to the inhibition of the enzyme thus preventing the synthesis of the fatty acid by the bacteria, a process needed for building cell membranes and reproduction. Given the fact that this EN enzyme exists in humans, triclosan has been considered to be relatively friendly to humans. Due to its strong nature of inhibition, powerful antibacterial action can be achieved using only a small amount of triclosan.

Triclosan differs from soap and bleach in the mechanism of action. Levy et al. (1999) also clarify that whereas triclosan interferes…

References

Bester, K. (2003) "Triclosan in a sewage treatment process balances and monitoring data," Water

Research, 37(16): 3891-3896.

Levy, C.W. et al. (1999). "Molecular Basis of Triclosan Activity," Nature, 398, 383-384.

Lindstrom, A. et al. (2002) "Occurrence and Environmental Behavior of the Bactericide

Gene Is Hereditary Material Made
Words: 701 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 11632347
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At the molecular level, the mutation in the normal ApoA1 is because of a single amino acid substitution at the position 173, cysteine amino acid substitutes or replaces the arginine amino acid. Because of the presence of an extra cysteine, a cysteine bridge is formed that causes great changes in the protein structure. ApoA1 protein does not have a cysteine dimer but cysteine dimer is formed on Apo1 Milano that causes the protein to exist as a homo or a hetro dimer with ApoAII (Futterman and Lemberg 246). It has been reported that he enhanced cholesterol removal efficiency is not because of the presence of extra cysteine. Based on the replacement of arginine by a cysteine residue, the charge of the protein is shifter towards cathode. Because of the mutation, it has been reported that the removal of cholesterol from the inner arterial walls is accelerated and much higher. The…

Works Cited

Futterman, G. Laurie., and Lemberg, Louis. "Apo A-I Milano." Am J. Crit Care 14 (2005): 244-247.

Nissen, E. Steven., Tsunoda, Taro., Tuzcu, Murat, E., Schoenhagen, Paul., Cooper, J. Christopher., Yasin, Muhammad., Eaton, M. Gregory., Lauer, A. Michael., Sheldon, W. Scott., Grines, L. Cindy., Halpern, Stephen., Crowe, Tim., and James Blankenship, C. James. "Effect of Recombinant ApoA-I Milano on Coronary Atherosclerosis in Patients with Acute Coronary Syndromes: A Randomized Controlled Trial." JAMA 290(2003): 2292-2300.

Actions Estrogen and Progesterone in Endometrium and
Words: 1101 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 475283
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Actions Estrogen and Progesterone in Endometrium and Breast: Puberty, Pregnancy and Puerperium Including Molecular Actions and Functionally Important Tissue Level Effects

Estrogen and progesterone are essential to cyclical changes that occur during puberty, pregnancy and peurperium. Complex molecular activity influences tissue changes in multiple reproductive organs including the uterus, endometrium, ovaries, breasts and more (Kimbrell & McDonnell, 2003).During a woman's reproductive cycle the hypothalamus secretes gonadotropin-releasing hormone or luteinizing releasing hormone which stimulates the release of luteneizing hormone and follicle stimulating hormone (Merck, 2005). This in turns promotes maturation of female ovum and stimulates the body's release of the reproductive hormones estrogen and progesterone during a woman's cycle. Estrogen and progesterone contain carbon atoms and other polycyclic compounds that are created from cholesterol and circulate within the bloodstream via plasma proteins (Merck, 2005).

Unbound estrogen and progesterone compounds stimulate the reproductive system including the endometrium, uterus and breasts to mature…

References:

"Hormones of the Reproductive System of Females." Available:

http://users.rcn.com/jkimball.ma.ultranet/BiologyPages/S/SexHormones.html

Kimbrell, E.A. & McDonnell, D.P. (2003). "Function and mode of action of nuclear receptors: Estrogen, progesterone and vitamin D" Pure Appl Chem, 75(11-12): 1671. Available:  http://www.iupac.org/publications/pac/2003/pdf/7511x1671.pdf 

Merck & Co., Inc. (2005). Reproductive Endocrinology. The Merck Manual, Sec. 18, Ch.

Genomics and Implications for the Future the
Words: 1778 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 19542026
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Genomics and Implications for the Future

The Human Genome Project has completed its monumental mapping of the genetic sequence in human DNA, and the field of genomics is taking advantage of these initiatives and innovations in technology to pursue scientific inquiries that could not have been imagined just a few years ago. More importantly, perhaps, new applications are being discovered based on the growing body of scientific evidence being developed by this emerging science. To determine what genomics is and how it is being used today and may be used in the future, this paper provides an overview of the biochemistry involved in the study of genomics, followed by an analysis of current and future trends in this field. A summary of the research will be provided in the conclusion.

Review and Discussion

Background and Overview.

Today, genetic-engineering techniques are increasingly being applied to a growing number of life forms,…

Works Cited

Dooley, Erin E. (2004). "Y. F. Leung's Functional Genomics." Environmental Health

Perspectives 112(16):934.

Genome news. (2003, September). Body Bulletin 4(9):6.

Goodman, Alan H., Deborah Heath and M. Susan Lindee. (2003). Genetic Nature/Culture:

Von Hippel-Lindau Von Hippel Lindau Disease Von
Words: 2314 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45262901
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Von Hippel-Lindau

Von Hippel Lindau Disease

Von Hippel-Lindau Disease

Von Hippel-Lindau Disease

Von Hippel-Lindau Disease

The von Hippel-Lindau, also known by its synonyms, familial angiomatosis cerebeloretinal, hemangioblastomatosis or retinal and cerebellar angiofacomatosis, is the abnormal growth of retinal- cerebellar vessels, and is classified as a rare disease of autosomal dominant hereditary character, within the group of phacomatosis. The disease was described by two independent groups, led by Eugen von Hippel (1904) and Arvid Lindau (1927). The cause of the disease is the mutation of both alleles of the VHL group, the one caused by genetic factors, and the second after a de novo mutation. The von Hippel-Lindau syndrome is considered by increased tendency to kidney tumors, central nervous system, including the cerebellum, and by affecting the retina. At the moment, no medical treatment is present for curing this disease, but knowledge of their symptoms and possible genetic research currently makes…

References

He's FJ, Hoppener JW, Lips CJ (2003). Clinical review 155: pheochromocytoma in Von Hippel-Lindau disease. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 88: 969 -- 974.

Johnston LB, Chew SL, Trainer PJ, Reznek R, Grossman AB, Besser GM, Monson JP, Savage MO (2000). Screening children at risk of developing inherited endocrine neoplasia syndromes. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf); 52: 127 -- 136.

Lindau A (1927). On the question of angiomatosis retinae and your brain complicatio. Acta Ophthalmol; 4: 193 -- 226.

Lonser R, Glenn G, Walther M, Chew EY, Libutti SK, Linehan WM, et al. (2003). Von Hippel-Lindau disease. Lancet;361:2059-67.

Personal Statement Pathology Has Been
Words: 594 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20300564
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Pathologists are often called 'the doctor's doctor ' -- when other doctors are experiencing an impasse, they go to a pathologist for advice, to provide clarity. As someone who has always enjoyed working as a teacher and preparing teaching materials, I look forward to this role in relation to my fellow physicians.

pon arriving in the nited States to practice medicine, I gained experience in the field of pathology-related research, collecting data about survival rates of patients with colorectal cancer and inflammatory bowel disease. I came to learn how pathology touches all fields of medicine. Even in my work with patients suffering substance abuse and psychiatric problems, I saw how the progression of the addiction created a pathology in terms of the way that the body responded to the patient's negative behaviors. I hope that this residency program will expose me to the laboratory and clinical aspects of the field,…

Upon arriving in the United States to practice medicine, I gained experience in the field of pathology-related research, collecting data about survival rates of patients with colorectal cancer and inflammatory bowel disease. I came to learn how pathology touches all fields of medicine. Even in my work with patients suffering substance abuse and psychiatric problems, I saw how the progression of the addiction created a pathology in terms of the way that the body responded to the patient's negative behaviors. I hope that this residency program will expose me to the laboratory and clinical aspects of the field, and give me the ability to learn from -- and perhaps to teach -- others who are grappling with issues spanning from cancer to nephrology to infertility to lifestyle-related illnesses.

From birth to death, I have seen the many varied states the human body can take in health and illness. My desire to engage in a pathology rotation is based upon these past, formative experiences and my desire to place this diversity within the uniquely helpful paradigms particular the discipline. By the end of the residency I know I shall not have realized my goal of becoming a 'doctor's doctor' but I am eager to enter upon the path and begin this lifelong journey.

J. Carlos Manivel, "Choosing pathology as a specialty," the University of Minnesota, May 2, 2010, [August 21, 2010] http://residency.pathology.umn.edu/

Ahmed Zewail Dr Ahmed Zewail
Words: 817 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 58840709
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Initially he busied himself with performing and publishing new research findings. Through this endeavor he expanded his knowledge of chemistry and physics. When he moved from Pennsylvania to California in 1974, he began to serve as a mentor to graduate students. While mentoring others, he himself began learning a lot more about his field of study from his academic peers.

Soon afterwards Dr. Zewail felt encouraged to apply to certain top positions at several American universities. It was during this time that he received the offer to serve as a director at CalTech. At his new position Dr. Zewail enthusiastically worked beside scientists from diverse social and cultural backgrounds. Besides serving in a leadership position to the hundreds of students and faculty members under him, Dr. Zewail not only inspired others to perform at their very best but was also himself inspired to learn and understand new advances in physics…

Divergence Between Humans Beings Was
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A 1400-year-old volcanic or other induced "winter" likely spurred the divergence possibly even later than 150,000 years ago, brought about by an explosion of Toba in Sumatra. The elimination of this bottleneck 10, 000 years later allowed another wave of emigration from Africa. Volcanic winter may have succeeded in the reductions of populations to levels low enough for founder effects, genetic drift and local adaptations to produce rapid population differentiation (Ambrose 623 -- 651) .

This new research posits new assumptions about evolutionary rates, anagenesis, gene flow and population stability. Most biological evolution consists of the following two processes: anagenesis and cladogenesis. Anagenesis describes the transformations that occur within a single lineage, that is, as a population develops new characteristics. Cladogenesis, describes the splitting of a single species into two or more groups that later subsequently diverge in their individual traits through the anagenetic process. Gene flow and population stability…

Works Cited

Ambrose, Stephen H. "Late Pleistocene human population bottlenecks, volcanic winter, and differentiation of modern humans." Journal of Human Evolution. 34. (1998): 623 -- 651. Print.

Johanson, Donald. "Origins of Modern Humans: Multiregional or Out of Africa?" Action

Bioscience.org. 2011. Web. 6 May 2011.

.

Jungsik Yoo at Times I Marvel How
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Jungsik Yoo

At times, marvel how far have come. Ever since was a young boy, under the influence of my father, a molecular biologist, dreamed of researching genetically inherited diseases. Today, live that reality in my current field of work and research as a graduate student in neuroscience.

Thus, long before most children, because of my early exposure to the field of biology, was intimately aware that one's genetic inheritance could determine an individual's future physical and emotional health. Perhaps it comes as no surprise that soon decided was genetically coded to become a medical researcher. will receive my Ph D. n the summer of 2006 in neuroscience. But my current studies in the field of genetics have also soberly reminded me of how far both my own learning and the field of genetics need to be stretched, before the objectives of genetic research into inherited diseases can be realized.…

I have concluded that the hands-on clinical experience only provided by a medical school education is necessary for me to fulfill the essential experiential element that is crucial to my future desired knowledge base and scope of research. Only medical school will provide me with critical experience that will give my research the desired added practical and human value.

At the end of my education, I hope to become a research doctor who combines clinical research in his study of genetic diseases. I seek to provide the science of genetics with a human face for it is, ultimately, the study of the human body, mind, and 'wiring' in the form of the human genetic code. I been the recipient of a 'Sensory Neuroscience Training Grant '(SNTG) fellowship funded by National institute of health (NIH) since the fall of 2004. Thus I am well aware of the critical role genetics plays in public health of the nation as well as of the field of medical science, because of this generous grant, and I will strive to add to this knowledge in all of my future research.

Also, as a T.A. over the past two years, I have gleaned further knowledge of the curiosity of students for 'in the field' research. I have been grateful to have this human element present even in my PhD education. I am also proud to say I have not merely have received excellent reviews from my students, but joined them in many intramural soccer games, one of my favorite pursuits of my college years. I was not given the genetic gift, sadly, of becoming a great sports star, but I do believe that it is encoded in my own personal biology to bring a vital element of clinical humanity to the important work being done in the field of genetic research.

Acetaldehyde and Anabuse Acetaldehyde Also
Words: 633 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89273220
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al. 477-8).

If there is disulfiram in the patient's system, it takes about 5-10 minutes for the effects of the drug to form the outward symptoms of a severe hangover. These symptoms last from 30 minutes to several hours, and may include flushing, rapid heart rate, shortness of breath, nausea, vomiting, throbbing headaches, mental confusion and even circulatory collapse. There is no known tolerance to the drug, the longer it is taken, the stronger the effects. Because of its molecular make up, it is absorbed slowly through the digestive tract with the effects lasting up to two weeks after the initial doses. This makes the issue of informed consent very important for this substance (Wright and Moore).

The efficacy of the drug is debatable. On one hand, the biological and chemical effects of are proven. One study showed that there is about a 50% compliance rate in a supervised atmosphere,…

REFERENCES

Chemical Summary for Acetaldehyde. Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics -- U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 1994. Web.

Disulfiram. Drugs.com. Drug Information Online. 2011, Web.

Nakamura, K., et.al. Acetaldehyde Adducts in the Brain of Alcoholics. Archives of Toxicology. 77 (10): 591-3. 2004. Print.

Perry, L. Biology of a Hangover: Acetaldehyde. How Stuff Works. 2011. Web.

Enzymology and Catalytic Mechanism Carbohydrate Metabolism ATP
Words: 1091 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 14480472
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Doctor Determine Treatment for a Diagnosis of Hereditary Fructose Intolerance:

Explain how enzymes are involved in processes such as the breakdown of fructose.

The enzymes work as a lock and key process where the relevetn active part of the enzyme fits into the substrate (i.e. The molecule on which the enzyme acts) and activates it. There are various active sites on the enzyme and only the enzyme that will 'fit' in the substrate will work. After part of enzyme matching with substrate, enzyme breaks down substrate into two smaller products.

The following image illustrates:

(adapted from http://waynesword.palomar.edu/molecu1.htm)

At times the process can be blocked by an impediment that stops the 'key' from 'turning, as happens in the case of a lack in aldolase B. which can prompt hereditary fructose intolerance

Explain how a deficiency in aldolase B. can be responsible for hereditary fructose intolerance.

Hereditary fructose intolerance is a disease…

Sources

Berg JM, Tymoczko JL, Stryer L. (2002) Biochemistry. 5th edition. New York: WH Freeman

Cross NC, de Franchis R, Sebastio G, et al. (1990). Molecular analysis of aldolase B. genes in hereditary fructose intolerance. Lancet 335 (8685): 306 -- 9

Huntington's Disease Outreach Project for Education at Stanford Coenzyme Q10: An Antioxidant Drug

 http://www.stanford.edu/group/hopes/treatmts/antiox/ceq1.html

Water in Your Area Your Perspective on
Words: 1787 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28363722
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water in your area? ("Your perspective on water differs whether you live near the Great Lakes, in the arid west, or by the coast."(McCarthy, 2009)

Outline a brief water conservation plan for your own daily use. How will these changes affect your personal life? What impact will it have on your local water supply?

There is plentiful water in my region (I live in the Great Lakes region). Nonetheless, a brief water conservation plan is the following:

To use water for just its needs and to ensure that tap water is not left running in between those needs.

To double used bathwater as water that can be used for washing the floor.

To, as much as possible, use rainwater for gardening

In order to supply water to humans certain technologies must be utilized.

Desalination is one of the methods that are used for promoting pure water supply. It literally means…

References

FAO report reveals GM crops not needed to feed the world  http://www.psrast.org/faonowohu.htm 

Forbes.com (11/03/2012) GMO Food Debate in the National Spotlight  http://www.forbes.com/sites/rachelhennessey/2012/11/03/gmo-food-debate-in-the-national-spotlight/ )

Greenopolis. Top 10 Environmental Success Stories and 10 Future Challenges. http://greenopolis.com/goblog/joe-laur/top-10-environmental-success-stories-and-10-future-challenges

Groves, J (19 December 2009 ) Climate change summit accepts 'toothless' U.S.-backed agreement - but deal is not legally binding DailMail.com  http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-1236659/Copenhagen-climate-change-conference-World-leaders-reach-Copenhagen-agreement  -- officials-admit-enough.html#ixzz2Cg3714zQ

Diffusion and Osmosis
Words: 1863 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 98143462
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Diffusion and Osmosis Experiment Lab eport

The core purpose of the first experiment conducted in the lab was to study the principle of diffusion. The experiment aimed at analyzing the movement of molecules from a region of higher concentration towards lower concentration. Potassium permanganate crystals were dissolved in water to observe the process of diffusion. The observations and results attained from the experiment indicated the movement of molecules which occurred due to molecular collisions, taking place more frequently in areas of higher concentration.

Molecules present in a liquid or a gas move about constantly in random directions. During their movement, they bump into each other and bounce this way and that way. This random movement ultimately results in the uniform or even distribution of molecules. The tendency of molecules to spread out evenly throughout the space occupied by them is referred as diffusion. The process of diffusion does not require…

References

Jeff, Sack. Osmosis and Diffusion, American Biology Teacher, 67.5 (2005), pp. 3-11, Retrieved

October 19, 2012, from  http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/detailmini.jsp?_nfpb=true&_&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=EJ725843&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=no&accno=EJ725843 

Lauren, M., Victor, S. & Lindsay, M. Exploring Osmosis and Diffusion in Cells: A

Guided-Inquiry Activity for Biology Classes, Developed through the Lesson-study Process. Science Teacher, 77.8(2010), pp. 55-60, Retrieved October 19, 2012, from  http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/detailmini.jsp?_nfpb=true&_&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=EJ912491&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=no&accno=EJ912491#

NMR Spectra
Words: 2276 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 21263914
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NM Spectra

Nuclear magnetic resonance (NM) spectroscopy is one of the most powerful and versatile techniques available to determine the arrangement of atoms in the structure of a molecule. Organic molecules composed principally of hydrogen and carbon atoms can be analyzed using techniques of proton (1H) and carbon-13 (13C) NM spectroscopy. The basic interpretation of the NM spectra for a molecule observes several properties including the strength and intensity of the magnetic field used to produce a peak, the interaction of the atom with atoms around it and the effects of neighboring atoms on spectra themselves. Analysis of the relative location of a peak in an NM spectrum (called the chemical shift) and the splitting of that peak can provide significant information about the structure of a molecule. More detailed information about molecular structure can be determined through 2-dimensional techniques where the NM pulses producing a magnetic field are combined…

References

Carey, F.A., & Giuliano, R.M. (2008). Organic Chemistry. New York: McGraw Hill.

Pauli, W. (1940) . The connection between spin and statistics. Physical Review B. 15, 716-730.

Roberts, R.M.; Glibert, J.C.; Rodewald, L.B.; Wingrove, A.S.(1982) Modern Experimental Organic Chemistry (pp. 239). New York, NY: CBS College Publishing.

Silverstein, R.M.; Bassler, G.C.; Morrill, T.C. (1974) Spectrometric Identification of Organic Compounds, 3rd Ed. (p. 24). New York, NY: Wiley.

Life I Have Been a Go-getter I
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life I have been a go-getter. I graduated from high school at 16 because I was eager to begin my college education. Currently I am working on dual Bachelor degrees. One will be in Biochemistry and the other will be in Psychology. The same personality trait that has allowed me to graduate from high school early, pursue a dual degree program and many other accomplishments, is what will turn me into a service orientated and dedicated dentist.

One of the things I have pursued as a University of California, San Diego student, is my membership in the campus "For Los Angelitos" club. One of the things we did as a club was to travel to poverty stricken areas and provide lessons about oral hygiene. Equipped with small bags filled with oral care products, we traveled to Tijuana, Mexico where we provided oral care education to the children of the area.…

Using Proteins to Inhibit Tumor Growth
Words: 1372 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 47828291
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Merkel Cell Carcinoma

Griffiths, D., et al. (2013). Merkel Cell Polyomavirus Small T. Antigen Targets

the EMO Adaptor Protein To Disrupt Inflammatory Signaling. Journal of Virology. 87 (24), 13853-67.

Merkel cell carcinoma is a relatively rare disease in which malignant cells form in the skin, usually in individuals who have a weak immune system or extensive exposure to the sun. Merkel cells are found in the top (epidermis) layer of the skin, close to the nerve endings that house responders to touch. Merkel cell carcinoma is also known as neuroendocrine carcinoma of the skin, sometimes as trabecular cancer. It forms when the Merkel cells grow rapidly and out of control, usually starting in areas of the skin that have more exposure to the sun (neck, arms, legs, etc.). The cancer tends to grow robustly and metastasize at a relatively early stage. Typically, it spreads to nearby lymph nodes and then…

Environmental Settings of the Cambrian
Words: 3368 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 86724624
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" (Sukumaran, 2004) Mutation is what results in the difference and may be utilized as a measure of the time that has elapsed since separation of the species from the common ancestor during evolution. This is a method of "inferring the divergence of time of clades from a common ancestor by means of gene/protein sequencing" and has been termed 'molecular dating'. The process is one in which there is a calibration of time in comparison to the Phanerozoic era fossil data and then expoliation is conducted for providing the estimation time for divergence of phyla. (Sukumaran, 2004; paraphrased) Indeed, if life did evolve as posited in the work of Charles Darwin then "the abrupt appearance of diversified life at the beginning of the Cambrian period was not explainable." (Sukumaran, 2004) However, Sukumaran explains that gradualism is not a central tenet to the idea that there has been an evolution of…

Bibliography

Fenchel, Tom (2002) the Origin and Early Evolution of Life. Oxford University Press 2002.

Wray et al., Molecular evidence for deep Precambrian divergence among metazoan phyla, Science, Vol. 274, pp. 568-573, 1996

Gon, S.M. III (2005) Trilobites of Chengjiang, China. 27 Apr 2005. Online available at  http://www.trilobites.info/Chengjiang.htm 

Gon, S.M. III (2007) Trilobites of the Emu Bay Shale, Australia 7 July 2007. Online available at  http://www.trilobites.info/Emu.htm .

Amidation of Peptides
Words: 6068 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 94362858
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Amidation of Peptides in Humans

Modern biotechnology has experienced dramatic leaps in the body of knowledge concerning molecular processes in peptides and how they work. Many of these processes rely on amidation of peptides to achieve increasingly important medical and commercial applications. Peptides are created when two or more amino acids are covalently joined by peptide bonds, a process termed post-translational modification. One increasingly valuable application of post-translational modification is amidation. This paper provides an overview of peptides and their role in biological processes, how amidation of peptides works and its importance, and a description of the two functional domains of the PAM enzyme (PHM and PAL) and the roles they play in amidation. An assessment of whether amidation prevents C-terminal degradation is followed by a discussion of which peptides/proteins are susceptible to C-terminal degredation by carboxypeptidase. An analysis of whether E. coli can be modified to perform amidation will…

References

Allen, J.M. (1963). The nature of biological diversity. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Audesirk, T. & Audesirk, G. (1993). Biology: Life on Earth, 4th ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Bradbury, A.F. & Smyth, D.G. (1988). Biosynthesis of peptide neurotransmitters: studies on the formation of peptide amides. Physiol Bohemoslov, 37(3), 267-74.

Brighton, P.J., Szekeres, P.G. & Willars, G.B. (2004). Neuromedin U. And Its Receptors: Structure, Function, and Physiological Roles. Pharmacological Review, 56, 231-248.

Prebiotic Potential of Chitosans Prebiotic
Words: 6463 Length: 25 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28944082
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1).

This teatment, albeit, does not poduce 100% chitosan, but basically poduces a mixtue of 10-15% chitin plus 85-90% pue chitosan, called "pue CC." In the U.S., chitosan constitutes a mixtue of appoximately7% chitin plus appoximately 93% chitosan. Outside of cost-effectiveness, the biological effects of chitin poduced fom each souce appeas identical. "Chitosan oligosacchaides (CO) takes chitosan a big step futhe," Matsunaga (2007 explains. "When CC is ingested, a small amount of it is boken down into vey small molecula paticles by the enzymes of the body, thus poducing CO. CO can also be manufactued by using an enzymatic pocess" (Matsunaga, as cited in Levine, p. 1). The body moe eadily absobs CO, although CO contains less fibe than egula CC.

In Case Histoy 1: Low Pulmonay (Lung) Function, Matsunaga (Levine, 2007) teats his fist patient, also his fathe, with the administation of CC. Pevious teatments had yielded no esults…

references and further reading you must purchase this article.

Lee, H., Park, Y., Jung, J. & Shin, W. (2003). Chitosan oligosaccharides, dp 2 -- 8, have prebiotic effect on the Bifidobacterium bifidium and Lactobacillus sp.

Elsevier Science Ltd. Retrieved November 2, 2009, from  http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6W9T-48BKR97 -

2&_user=10&_rdoc=1&_fmt=&_orig=search&_sort=d&_docanchor=&view=c&_search

StrId=1075134506&_rerunOrigin=google&_acct=C000050221&_version=1&_urlVersio

Sugar Sucrose C12H22O11
Words: 1977 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 22464744
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Chemical Compound: Sucrose

Sugar (Sucrose) -- C12H22O11

The compound chosen for discussion in the paper is- sucrose. The reason behind choosing this compound is that it is a substance of everyday use, consumed worldwide. Its commonness has led people to consider sucrose as an ingredient whose solitary purpose is what it is commonly used for- as sugar- and not in the form of a chemical compound. Therefore, sucrose is chosen for study out of curiosity regarding it.

This paper will look into a chemical and physical description of sucrose, its economic significance, its relation to prior class studies, as well as its change of state. Employing various concepts like 'international system of measurements (SI)' units, the properties of the compound will be elucidated.

Compound Description

Physical description

Pure sucrose, often, takes the form of an odorless, colorless, fine crystalline powder having a sweet, pleasant taste. It can be prepared in…

References

Blauch, D.N. (2001). Le Chatelier's Principle: Effect of a Change in Temperature. Retrieved july 22, 2015, from  http://www.chm.davidson.edu/vce/equilibria/temperature.html 

Cameo Chemicals. (n.d.). Sucrose. Retrieved July 22, 2015, from  http://cameochemicals.noaa.gov/chemical/12695 

edinformatics. (n.d.). Sucrose. Retrieved July 22, 2015, from  http://www.edinformatics.com/math_science/science_of_cooking/sucrose.htm 

Fairtrade Foundation. (2013). Fairtrade and Sugar. Fairtrade Foundation.

Important Factors in Treating Huntington's Disease Patients
Words: 6558 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 22789764
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Huntington's disease (HD) was the first autonomic dominant disorder for which genetic prediction became possible" (Harper, et al., 2000, Journal of Medical Genetics, p. 567). HD is a disease that occurs due to an inherited disorder leading to the death of brain cells. A diagnosis of HD is accomplished through genetic testing which can be implemented at any age regardless of whether the symptoms manifest or not. Although, the specific symptoms vary between people, nevertheless, symptoms can start with people between 35 and 45 years of age and can also start in some individuals at even anearlier age. The disease may affect successive generations if health interventions are not implemented (Mandel, 2016).

Additionally, "the cause of HD is due to a dominant mutation of autosomal form of the gene called Huntington. This shows that a child born by an affected person has a 50% chance of developing or inheriting the…

References

Causes and risk factors. (2016). Health Communities. Retrieved from http://www. healthcommunities.com/huntingtons-disease/cause.shtml.

Denbo, S. M. (2013, January 1). Balancing the rights of children, parents and the state: The legal, ethical and psychological implications of genetic testing in children. Southern Journal of Business and Ethics, 5, 188-190.

Domaradzki, J. (2015, January 1). Lay constructions of genetic risk. A case-study of the Polish Society of Huntington's Disease. Polish Sociological Review, 189, 107-111.

Draper, B. (2004). Dealing with dementia: A Guide to Alzheimer's Disease and other dementias. Crows Nest, NSW: Allen & Unwin.

Philosophy of Chemistry
Words: 1750 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84333522
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Philosophy of Chemistry

The work of Scerri (2000) asks the question of what could the connections between chemistry and philosophy possible be "apart from the obvious superficial one of their both representing quests for knowledge?" (p.1) Scerri states that in the view of the chemist "the philosopher -- who conducts no experiments whatsoever -- is not worthy of very high esteem. From the scientific perspective, philosophical views do not seem very dynamic, since they sometime stem from established philosophical doctrines or a priori beliefs about the ways the world should be." (2000, p.1) It is reported as well that philosophers "for their part are proud of their training in rigorous ways of thinking. They freely admit to not engaging in the grubby details of the experimental world because such activities might limit the generalities of their claims and of their attempts to depict reality in its broadest terms." (Scerri, 2000,…

Bibliography

Scerri, ER (1997) Philosophy of Chemistry -- A New Interdisciplinary Field?. Retrieved from:  http://www.chem.ucla.edu/dept/Faculty/scerri/pdf/poc_=JCE_article.pdf 

Hoffmann, R. The Same and Not the Same; Columbia University Press: New York, 1995. Knight, D. Ideas in Chemistry, Rutgers University Press: New Brunswick, NJ, 1992. Nye, M.J. From Chemical Philosophy to Theoretical Chemistry; University of California Press: Berkeley, 1993. Laszlo, P. La Parole des Choses; Collection Savoir-Science: Paris, 1993. Hoffmann, R.; Laszlo, P. Angew. Chem., Int. Ed. Engl. 1991, 30, 1 -- 16

Scerri, ER and McIntyre, L (2000) The Case for the Philosophy of Chemistry. Retrieved from:  http://philsci-archive.pitt.edu/256/1/Case_for_poc.pdf 

Schummer, J. (2006) Philosophy of Chemistry. in: Donald M. Borchert (ed.), Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Second Edition, Macmillan, New York 2006. Retrieved from:  http://www.joachimschummer.net/papers/2006_Philchem_MacmillanEncyclopedia.pdf

Astrocytic Tumors Brain Tumor Is
Words: 2607 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 78488625
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Using MRS chemical composition of the tumor and the metabolite intensities can also be ascertained along with the morphological characterisitcs. Thus MRI provides better information which is useful in grading the tumor. For grade 4 astrocytoma's spectroscopic studies reveal high Cho, high lipid, high lactate and low NAA values. However, the MRI testing is time consuming (40 to 90 minutes) and is problematic for claustrophobic patients. [eMedicine] iopsy of the affected brain tissue will also help in determining the nature of the abnormal tissue growth.

Treatment

Treatment for astrocytoma includes, surgery, chemotherapy, radiation and gluco corticoid medication. Treatment improves the survival rates for patients and the type of treatment depends on the growth and location of the tumor. First grade tumors such as Pilocytic Astrocytomas are easily treated by resection. In most cases removal of the affected part would be sufficient. However, if the location of the tumor makes surgery…

Bibliography

Capodano AM. Nervous system: Astrocytic tumors. Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol Haematol. November 2000. Available at,  http://AtlasGeneticsOncology.org/Tumors/AstrocytID5007.html 

BTS, "Brain Tumor Facts & Statistics," Accessed Nov 18th 2007, available at  http://www.tbts.org/itemDetail.asp?categoryID=384&itemID=16535 

Karen T. Barker and Richard S. Houlston, "Overgrowth syndromes: Is dysfunctional P. 13 Kinase signalling a Unifying mechanism," European Journal of Human Genetics (2003) 11, 665-670. Available online at,  http://www.nature.com/ejhg/journal/v11/n9/full/5201026a.html 

Medscape, " a Review of Astrocytoma Models: Molecular pathologies of Astrocytoma," Neurosurgical Focus 8(4), 2000 eMedicine, "Astrocytoma, Brain," Accessed on Noiv 18th 2007, available at  http://www.emedicine.com/radio/topic60.htm

68 GA Dota TOC Radiopharmaceutical
Words: 1828 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 95871544
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Ga DOA OC Radio Pharmaceutical

Neuroendocrine tumors (NE) are neoplasms characterized by tissue immunoreactivity for neuroendocrine differentiation markers, appearance as a small mass that can be off white to yellow often in submucosa and prevalence throughout the body but typically found in the intestine or lungs (Oberg2011). he tumors can be malignant and are typically detected through hormone markers in a first diagnosis (Arnold 2003). Because of the diffuse nature of this type of tumor, detecting and imaging NEs requires scanning and typically requires a contrast agent to detect the location of tumors in tissue (an 2011). Many NE cells possess an overexpression of somatostatin receptors on their surface (Kwekkeboom 2005, VenEssen 2007). Somatostatin receptors are cell surface proteins that bind to somatostatin, a growth hormone inhibiting hormone that regulates the endocrine system and affects neurotransmission and cell proliferation (Florio 2002). he overexpressed somatostatin receptors can be used to both…

Tan, E.H.; Tan, C. (2011). Imaging of gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors, World Journal of Clinical Oncology 2 (1) 28.

VanEssen, M. Krenning, EP., DeJong, M., Valkema, R., Kwekkeboom, D.J. (2007) Peptide receptor radionucleotide therapy with radiolabelled somatostatin analogues in patients with somatostatin receptor positive tumors, Acta Oncology 46, 723-734

Veliklyan, I. Xu, H. Nair, M. Hall, H. Robust labeling and comparative preclinical characterization of DOTA-TOC and DOTA TATE. Nuclear Medicine Biology 18, 123-128.

Hemolytic Disease of the Newborn
Words: 2311 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 51187925
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History of Pediatric Hemolytic Monitoring

Retrospect to the career of physician, Dr. James A. olff I and his early progress in treatment of Rh hemolytic disease as described in Pochedly (1984), looks at the development of interest in hematology in European field hospitals during orld ar II. After the war period, the transformation of olff's research in this area was advanced by research conducted during a pediatric residency at the Boston Children's Hospital, between 1945 and 1947. During his tenure at Children's he was engaged with Dr. Louis Diamond in his seminal investigation on treatment of erythroblastosis fetalis by exchange transfusion.

Collaborative efforts with Drs. Diamond and Farber focused on preliminary clinical trials of aminopterin for the treatment of acute leukemia, of which olff was in observation. Instrumental to the development of the concept of treating erythroblastosis fetalis by exchange transfusion; collaborative in the area of pathophysiology of disease where…

Works Cited

Al-Eisa, A. And Al-Hajeri, M. Hemolytic uremic syndrome in Kuwaiti Arab children. Pediatric Nephrology 16.12 (2001): 1093-1098.

Blouin, P. et al. Syndrome d'Evans: etude retrospective de la societe d'hematologie et d'immunologie pediatrique (36 cas). Archives De Pediatrie: Organe Officiel De La Societe Francaise De Pediatrie 12.11 (2005): 1600-1607.

Feldman, S.D. And Tauber, A.I. Sickle Cell Anemia: Reexamining the First "Molecular Disease." Bulletin of the History of Medicine 71.4 (1997) 623-650

Friedmann, A.M. et al. Fatal autoimmune hemolytic anemia in a child due to warm-reactive immunoglobulin M. antibody. Journal Of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology: Official Journal Of The American Society Of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology 20.5 (1998): 502-505.

Inorganic Chemistry Linear Sp Carbon Allotropes in
Words: 1415 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 62343041
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Inorganic Chemistry

Linear sp Carbon Allotropes in Question

While modern day discoveries and characterizations of allotropes are reported, the definition of allotropy remains ambiguous as the question of what constitutes an allotrope is under debate. Lagow et al. reported the synthesis of a terminally capped linear acetylenic carbon with alternating single and triple binds, claiming it to be a stable sp carbon allotrope (1994), a subject of debate as the classification of acetylenic carbon as an allotrope continues to be determined, and the stability of such a compound is in question. The proposed structure and stability of a linear sp carbon of such a proposed length and with alternating single and triple bonds is disputed by Hirsch et al. Thus, the stability of long-chain carbon allotropes and the characterization of the linear sp carbon synthesized by Lagow et al., given its terminal end design, remains in question as to the…

Bibliography

Demishev, SV, Pronin, AA, Sluchanko, NE, Samarin, NA, Glushkov, VV, Lyapin, AG, Kondrin,

MV, Brazhkin, VV, Varfolomeeva, TD, Popova, SV, & H. Ohta. (2002). "New nanocluster carbyne-based material synthesized under high pressure." General Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences. Russia: Moscow. Vol. 44, No. 4, pp. 585-588. [Online]. Available at  http://www.ioffe.rssi.ru/journals/ftt/2002/04/p585-588.pdf 

Lagow, RJ, Kampa, JJ, Wei, HC, Battle, SL, Genge, JW, Laude, DA, Harper, CJ, Bau, R,

Stevens, RC, Haw, JF, & E. Munson. (20 Jan. 1995) "Synthesis of Linear Acetylenic Carbon: The 'sp' Carbon Allotrope." Science, New Series. Vol. 267, No. 5196, pp. 362-367.

Desiccation Tolerance in Prokaryotes
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Desiccation Tolerance in Prokaryotes

Prokaryotes or eukaryote is the organism that makes up the microbial world. Prokaryotes are deficient of internal unit membranes and are self-sufficient cells or organisms. The best-known prokaryotic organisms are the bacteria. The cell membrane in prokaryotes makes up the cell's primary osmotic barrier and consists of a phsopholipids unit membrane. The ribosome carries out translation and protein synthesis and is present in the cytoplasm. Normally, the nuclear regions consist of circular, double-stranded deoxyribonucleic acid.

Plasmids, the accessory self-replicating genetic structure is present in many prokaryotes with extra not necessary cell functions like encoding proteins to inactivate antibiotics. On the other hand, the eukaryotic cells have a nuclear membrane, well-defined chromosomes, mitochondria, a sector device, an endoplasmic reticulum and digestive system with many cell types. The prokaryotes are deficient of structural multiplicity and consist of millions of genetically distinct unicellular organism, which is well-known among eukaryotes…

References

Desiccation tolerance of prokaryotes" Retrieved at  http://www.cryonet.org 

Engineering desiccation tolerance in Escherichia coli" Billi, Daniela; Wright, Deborah J; helm, Richard F. Pricket, Todd; Potts, Malcolm; Crowe. John H. Retrieved at http://www.nencki. gov. pl

Major groups of prokaryotes" Retrieved at  http://www.bact.wisc.edu 

Mechanisms of plant desiccation tolerance" Hoekstra, Folkert A; Golovina, Elena; Buitink, Julia. Retrieved at  http://www.plantstress.com

Genetic Pathway of Breast Cancer
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, 2006). He visualized and described the malignancy process. He suggested that early that "cells of tumors with unlimited growth" would develop with the elimination of chromosomes, which inhibit the growth. The multiple genetic alterations in these inhibiting chromosomes are today known as TSGs. The theory supposes that cancer arises from functional defect or absence of one or more TSGs. Clinical trials of TSG gene replacement therapy for breast cancer include the viral wild-type p53, Rb, and mda7. Molecular chemotherapy involves the introduction of suicide genes. The concept evolved from the assumption that cancer cells could be made more sensitive to chemotherapeutics or toxins by introducing "suicide genes." It was a concept initiated in the late 80s. Suicide gene therapy is categorized into toxin gene therapy and enzyme-activating pro-drug therapy. Suicide gene therapy is also called gene-directed enzyme pro-drug therapy or GDEPT. GDEPT treatment consists of the delivery of the…

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Abaan, O. D and Criss, Wayne E (2002). Gene therapy in human breast cancer. 32

(2002): 283-291 Turkey Journal of Medical Science: Tubitak. Retrieved on April 15,

2010 from  http://journals.tubitak.gov.tr/medical/issues/sag-02-32-4-1-0204.pdf 

Lowery, A.J., et al. (2009). MicroRNA signatures predict oestrogen receptor,

Marfan Syndromme Is a Multisystem
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This became more so with the advancement of molecular iology Tests. Subsequently a group of clinicians met in Ghent elgium and came up with the current diagnostic criteria known as the Ghent Nosology. (De Paepe et al. 1996) Similar to the erlin Nosology the Ghent criteria was based on clinical findings in the various organ systems as well as the nature of family history and relationships, a major criteria was classified as which has a high diagnostic specificity because it was less frequent in other conditions and in the general population. A point of divergence from the erlin Nosology was the conversion of minor criteria in the skeletal system into major criteria. For one to be diagnosed with Marfan's the patient must have a first degree relative diagnosed with the disease in addition two systems must be involved with one having a major sign. In the absence of a family…

Bibliography

Beighton, P., de Paepe, a., Danks, D., Finidori, G., Gedde-Dahl, T., Goodman, R., Hall, J.G., Hollister, D.W., Horton, W., McKusick, V.A., Opitz, J.M., Pope, F.M., Pyeritz, R.E., Rimoin, D.L., Sillence, D., Spranger, J.W., Thompson, E., Tsipouras, P., Viljoen, D., Winship, I., Young, I (1988). International nosology of heritable disorders of connective tissue. Am. J. Med. Genet. 29: 581-594,

Borger F (1914): Uber zwei Falle von Arachnodaktylie. Zschr Kinderheilk 12: 161 -1-84.

Baer RW, Taussig HB, Oppenheimer EH (1943): Congenital aneurysmal dilatation of the aorta associated with arachnodactyly. Bull Johns Hopkins Hosp 72:309-33 1.

De Paepe, a., Devereux, R.B., Dietz, H.C., Hennekam, R.C.M., Pyeritz, R.E.( 1996) Revised diagnostic criteria for the Marfan syndrome. Am. J. Med. Genet. 62: 417-426

Drug Influence on Body and What the Body Does to the Drug
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Drug Action

Pharmacokinetics explains the process by which a drug is absorbed, distributed, metabolized, and eliminated from the body. These processes are dependent on the amount of the drug administered, the method of administration (which affects the rate of absorption, biotransformation, and even excretion), and how the drug binds in the tissues. In essence, a drug's ability to transverse the cellular membranes depends on its solubility and molecular size and shape. The passive diffusion of the drug across cellular membranes depends on its lipid solubility as well as concentration gradients outside and inside the cellular membrane and the pH differences across the membrane. Active transport of the drug occurs when the drug is actually moved by components of the membrane. This can allow a drug move against concentration and electrochemical gradients but it requires energy, can be selective, and can be inhibited by similar molecules. The absorption rate is influenced…

Efforts to Achieve Healthy Aging Ping-Chung Leung
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Efforts to Achieve Healthy Aging

Ping-Chung Leung

Institute of Chinese Medicine, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, HKSA.

Abstract: Longevity is a blessing as long as good health is not lost. However, the tendency to have a decline on normal physiological activities is inevitable because of the natural processes of degeneration at all levels: molecular, cellular and organic. Hence, the elderly people frequently suffer from cardiovascular problems and skeletal deteriorations that gradually develop to disabilities. Awareness of factors leading to unhealthy aging has led to the formation of different professional groups that aim at the maintenance of health of aging community. The approach tends to be target orientated for the European and US groups, aiming at hormonal replacements and detoxification. In contrast, the oriental groups have been keeping their traditional belief of prevention and internal balance, using nutritional arrangements and non-strenuous exercise as means of maintaining health.

Keywords: chinese medicine,…

References
Abreu, M.T., Fukata, M. and Arditi, M. 2005. T.L.R. Signalling in the gut
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Benno, Y., Shiragami, N., Uchida, K. et al. 1986. Effect of Moxalactum on Human Fecal Microflora. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother.,
29(1):175 - 8.
Buckwalter, J.A., Heckman, J.D. and Petrie, D.P. 2003. Aging of the North American Population: New challenges for orthopaedics. J. Bone Joint Surg. Am., 85-A(4):748 - 58.
Census and Statistics Department, The Government of Hong Kong Special
Administrative Region. 2007. Style Guide [online]. Accessed 23 June
2008. URL:  http://www.censtatd.gov.hk/hongkongstatistics/

Polymer Gels History of the
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Advancement of nanotechnology has gained significant attention in the self -- assembling characteristic of a variety of molecules, which is a vital requirement for the growing bottom -- up design of nanoscale structures. hen these molecules go through molecular self -- congregation, the consequential structural elements, for instance nanotubes or vesicles, can be further transformed to give specific charactistics to the components. Like nanotubes can be covered with metals or partially -- conducting substances to fabricate nanowires.

Smart polymeric gels are classified on various structural properties. Superporous hydrogels (SPHs) are utilized to augment the responsiveness of hydrogels. In this case, the augmented responsiveness to stimuli is accomplished by manufacturing interconnected absorbent networks. Superporous hydrogels (SPHs) correspond to a rapid -- swelling group of hydrogels with pore dimensions much bigger than the usual network of a normal hydrogel. These were firstly created as modern gastric retention devices to augment the duration…

Works Cited

Annaka, Masahiko and Tanaka, Toyoichi, Multiple phases of polymer gels, Nature, ISSN 0028-0836, 2005, pp. 430-432

Darmawan, Adi; Smart, Simon; Julbe, Anne; Diniz da Costa, Joao Carlos, Iron Oxide Silica Derived from Sol-Gel Synthesis, Materials, ISSN, Volume 4, Issue 2, 2011, pp. 448-456

Heitfeld, Kevin a, Smart membranes: Hydroxypropyl cellulose for flavor delivery, ISBN 9780549027560, 2007, 15.

Hu, Jinlian, Adaptive and Functional Polymers, Textiles and Their Applications, ISBN 1848164750, 2011, p. 416

Composition of Stars
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Stars are one of the important heavenly objects of our universe. The sun is our closest star and is responsible for the sustenance of all life on earth. Understanding the intricate chemical reactions that are happening in the star and identifying the composition of the stars has always been a fascinating study for astronomer's worldover. The sun our closest star has been the most studied object in the universe. Spectroscopy was one of the earliest available methods of studying heavenly bodies and has contributed immensely in the study and understanding of the composition of stars. Let us briefly analyze spectroscopy and touch upon the elemental analysis and chemical composition of stars.

Spectroscopy and Study of Stars

Every element in the universe emits its own light, which is characteristic of its chemical structure. Spectroscopy refers to the study of the spectral lines of the different atomic constituents. Spectrometer is an instrument,…

Bibliography

MARK S. GORDON, MICHAEL W. SCHMIDT, "RECENT ADVANCES IN QM AND QM/MM METHODS," Accessed on December 19th, 2003,  http://www.msg.ameslab.gov/Advances/gamess_paper.march16.html 

C.R Kitchin, "Optical Astronomical Spectroscopy," IOP publishing Ltd., 1995

I.S Glass, "Handbook of Infrared Astronomy," Cambridge University Press, 1999

Human Genetics Inheritable Neuropathies Are Among the
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Human Genetics

Inheritable neuropathies are among the globe's healthcare challenges today. Although their incidence is not as high, one in every 2500 people, as compared to other major healthcare problems, their symptoms, and consequences are equally fatal. Charcot Marie Tooth disease is among the inherited neuropathies, which has significantly shown potential and fatal consequences to people. Notably, the disorder does not have any known cure, but there are numerous therapies to control the disease. Although this is the current case, advancements in medicine, are gradually bearing fruits because experts have discovered a way to diagnose some types of these deadly disorders. Other types of neuropathy disorders include hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsy (HNNP), hereditary motor neuropathy (HMN), and hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy (HSAN or hereditary sensory neuropathy). In a second part of this paper is an experiment to detect HaeIII in given human DNA samples. Owing to…

Bibliography

Brown, W.M. (1980).Polymorphism in mitochondrial DNA of humans as revealed by restriction endonuclease analysis. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., 6, pp. 3605-3609.

Murphy, M.S. et al. (2012). CharcoteMarieeTooth disease: frequency of genetic subtypes and guidelines for genetic testing. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry, 83, pp. 706-710

Orita, M et al. (1989). Detection of polymorphisms of human DNA by gel electrophoresis as single-strand conformation polymorphisms. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., 86, pp. 2766-2770.

Saporta, S.D. A et al., (2011).Charcot Marie Tooth (CMT) Subtypes and Genetic Testing Strategies. Ann Neurol, 69(1), pp. 22 -- 33

Conventional Treatment
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Therapies Deprive Patients From Conventional Cancer Therapies

Future Ethical Prospective

Do public demand for, and clinicians' tendencies to prescribe novel targeted cancer therapies in a resource starved healthcare system deprive other patients of conventional treatment? If so, can it be justified?

Over the years, there have been several studies which have shown that a small but noteworthy fraction of cancer patients drop one or more conventional cancer treatments and use novel targeted cancer therapies instead. When it comes to recent public demands in healthcare, research into cancer control has addressed issues relevant to novel targeted cancer therapies in a resource starved healthcare system. Disparities have been addressed to a much greater degree than before, with studies of the conventional treatment of cancer especially in our variety of ethnic and socioeconomic settings. Conventional treatment have a greater social impact and the demand for such treatments of many (male and female) of…

References:

Borja-Cacho, D.J.E.H.S.A.K.B.D.J. & V.S.M., 2008. Molecular targeted therapies for pancreatic cancer.. The American Journal of Surgery, 196(3), p. 430.

Garvalov, B.K. & A.T., 2011. Cancer stem cells: A new framework for the design of tumor therapies.. Journal of Molecular Medicine, 89(2), pp. 95-107..

Kim, J.A., 2003. Targeted therapies for the treatment of cancer. The American Journal of Surgery, 186(3), pp. 264-8.

Kundu, S.K. & N.M., 2012. Targeted therapy in head and neck cancer.. Tumor Biology, 33(3), pp. 707-21.

Schizophrenia and Genetics These Three Genes Offer Some Clue
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Candidate Genes for Schizophrenia

Their Impact on Neuro-development

Search Improvement over Published Methodology

rief Introduction -- Schizophrenia is a mental disorder, which is characterized by delusions, lack of drive and interest, changed or unusual emotional reactions and generally disorganized behavior (Kirov et al. 2012). Some signs may begin from childhood but main features become apparent in the late teens and early adulthood. Outcomes and treatment are varied but relapses are frequent. Remissions are also often only partial along with significantly reduced social and occupation involvement. Persons with this disorder are among the most vulnerable, ostracized, and thus disadvantaged in society. A recent meta-analysis reported that about 15.2 out of every 100,000 persons are afflicted with it (Kirov et al.).

Genetic epidemiological studies theorize that varied susceptibility to schizophrenia appears to be strongly genetic (Kirov et al. 2012). These studies have identified many potentials links between genes and chromosomal abnormalities. Increasing…

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Brian, I. P. et al. 2005. 'Techniques for the identification of genes involved in psychiatric

disorders', Vol. 39, Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry

Hamshere, M. L. et al. 2012. 'Genome-wide significant association in schizophrenia to ITIH3/4,

CACNA1C and SDCCAG8 and extensive replication of associations reported by Schizophrenia PGC', Molecular Psychiatry, [Online] Available at  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22614287

Gene activity of fruit flies
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Melanogaster Stubble Gene

The author of this scientific report has been asked to offer a thorough review of the stubble gene if a D. melanogaster. Items that will be covered will be a brief overview of the stubble gene, an introduction to the gene, the basic biological process when it comes to the gene, the phenotypic characteristics of the gene, the mode of inheritance of the gene, at least two mutant forms of the gene, the possible chromosomal effects of the gene, the molecular characteristics of the gene and any conclusions that can be drawn from the above. hile some may not be interested in the stubble gene in question, some of its attributes and behaviors are quite fascinating and intriguing.

Analysis

Introduction of Gene

First off, the fly in question when it comes to all of this analysis can more easily be referred to as the fruit fly. This…

Works Cited

Anxolabachare, D. "Molecular Characteristics Of Diverse Populations Are Consistent With The

Hypothesis Of A Recent Invasion Of Drosophila Melanogaster By Mobile P. Ele...

Pubmed - NCBI." Ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. N.p., 2016. Web. 9 Oct. 2016.

Appel, L et al. "The Drosophila Stubble-Stubbloid Gene Encodes An Apparent Transmembrane

pathology analysis Pathogen Covid 19
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Section 1 – Typical Case
Research the characteristics of a typical case associated with the pathogen you have chosen to analyze.
Coronaviruses represent a family of single-stranded, enveloped, positive-strand, Nidovirales RNA viruses. The family encompasses human pathogens and pathogens of several animal species, such as the latest-isolated SARS-CoV (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus) (Weiss & Navas-Martin, 2005). COVID-19 or coronavirus disease 2019 surfaced for the first time towards the end of 2019 and, ever since, has affected over two-hundred nations. In a matter of a mere five months, over 4,890,000 individuals worldwide were diagnosed with the illness. Over 100,000 individuals tested positive for the disease within a single day (Yang, Li, Sun, Zhao, & Tang, 2019). 
The first patient to contract the disease was a Chinese man aged 31 years, hailing from Wuhan, hospitalized at the Parisian Bichat-Claude Bernard University Hospital while on holiday in Paris, France, with his wife.…

Bibliography
Asrani, P., Eapen, M., Chia, C., Haug, G., Weber, H., & Hassan, I. (2020). Diagnostic approaches in COVID-19: clinical updates. Taylor and Francis Online.
Clark, A., Jit, M., Warren-Gash, C., Guthrie, B., Wang, H., & Mercer, S. (2020). Global, regional, and national estimates of the population at increased risk of severe COVID-19 due to underlying health conditions in 2020: a modeling study. The Lancet, E1003-E1017.
ECDPC. (2020, August). Clinical characteristics of COVID-19. Retrieved from European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control:  https://www.ecdc.europa.eu/en/covid-19/latest-evidence/clinical 
Kumar, S., Nyodu, R., Maurya, V., & Saxena, S. (2020). Morphology, Genome Organization, Replication, and Pathogenesis of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). National Center for Biotechnology Information, 23-31.
Ouassou, H., Kharchoufa, L., Bouhrim, M., Daoudi, N., Imtara, H., Bencheikh, N., . . . Bnouham, M. (2020). The Pathogenesis of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19): Evaluation and Prevention. Journal of Immunology Research.
Rosenthal, M. (2020). Why Are Bats the Perfect Coronavirus Reservoir? Infectious Disease Special Edition.
Weiss, S., & Navas-Martin, S. (2005). Coronavirus Pathogenesis and the Emerging Pathogen Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus. Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews.
WHO. (2020). Coronavirus disease (COVID-19). World Health Organization.

Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells to
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3.3 Data Collection

Is maternal UE3A active following iPS treatment: Data will be gathered on the iPS-treated mice via positron emission tomography, and in vivo brain slice preparation, and Western lot Analysis. H1 will essentially be ascertained following these tests.

Does iPS treatment rescue the motor and cognitive deficits associated with Angelman Syndrome: Data will be gathered from testing the treated mice in scientifically recognized tests of cognitive ability in a mouse model. This project proposes using the water maze test, the electric shock test, and the submerged platform test. H2 will effectively be answered using the data gleaned from these tests.

4. Conclusion

4.1. Potential Therapeutic and Other Considerations

The potential of using iPS treatment to rescue/alleviate the severe motor and cognitive deficits witnessed in Angelman Syndrome is theoretically viable. Reliable mouse models of AS exist with which to run the tests. The technology needed to tease iPS stem…

Bibliography

Abuhatzira, L., Shemer, R., & Razin, A. (2009). MeCP2 involvement in the regulation of neuronal alpha-tubulin production. Human Molecular Genetics, 1415-1423.

Condic, M.L., & Rao, M. (2008). Regulatory Issues for Personalized Pluripotent Cells. Stem Cells, 2753-2758.

Dindot, S., Antalffy, B., Meenakshi, B., & Beaudet, A. (2008). The Angelman syndrome ubiquitin ligase localizes to the synapse and nucleus, and maternal deficiency results in abnormal dendritic spine morphology. Human Molecular Genetics, 111-118.

Dobkin, B. (2007). Behavioral, temporal, and spatial targets for cellular transplants as adjuncts to rehabilitation for stroke. Stroke, 832-839.

Lithium Transition Metal Oxides as
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The energy it stores (?180 Wh kg?1) at an average voltage of 3.8 V is only a factor of 5 higher than that stored by the much older lead -- acid batteries. This may seem poor in the light of Moore's law in electronics (according to which memory capacity doubles every 18 months), but it still took a revolution in materials science to achieve it. Billions of lithium-ion cells are produced for portable electronics, but this is not sustainable as cobalt must be obtained from natural resources (it makes up 20 parts per million of Earth's crust). (Armand & Tarascon, 2008, p. 653).

Fu investigated the lithium-ion conductivities of glasses and glass-ceramics in the LI2O-AlO3-TiO2P2O5 system. Fu's samples revealed high conductivity, albeit when Abrahams and Hadzifejzovic similarly investigated the LI2O-AlO3-TiO2P2O5 glass and glass-ceramic systems, their findings revealed "a maximum room temperature conductivity of 3.98 x 10-6 S/cm in their crystallized…

REFERENCES

Armand, M & Tarascon, J.M. (2008). Building better batteries. Nature. Volume 451. Retrieved

April 17, 2010 from  http://www.uio.no/studier/emner/matnat/kjemi/MENA5020/h08/undervisningsmaterial 

BATTERIES.pdf

Battery power. (2010). Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC). Retrieved April 17. 2010 from  http://www.rsc.org/Education/EiC/issues/2008Mar/BatteryPower.asp

Companion Diagnostics Translational Medicines
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Translational medicine is a new discipline, which covers studies on basic science, on human investigations, non-human investigations, and translational research (Mankoff et al. 2004). asic science studies address the biological effects of medicines on human beings. Studies on humans discover the biology of disease and serve as foundation for developing therapies. Non-human or non-clinical studies advance therapies for clinical use or use in human disease. And translational research refers to appropriate product development for clinical use. Translational research looks into the identity, purity and potency of a drug product during early clinical trial (Mankoff et al.). Translating the knowledge derived from basic sciences into clinical research and treatments is the task of translational medicine (Nagappa 2006). There is a groaning need for this type of research on account of voluminous information in the information age. Using this information is the challenge encountered by scientists and healthcare providers everywhere in the…

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Hersh, William. A Stimulus to Define Informatics and Health Information Technology.

Vol 9 BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making: BioMed Central Ltd., 2009.

Retrieved on November 24, 2010 from  http://www.biomedcentral.com/1472-6947/24 

Mankoff, Stacey P. et al. Lost in Translation: Obstacles to Translational Medicine Vol 2