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Egbert was the first English national King. In 1066, William the Conqueror took the crown by force. William ordered the first census, known as the Domesday ook which was used to create the first central tax system for England. William introduced elements of French culture into England, while many of the lower classes kept the old Anglo-Saxon language and customs, French was the language of choice for nobility. William continued to expand English territory into France (Internet Medieval Sourcebook)
When Henry II took the throne, he married the powerful French duchess, Eleanor of Aquitane. Together they ruled all of England and half of France. Technically, this made English kings vassals of French kings. However, in practice, the English monarchs were much stronger and essentially ignored their feudal obligations to the French monarchy. In the 1200s, nobles became worried that English monarchy was beginning abuse its power. They drafted the Magna…
Halstall, P. "Internet Medieval Sourcebook." Fordham University.
http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/sbook2.html (accessed May 29, 2010).
French absolute monarchy. e discussed development modern state army, baroque art architecture, scientific revolution early Enlightenment. In a -organized essay, explain early modern absolute monarchy, baroque style, scientific revolution responses turmoil sixteenth seventeenth centuries.
The sixteenth and seventeenth centuries plays an important role in shaping public opinion across France as individuals came to express particular interest in supporting an absolute monarchy as a result of nobles gradually being pushed aside, the baroque style as a consequence of the Catholic Church promoting such attitudes, and the scientific revolution as they acknowledged the progress they could experience as it advanced. French nobles emphasized their power in the state and Catholics had a series of divergences with Protestants, thus influencing French monarchs to want to have a higher level of authority and for artists to express interest in ideas that were in accordance with attitudes contemporary to them.
The reign of King Francis…
Baker, Christopher, "Absolutism and the Scientific Revolution: 1600-1720; a Biographical Dictionary," (Greenwood Publishing Group, 01.01.2002)
Greer, Thomas H., and Lewis, Gavin, "A Brief History of the Western World," (Cengage Learning, 2004)
Knecht, R.J., "Francis I," (Cambridge University Press, 26.04.1984)
The concept of absolutism was supported by theologians such as Jacques Boussuet who gave religious sanction to the view that kings were God's anointed representatives on earth and to rebel against their authority is to rebel against God.
In contrast to the French model of absolutism, parliamentary monarchy took roots in England in the 17th century. In fact the concept of the 'divine right of kings' had been weakened in England ever since the adoption of Magna Carta in 1215. When King Charles I attempted to gain absolute power in his reign during the 17th century, the parliament opposed him and the King was eventually tried and executed through an Act of the parliament. Later, when King James II again attempted to grab absolute powers, he was overthrown in what became known as the Glorious evolution of 1688 after which the Bill of ights was passed in 1689. Since then…
Constitutional Monarchy." (2006). From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Retrieved on October 17, 2006 at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Constitutional_monarchy
France could also control the flow of goods and services through Southern and Central America.
The French saw their actions as justified because of the sweeping and threatening United States annexation of California, Arizona and New Mexico, even more so than Mexico's nonpayment of debt (Cinco de Mayo, 2010, Think Quest). Given that the United States was embroiled in its own Civil War at the time, France thought that it was an ideal moment to install a puppet government in Mexico, as there were no American military resources to spare to curtail France's imperialistic efforts. The French were exceedingly proud of their military strength, and the defeat of Mexico at the hands of the United States -- even before the Mexican Civil War and eform Wars weakened the nation still further -- convinced the French that the conquest of Mexico would be easy. After all, the French army had not…
Cinco de Mayo. (2010). Think Quest. Retrieved October 21, 2010 at http://library.thinkquest.org/trio/TTQ03062/background.html
Tuck, Jim. (2008). Maximilian and Carlota: the "Archdupe" and his tragic lady (1832-1867),
Mexconnect. Retrieved October 21, 2010 at http://www.mexconnect.com/articles/299-maximilian-and-carlota-the-archdupe-and-his-tragic-lady-1832-1867
Viva Cinco de Mayo. (2006). Cinco History. Retrieved October 21, 2010 at http://www.vivacincodemayo.org/history.htm
S. Senators and describe the difference between the number of each state's U.S. Senators and the number of its U.S. Representatives (i.e. The "Great Compromise").
Is Congress truly representative of the American people from the perspective of demographics?
A member of the House of Representatives must be at least 25 years old, a U.S. citizen for at least 7 years, and an inhabitant of the state they represent. Representatives serve for two years. Representatives are apportioned among the states according to population, so that each person in the United States will have equal representation in the House of Representatives. A Senator must be at least 30 years old, a U.S. citizen for at least 9 years, and an inhabitant of the state they represent. Senators serve six-year terms. There are two senators per state, so that each state has equal representation in the Senate.
This equal representation protects…
institutions of monarchy and feudalism were based on the systematic oppression of others through the use of hierarchy. In these forms of governments, there is a strict social and economic order with the rich and powerful at the top and the peasants and serfs on the very bottom of society. This notion is especially true for feudalism, where lords depended on their vassals yet both classes lived off the work of their serfs. Serfs worked the land of their lord in exchange for protection. In this system, however, a serf could not leave his lands without permission; they were economically and legally bound to their lord and land. The status of peasants did not elevate much further from the medieval ages and throughout the era of absolute monarchies. It was not until the late 17th century, during the Age of Enlightenment that these old social hierarchies were questioned. Revolutionaries sought…
Brown, Elizabeth A.R. "Feudalism." Encyclopedia Brtiannica Online. Accessed website on 11/09/2011. http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/205583/feudalism
Madison, James. "Declaration of Independence." The Charters of Freedom. Accessed on 11/09/2011. http://www.archives.gov/exhibits/charters/declaration.html
Frank Maloy Anderson, ed., The Constitution and Other Select Documents Illustrative of the History of France, 1789-1907. New York: Russell and Russell, 1908. pp. 59-61
Merryman, John Henry; Rogelip Perez-Perdomo. The civil law tradition: an introduction to the legal system of Europe and Latin America. Stanford University Press. 2007. pp. 16.
Papacy and Monarchy During the Middle Ages
The Power of the Papacy in the Middle Ages
The purpose of this paper is the research the reason why the papacy became so empowered during the Middle Ages as well as why some of the Monarchies of the time were able to gain ore power than others in their relationship to the Church.
The period referred to as the 'middle ages' is the period in history between the fall of the last Roman emperor in the West which was in 476 A.D. And the fall of Constantinople to the Turks in the year 1453, and some account this period ending in 1492 with the discovery of America by Columbus. The papacy of the Roman Catholic Church became a major institution of political power during the early middle ages.
The Papacy's Rise to Power:
The papacy's rise to power can be accredited to…
Papal Supremacy in the Middle Ages (nd) Outline of Great Books Vol .I [Online] located at http://www.publicbookshelf.com/public_html/Outline_of_Great_Books Volume _I/papalsupr_gd.html
Major Developments of the High (1100-1300) and Late Middle ages (1300-1500)
At the time of the Norman Conquest, monarchy in England was an inherently unstable institution. Howarth's account of the throne in the years leading up to 1066 paints a picture of a curious institution: without fixed laws of succession, and with no more fixed governmental assembly than the witana gemot, the English Crown at this point in time seems more like a chieftancy for a society in transition. I hope to show that three aspects of the monarchy in 1066 -- its lack of succession law, its closeness to the aristocracy, and its political nature -- made England a candidate for conquest.
The lack of succession law is perhaps the most astonishing thing Howarth reveals about the English monarchy before the Battle of Hastings. As Edward the Confessor lay on his deathbed, Howarth tells us, "under the unwritten constitution, it was the duty of the assembly, in the name…
Frankforter, Daniel and Spellman, William. The West, A Narrative History, Volume One: To 1660. 3rd Edition. Saddle River: Pearson, 2012. Print.
Howarth, David. 1066: The Year of the Conquest. New York: Penguin, 1981. Print.
Monarchy vs. Democracy
When it comes to monarchies, much of the modern world has rejected them, though the West used to be ruled by monarchs. Today, monarchs thrive in the Middle East, particularly in the United Arab Emirates (UAE), where a monarchical system of government has enabled the UAE to bring stability and leadership. However, challenges remain, and this paper will describe the pros and cons of a system like UAE and compare it to that of democratic countries, whose prose and cons will also be described.
The pros of a monarchical system are that there is stability and consistency of vision and leadership. A monarch rules for life and the vision presented by the monarch can be implemented over a life time instead of rushed through in the brief span of a few years as is the case in democratic countries where elected leaders have term limits. The monarch…
Kant, Immanuel. "What Is the Enlightenment?" (1784): Web. .
These are excerpts from journal entries and speeches by Immanuel Kant. He was a renowned German Philosopher, and he was commonly known as being the first to make use of the word enlightenment. During the enlightenment period, he was among the many innovational thinkers. These excerpts will assist in providing brief descriptions of the enlightenment period, as it was a formidable historical context for the French evolution. Using quotes from Kant, one is able to demonstrate the enlightenment period.
Pinel, Phillipe. "Execution of the King." Letter. 21 Jan. 1793. Exploring the French evolution. Web. .
This was a letter by Phillipe Pinel who was an observer to the execution of King Louis XVI. This letter will assist in describing the King's execution. There is quote in the letter that indicates the King's death was easy and fast, which demonstrates that he…
Reference Center. Web.
This source provides information regarding the life of King Louis XVI, his reign, how he ascended to power, his fall, and finally guillotined. This source will assist in demonstrating how the King was not successful, popular, and powerful. It was the King's refusal to make compromises with the French people that led to the revolution.
"French Revolution." French Revolution. Web. .
This website provides information regarding the revolution's history. It provides information of how the revolution came to arise, and it also describes the enlightenment period. This website will assist in demonstrating how the enlightenment greatly affected and pushed for the revolution's support.
L, a. "Remains of the Day." Humanities. N.p., Apr. 2010. Web.
A journal entry from that era wrote "you do remember it: cholera was everything; it had absorbed everything, politics, uprisings, theater, intrigues" (Delacroix, ca 1832).
The effects of the July Monarchy would be far-flung and its effects would be felt for decades to come. Child labor laws were enacted, the free press was virtually legislated out of business, and there was an abundance of 'reform' including the establishment of elementary schools for boys in 1833, which was expanded to include girls in 1836.
The bourgeoisie were the main power brokers of the Monarchy and they wielded the power in an effective manner. Louis Philippe was their leader and reigned supreme ousting his predecessor Charles X who abdicated his rule during the July evolution.
Delacroix, LE.; (ca 1832) Portrait of Niccolo paganini, Washington, D.C., The Phillips Collection
Merriman, J,; (2004) Press, revolution, and social…
Delacroix, LE.; (ca 1832) Portrait of Niccolo paganini, Washington, D.C., The Phillips Collection
Merriman, J,; (2004) Press, revolution, and social identities in France, 1830-1835, Canadian Journal of History, Vol. 39, No. 1, pp. 147-149
European Monarchy is one of the highly held positions and culture indeed within Europe. The Monarchy is watched by many across the world and the happenings and events around the royal family is a great interest to the entire world if the attention that the events like the marriage of Prince William and Kate as well as the attention the Diamond Jubilee received across the globe.
Europe has used the Monarchy not only as a royalty family but as a symbol of preservation of ther unique culture that has been in existence for decades upon decades. It is one of the strong cultures that are constitutionally enshrined within Europe and has helped it transcend time. It has its guide lines like the religion that the lady that the Prince marries must be from the Church of England and not a Jew, Muslim or Catholic. This has however raised political questions…
Conradi P. (2012). Long Live the Queens and Kings. http://www.nytimes.com/2012/06/02/opinion/long-live-the-queens-and-kings.html
It seems surprising that while the events of the 17th Century can be
so clear, they leave much to interpretation. The events epicte in A
Monarchy Transforme are exceptionally clear, such as the Great Fire of
Lonon or the Gunpower Plot, an they help to lea into the narrative
which is what is really important, because it is necessary to know the
political story before history can be tol. The work begins with two
overview chapters which help to put the social an political context in
perspective before jumping into the narrative. It woul perhaps be helpful
for a more fitting overview, but that oes not etract from the effective
narrative in bringing the political etails of the British monarchy to
life. The Stuart ynasty is accurately, informatively, an with great
attention to reaability, mae clear as to their place in British history
an the political events in which they…
Kishlansky, M. (1996). A monarchy transformed : Britain 1603-1714. London:
Threshold of Terror: The Last Hours of the Monarchy in the French evolution odney Allen, an independent scholar who read history at Oxford, details the events that occurred during the crucial twenty-four hours between the 9th and 10th of August 1792, which led to the fall and execution of King Louis XVI of France. Using previously unpublished eyewitness accounts, illustrations, direct quotations, and paraphrases; the author describes the final hours of this crucial collapse and examines its importance in eroding the ideals that had emerged after the fall of the Bastille in 1789. Through the use of intimate sources and documents, such as the personal accounts of the Swiss Guards who had tried to save the ill-fated King Louis XVI and the stories of individuals who had survived the 'eign of Terror', the author gives the reader a greater level of insight into the events and emotions that existed during…
Allen, R. Threshold of Terror: The Last Hours of the Monarchy in the French Revolution. U.K.: Sutton Publishing, 1999.
Old Testament books, Deuteronomy, Samuel and Kings, establishing a monarchy for Israel and Judah proved somewhat problematic. This was due both to the divinity of God and the inevitable humanity that would be part of a human king. Throughout the historical books of the Old Testament God repeatedly states that he is a jealous God, tolerating no others. Kingship then might be seen as an attempt to usurp the power of God, or indeed to detract from worshiping God as the nation's ultimate leader. Furthermore a monarchy is a pagan idea that has penetrated Israel from the foreign nations they have been in contact with through battle. This of course connects further negativity with the idea of a king for God's people. The demand of a king is thus in effect the rejection of God as ruler over Israel and Judah. An issue closely related to this is the problem…
Howard, D.M. Jr. 1998 "The Case for Kingship in Deuteronomy and the Former Prophets," Dictionary of Biblical Imagery, Downers Grove: InterVarsity, 476-78.
Sumner, Darren. 1999. "The Bible Shelf." http://www.thesumners.com/bible
There are three discourses, stretching over Chapter 1:6-4:40, Chapters. 5-28, and Chapters 29-30). The concluding addendum comprises Chapters 31-34. This is the final words of Moses to his people before they enter Canaan. Traditionally the discourses are attributed to Moses, although some scholars believe that some portions of the book come from a later time.
The first discourse: Deuteronomy 1:6-4:40
Criticisms against and praise for colonialism in America: A comparative analysis of "Common Sense" by Thomas Paine and "Origin and Progress of the American Rebellion" by Peter Oliver
The declaration of King George III of the United Kingdom that America is in an active state of rebellion in August 23, 1775, marked the opportunity for Britain's 13 colonies in the country to be liberated from British colonialism. The path towards rebellion in America is an arduous process, where there had been a series of economic and political pressures that Britain had imposed in order to maintain control over the gradually rebelling members of the colonies.
What made the study of the history of the American Revolution interesting is that there are numerous literatures illustrating the political and economic climate between the Americans and British at the time where rebellious ideologies and propaganda are gradually increasing. There had been…
estern Studies emphasizes on the following two topics namely, Inspirational artists during the Renaissance and England before becoming a Constitutional Monarchy. The first topic takes into account the Renaissance era and the artists produced during it where as the second focuses on how the British monarchy was established and what were the perils that were faced in establishing it. This paper also highlights certain quotes.
Inspirational artists during the Renaissance.
The Europeans regard the Renaissance as an era that completely transformed their feudal society of the middle ages into a society dominated by political institutions, in which education was pursued and liberty was the right of all the citizens. This charismatic era gave birth to many philosophers, artists, scientists and thinkers who worked to present to their people a completely new perspective of life. Many artists concentrated upon human philosophy, which became the central movement during the Renaissance.…
Fort C. How To Think Like Leonardo Da Vinci; Liberating Creativity And Igniting
Innovation In The Workplace. PR Newswire. 8 Feb. 2001.
Joseph E. Reading Montaigne. Commentary. 1 Mar. 1993.
Leonardo Da Vinci. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 1 Jul. 2003.
Another demonstrative part of the constitution has to do with representation, a checks and balances system when the republican body (the people/the state) has representation that is not overly out of balance with its populous. The senate, arguably a more powerful body has two senate seats for each state while population determines the house seats, with no state having less than one representative. "The number of Representatives shall not exceed one for every thirty thousand, but each State shall have at least one Representative." Article I Section I thus, creating a check to ensure a reduced possibility of a larger state attempting through political power channels to retain all or most power for itself.
Within each body of the three there are balances, where the other has some semblance of control over the other to but not so much that any one has supreme authority over the other. Of the…
M.D. Lloyd "Polybius and the Founding Fathers: the separation of powers" at http://www.sms.org/mdl-indx/polybius/polybius.htm
Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia 6th ed. 2003 "U.S. Constitution www.cc.columbia.edu/cu/cup/
US Constitution Text www.cc.columbia.edu/cu/cup
Global Business Cultural Analysis
Synopsis of Nigerian government
Nigerian monarchy to presidential system
The evolution of Nigeria from British control to a civilian democratic government
Nigerian major commodities
The major elements and dimensions of culture in Nigeria
Model of culture
Universalism or Particularize
How is the integration of elements and dimensions that Nigerians doing business in the country?
The effects of governments on the prospects for its business around the world
How the elements and dimensions compared with the United States, culture, and business?
The role of women in the workplace
Business visitors must be dressed in an elegant and tie (for men!)
Cross-cultural business transactions between the United States and Nigeria
Thurstan Shaw and Steve Daniels, who are the founder for archaeological research proved in their research that Nigeria has been developed since 9,000…
Afolayan, T.E. (2011). Coming To America: The Social and Economic Mobility of African Immigrants in the United States. Inquiry (University of New Hampshire), 6-11. Retrieved from EBSCO host.
Alutu, O.E., & Udhawuve, M.L. (2009). Unethical Practices in Nigerian Engineering Industries: Complications for Project Management. Journal of Management in Engineering, 25(1), 40-43. Doi: 10.1061 / (ASCE) 0742-597X (2009)25:1(40)
The already shaky relationship between the Qatar state and Iranian society was further undermined by the Western exploitation of Iranian resources during the second half of the nineteenth century.
From 1918 until 1921 "British subsidies kept the government afloat, and British military and administrative advisers attempted to reorganize Iran's army and to manipulate the various political factions within the country to British advantage" (Cleveland, 185)*. When Britain added insult to injury by offering Iran a loan in exchange for exclusive advisory privileges, anti-imperial demonstrations broke out in several cities. Widespread discontent grew further. The Qatar government was regarded as ineffective and pro-British. A determined military commander finally took action and put a stop to the chaos.
Reza Khan used the political climate to advance from the position of commander and chief of the army in 1921 to that of the shah of Iran in 1925. His election overthrew the Qatar…
The elephant's death is also a symbol for the slow death of Burma. Before the arrival of the empire, Burma was free but now it struggles for its last dying breaths under British rule. The meaning of this is clear because the narrator doesn't even try to hide his feelings about the monarchy at all. The British crown is abusing and killing everyone it oppresses and it wounds their officers by making them take part in activities that make all of them go totally against their inner will.
The elephant is the most powerful symbol of all and he finally dies but with alot of agony nor is it guilty of anything but being what it is. Those under British rule are also behaving like they really are and being what they were born to be but the power of the empire is forcing them to bend and behave in…
According to the Psalms (Psalm 132:1-18) and Samuel (2 Sam. 7:2), God "swore an oath to David" that he and his descendants would remain on the throne, as long as they kept His statutes, forever. David embodied five characteristics of the monarchy: (1) He took the Ark of the Covenant brought by Moses, which had been carried around under a tent since Moses' time, and set it up in the temple (built by Solomon), as the symbol of God's choosing this people and this land as His own. (2) David became the "firstborn son of God" and God promised that he and his descendants would forever be on His throne. (3) He was a priest performing priestly duties as God's representative on earth. (4) He was mortal. He had sinned, yet God allowed him to live and remain king. (5) He had a special relationship, a covenant with God himself,…
Judaism." Encyclopedia Britannica. 2007. Encyclopedia Britannica Online. 11 Dec. 2007 http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-35177 .
Kimelman, Reuven "Abraham Joshua Heschel: Our Generation's Teacher." The Melton Journal, No. 15, Winter 1983.
The British created a well-educated, English-speaking Indian elite middle class d. new jobs were created for millions of Indian hand-spinner and hand-weavers
The Indian National Congress can best be described in which of the following ways:
a. An Indian Civil Service that administered British rule.
b. A group of upper-caste professionals seeking independence from Britain.
c. white settlers who administered British rule.
d. anglicized Indians who were the social equals of white rulers.
Under the Culture System, Indonesian peasants had to Answer:
a. learn to speak and read Dutch b. plant one-fifth of their land in export crops to be turned over to the Dutch colonial government c. convert to the Dutch Reformed Church d. join large state-run farms.
Modern Vietnamese nationalism traced much of its inspiration to Answer:
a. Japanese modernization.
b. China's "Hundred Days" Reform program.
c. The U.S. Declaration of Independence.
d. British Fabian socialism.
POLITICAL OVERVIEW: The former Persia became present day Iran on April 1st 1979 Before that Persia was a Monarchy and its last ruler was Shah Muhammad Reza Pahlavi He lost favor with the people and the religious clerics of the country The clerics chose to exile Pahlavi and establish a theocracy Theocracy refers to a government type where majority of decision making and political power is in the hands of a religious leader, in other words a country that adopts religious law as its legal system
Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini a Conservative cleric took over the reins of the nation
The government structure is complicated as its Parliament is a mixed bag of elected and unelected members At the top of the hierarchy is the 'Supreme Leader' military, judiciary and foreign policy fall under his command An interesting aspect of Iranian government is the amount of accountability attached to federal…
. Protests against the government continue and the government keeps arresting activists, rebels and revolutionaries, in an effort to stamp the desire for reform out of the masses
. Ahmadi-Nejad and his people are the Neoconservationists and his era is known as the third revolution in Iran. While Khatami and his followers were intellectuals, he and his people are religious and idealistic. It seems that he knows better than Khatami, how to please the public (Ehteshami, A & Zweiri, M, 2007).
NATIONAL GOALS: The country has become synonymous
Atlantic Revolutions and How the Structure of the Atlantic World Created the Environment for These Revolutionary Movements to Form
The objective of this study is to examine the American, French, and Haitian Revolutions, known as the Atlantic Revolutions and to answer as to how the structure of the Atlantic World created the environment for these revolutionary movements to form. The North American Revolution took place between 1775 and 1878. The French Revolution took place between 1789 and 1815, and the Haitian Revolution between 1971 and 1804 and finally the Spanish American Revolutions between 1810 and 1825. These revolutions were found because of the issues of slavery, nations and nationalism, and the beginnings of feminism. In fact, the entire century from 1750 to 1850 was a century of revolutions. Political revolutions occurred in North America, France, Haiti, and Spanish South America. All of the revolutions were derived from ideas concerning Enlightenment.…
13h. The Age of Atlantic Revolutions (2012) U.S. History: Pre-Colombian to the New Millennium. Retrieved from: http://www.ushistory.org/us/13h.asp
Klooster, W. (2009) Revolutions in the Atlantic World: A comparative history. Retrieved from: http://books.google.com/books?id=8A-PwV_3zkcC&printsec=frontcover&source=gbs_ge_summary_r&cad=0#v=onepage&q=culture&f=false
Traditional Spanish Culture
hile the cafe's of Paris may have captured the romantic imagination of estern visitors to the Old Continent, and London's blend of medieval and modern architecture attracts the historically minded, the ancient city of Madrid is home to countless cultural sites, museums, and monuments which are definitely worth exploring. The capital city of Spain and the historical seat of the Spanish monarchy, Madrid is a sprawling metropolitan center located on the banks of the Manzanares River that serves as the economic, political, and cultural heart of the country. Home to approximately 3.3 million residents in Madrid proper, and over 6.5 million within the greater metropolitan area including suburbs and surrounding communities, the city is considered to be the third-largest urban center in the European Union, behind London and Berlin (UN Data, 2013). From the 16th through 18th centuries, when the Spanish empire's naval dominance allowed the nation's…
Azcona, Jose M. "Puerta de Alcala." GoMadrid. GoMadrid.com, 09 Sep 2012. Web. 23 Feb 2013. .
Gobierno de Espana. Ministry of Education, Culture and Sport. National Archaeological Museum. Madrid, Spain. 2013. Web. .
Riding, Alan. "The Prado Embarks On Plans to Expand Into a Complex." New York Times 01 May 1995. Print. .
United Nations. UN Data. Spain: Summary and Statistics. New York, NY: UN Data, 2013. Web. .
The media has been referred to as the fourth estate, a bedrock element of democratic society. The term has its origins referencing the critical role that media plays in society. The first three estates are taken to be the clergy, the nobility and the commoners. This concept derives from England, in particular attributed to something that Thomas Carlyle wrote in 1841 about there being three estates in parliament, but the reporters in the gallery were the fourth estate." Carlyle had written that they were the most important of all (Crichton et al, 2010).
When applied to a country's media, the terms "free" and "independent" reference privately-owned media that operate without undue interference from the government. The media is considered to be a bedrock of democracy because they are responsible for the flow of information to the populace. More specifically, this refers to organized media companies, prior to the digital…
The survival of Jordanian monarchy is determined by its capability to capture power and regulate over the political process, its efficacy in stabilising the negative forces of trans-national ideologies on the domestic arena between the early 1950s and the early 1970s coupled with the coming out of a feeling of loyalty to the state and nationhood etc. (Salloukh, 1996)
King Hussein is magnanimous than the Jordan itself. The great talent of Hussein was his diplomacy in dealing with the people that are antagonistic to one another mercilessly and fundamentally that he approved wholly with them. Normally, the people were never aware of the impossibility of the agreement due to his effectiveness in dealing. The diplomacy is not normally related to integrity but in case of Hussein it was not true. (Foster, 1999) the efforts of King Hussein in prevailing peace in the region were internationally acclaimed. (Aquino, 2002) the stability…
Allman, T.D. (1974) in Defense of Monarchy from J.J. Ray (Ed.) "Conservatism as Heresy." Sydney: A.N.Z. Book Co.
Aquino, Nucha. (2002) "The World's Monarchy" Retrieved at http://fun-articles.elaguna.net/culture/worlds_monarchy.htm. Accessed on 21 November, 2004
Burns, John. F. (June 28, 1999) Heir to Morocco's Throne Is Playing a Larger Role. The New York Times Company. Retrieved at http://home1.gte.net/eskandar/kinghassan.html. Accessed on 21 November, 2004
Clarke, L. (9 April, 1999) "Abdullah's Jordan: Assessing the First Two Months" the Estimate. Volume: 11; No: 8; pp: 27-35
The final crisis of the French Monarchy occurred in 1789, with the official beginning of the French Revolution. Although this was the year in which the first official battle of this martial encounter was fought, it is vital to realize that the monarchy had been floundering for some time prior. There were numerous factors that contributed to the disfavor the monarchy found itself in at the end of the 18th century. Some of the more eminent of these political, financial, and environmental causes helped to weaken the French Monarchy's hold over its subjects, as judged by the standards of the present 1. Concurrently, there were military woes that accompanied these factors and which contributed to the mounting unpopularity of this government. However, an analysis of these factors reveals that the most prominent cause of the French Revolution pertained to the zeitgeist of the time in with Enlightenment ideals…
Acemoglu, Daaron, Cantoni, Davide, Johnson, Simon, Robinson, James. "The Consequences of Radical Reform: The French Revolution." NBER Working Paper Series. Retrieved 4/3/2016. http://scholar.harvard.edu/files/jrobinson/files/jr_consequeces_frenchrev.pdf
Davies, Norman. The History of Europe. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1996.
Doyle, William. The Oxford History of the French Revolution. Oxford: Oxford University Press,1990.
Langer, William. The Encyclopedia of World History. New York: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1972.
By the second night, a group of men had mutinied and attempted to kill the officers and destroy the raft, and by the third day, "those whom death had spared in the disastrous night […] fell upon the dead bodies with which the raft was covered, and cut off pieces, which some instantly devoured" (Savigny & Correard 192). Ultimately, the survivors were reduced to throwing the wounded overboard, and only after they had been reduced to fifteen men, "almost naked; their bodies and faces disfigured by the scorching beams of the sun," were they finally rescued by the Argus, which had set sail six days earlier to search for the raft and the wreck of the Medusa (Savigny & Correard 203).
Theodore Gericault's the Raft of the Medusa captures the moment on the 17th of July when the Argus first became visible to the survivors, and his choice to reflect…
Alhadeff, Albert. The raft of the Medusa: Gericault, art, and race. New York: Prestel, 2002.
Athanassoglou-Kallmyer, Nina. "LEtat Et Les Artistes: De La Restauration a La Monarchie De
Juillet (1815-1833) / Salons." The Art Bulletin 85.4 (2003): 811-3.
Blair, J.A. "The Possibility and Actuality of Visual Arguments." Argumentation and Advocacy
In this encouragement, American would help to touch off something
perhaps all the more miraculous given the proximity to its oppression to
the European peasantry at large. First in the doctrines which would be
formulated in the wake of French independence and secondly in the way that
Napoleon Bonaparte would begin the spread of such doctrines to a continent
driven by inequality, America's revolution could be said to have been the
opening round in the deconstruction of colonialism and feudalism throughout
Europe and thus, the world.
Drafted in the image of the American Declaration of Independence,
though perhaps more ambitious and sweeping even in its trajectories, the
Declaration of the Rights of Men would dictate a universal principle
arguing that all men are born equal and that any distinctions made between
men according to the social conditions must be terms agreed upon by all
parties. The constitutional document underscoring the…
Center for History and New Media (CHNM). (2005). Monarchy Embattled.
George Mason University. Online at
Chew, Robin. (2004). Napoleon I: Emperor of the French. Lucid Caf?.
Online at http://www.lucidcafe.com/library/95aug/napoleon.html.
Locke, John. (2003). Two Treatise of Government, 14th. ed. Cambridge
On the other hand, he is also referring to the rigorous formation of a cantata. He saw through the rigorous formation of the cantata an instrument to bring a certain order into individual existence as well, with the Lutheran religion as the middle element (Schrade, 1946).
In reference to the previous subchapter on Lully, we should point out towards the fact that, while for Lully, royal patronage was essential for the characteristics of his creation and, in fact, the direct source of inspiration and ultimate goal, ach used the civic appointment to rise above the actual demands and only use the pretext of needing to compose cantatas for a perspective to go beyond and ensure that his musical vision was reached. In Lully's case, patronage determined musical vision, for we cannot see Lully's music otherwise than in the role of a grandiose propaganda instrument for the French absolute monarchy. In…
1. Schrade, Leo. 1946. Bach: The Conflict between the Sacred and the Secular. Journal of the History of Ideas. University of Pennsylvania Press
2. Isherwood, Robert. 1973. Music in the Service of the King. Ithaca and London: Cornell U.P.
3. Isherwood, Robert. 1969. The Centralization of Music in the Reign of Louis XIV. French Historical Studies. Society for French Historical Studies
4. Bach's Cantatas: a Brief Orientation. On the Internet at http://www.baroque-music-club.com/cantatas.html .Last retrieved on September 30, 2007
irth of the First French Republic
The first French Republic was established in 1792 in the aftermath of the 1789 Revolution and abolishment of the monarchy. The National Convention held a meeting in September 1792 that culminated with a vote to put an end to the monarchy and establish the first French Republic. The 1789 Revolution that acted as a catalyst for the abolishment of the monarchy and eventual establishment of the first French Republic gave the people the unprecedented opportunity to confront King Louis XIV who had dominated their lives. As the National Convention voted for the establishment of the first French Republic through abolishing the monarchy, it also tried Louis XVI for treason. The king was found guilty of treason and executed at the beginning of 1793. Given its role in the establishment of the first French Republic, the 1789 Revolution was a complex event with significant impacts…
McPhee, Peter. Living the French Revolution, 1789-99. New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan,
Neely, Sylvia. A Concise History of the French Revolution. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield
Publishers, Inc., 2008.
Today's world does not have many examples of absolutist monarchies left in the world (Bhutan and Nepal were good example, but recent political changes in these countries no longer qualify them for inclusion), but historically France is probably the best example to fit as an absolutist monarchy.
Representative democracy is a political system in which the people elect individuals to represent their interests in the decision making process at a state level. In a pure democracy, usually going back to ancient Athens, was a form of consultative democracy in which every member of the society participated in the political meetings and decision making process. With the growth of population that sort of democracy was obviously no longer functional, turning it into a representative democracy.
In the United States, the electing constituencies and districts are formed by a small number of individuals who reside in a certain area and have specific…
Whether it was the Spanish that fought to conquer lands in the south, or the Dutch that engaged in stiff competition with the British, or the French that were ultimately defeated in 1763, the American soil was one clearly marked by violent clashes between foreign powers. This is why it was considered that the cry for independence from the British was also a cry for a peaceful and secure future for the next generations. Thomas Paine argued that the time had indeed come for the colonies to be excluded from the continuous clashes that had defined their past. Thus, because of the British's traditional inclination towards war, such an objective was hard to reach under the Empire's constant control. Consequently, the time had come for the colonies to break apart and search their peace as an independent state.
Looking at the historical development of the events, it is easy to…
Aptheker, Herbert. 1960. The American Revolution, 1763-1783: a history of the American people. New York: International Publishers.
Berstein, Serge, and Milza. 1994. Pierre. Histoire de l'Europe. Paris: Hatier.
Braunstein, Florence, and Pepin, Jean Francois. 1998. Les Grandes Doctrines. Paris: Ellipses.
Carlyle, Thomas. 2004. The French revolution, New York: Kessinger Publishing, LLC. Vol. 2
The setting up the king's supremacy instead of the usurpations of the papacy, and the rooting out the monastic state in England, considering the wealth, the numbers, and the zeal of the monks and friars in all the parts of the kingdom, as it was a very bold undertaking, so it was executed with great method, and performed in so short a time, and with so few of the convulsions that might have been expected, that all this shews what a master he was, that could bring such a design to be finished in so few years, with so little trouble or danger (Slavin, 19)."
Cromwell's position was no less tenuous than that of his predecessor, olsey. Henry did not become a tyrant without warning. Ridley reports that even as a young man, before he succeeded his father as king, Henry was prone to outbursts of anger and bad temper…
Haigh, Christopher. English Reformations: Religion, Politics and Society Under the Tudors. Oxford University Press, Inc., 1993.
Lindsey, Karen. Divorced, Beheaded, Survived a Feminist Reignterpretation of the Wives of Henry VIII. Reading, MA: Perseus Books, 1995. Questia. 26 Nov. 2008 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=6981860 .
Luther / Bossuet/Hobbes
Martin Luther's adical eligion Vision
When Martin Luther nailed his infamous 95 Theses to the door of the cathedral in Wittenberg, Germany in 1517, he could hardly have foreseen that the consequences of his declarations would shake the Western world for centuries. While Luther was certainly not working in a vacuum and absorbed many of his attitudes towards the Catholic Church from the growing mistrust of the papacy in Germany at the time, his elegant theological arguments against the power of the pope and the rituals of Catholicism provided a strong religious alternative to the oman Catholic faith.
The instigation for the 95 Theses and one of the issues at the heart of Luther's argument against the Church was the practice of the selling of indulgences. Indulgences were essentially letters of forgiveness from the Church that could be bought in lieu of the traditional good works that…
Carsten, Francis. The New Cambridge Modern History: The Ascendency of France: 1648-88. London: Cambridge University Press, 1961. Print.
Hobbes, Thomas. Leviathan. Forgotten Books.org, 2008. Web.
History of the Habsburg Empire,1273-1700
The historical work of Jean Berenger titled, "A History of the Habsburg Empire, 1273-1700," is beneficial in understanding the Habsburg Dynasty of this time period. hile there has been many works that have also been helpful when completing studies on this topic, Berenger's work is a successful addition to previously published research.
Berenger is a respected professor of history. His writings display a vast knowledge of the most recent as well as the older literature on Habsburg history. His knowledge is not limited to just the French and Austrain works, but he is also in command of the most recent English fellow. In this work, Berenger undertook an enormous task of explicitly explaining the colorful tapestry that is woven of the individual nations of the monarchy. He didn't take any stand for only one side, but equally gives information concerning all involved.
Berenger explains the…
Berenger, Jean. (1997). A History of the Habsburg Empire, 1700-1918. London: Longman.
Raeff, M. The Constitutionalism of Emperor Alexander I.
Raeff traces shifts in social and political culture in Russia at the start of the 19th century. Russian nationalism and federalism were beginning to become salient issues, leading to different expectations from Russian leaders. The people of the nation had a difficult relationship with the elite and the monarchy, exemplified in the "unabashed joy and happiness" that resulted from the death of Paul I (p. 1). New emperor Alexander faced a changing Russia that was becoming more aware of its role on the international arena and also more aware of its internal strife and diversity. Prior emperors like Paul had ruled with an iron fist and inspired mainly fear in the people. Alexander aimed to change public perception to garner support for federalist policies. Those policies included mending relationships with neighbors like Finland and Poland but it also included a more radical…
3. Von Haxthausen on the peasant commune (1844)
One of von Haxthausen's most poignant observations and descriptions on his journey through Russia was on the peasant commune and its ubiquitous presence in the countryside. His travels were through disparate regions and he witnessed many different cultures and societies, all of which shared in common the lifestyle the author describes in this chapter of his memoir. Describing the peasant communes in an admiring light, von Haxthausen notes that this might have been what Europe had looked like just a few generations ago. Von Haxthausan romanticizes the peasant commune, which gives rise to the idealistic notion that peasant-led movements can and should characterize future revolutions in Russian political culture. Although he admires the organization evident in the society and its hierarchical stratification, von Haxthausen also critiques the aristocracy for being completely out of touch with the people they govern.
The peasant commune presents an alternative social model to the exploitation of serfs, which had been the mainstay of European societies throughout history. Economic and political reforms that would take place a few generations after von Haxthausen penned his work are based on similar principles that workers should take pride in their daily work and not become too distanced from the means of production, honoring traditional labor models like farming. Moreover, von Haxthausen echoed prevailing sentiments related to the social and political empowerment of peasant people by offering rich descriptions of what he saw through his travels and by tying in analogies to what he knows of European history. Von Haxthausen also waxes poetic about the patriarchal family structure and gendered role differentiation throughout the communal societies.
The Constitution is based on several key principals the most notable would include: separation of powers as well as checks and balances. Separation of powers is when there are clearly defined powers that are given to the various branches of: the government, the federal government and the states. Checks and balances is when one branch of the government will have the power to the check the authority of another branch. (Wood) for example, the Constitution would specifically spell out various powers of the executive branch. During the course of exercising these different powers, a citizen brings a lawsuit against the government in the judicial branch. Where, they claim that the actions that the executive branch is taking are unconstitutional. In this particular case, the executive branch would work off of the powers given to them in the Constitution. When they begin to overstep these boundaries, another branch of the government…
"British Political Parties." Politics Resources. 2010. Web. 29 Apr. 2010.
"Fuel Efficiency Standards Hiked for 2011." MSNBC. 27 Mar. 2009. Web. 28 Apr. 2010.
"Key British Political Parties Pursuing Lilly Allen." One Indie. 2010. Web. 29 Apr. 2010.
"Markets in New Territory in Three Party Britain." Thompson Reuters. 26 Arp. 2010. Web. 29 Apr. 2010.
Articles of Confederation: The Articles of Confederation were approved in November, 1777 and were the basic format for what would become the Constitution and Bill of ights for the United States. There were, of course, deficiencies in the document, this was a new experiment and getting the delegates to agree in kind to pass any sort of document was challenging at best. The Articles did allow a semblance of unity, the further impetus to remain at war with the British, and the conclusion that there would be some sort of Federal government. The Articles, however, failed to require individual States to help fund the Federal (National) government, a template for an Executive and National Judicial Branch, or the issuance of paper money and a central banking system. In essence, the largest failure was the Articles' inability to allow a Federal government to regulate commerce, tax, or impose laws upon the…
REFERENCES and WORKS CONSULTED
Amar, a. (2005). America's Constitution: A Biography. New York: Random House.
Bailyn, B., ed. (1993). The Debate on the Constitution. Library of America Press.
Beeman, R. (2009). Plain, Honest Men: The Making of the American Constitution.
In addition, a brief look at his family history is required, because the political fortunes of James Otis' father directly influenced the trajectory of his own career.
James Otis was part of the fifth generation in a family that first arrived in the colonies looking for economic opportunity, and James Otis' grandfather, John Otis III, was the first in the family who went beyond business into politics (aters 1968 & Halko 1969, p. 609-10). In 1760 James Otis was appointed advocate general of the Admiralty Court, which was the court responsible for dealing with smuggled goods seized in the colonies (Hickman 1932, p. 89.) hen the protest launched by the Society for Promoting Trade and Commerce within the Province made its way to court, James Otis would have been responsible for defending the legality of writs of assistance, but instead he resigned his post and took up the cause of…
Adair, E.R. "Writs of Assistance, 1558-1700." English Historical Review. 36.143 (1921): 356-
Borchers, Tim. "A Rhetorical Analysis of James Otis's Against Writs of Assistance." Minnesota
State. Minnesota State, 12 Jan 2001. Web. 20 Mar 2011.
The fear that grew in France with the beginning of the war and the anxiety surrounding the development of the situation was probably one of the main causes that led people to embrace a more open radical leftist position. Many of the conservatives and those who supported the monarchy began to be seen as enemies of France and politicians who would compromise with the monarchic forces at any time. The revolution did not seem to have moved so much from the way things were in 1789 and had not brought the expected changes.
This type of environment made easy for the Jacobins, radical leftist, coagulated around Robespierre and Marat, to mobilize the population into overthrowing the monarchy and, later on, consolidating a terror reign that lasted up to 1794. The first step of the radicalization process is the assault on Tuileries, in August1792 and continued with the abolition of the…
1. Popkin, Jeremy. A History of Modern France. 3rd Edition.
Two examples of this "Enlightened Despotism" were Catherine the Great of Russia and Frederick the Great of Prussia. They based their monarchial powers, not on the Divine Right of Kings, but upon the need for a strong authoritative government to promote greater welfare within the state. These rulers created greater national standards and regulations that helped the state create a strong political infrastructure that veered away from traditional custom-based doctrine. As a result, Enlightened Absolutism became the norm within European government as monarchs began to systematically create a method to entrench national level reforms that would provoke greater political, economic and social stability.
Ultimately all four of these events are strongly interrelated because they were changes in the mindset of individuals. At the core level however, they were all reactions and extensions of the Reformation movement, which promoted greater individual liberty and free thinking. Absolutism and its evolution led to…
The problem was: that the distances were much further and many of the different explorers (such as: Columbus) began to seek out other routes to these areas. This led directly to: the colonial ambitions of many European nations and their desire to explore the new world to achieve these objectives. (Willner, 2008, pp. 255 -- 294)
The Role that the Individual will Play in Society
A third development of the Middle Ages, was that the individual is playing a vital role in: matters of government and society. This developed out of frustration that many people were feeling about the different monarchies. As, everyone was expected to follow: the various traditions and the laws that were imposed upon them by the nobility. This became problematic over the years, as this would turn into a sense of anger. At which point, many of these different monarchies faced direct challenges to their power.…
Middle Ages. (2011). Free Dictionary. Retrieved from: http://www.thefreedictionary.com/Middle+Ages
Holt, J. (1992). Magna Carta. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Willner, M. (2008). Global History. Hauppauge, NY: Barons.
They distributed publications that denounced the entire monarchy for their imposition of new taxes and for forcing their religious views into the government.
Doyle brings up that reform was attempted financially before the Revolution began in 1789, whose failed attempts might have been what pushed normally non-violent citizens to have to take matters into their own hands.
Restrictions on grain sales were lifted in the hopes that the sales and eventually government revenue would increase.
Between 1777 and 1781, the treasury system was reformed in the hopes of restoring some faith in the system, but most of the reforms were reversed due to pressure from different financial groups. The government was forced to keep borrowing money at high interest rates despite these "reforms" through the 1780's. In 1786, the new minister of finance proposed a similar plan to the first, asking for floating loans to cover expenses, to revoke some…
Regardless of how limited this particular scope lie within colonial society, it set a new precedent for a new form of virtue.
The debate over which type of virtue prevailed within the Continental Congress for four years; it seemed as if the classical virtue was diminishing. The notion of classical virtue involved adherence to social norms that were streamlined with an aristocratic government and monarchy. Even Richard Henry
Lee conceded that liberal virtues "Provided America as free and happy, I am not solicitous about the agents that accomplish it.' the agents Lee refers to were the opportunistic characters to used market conditions to their advantage. Lee formed a partnership with Robert Morris when it came to sealing a tobacco deal for the French, by Virginia planters. They were part of the increasing number of people who had the ability to couple self-interest with republican virtue.
While the shift of liberal…
" Indeed, in the "marriage bed of the beautiful Bertrande things now went well," presumably in sexual cohesion, but also, in reproduction as two daughters were born to them." key part of the Davis story was the trial, in which Arnaud was accused of being the imposter that indeed he was. This is in effect a sidebar to the story, and a sidebar to the issue of "different historians...using different types of evidence..." talk about the same things. On page 67, some 150 people had come to testify, but "forty-five people or more said that the prisoner was Arnaud...[and] about thirty to forty people said that the defendant was surely Martin Guerre." So, people who had seen history (the real Martin) had different views of whether this man on trial was him or not. Time casts shadows on the truth, just as it does on how the history of the…
Davis, Natalie Zemon. (1983). The Return of Martin Guerre. Cambridge: Harvard
Finlay, Robert. (1988). The Refashioning of Martin Guerre. The American Historical
Review, 93, 553-603.
Wood, Gordon S. (1991). The Radicalization of the American Revolution. New York:
government that have been employed to create orderly societies within both historical and contemporary epochs. One of the foremost governmental structures that has consistently been used is that of a monarchy. In a monarchy, there is a single person who presides over the political and governmental affairs of a group of people. That person is either a man or a woman, and generally has the final say regarding the setting of public policy. However, monarchs are frequently attended by a group of advisors and counselors who assist in informing them and, on occasion, even making influential decisions relating to the welfare of a particular society. Still, such counselors typically serve their monarch in an advisory capacity, and although they are occasionally permitted to institute actions that directly affect a population group, they do so only at the behest of the monarch, who can choose to veto whatever mandates such counselors…
Cincotta, Howard. "Defining Democracy." Usinfo.org. 2011. Web. http://usinfo.org/mirror/usinfo.state.gov/products/pubs/whatsdem/whatdm2.htm
Henslin, James. Sociology: A Down To Earth Approach. Columbus: Prentice Hall. 2011. Print.
Due to a shortage in labor supply, the demand for the working class increased exponentially. As such, the peasants were no longer at the bottom of the hierarchy in terms of the social and the economic class -- they were suddenly a highly desirable commodity that began charging fees to provide ti. The following quotation corroborates this fact.
Labour had become scarce and expensive and labourers well-off. Thos who survived the plague suddenly found they could pick and choose their masters, name their price for services, build up their landholdings and begin to employ their neighbors (Jones).
Since feudalism (a precursor to capitalism) was the system upon which England's economics and society was based, the government had to change its focus so that it could attempt to restore the exploitive practices in which laborers were readily cheated out of their labor. The English government became much more active in the…
Jones, Dan. "The Peasant's Revolt." History Today. 59 (6): 33-39. 2009. Web. Retrieved from http://ehis.ebscohost.com.ezp.waldenulibrary.org/eds/detail?vid=5&sid=4a1a08bc-7187-48b3-af28-8f30ae05e2ea%40sessionmgr113&hid=8&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWRzLWxpdmUmc2NvcGU9c2l0ZQ%3d%3d#db=a9h&an=41326596
Sage, Henry. "The Protestant Reformation Germany and England." www.academicamerican.com. 2010. Web. http://www.academicamerican.com/colonial/topics/reformation.htm
Spadafora, David. "Black Death." Encyclopedia Britannica. 2008. Web. http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/67758/Black-Death
Walker, Greg. "Henry VIII and the Invention of the Royal Court: Challenges the View that Intrigue and Court 'New Men' Took Root Under the Tudor Monarch." History Today. 47: 13-20. 1997. Print.
Henry of Huntingdon
Kings are weak: this is the impression one gets from reading the twelfth century English historian Henry of Huntingdon, particularly in his astonishing summary of the troubled reign of King Stephen -- for which, Diana Greenway tells us, Henry's is "the only complete contemporary account"[footnoteRef:0]. Stephen's reign was a time of low-level civil war -- which would last for over a decade -- and ultimately would raise serious questions about the legitimacy of the English monarchy. The portion of his chronicle that presents Stephen's reign, Henry makes it clear that Stephen's own accession to the throne, the ongoing issue of his legitimacy while he ruled, and the bizarre circumstances which lead to Stephen's being forced to acknowledge his female cousin's son, Henry of Anjou, as his heir. But to Henry of Huntingdon, Stephen stands an emblem of the overall weakness of kings in this time period, and…
Enlightenment on the French evolution
evolutionary changes in the leadership of 18th Century France did not occur overnight or with some sudden spark of defiance by citizens. The events and ideals which led to the French evolution were part of a gradual yet dramatic trend toward individualism, freedom, liberty, self-determination and self-reliance which had been evolving over years in Europe, and which would be called The Enlightenment. This paper examines and analyses the dynamics of The Enlightenment - and also, those individuals who contributed to the growth of The Enlightenment and to the ultimate demise of the Monarchy - in terms of what affect it had on the French evolution.
Introduction to the French evolution
When the legitimate question is raised as to what role, if any, The Enlightenment played in the French evolution, the best evidence from credible historic sources is that The Enlightenment did indeed play an important…
Brians, Paul. "The Enlightenment." Department of English, Washington State University (May 2000). http://www.wsu.edu:8080/~brians/hum_303/enlightenment.html.
Chartier, Roger. The Cultural Origins of the French Revolution. Durham: Duke
University Press, 1991.
Fieser, James. "Jean Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778)." The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Available at http://www.utm.edu/ressearch/iep/r/rousseau.htm.
Homelessness in the United States
Common Sense by Thomas Paine
The political situation in the colonies of America were more than ready to receive the pamphlet entitled Common Sense by Thomas Paine. Paine's writing provided a nation confused about their future and issues surrounding it, with a needed spur towards action and clarity of thought. The ambivalence of the time from the end of 1775 results from equally strong but opposing forces in the collective consciousness of the American mind during this time.
On the one hand, there was the urge towards autonomy and independence, while on the other a fundamental dependence on the ritish still reigned. Exacerbating the confusion within people's minds was the political upheaval manifest in the war breaking out in Massachusetts during April, as well as the Second Continental Congress. Further battles against the ritish were fought in New England and the South (Foner 79).
Foner, Eric. Tom Paine and Revolutionary America. New York: Oxford University Press, 1976.
Paine, Thomas. Common Sense. Penguin, 1983
onsidering that the old order in Ireland was in place since two millennia and had always been under the control of the Gaelic chieftains, their removal from the leadership of the provinces of Ireland by the English rown was destined to arise the resistance of the majority who sought support in the atholic world and especially hoped in the papal authority. urtis points out that the resistance against the protestant faith that built up after Elisabeth took over Munster and Ulster was coming not only from inside the respective Irish provinces, but also from the dissidents in Italy, Portugal, Spain and the Low countries. On one hand they were gathering in the spirit of preserving the old faith, on the other, the Irish and the Anglo-Irish who opposed the Reformation were changing their ways supported by the Jesuits who helping the process of transforming the faithful into fanatics. On the…
Cronin, Mike. A History of Ireland. Basingstoke, England: Palgrave, 2001.
Curtis, Edmund. A History of Ireland: From Earliest Times to 1922. London:
Certainly, the reign of Elizabeth I "was indeed the Golden Age of England," due to her personality, love for her country and the adoration of millions of Englishmen and women, not to mention several foreign kings and rulers who during her lifetime were bitter enemies, but following her death became ardent admirers ("Death of Queen Elizabeth I," Internet).
In 1588, some fifteen years before her death, Elizabeth I gave a speech to her faithful and loyal troops at Tilbury camp, where she arrived "in a great gilded coach and was escorted by 2000 ecstatic troops." James Aske, an eyewitness to this event, describes Elizabeth as "king-like and a sacred general" just before she began to address those in presence with "one of the greatest orations of British history, all the more extraordinary for being delivered at a moment of such trepidation." This speech truly reflects the atmosphere of Elizabeth's reign…
Death of Queen Elizabeth I." Elizabethan Era. Internet. 2007. Retrieved at http://www.elizabethan-era.org.uk/death-of-queen-elizabeth-i.htm .
MacCaffrey, Wallace T. Elizabeth I: War and Politics, 1588-1603. New York: Princeton
University Press, 1994.
Schama, Simon. A History of Britain at the Edge of the World, 3500 B.C.-1603 a.D. New York: Hyperion Press, 2000.
However, since its independence in 1905, Norway has worked towards building a strong economic base for its economy, although farmers and farming, too, continue to be strong identities in the nationalistic perception of Norwegians, its fishing industry, oil production and other natural resources. Norway's fishing industry is strong, although the country has some concerns about pollution and environmental issues, they're not strong or serious enough to adversely impact Norway's fishing economy.
First Attempts to Join the EC
At its inception, in 1948, the European Union was known as has the European Community, the EC; that a fully integrated Norway would mean economic enlargement for the EU. It offered attractive benefits to the European nations, and initially those benefits were comprised of a unified security system and economic incentives. One of the most appealing benefits for Norway, certainly appealing to Norway's farmers, is a subsidized farm plan that would generate income…
Burch, Stuart. "Norway and 1905: Stuart Burch Considers the Significance to Norway-Both in Terms of the Past and the Present-of the Anniversary of 1905, When the Country at Last Won Its Independence from Sweden." History Today, June 2005, 2+.
Institutions are defined as the existence of formal rules, on the one hand, and informal conventions and norms (such as impolitic societal rules that constrain behavior and impose forms of conduct) on the other. A system of enforcement structures are set in place to ensure that society abides to both and the strength of that enforcement system generally determines the extent to which individuals of a particular society will abide by its rules and conventions.
Enforcement may be carried out by various means depending on the specific set of situations. It may be carried out by self-enforcement (such as when one imposes upon oneself dietary restrictions of eating in order to lose weight). Enforcement may also be carried out by a second party as retaliation (as, for instance, another refusing to cordially greet the other is impolitely dealt with). Thirdly, and most strongly linked to maintenance and support of institutions,…
Bergman, P. (1980). Sociology of Knowledge, Oxford Univ. Press: Oxford.
Crossley, N. (2006) Contesting Psychiatry: Social Movements in Mental Health Routledge
Gerard, A. Institutions, path dependence and decomocratic consolidation, Journal of Theoretical Politics 13(3): 249 -- 70
Harris, H.W., Felder, D., & Clark, M.O. (2004). A Psychiatric Residency Curriculum on the Care of African-American Patients. Academic Psychiatry 28 (3): 226 -- 239
The trading situation between Great ritain and China in the early part of the 18th century continued to expand, yet the ritish were not satisfied and wanted to possess the ability to trade at any Chinese port and with any entity it wished. In 1793, the first formal diplomatic mission arrived in China under the leadership of Lord Macartney, a man often described as having a powerful influence on trade in India and with a vast knowledge of Eastern sensibilities. Macartney's main objective was to devise a treaty for a fair exchange of diplomatic representatives and the opening of all Chinese ports to ritish shipping while creating a set of tariff duties which were to be vigorously enforced in every Chinese port.
Unfortunately, Macartney's mission to China did not turn out as he had expected, for he was rebuffed by the emperor. In 1816, another attempt to establish formal trading…
Gregory, J.S. The West and China Since 1500. New York: Macmillan, 1999.
Mungello, David E. The Great Encounter of China and the West, 1500 to 1800. New York: Rowman & littlefield, 2000.
Although scientists found artifacts and art objects of the Olmecs; until this century they did not know about the existence of the Olmecs. Most of the objects which were made by this community were associated with other civilizations, such as Mayan, Toltec or Chichimecan. The Olmec lived between 1600 B.C. And 1400 B.C. In South Mexico. The name of this tribe comes from an Aztec word "ollin" which means "land of rubber."
At first they ate fish and they later start to farm, and that made it possible for them to "develop the first major civilization in Mesoamerica." (The Olmec Civilization) Thanks to the steady food supplies the Olmec population grew and some came to have other occupations. "Some became potters or weavers. Others became priests or teachers." (Ibidem) Once the population grew, so did their farming villages which developed into cities. The present-day city of San Lorenzo was…
1. The Olmec Civilization, Retrieved December 14, 2012, from the Pleasant Valley School website: http://www.pvsd.k12.ca.us/180120521134440680/lib/180120521134440680/11-2_SG_7th.pdf
2. Villeacas, Daniel, Mother Culture of Mexico: The Olmecs, Denver Public Schools, 2005, Retrieved December 14, 2012, from the Denver Public Schools website: http://etls.dpsk12.org/documents/Alma/units/MotherCultureMexicoOlmecs.pdf
3. Olmec -- Masterworks of Ancient Mexico, Retrieved December 14, 2012, from the Los Angeles County Museum of Art website: http://www.lacma.org/eduprograms/EvesforEds/OlmecEssay.pdf
4. Hansen, Valerie, Curtis Kenneth, Curtis, Kenneth R., Voyages in World History: To 1600, Volume 1, Cengage Learning, December 30, 2008
" (Rise of the Commons)
The 14th century was a time when the aristocracy (the Commons in particular) acted on account of their personal interests in addition to acting in accordance with the King's wishes. These individuals gradually started to consider that it was only natural for them to have a word in governing the country and that it was irrational for them to simply accept the King's decisions with regard to taxes. The Parliament thus emerged as a result of people's reluctance to follow the King's laws blindly. The aristocracy played an active role in reestablishing its influence in the country throughout the fourteenth century.
Edward III's last years were less impressive when considering his leadership abilities and the fact that he was largely inactive due to his age and sickness materialized in the masses becoming stronger. The people named Sir Peter de la Mare as a spokesman on…
Bond, Maurice, "The History of Parliament and the Evolution of Parliamentary Procedure," Retrieved July 7, 2013, from the Parliament Website: http://www.parliament.uk/documents/parliamentary-archives/evolution.pdf
Harper-Bill, Cristopher, and Vincent, Nicholas, "Henry II: New Interpretations," (Boydell Press, 2007)
Lord Irvine of Lairg, "The Spirit of Magna Carta Continues to Resonate in Modern Law," Retrieved July 7, 2013, from the Parliament of Australia Website: http://www.aph.gov.au/binaries/senate/pubs/pops/pop39/lairg.pdf
"Magna Carta and the Rule of Law 1215," Retrieved July 7, 2013, from the Moonogian-Demirdijian School Website: http://agbumds.edlioschool.com/ourpages/auto/2009/8/25/44063368/Magna%20Carta%20and%20the%20Rule%20of%20Law%201215.pdf