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Monarch Family in Europe
Words: 578 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67940136
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European Monarchy is one of the highly held positions and culture indeed within Europe. The Monarchy is watched by many across the world and the happenings and events around the royal family is a great interest to the entire world if the attention that the events like the marriage of Prince William and Kate as well as the attention the Diamond Jubilee received across the globe.

Europe has used the Monarchy not only as a royalty family but as a symbol of preservation of ther unique culture that has been in existence for decades upon decades. It is one of the strong cultures that are constitutionally enshrined within Europe and has helped it transcend time. It has its guide lines like the religion that the lady that the Prince marries must be from the Church of England and not a Jew, Muslim or Catholic. This has however raised political questions…


Conradi P. (2012). Long Live the Queens and Kings.

ID 76435 Paper Type Pages
Words: 1406 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 6488408
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It seems surprising that while the events of the 17th Century can be
so clear, they leave much to interpretation. The events epicte in A
Monarchy Transforme are exceptionally clear, such as the Great Fire of
Lonon or the Gunpower Plot, an they help to lea into the narrative
which is what is really important, because it is necessary to know the
political story before history can be tol. The work begins with two
overview chapters which help to put the social an political context in
perspective before jumping into the narrative. It woul perhaps be helpful
for a more fitting overview, but that oes not etract from the effective
narrative in bringing the political etails of the British monarchy to
life. The Stuart ynasty is accurately, informatively, an with great
attention to reaability, mae clear as to their place in British history
an the political events in which they…


Kishlansky, M. (1996). A monarchy transformed : Britain 1603-1714. London:

Threshold of Terror The Last Hours of
Words: 1940 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 70092976
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Threshold of Terror: The Last Hours of the Monarchy in the French evolution odney Allen, an independent scholar who read history at Oxford, details the events that occurred during the crucial twenty-four hours between the 9th and 10th of August 1792, which led to the fall and execution of King Louis XVI of France. Using previously unpublished eyewitness accounts, illustrations, direct quotations, and paraphrases; the author describes the final hours of this crucial collapse and examines its importance in eroding the ideals that had emerged after the fall of the Bastille in 1789. Through the use of intimate sources and documents, such as the personal accounts of the Swiss Guards who had tried to save the ill-fated King Louis XVI and the stories of individuals who had survived the 'eign of Terror', the author gives the reader a greater level of insight into the events and emotions that existed during…


Allen, R. Threshold of Terror: The Last Hours of the Monarchy in the French Revolution. U.K.: Sutton Publishing, 1999.

Historiography of the Bible
Words: 2776 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 73727102
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Old Testament books, Deuteronomy, Samuel and Kings, establishing a monarchy for Israel and Judah proved somewhat problematic. This was due both to the divinity of God and the inevitable humanity that would be part of a human king. Throughout the historical books of the Old Testament God repeatedly states that he is a jealous God, tolerating no others. Kingship then might be seen as an attempt to usurp the power of God, or indeed to detract from worshiping God as the nation's ultimate leader. Furthermore a monarchy is a pagan idea that has penetrated Israel from the foreign nations they have been in contact with through battle. This of course connects further negativity with the idea of a king for God's people. The demand of a king is thus in effect the rejection of God as ruler over Israel and Judah. An issue closely related to this is the problem…


Howard, D.M. Jr. 1998 "The Case for Kingship in Deuteronomy and the Former Prophets," Dictionary of Biblical Imagery, Downers Grove: InterVarsity, 476-78.

Sumner, Darren. 1999. "The Bible Shelf." 

There are three discourses, stretching over Chapter 1:6-4:40, Chapters. 5-28, and Chapters 29-30). The concluding addendum comprises Chapters 31-34. This is the final words of Moses to his people before they enter Canaan. Traditionally the discourses are attributed to Moses, although some scholars believe that some portions of the book come from a later time.

The first discourse: Deuteronomy 1:6-4:40

American Revolution Criticisms Against and Praise for
Words: 1135 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 61949301
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American Revolution

Criticisms against and praise for colonialism in America: A comparative analysis of "Common Sense" by Thomas Paine and "Origin and Progress of the American Rebellion" by Peter Oliver

The declaration of King George III of the United Kingdom that America is in an active state of rebellion in August 23, 1775, marked the opportunity for Britain's 13 colonies in the country to be liberated from British colonialism. The path towards rebellion in America is an arduous process, where there had been a series of economic and political pressures that Britain had imposed in order to maintain control over the gradually rebelling members of the colonies.

What made the study of the history of the American Revolution interesting is that there are numerous literatures illustrating the political and economic climate between the Americans and British at the time where rebellious ideologies and propaganda are gradually increasing. There had been…

Western Studies Emphasizes on the Following Two
Words: 2590 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 92266819
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estern Studies emphasizes on the following two topics namely, Inspirational artists during the Renaissance and England before becoming a Constitutional Monarchy. The first topic takes into account the Renaissance era and the artists produced during it where as the second focuses on how the British monarchy was established and what were the perils that were faced in establishing it. This paper also highlights certain quotes.

estern Studies

Inspirational artists during the Renaissance.

The Europeans regard the Renaissance as an era that completely transformed their feudal society of the middle ages into a society dominated by political institutions, in which education was pursued and liberty was the right of all the citizens. This charismatic era gave birth to many philosophers, artists, scientists and thinkers who worked to present to their people a completely new perspective of life. Many artists concentrated upon human philosophy, which became the central movement during the Renaissance.…

Works Cited

Fort C. How To Think Like Leonardo Da Vinci; Liberating Creativity And Igniting

Innovation In The Workplace. PR Newswire. 8 Feb. 2001.

Joseph E. Reading Montaigne. Commentary. 1 Mar. 1993.

Leonardo Da Vinci. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 1 Jul. 2003.

Cicero Aristotle Constitution Both Aristotle
Words: 1247 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 67226736
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Another demonstrative part of the constitution has to do with representation, a checks and balances system when the republican body (the people/the state) has representation that is not overly out of balance with its populous. The senate, arguably a more powerful body has two senate seats for each state while population determines the house seats, with no state having less than one representative. "The number of Representatives shall not exceed one for every thirty thousand, but each State shall have at least one Representative." Article I Section I thus, creating a check to ensure a reduced possibility of a larger state attempting through political power channels to retain all or most power for itself.

Within each body of the three there are balances, where the other has some semblance of control over the other to but not so much that any one has supreme authority over the other. Of the…

M.D. Lloyd "Polybius and the Founding Fathers: the separation of powers" at

Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia 6th ed. 2003 "U.S. Constitution

US Constitution Text

Global Cultural Analysis Nigeria
Words: 5263 Length: 16 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 25995575
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Global Business Cultural Analysis


Nigerian History

Synopsis of Nigerian government

Nigerian monarchy to presidential system

The evolution of Nigeria from British control to a civilian democratic government

Nigerian major commodities



The major elements and dimensions of culture in Nigeria

Cultural dimensions


Power distance



Model of culture

Universalism or Particularize

How is the integration of elements and dimensions that Nigerians doing business in the country?

The effects of governments on the prospects for its business around the world

How the elements and dimensions compared with the United States, culture, and business?

The role of women in the workplace

Business visitors must be dressed in an elegant and tie (for men!)

Cross-cultural business transactions between the United States and Nigeria




Thurstan Shaw and Steve Daniels, who are the founder for archaeological research proved in their research that Nigeria has been developed since 9,000…


Afolayan, T.E. (2011). Coming To America: The Social and Economic Mobility of African Immigrants in the United States. Inquiry (University of New Hampshire), 6-11. Retrieved from EBSCO host. 

Alutu, O.E., & Udhawuve, M.L. (2009). Unethical Practices in Nigerian Engineering Industries: Complications for Project Management. Journal of Management in Engineering, 25(1), 40-43. Doi: 10.1061 / (ASCE) 0742-597X (2009)25:1(40)

Modernity the Discourse of Modernity
Words: 3436 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 63570272
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The already shaky relationship between the Qatar state and Iranian society was further undermined by the Western exploitation of Iranian resources during the second half of the nineteenth century.

From 1918 until 1921 "British subsidies kept the government afloat, and British military and administrative advisers attempted to reorganize Iran's army and to manipulate the various political factions within the country to British advantage" (Cleveland, 185)*. When Britain added insult to injury by offering Iran a loan in exchange for exclusive advisory privileges, anti-imperial demonstrations broke out in several cities. Widespread discontent grew further. The Qatar government was regarded as ineffective and pro-British. A determined military commander finally took action and put a stop to the chaos.

Reza Khan used the political climate to advance from the position of commander and chief of the army in 1921 to that of the shah of Iran in 1925. His election overthrew the Qatar…

Customer's Document to Make it
Words: 1419 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 8909766
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The elephant's death is also a symbol for the slow death of Burma. Before the arrival of the empire, Burma was free but now it struggles for its last dying breaths under British rule. The meaning of this is clear because the narrator doesn't even try to hide his feelings about the monarchy at all. The British crown is abusing and killing everyone it oppresses and it wounds their officers by making them take part in activities that make all of them go totally against their inner will.

The elephant is the most powerful symbol of all and he finally dies but with alot of agony nor is it guilty of anything but being what it is. Those under British rule are also behaving like they really are and being what they were born to be but the power of the empire is forcing them to bend and behave in…

Prophets Abraham Heschel Passionately Challenged
Words: 393 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 31672368
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According to the Psalms (Psalm 132:1-18) and Samuel (2 Sam. 7:2), God "swore an oath to David" that he and his descendants would remain on the throne, as long as they kept His statutes, forever. David embodied five characteristics of the monarchy: (1) He took the Ark of the Covenant brought by Moses, which had been carried around under a tent since Moses' time, and set it up in the temple (built by Solomon), as the symbol of God's choosing this people and this land as His own. (2) David became the "firstborn son of God" and God promised that he and his descendants would forever be on His throne. (3) He was a priest performing priestly duties as God's representative on earth. (4) He was mortal. He had sinned, yet God allowed him to live and remain king. (5) He had a special relationship, a covenant with God himself,…

Works Cited

Judaism." Encyclopedia Britannica. 2007. Encyclopedia Britannica Online. 11 Dec. 2007 .

Kimelman, Reuven "Abraham Joshua Heschel: Our Generation's Teacher." The Melton Journal, No. 15, Winter 1983.

1500 History of World Societies
Words: 870 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 40673914
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The British created a well-educated, English-speaking Indian elite middle class d. new jobs were created for millions of Indian hand-spinner and hand-weavers

The Indian National Congress can best be described in which of the following ways:


a. An Indian Civil Service that administered British rule.

b. A group of upper-caste professionals seeking independence from Britain.

c. white settlers who administered British rule.

d. anglicized Indians who were the social equals of white rulers.

Under the Culture System, Indonesian peasants had to Answer:

a. learn to speak and read Dutch b. plant one-fifth of their land in export crops to be turned over to the Dutch colonial government c. convert to the Dutch Reformed Church d. join large state-run farms.

Modern Vietnamese nationalism traced much of its inspiration to Answer:

a. Japanese modernization.

b. China's "Hundred Days" Reform program.

c. The U.S. Declaration of Independence.

d. British Fabian socialism.


Country Study Assessment on Iran Political Assessment
Words: 1160 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 81089390
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POLITICAL OVERVIEW: The former Persia became present day Iran on April 1st 1979 Before that Persia was a Monarchy and its last ruler was Shah Muhammad Reza Pahlavi He lost favor with the people and the religious clerics of the country The clerics chose to exile Pahlavi and establish a theocracy Theocracy refers to a government type where majority of decision making and political power is in the hands of a religious leader, in other words a country that adopts religious law as its legal system

Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini a Conservative cleric took over the reins of the nation

The government structure is complicated as its Parliament is a mixed bag of elected and unelected members At the top of the hierarchy is the 'Supreme Leader' military, judiciary and foreign policy fall under his command An interesting aspect of Iranian government is the amount of accountability attached to federal…

. Protests against the government continue and the government keeps arresting activists, rebels and revolutionaries, in an effort to stamp the desire for reform out of the masses

. Ahmadi-Nejad and his people are the Neoconservationists and his era is known as the third revolution in Iran. While Khatami and his followers were intellectuals, he and his people are religious and idealistic. It seems that he knows better than Khatami, how to please the public (Ehteshami, A & Zweiri, M, 2007).

NATIONAL GOALS: The country has become synonymous

Atlantic Revolutions and How the Structure of
Words: 1385 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88148161
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Atlantic Revolutions and How the Structure of the Atlantic World Created the Environment for These Revolutionary Movements to Form

The objective of this study is to examine the American, French, and Haitian Revolutions, known as the Atlantic Revolutions and to answer as to how the structure of the Atlantic World created the environment for these revolutionary movements to form. The North American Revolution took place between 1775 and 1878. The French Revolution took place between 1789 and 1815, and the Haitian Revolution between 1971 and 1804 and finally the Spanish American Revolutions between 1810 and 1825. These revolutions were found because of the issues of slavery, nations and nationalism, and the beginnings of feminism. In fact, the entire century from 1750 to 1850 was a century of revolutions. Political revolutions occurred in North America, France, Haiti, and Spanish South America. All of the revolutions were derived from ideas concerning Enlightenment.…


13h. The Age of Atlantic Revolutions (2012) U.S. History: Pre-Colombian to the New Millennium. Retrieved from: 

Klooster, W. (2009) Revolutions in the Atlantic World: A comparative history. Retrieved from:

Traditional Spanish Culture While the Cafe's of
Words: 1037 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65882008
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Traditional Spanish Culture

hile the cafe's of Paris may have captured the romantic imagination of estern visitors to the Old Continent, and London's blend of medieval and modern architecture attracts the historically minded, the ancient city of Madrid is home to countless cultural sites, museums, and monuments which are definitely worth exploring. The capital city of Spain and the historical seat of the Spanish monarchy, Madrid is a sprawling metropolitan center located on the banks of the Manzanares River that serves as the economic, political, and cultural heart of the country. Home to approximately 3.3 million residents in Madrid proper, and over 6.5 million within the greater metropolitan area including suburbs and surrounding communities, the city is considered to be the third-largest urban center in the European Union, behind London and Berlin (UN Data, 2013). From the 16th through 18th centuries, when the Spanish empire's naval dominance allowed the nation's…

Works Cited

Azcona, Jose M. "Puerta de Alcala." GoMadrid., 09 Sep 2012. Web. 23 Feb 2013. .

Gobierno de Espana. Ministry of Education, Culture and Sport. National Archaeological Museum. Madrid, Spain. 2013. Web. .

Riding, Alan. "The Prado Embarks On Plans to Expand Into a Complex." New York Times 01 May 1995. Print. .

United Nations. UN Data. Spain: Summary and Statistics. New York, NY: UN Data, 2013. Web. .

Role of Privately Owned Media in a Democracy
Words: 1959 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 16137384
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The media has been referred to as the fourth estate, a bedrock element of democratic society. The term has its origins referencing the critical role that media plays in society. The first three estates are taken to be the clergy, the nobility and the commoners. This concept derives from England, in particular attributed to something that Thomas Carlyle wrote in 1841 about there being three estates in parliament, but the reporters in the gallery were the fourth estate." Carlyle had written that they were the most important of all (Crichton et al, 2010).

When applied to a country's media, the terms "free" and "independent" reference privately-owned media that operate without undue interference from the government. The media is considered to be a bedrock of democracy because they are responsible for the flow of information to the populace. More specifically, this refers to organized media companies, prior to the digital…

Politics of Monarchical Survival in
Words: 4007 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 17215272
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The survival of Jordanian monarchy is determined by its capability to capture power and regulate over the political process, its efficacy in stabilising the negative forces of trans-national ideologies on the domestic arena between the early 1950s and the early 1970s coupled with the coming out of a feeling of loyalty to the state and nationhood etc. (Salloukh, 1996)

King Hussein is magnanimous than the Jordan itself. The great talent of Hussein was his diplomacy in dealing with the people that are antagonistic to one another mercilessly and fundamentally that he approved wholly with them. Normally, the people were never aware of the impossibility of the agreement due to his effectiveness in dealing. The diplomacy is not normally related to integrity but in case of Hussein it was not true. (Foster, 1999) the efforts of King Hussein in prevailing peace in the region were internationally acclaimed. (Aquino, 2002) the stability…


Allman, T.D. (1974) in Defense of Monarchy from J.J. Ray (Ed.) "Conservatism as Heresy." Sydney: A.N.Z. Book Co.

Aquino, Nucha. (2002) "The World's Monarchy" Retrieved at Accessed on 21 November, 2004

Burns, John. F. (June 28, 1999) Heir to Morocco's Throne Is Playing a Larger Role. The New York Times Company. Retrieved at Accessed on 21 November, 2004

Clarke, L. (9 April, 1999) "Abdullah's Jordan: Assessing the First Two Months" the Estimate. Volume: 11; No: 8; pp: 27-35

Revolutionary French Peasants Thinking
Words: 2251 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 73111961
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French Revolution

The final crisis of the French Monarchy occurred in 1789, with the official beginning of the French Revolution. Although this was the year in which the first official battle of this martial encounter was fought, it is vital to realize that the monarchy had been floundering for some time prior. There were numerous factors that contributed to the disfavor the monarchy found itself in at the end of the 18th century. Some of the more eminent of these political, financial, and environmental causes helped to weaken the French Monarchy's hold over its subjects, as judged by the standards of the present 1. Concurrently, there were military woes that accompanied these factors and which contributed to the mounting unpopularity of this government. However, an analysis of these factors reveals that the most prominent cause of the French Revolution pertained to the zeitgeist of the time in with Enlightenment ideals…


Acemoglu, Daaron, Cantoni, Davide, Johnson, Simon, Robinson, James. "The Consequences of Radical Reform: The French Revolution." NBER Working Paper Series. Retrieved 4/3/2016. 

Davies, Norman. The History of Europe. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1996.

Doyle, William. The Oxford History of the French Revolution. Oxford: Oxford University Press,1990.

Langer, William. The Encyclopedia of World History. New York: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1972.

French Colonialism in Western Africa
Words: 4744 Length: 17 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 88899622
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By the second night, a group of men had mutinied and attempted to kill the officers and destroy the raft, and by the third day, "those whom death had spared in the disastrous night […] fell upon the dead bodies with which the raft was covered, and cut off pieces, which some instantly devoured" (Savigny & Correard 192). Ultimately, the survivors were reduced to throwing the wounded overboard, and only after they had been reduced to fifteen men, "almost naked; their bodies and faces disfigured by the scorching beams of the sun," were they finally rescued by the Argus, which had set sail six days earlier to search for the raft and the wreck of the Medusa (Savigny & Correard 203).

Theodore Gericault's the Raft of the Medusa captures the moment on the 17th of July when the Argus first became visible to the survivors, and his choice to reflect…

Works Cited

Alhadeff, Albert. The raft of the Medusa: Gericault, art, and race. New York: Prestel, 2002.

Athanassoglou-Kallmyer, Nina. "LEtat Et Les Artistes: De La Restauration a La Monarchie De

Juillet (1815-1833) / Salons." The Art Bulletin 85.4 (2003): 811-3.

Blair, J.A. "The Possibility and Actuality of Visual Arguments." Argumentation and Advocacy

The Ripple Effects of American
Words: 4742 Length: 14 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 5699076
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In this encouragement, American would help to touch off something
perhaps all the more miraculous given the proximity to its oppression to
the European peasantry at large. First in the doctrines which would be
formulated in the wake of French independence and secondly in the way that
Napoleon Bonaparte would begin the spread of such doctrines to a continent
driven by inequality, America's revolution could be said to have been the
opening round in the deconstruction of colonialism and feudalism throughout
Europe and thus, the world.
Drafted in the image of the American Declaration of Independence,
though perhaps more ambitious and sweeping even in its trajectories, the
Declaration of the Rights of Men would dictate a universal principle
arguing that all men are born equal and that any distinctions made between
men according to the social conditions must be terms agreed upon by all
parties. The constitutional document underscoring the…

Works Cited
Center for History and New Media (CHNM). (2005). Monarchy Embattled.
George Mason University. Online at

Chew, Robin. (2004). Napoleon I: Emperor of the French. Lucid Caf?.
Online at

Locke, John. (2003). Two Treatise of Government, 14th. ed. Cambridge

Role That Patronage Royal Ecclesiastical
Words: 2085 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 21756842
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On the other hand, he is also referring to the rigorous formation of a cantata. He saw through the rigorous formation of the cantata an instrument to bring a certain order into individual existence as well, with the Lutheran religion as the middle element (Schrade, 1946).

In reference to the previous subchapter on Lully, we should point out towards the fact that, while for Lully, royal patronage was essential for the characteristics of his creation and, in fact, the direct source of inspiration and ultimate goal, ach used the civic appointment to rise above the actual demands and only use the pretext of needing to compose cantatas for a perspective to go beyond and ensure that his musical vision was reached. In Lully's case, patronage determined musical vision, for we cannot see Lully's music otherwise than in the role of a grandiose propaganda instrument for the French absolute monarchy. In…


1. Schrade, Leo. 1946. Bach: The Conflict between the Sacred and the Secular. Journal of the History of Ideas. University of Pennsylvania Press

2. Isherwood, Robert. 1973. Music in the Service of the King. Ithaca and London: Cornell U.P.

3. Isherwood, Robert. 1969. The Centralization of Music in the Reign of Louis XIV. French Historical Studies. Society for French Historical Studies

4. Bach's Cantatas: a Brief Orientation. On the Internet at .Last retrieved on September 30, 2007

Reasoning Behind the Birth of the First French Republic
Words: 1906 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81587245
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irth of the First French Republic

The first French Republic was established in 1792 in the aftermath of the 1789 Revolution and abolishment of the monarchy. The National Convention held a meeting in September 1792 that culminated with a vote to put an end to the monarchy and establish the first French Republic. The 1789 Revolution that acted as a catalyst for the abolishment of the monarchy and eventual establishment of the first French Republic gave the people the unprecedented opportunity to confront King Louis XIV who had dominated their lives. As the National Convention voted for the establishment of the first French Republic through abolishing the monarchy, it also tried Louis XVI for treason. The king was found guilty of treason and executed at the beginning of 1793. Given its role in the establishment of the first French Republic, the 1789 Revolution was a complex event with significant impacts…


McPhee, Peter. Living the French Revolution, 1789-99. New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan,


Neely, Sylvia. A Concise History of the French Revolution. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield

Publishers, Inc., 2008.

Republic Can Be Defined as
Words: 780 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80248634
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Today's world does not have many examples of absolutist monarchies left in the world (Bhutan and Nepal were good example, but recent political changes in these countries no longer qualify them for inclusion), but historically France is probably the best example to fit as an absolutist monarchy.

Representative democracy is a political system in which the people elect individuals to represent their interests in the decision making process at a state level. In a pure democracy, usually going back to ancient Athens, was a form of consultative democracy in which every member of the society participated in the political meetings and decision making process. With the growth of population that sort of democracy was obviously no longer functional, turning it into a representative democracy.

In the United States, the electing constituencies and districts are formed by a small number of individuals who reside in a certain area and have specific…

American Revolution Contribute to the
Words: 6922 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 51309202
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Whether it was the Spanish that fought to conquer lands in the south, or the Dutch that engaged in stiff competition with the British, or the French that were ultimately defeated in 1763, the American soil was one clearly marked by violent clashes between foreign powers. This is why it was considered that the cry for independence from the British was also a cry for a peaceful and secure future for the next generations. Thomas Paine argued that the time had indeed come for the colonies to be excluded from the continuous clashes that had defined their past. Thus, because of the British's traditional inclination towards war, such an objective was hard to reach under the Empire's constant control. Consequently, the time had come for the colonies to break apart and search their peace as an independent state.

Looking at the historical development of the events, it is easy to…


Aptheker, Herbert. 1960. The American Revolution, 1763-1783: a history of the American people. New York: International Publishers.

Berstein, Serge, and Milza. 1994. Pierre. Histoire de l'Europe. Paris: Hatier.

Braunstein, Florence, and Pepin, Jean Francois. 1998. Les Grandes Doctrines. Paris: Ellipses.

Carlyle, Thomas. 2004. The French revolution, New York: Kessinger Publishing, LLC. Vol. 2

House of Tudor England's House
Words: 3757 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 92375052
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The setting up the king's supremacy instead of the usurpations of the papacy, and the rooting out the monastic state in England, considering the wealth, the numbers, and the zeal of the monks and friars in all the parts of the kingdom, as it was a very bold undertaking, so it was executed with great method, and performed in so short a time, and with so few of the convulsions that might have been expected, that all this shews what a master he was, that could bring such a design to be finished in so few years, with so little trouble or danger (Slavin, 19)."

Cromwell's position was no less tenuous than that of his predecessor, olsey. Henry did not become a tyrant without warning. Ridley reports that even as a young man, before he succeeded his father as king, Henry was prone to outbursts of anger and bad temper…

Works Cited

Haigh, Christopher. English Reformations: Religion, Politics and Society Under the Tudors. Oxford University Press, Inc., 1993.


Lindsey, Karen. Divorced, Beheaded, Survived a Feminist Reignterpretation of the Wives of Henry VIII. Reading, MA: Perseus Books, 1995. Questia. 26 Nov. 2008 .


Luther Bossuet Hobbes Martin Luther's Radical Religion
Words: 964 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32686614
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Luther / Bossuet/Hobbes

Martin Luther's adical eligion Vision

When Martin Luther nailed his infamous 95 Theses to the door of the cathedral in Wittenberg, Germany in 1517, he could hardly have foreseen that the consequences of his declarations would shake the Western world for centuries. While Luther was certainly not working in a vacuum and absorbed many of his attitudes towards the Catholic Church from the growing mistrust of the papacy in Germany at the time, his elegant theological arguments against the power of the pope and the rituals of Catholicism provided a strong religious alternative to the oman Catholic faith.

The instigation for the 95 Theses and one of the issues at the heart of Luther's argument against the Church was the practice of the selling of indulgences. Indulgences were essentially letters of forgiveness from the Church that could be bought in lieu of the traditional good works that…


Carsten, Francis. The New Cambridge Modern History: The Ascendency of France: 1648-88. London: Cambridge University Press, 1961. Print.

Hobbes, Thomas. Leviathan. Forgotten, 2008. Web.

History of the Habsburg Empire 1273-1700 the Historical
Words: 916 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 59441436
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History of the Habsburg Empire,1273-1700

The historical work of Jean Berenger titled, "A History of the Habsburg Empire, 1273-1700," is beneficial in understanding the Habsburg Dynasty of this time period. hile there has been many works that have also been helpful when completing studies on this topic, Berenger's work is a successful addition to previously published research.

Berenger is a respected professor of history. His writings display a vast knowledge of the most recent as well as the older literature on Habsburg history. His knowledge is not limited to just the French and Austrain works, but he is also in command of the most recent English fellow. In this work, Berenger undertook an enormous task of explicitly explaining the colorful tapestry that is woven of the individual nations of the monarchy. He didn't take any stand for only one side, but equally gives information concerning all involved.

Berenger explains the…

Works Cited

Berenger, Jean. (1997). A History of the Habsburg Empire, 1700-1918. London: Longman.

Early 19th Century Russia and Imperialism
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Raeff, M. The Constitutionalism of Emperor Alexander I.

Raeff traces shifts in social and political culture in Russia at the start of the 19th century. Russian nationalism and federalism were beginning to become salient issues, leading to different expectations from Russian leaders. The people of the nation had a difficult relationship with the elite and the monarchy, exemplified in the "unabashed joy and happiness" that resulted from the death of Paul I (p. 1). New emperor Alexander faced a changing Russia that was becoming more aware of its role on the international arena and also more aware of its internal strife and diversity. Prior emperors like Paul had ruled with an iron fist and inspired mainly fear in the people. Alexander aimed to change public perception to garner support for federalist policies. Those policies included mending relationships with neighbors like Finland and Poland but it also included a more radical…

3. Von Haxthausen on the peasant commune (1844)

One of von Haxthausen's most poignant observations and descriptions on his journey through Russia was on the peasant commune and its ubiquitous presence in the countryside. His travels were through disparate regions and he witnessed many different cultures and societies, all of which shared in common the lifestyle the author describes in this chapter of his memoir. Describing the peasant communes in an admiring light, von Haxthausen notes that this might have been what Europe had looked like just a few generations ago. Von Haxthausan romanticizes the peasant commune, which gives rise to the idealistic notion that peasant-led movements can and should characterize future revolutions in Russian political culture. Although he admires the organization evident in the society and its hierarchical stratification, von Haxthausen also critiques the aristocracy for being completely out of touch with the people they govern.

The peasant commune presents an alternative social model to the exploitation of serfs, which had been the mainstay of European societies throughout history. Economic and political reforms that would take place a few generations after von Haxthausen penned his work are based on similar principles that workers should take pride in their daily work and not become too distanced from the means of production, honoring traditional labor models like farming. Moreover, von Haxthausen echoed prevailing sentiments related to the social and political empowerment of peasant people by offering rich descriptions of what he saw through his travels and by tying in analogies to what he knows of European history. Von Haxthausen also waxes poetic about the patriarchal family structure and gendered role differentiation throughout the communal societies.

British Electoral System Reform Over
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The Constitution is based on several key principals the most notable would include: separation of powers as well as checks and balances. Separation of powers is when there are clearly defined powers that are given to the various branches of: the government, the federal government and the states. Checks and balances is when one branch of the government will have the power to the check the authority of another branch. (Wood) for example, the Constitution would specifically spell out various powers of the executive branch. During the course of exercising these different powers, a citizen brings a lawsuit against the government in the judicial branch. Where, they claim that the actions that the executive branch is taking are unconstitutional. In this particular case, the executive branch would work off of the powers given to them in the Constitution. When they begin to overstep these boundaries, another branch of the government…


"British Political Parties." Politics Resources. 2010. Web. 29 Apr. 2010.

"Fuel Efficiency Standards Hiked for 2011." MSNBC. 27 Mar. 2009. Web. 28 Apr. 2010.

"Key British Political Parties Pursuing Lilly Allen." One Indie. 2010. Web. 29 Apr. 2010.

"Markets in New Territory in Three Party Britain." Thompson Reuters. 26 Arp. 2010. Web. 29 Apr. 2010.

America Without the Constitution Without
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Articles of Confederation: The Articles of Confederation were approved in November, 1777 and were the basic format for what would become the Constitution and Bill of ights for the United States. There were, of course, deficiencies in the document, this was a new experiment and getting the delegates to agree in kind to pass any sort of document was challenging at best. The Articles did allow a semblance of unity, the further impetus to remain at war with the British, and the conclusion that there would be some sort of Federal government. The Articles, however, failed to require individual States to help fund the Federal (National) government, a template for an Executive and National Judicial Branch, or the issuance of paper money and a central banking system. In essence, the largest failure was the Articles' inability to allow a Federal government to regulate commerce, tax, or impose laws upon the…


Amar, a. (2005). America's Constitution: A Biography. New York: Random House.

Bailyn, B., ed. (1993). The Debate on the Constitution. Library of America Press.

Beeman, R. (2009). Plain, Honest Men: The Making of the American Constitution.

Random House.

James Otis and Writs of
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In addition, a brief look at his family history is required, because the political fortunes of James Otis' father directly influenced the trajectory of his own career.

James Otis was part of the fifth generation in a family that first arrived in the colonies looking for economic opportunity, and James Otis' grandfather, John Otis III, was the first in the family who went beyond business into politics (aters 1968 & Halko 1969, p. 609-10). In 1760 James Otis was appointed advocate general of the Admiralty Court, which was the court responsible for dealing with smuggled goods seized in the colonies (Hickman 1932, p. 89.) hen the protest launched by the Society for Promoting Trade and Commerce within the Province made its way to court, James Otis would have been responsible for defending the legality of writs of assistance, but instead he resigned his post and took up the cause of…

Works Cited

Adair, E.R. "Writs of Assistance, 1558-1700." English Historical Review. 36.143 (1921): 356-

372. Print.

Borchers, Tim. "A Rhetorical Analysis of James Otis's Against Writs of Assistance." Minnesota

State. Minnesota State, 12 Jan 2001. Web. 20 Mar 2011.

Reign of Terrors the Transition
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The fear that grew in France with the beginning of the war and the anxiety surrounding the development of the situation was probably one of the main causes that led people to embrace a more open radical leftist position. Many of the conservatives and those who supported the monarchy began to be seen as enemies of France and politicians who would compromise with the monarchic forces at any time. The revolution did not seem to have moved so much from the way things were in 1789 and had not brought the expected changes.

This type of environment made easy for the Jacobins, radical leftist, coagulated around Robespierre and Marat, to mobilize the population into overthrowing the monarchy and, later on, consolidating a terror reign that lasted up to 1794. The first step of the radicalization process is the assault on Tuileries, in August1792 and continued with the abolition of the…


1. Popkin, Jeremy. A History of Modern France. 3rd Edition.

1500 to 1800 Was Perhaps
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Two examples of this "Enlightened Despotism" were Catherine the Great of Russia and Frederick the Great of Prussia. They based their monarchial powers, not on the Divine Right of Kings, but upon the need for a strong authoritative government to promote greater welfare within the state. These rulers created greater national standards and regulations that helped the state create a strong political infrastructure that veered away from traditional custom-based doctrine. As a result, Enlightened Absolutism became the norm within European government as monarchs began to systematically create a method to entrench national level reforms that would provoke greater political, economic and social stability.

Ultimately all four of these events are strongly interrelated because they were changes in the mindset of individuals. At the core level however, they were all reactions and extensions of the Reformation movement, which promoted greater individual liberty and free thinking. Absolutism and its evolution led to…

European Studies When Most People
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The problem was: that the distances were much further and many of the different explorers (such as: Columbus) began to seek out other routes to these areas. This led directly to: the colonial ambitions of many European nations and their desire to explore the new world to achieve these objectives. (Willner, 2008, pp. 255 -- 294)

The Role that the Individual will Play in Society

A third development of the Middle Ages, was that the individual is playing a vital role in: matters of government and society. This developed out of frustration that many people were feeling about the different monarchies. As, everyone was expected to follow: the various traditions and the laws that were imposed upon them by the nobility. This became problematic over the years, as this would turn into a sense of anger. At which point, many of these different monarchies faced direct challenges to their power.…


Middle Ages. (2011). Free Dictionary. Retrieved from: 

Holt, J. (1992). Magna Carta. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Willner, M. (2008). Global History. Hauppauge, NY: Barons.

William Doyle and 'Origins of
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They distributed publications that denounced the entire monarchy for their imposition of new taxes and for forcing their religious views into the government.

Doyle brings up that reform was attempted financially before the Revolution began in 1789, whose failed attempts might have been what pushed normally non-violent citizens to have to take matters into their own hands.

Restrictions on grain sales were lifted in the hopes that the sales and eventually government revenue would increase.

Between 1777 and 1781, the treasury system was reformed in the hopes of restoring some faith in the system, but most of the reforms were reversed due to pressure from different financial groups. The government was forced to keep borrowing money at high interest rates despite these "reforms" through the 1780's. In 1786, the new minister of finance proposed a similar plan to the first, asking for floating loans to cover expenses, to revoke some…

American Revolution Many People Understand
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Regardless of how limited this particular scope lie within colonial society, it set a new precedent for a new form of virtue.

The debate over which type of virtue prevailed within the Continental Congress for four years; it seemed as if the classical virtue was diminishing. The notion of classical virtue involved adherence to social norms that were streamlined with an aristocratic government and monarchy. Even Richard Henry

Lee conceded that liberal virtues "Provided America as free and happy, I am not solicitous about the agents that accomplish it.'[83] the agents Lee refers to were the opportunistic characters to used market conditions to their advantage. Lee formed a partnership with Robert Morris when it came to sealing a tobacco deal for the French, by Virginia planters. They were part of the increasing number of people who had the ability to couple self-interest with republican virtue.

While the shift of liberal…

American History the Radicalism of
Words: 1813 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 65030947
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" Indeed, in the "marriage bed of the beautiful Bertrande things now went well," presumably in sexual cohesion, but also, in reproduction as two daughters were born to them." key part of the Davis story was the trial, in which Arnaud was accused of being the imposter that indeed he was. This is in effect a sidebar to the story, and a sidebar to the issue of "different historians...using different types of evidence..." talk about the same things. On page 67, some 150 people had come to testify, but "forty-five people or more said that the prisoner was Arnaud...[and] about thirty to forty people said that the defendant was surely Martin Guerre." So, people who had seen history (the real Martin) had different views of whether this man on trial was him or not. Time casts shadows on the truth, just as it does on how the history of the…


Davis, Natalie Zemon. (1983). The Return of Martin Guerre. Cambridge: Harvard

Finlay, Robert. (1988). The Refashioning of Martin Guerre. The American Historical

Review, 93, 553-603.

Wood, Gordon S. (1991). The Radicalization of the American Revolution. New York:

Government That Have Been Employed to Create
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government that have been employed to create orderly societies within both historical and contemporary epochs. One of the foremost governmental structures that has consistently been used is that of a monarchy. In a monarchy, there is a single person who presides over the political and governmental affairs of a group of people. That person is either a man or a woman, and generally has the final say regarding the setting of public policy. However, monarchs are frequently attended by a group of advisors and counselors who assist in informing them and, on occasion, even making influential decisions relating to the welfare of a particular society. Still, such counselors typically serve their monarch in an advisory capacity, and although they are occasionally permitted to institute actions that directly affect a population group, they do so only at the behest of the monarch, who can choose to veto whatever mandates such counselors…

Works Cited

Cincotta, Howard. "Defining Democracy." 2011. Web. 

Henslin, James. Sociology: A Down To Earth Approach. Columbus: Prentice Hall. 2011. Print.

Tudor Dynasty Was Arguably One
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Due to a shortage in labor supply, the demand for the working class increased exponentially. As such, the peasants were no longer at the bottom of the hierarchy in terms of the social and the economic class -- they were suddenly a highly desirable commodity that began charging fees to provide ti. The following quotation corroborates this fact.

Labour had become scarce and expensive and labourers well-off. Thos who survived the plague suddenly found they could pick and choose their masters, name their price for services, build up their landholdings and begin to employ their neighbors (Jones).

Since feudalism (a precursor to capitalism) was the system upon which England's economics and society was based, the government had to change its focus so that it could attempt to restore the exploitive practices in which laborers were readily cheated out of their labor. The English government became much more active in the…

Works Cited

Jones, Dan. "The Peasant's Revolt." History Today. 59 (6): 33-39. 2009. Web. Retrieved from 

Sage, Henry. "The Protestant Reformation Germany and England." 2010. Web.

Spadafora, David. "Black Death." Encyclopedia Britannica. 2008. Web. 

Walker, Greg. "Henry VIII and the Invention of the Royal Court: Challenges the View that Intrigue and Court 'New Men' Took Root Under the Tudor Monarch." History Today. 47: 13-20. 1997. Print.

Henry of Huntingdon Kings Are Weak
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Henry of Huntingdon

Kings are weak: this is the impression one gets from reading the twelfth century English historian Henry of Huntingdon, particularly in his astonishing summary of the troubled reign of King Stephen -- for which, Diana Greenway tells us, Henry's is "the only complete contemporary account"[footnoteRef:0]. Stephen's reign was a time of low-level civil war -- which would last for over a decade -- and ultimately would raise serious questions about the legitimacy of the English monarchy. The portion of his chronicle that presents Stephen's reign, Henry makes it clear that Stephen's own accession to the throne, the ongoing issue of his legitimacy while he ruled, and the bizarre circumstances which lead to Stephen's being forced to acknowledge his female cousin's son, Henry of Anjou, as his heir. But to Henry of Huntingdon, Stephen stands an emblem of the overall weakness of kings in this time period, and…

Affect of the Enlightenment on the French Revolution
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Enlightenment on the French evolution

evolutionary changes in the leadership of 18th Century France did not occur overnight or with some sudden spark of defiance by citizens. The events and ideals which led to the French evolution were part of a gradual yet dramatic trend toward individualism, freedom, liberty, self-determination and self-reliance which had been evolving over years in Europe, and which would be called The Enlightenment. This paper examines and analyses the dynamics of The Enlightenment - and also, those individuals who contributed to the growth of The Enlightenment and to the ultimate demise of the Monarchy - in terms of what affect it had on the French evolution.

Introduction to the French evolution

When the legitimate question is raised as to what role, if any, The Enlightenment played in the French evolution, the best evidence from credible historic sources is that The Enlightenment did indeed play an important…


Brians, Paul. "The Enlightenment." Department of English, Washington State University (May 2000).

Chartier, Roger. The Cultural Origins of the French Revolution. Durham: Duke

University Press, 1991.

Fieser, James. "Jean Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778)." The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Available at

Synthesis of Thomas Paine's Common Sense
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Homelessness in the United States

Common Sense by Thomas Paine

The political situation in the colonies of America were more than ready to receive the pamphlet entitled Common Sense by Thomas Paine. Paine's writing provided a nation confused about their future and issues surrounding it, with a needed spur towards action and clarity of thought. The ambivalence of the time from the end of 1775 results from equally strong but opposing forces in the collective consciousness of the American mind during this time.

On the one hand, there was the urge towards autonomy and independence, while on the other a fundamental dependence on the ritish still reigned. Exacerbating the confusion within people's minds was the political upheaval manifest in the war breaking out in Massachusetts during April, as well as the Second Continental Congress. Further battles against the ritish were fought in New England and the South (Foner 79).



Foner, Eric. Tom Paine and Revolutionary America. New York: Oxford University Press, 1976.

Paine, Thomas. Common Sense. Penguin, 1983

Conflict Between Protestants and Catholics
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onsidering that the old order in Ireland was in place since two millennia and had always been under the control of the Gaelic chieftains, their removal from the leadership of the provinces of Ireland by the English rown was destined to arise the resistance of the majority who sought support in the atholic world and especially hoped in the papal authority. urtis points out that the resistance against the protestant faith that built up after Elisabeth took over Munster and Ulster was coming not only from inside the respective Irish provinces, but also from the dissidents in Italy, Portugal, Spain and the Low countries. On one hand they were gathering in the spirit of preserving the old faith, on the other, the Irish and the Anglo-Irish who opposed the Reformation were changing their ways supported by the Jesuits who helping the process of transforming the faithful into fanatics. On the…

Cronin, Mike. A History of Ireland. Basingstoke, England: Palgrave, 2001.

Curtis, Edmund. A History of Ireland: From Earliest Times to 1922. London:

Routledge, 2002.

British History Simon De Montford
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Certainly, the reign of Elizabeth I "was indeed the Golden Age of England," due to her personality, love for her country and the adoration of millions of Englishmen and women, not to mention several foreign kings and rulers who during her lifetime were bitter enemies, but following her death became ardent admirers ("Death of Queen Elizabeth I," Internet).

In 1588, some fifteen years before her death, Elizabeth I gave a speech to her faithful and loyal troops at Tilbury camp, where she arrived "in a great gilded coach and was escorted by 2000 ecstatic troops." James Aske, an eyewitness to this event, describes Elizabeth as "king-like and a sacred general" just before she began to address those in presence with "one of the greatest orations of British history, all the more extraordinary for being delivered at a moment of such trepidation." This speech truly reflects the atmosphere of Elizabeth's reign…

Works Cited

Death of Queen Elizabeth I." Elizabethan Era. Internet. 2007. Retrieved at .

MacCaffrey, Wallace T. Elizabeth I: War and Politics, 1588-1603. New York: Princeton

University Press, 1994.

Schama, Simon. A History of Britain at the Edge of the World, 3500 B.C.-1603 a.D. New York: Hyperion Press, 2000.

Norway and the European Union
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However, since its independence in 1905, Norway has worked towards building a strong economic base for its economy, although farmers and farming, too, continue to be strong identities in the nationalistic perception of Norwegians, its fishing industry, oil production and other natural resources. Norway's fishing industry is strong, although the country has some concerns about pollution and environmental issues, they're not strong or serious enough to adversely impact Norway's fishing economy.

First Attempts to Join the EC

At its inception, in 1948, the European Union was known as has the European Community, the EC; that a fully integrated Norway would mean economic enlargement for the EU. It offered attractive benefits to the European nations, and initially those benefits were comprised of a unified security system and economic incentives. One of the most appealing benefits for Norway, certainly appealing to Norway's farmers, is a subsidized farm plan that would generate income…


Burch, Stuart. "Norway and 1905: Stuart Burch Considers the Significance to Norway-Both in Terms of the Past and the Present-of the Anniversary of 1905, When the Country at Last Won Its Independence from Sweden." History Today, June 2005, 2+.

Institutions Are Defined as the Existence of
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Institutions are defined as the existence of formal rules, on the one hand, and informal conventions and norms (such as impolitic societal rules that constrain behavior and impose forms of conduct) on the other. A system of enforcement structures are set in place to ensure that society abides to both and the strength of that enforcement system generally determines the extent to which individuals of a particular society will abide by its rules and conventions.

Enforcement may be carried out by various means depending on the specific set of situations. It may be carried out by self-enforcement (such as when one imposes upon oneself dietary restrictions of eating in order to lose weight). Enforcement may also be carried out by a second party as retaliation (as, for instance, another refusing to cordially greet the other is impolitely dealt with). Thirdly, and most strongly linked to maintenance and support of institutions,…


Bergman, P. (1980). Sociology of Knowledge, Oxford Univ. Press: Oxford.

Crossley, N. (2006) Contesting Psychiatry: Social Movements in Mental Health Routledge

Gerard, A. Institutions, path dependence and decomocratic consolidation, Journal of Theoretical Politics 13(3): 249 -- 70

Harris, H.W., Felder, D., & Clark, M.O. (2004). A Psychiatric Residency Curriculum on the Care of African-American Patients. Academic Psychiatry 28 (3): 226 -- 239

Westerners in China in the
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The trading situation between Great ritain and China in the early part of the 18th century continued to expand, yet the ritish were not satisfied and wanted to possess the ability to trade at any Chinese port and with any entity it wished. In 1793, the first formal diplomatic mission arrived in China under the leadership of Lord Macartney, a man often described as having a powerful influence on trade in India and with a vast knowledge of Eastern sensibilities. Macartney's main objective was to devise a treaty for a fair exchange of diplomatic representatives and the opening of all Chinese ports to ritish shipping while creating a set of tariff duties which were to be vigorously enforced in every Chinese port.

Unfortunately, Macartney's mission to China did not turn out as he had expected, for he was rebuffed by the emperor. In 1816, another attempt to establish formal trading…


Gregory, J.S. The West and China Since 1500. New York: Macmillan, 1999.

Mungello, David E. The Great Encounter of China and the West, 1500 to 1800. New York: Rowman & littlefield, 2000.

Olmec Although Scientists Found Artifacts and Art
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Although scientists found artifacts and art objects of the Olmecs; until this century they did not know about the existence of the Olmecs. Most of the objects which were made by this community were associated with other civilizations, such as Mayan, Toltec or Chichimecan. The Olmec lived between 1600 B.C. And 1400 B.C. In South Mexico. The name of this tribe comes from an Aztec word "ollin" which means "land of rubber."

At first they ate fish and they later start to farm, and that made it possible for them to "develop the first major civilization in Mesoamerica." (The Olmec Civilization) Thanks to the steady food supplies the Olmec population grew and some came to have other occupations. "Some became potters or weavers. Others became priests or teachers." (Ibidem) Once the population grew, so did their farming villages which developed into cities. The present-day city of San Lorenzo was…


1. The Olmec Civilization, Retrieved December 14, 2012, from the Pleasant Valley School website: 

2. Villeacas, Daniel, Mother Culture of Mexico: The Olmecs, Denver Public Schools, 2005, Retrieved December 14, 2012, from the Denver Public Schools website: 

3. Olmec -- Masterworks of Ancient Mexico, Retrieved December 14, 2012, from the Los Angeles County Museum of Art website: 

4. Hansen, Valerie, Curtis Kenneth, Curtis, Kenneth R., Voyages in World History: To 1600, Volume 1, Cengage Learning, December 30, 2008

British History the Majority of
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" (Rise of the Commons)

The 14th century was a time when the aristocracy (the Commons in particular) acted on account of their personal interests in addition to acting in accordance with the King's wishes. These individuals gradually started to consider that it was only natural for them to have a word in governing the country and that it was irrational for them to simply accept the King's decisions with regard to taxes. The Parliament thus emerged as a result of people's reluctance to follow the King's laws blindly. The aristocracy played an active role in reestablishing its influence in the country throughout the fourteenth century.

Edward III's last years were less impressive when considering his leadership abilities and the fact that he was largely inactive due to his age and sickness materialized in the masses becoming stronger. The people named Sir Peter de la Mare as a spokesman on…

Works cited:

Bond, Maurice, "The History of Parliament and the Evolution of Parliamentary Procedure," Retrieved July 7, 2013, from the Parliament Website: 

Harper-Bill, Cristopher, and Vincent, Nicholas, "Henry II: New Interpretations," (Boydell Press, 2007)

Lord Irvine of Lairg, "The Spirit of Magna Carta Continues to Resonate in Modern Law," Retrieved July 7, 2013, from the Parliament of Australia Website: 

"Magna Carta and the Rule of Law 1215," Retrieved July 7, 2013, from the Moonogian-Demirdijian School Website: