Money Laundering Essays (Examples)

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Money Banking and Financial Markets

Words: 2353 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75747613

economic crisis in Europe and the increasing costs for European countries to borrow money and bail out other Euro countries in financial distress. The EU nations that use the Euro have experienced a crisis among certain countries with high debt requiring bailouts for Greece and Ireland and the likelihood that Portugal and Spain may also need a bailout. Postponing the restructuring of high interest debts has led to further crisis rather than resolving any of the problems faced by insolvent countries. Huge transfer payments from the more powerful Euro countries, like Germany, to the failed economies of Greece and Ireland have made investors nervous and led to less investment at a crucial time. The author suggests that the debts of troubled countries need to be restructured now in order to create a sustainable payment to increase confidence and secure future payments.

Creditors will also have to shoulder some of the…… [Read More]

References

Bamberger, K.. (2010). Technologies of Compliance: Risk and Regulation in a Digital Age. Texas Law Review, 88(4), 669-739. Retrieved January 21, 2011, from ABI/INFORM Global. (Document ID: 1995143041). http://www.egloballibrary.com/egl/html/institutes/1086/homepage/library.jsp

Corder, J. (2009). The Federal Reserve System and the Credit Crisis. Public Administration Review, 69(4), 623-631. doi:10.1111/j.1540-6210.2009.02011.x http://ehis.ebscohost.com.csuproxy.egloballibrary.com/ehost/detail?hid=6&sid=feb1c9d6-ff89-462b-9741-b5b3cfdd54aa%40sessionmgr12&vid=8&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ%3d%3d#db=buh&AN=42960193

Europe finance: Time for Plan B. (2011, January). EIU ViewsWire. Retrieved January 19, 2011, from ABI/INFORM Global. (Document ID: 2241366821). http://www.egloballibrary.com/egl/html/institutes/1086/homepage/library.jsp

Torres, J.. (2011). China's Leadership Role during the Global Financial Crisis. Journal of American Academy of Business, Cambridge, 16(2), 81-88. Retrieved January 20, 2011, from ABI/INFORM Global. (Document ID: 2210001101).
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Electric Money

Words: 3263 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60441183

electronic money, and a description into the various types of electronic money.

Computers and telecommunications devices may come in place of paper currency and checks - during a course of time. Also, electronic ways of transaction of money have turned out widely prevalent. Anyhow, in the recent past debate about "electronic money" has witnessed a dramatic change, narrowing down to the level to which new ways of electronic money will in course of time turn central banks out of date, making them fragile that they cannot manipulate inflation. (Stevens, 72) Electronic money can be considered in terms of electronic substitute for coins and banknotes, which is saved on an electronic gadget such as a chip card or computer memory and which overall is meant for the reason of influencing electronic payments of restricted loans. (Directive 2000/46/Ec of the European Parliament and of the Council, 2)

Analysis

Electronic money is not…… [Read More]

References

Bank of International settlements, (BIS). Security of Digital Money. Basel, 1996, 1-11

Board of Governors (BoG) of the Federal Reserve System. The Federal Reserve System: Purpose & Functions. Washington, D.C.: Federal Reserve System. 1994, 1-18.

Bonorris, Steven. Institute for Technology Assessment (ITA) (ed.): Digital Money: Industry and Public Policy Issues. Washington: ITA, October 1997, 44

Directive 2000/46/Ec of the European Parliament and of the Council, 2000, Official Journal of the European Communities, 27 October, 2000, 1-10
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Hsbc Bank USA Efforts in

Words: 8176 Length: 30 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29350266

It is highly unlikely that they would become involved with illegal activities knowingly. However, the complicated nature of compliance risk and the high expectations within the banking industry make it possible that some legal manner might be overlooked.

Chief Compliance Officers are at particular risk due to the nature of their position and should be increasingly diligent to maintain a proper understanding of the expectations of compliance. Additionally, Chief Compliance Officers and the operations department should be aware of the current weaknesses within their own AML programs.

In an effort to minimize these risks, HSBC Bank USA has recognized the need for more purposeful measurement and management of compliance risk.

Legal and operational risk can quickly and efficiently hamper the activities of any bank. However, it is reputational risk that poses the greatest risk to HSBC Bank USA. Banks that are associated with money laundering, terrorism, and criminal activity in…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bagla, Deepak, and Vinay Mendonca. "Anti-Money Laundering: Payments Filtering." HSBC's Guide to Cash and Treasury Management in the Asian Pacific. 2006. 13 January 2007 .

Bank Compliance: Controlling Risk and Improving Effectiveness. Economist Intelligence Unit, June 2006. 13 January 2007 .

Banking Department Enters Into Written Agreement with HSBC Bank USA. 30 Apr. 2003. 13 January 2007 .

Beaumier, Carol M. "Auditing anti-money-laundering compliance: insufficient transaction testing, inadequate testing of automated monitoring systems and deficient follow-up are typical shortcomings.(Regulatory Outlook)." Bank Accounting & Finance 19.1 (Dec 2005): 31(4). Expanded Academic ASAP. Thomson Gale. Denver Public Library. 12 Jan. 2007 .
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Bank Insure That the Level

Words: 1883 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44435249

In 2003, new procedures were created and they state that "companies accredited with receiving money relating to public subscription in securities must take all necessary measures to ensure the legality of the sources of the money used in the payment of such securities, in compliance with the provisions laid down in the Prevention and Prohibition of Money Laundering and its Implementing egulations" (Terterov and euvid, 2005).

Banking institutions are also focused on reducing money laundering and the principal actions they implement in this endeavor are those of fully complying with the regulations imposed by the central banks and the legislations in their home countries. More recently, the banks can access technological innovations to fight money laundering, such as LexisNexis's Bridger Insight XGTM (Tech 4 Law). But since the access to technologies is different at each bank, a conclusion is drawn that the internal reactions to money laundering are different. The…… [Read More]

References:

Minaeva, T., Aksenova, M., Anti-money laundering in Russia, White & Case, http://www.whitecase.ru/articles/moneylaundry.pdf last accessed on July 14, 2010

Terterov, M., Reuvid, J., 2005, Doing business with Estonia, GMB Publishing Ltd.

Walker, J., 1998, Modeling global money laundering flows -- some findings,  http://www.johnwalkercrimetrendsanalysis.com.au/ML%20method.htm  last accessed on July 13, 2010

1999, Ten years of combating money laundering, OECD Observer, http://www.oecdobserver.org/news/fullstory.php?aid=63 last accessed on July 13, 2010
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Globalization and Organized Crime Globalization

Words: 3395 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51194259

Thus, many shipments go to another destination before the United States or Europe in order to throw law enforcement off of the trail. For cocaine coming out of Colombia, West Africa and Venezuela, home to rogue states and dictatorships, have become popular transit hubs.

The increased transportation of goods accompanying globalization has increased opportunities for maritime piracy. Organized crime is exploiting the increasingly dense international flow of commercial vessels. Maritime piracy consists not only of hijacking of goods, but also kidnapping of passengers for ransom. (UNODC, 2010, p. 11)

OC groups engaged in pirating do not often begin as OC groups. Pirates off the cost of Somalia started as local Somali fishermen who formed vigilante groups to protect their territorial waters. These armed ships eventually exceeded their mandate of mere protection and began to hijack commercial ships for goods. These activities have proved so profitable that these groups are now…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Lyman, M.D. & Potter, G.W. (2007). Organized Crime. New York: Prentice Hall

Abadinsky, H. (2010). Organized crime. Belmont, Calif: Wadsworth/Cengage Learning.

Mallory, S.L. (2007). Understanding organized crime. Sudbury, Mass: Jones and Bartlett.

Kaplan, D.E., & Dubro, A. (2003). Yakuza: Japan's criminal underworld. Berkeley: University of California Press.
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Federal and State Jurisdiction

Words: 352 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 24469492

Alaska Federal and State Jurisdiction

THE ALASKA MODEL

Federal and State Jurisdiction

Alaska is the 49h state of the United States of America and the largest (State of Alaska, 2013). Its capital is Juneau and Fairbanks is the only large city. Its government is divided into three co-equal branches, namely the executive, the legislative, and the judicial, for purposes of checks and balances. The judicial branch consists of three separate entities, i.e., the Alaska Court System, the Alaska Judicial Council and the Alaska Commission on Judicial Conduct (State of Alaska).

Alaska has a unified and centrally operated court system, which is completely State-funded (State of Alaska, 2013). The State's court system has four levels with individual powers, duties and responsibilities. The first two, the Superior Court and District Court, are trial courts. They are the first that hear and decide cases. The other two are the Supreme Court and the…… [Read More]

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Alaska, State of (2013). Profile of the Alaska court system. State of Alaska. Retrieved on August 30, 2013 from http://www.courts.alaska.gov/reports/profile2013.pdf

Alaska Humanities Forum (2013). Governing Alaska. Alaska History and Cultural

Studies. Retrieved on August 30, 2013 from  http://www.akhistorycourse.org/articles/article.php?artID=405
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Computer-Based Crime

Words: 1254 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48976157

Computer-Based Crime

The illegal site I reviewed for this assignment is www.howtogrowmarijuana.com. This site covers virtually all aspects of marijuana growing -- which is an illegal activity because marijuana is widely outlawed in the United States. However, there are some states in which individuals can legally consume marijuana for medicinal purposes. In these states and others there exists the potential for businesses to legally supply this substance to people.

There is a large degree of transparency in this particular web site. It was the first result to appear with a Yahoo search for "How to grow marijuana." As the tile of the site suggests, it discusses many different facets of growing marijuana and stratifies this process according to location (indoor or outdoors), various strains of marijuana including seeds (No author, 2014), irrigation and growth systems involving hydroponics, and other germane equipment types such as the expensive lights used to assist…… [Read More]

References

Faris, S. (2013). Have the NSA leaks compromised Big Data's future? www.dataversity.net Retrieved from  http://www.dataversity.net/page/2/?s=stephanie+faris 

No author. (2014). Marijuana seed strains review. www.howtogrowmarijuana.com Retrieved from http://howtogrowmarijuana.com/all-marijuana-strains.html

Romero, R. (2011). Craigslist illegal drug trade exposed. www.abc7.com

Retrieved from  http://abc7.com/archive/8132665/
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Stanford Ponzi Scheme a Ponzi Scheme Is

Words: 1018 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69992503

Stanford Ponzi Scheme

A Ponzi scheme is an investment fraud involving the payment of returns to existing investors from funds contributed by new investors. There is generally no actual investment. Instead, the managers/organizers of the schemes "focus on attracting new money to make promised payments to earlier-stage investors and to use for personal expenses, instead of engaging in any legitimate investment activity" (SEC). Investors are attracted to Ponzi schemes because those running the schemes promise high returns and say that there is little or no risk. Moreover, because money from new investors is used to pay the older investors, early investors do see the promised high returns. Unfortunately, because there is no legitimate investment income driving the fund, when the scheme fails to attract new investors or existing investors get leery and seek to cash out of the fund, the entire scheme collapses. There are some red flags that an…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Brubaker Calkins, Laurel, and Andrew Harris. "Allen Stanford Trial Begins as Indigent Ex-

Billionaire Claims Memory Loss." Bloomberg. 23 Jan. 2012. Web. 28 Feb. 2012.

"Bryan Burrough on Allen Stanford's Alleged Ponzi Scheme." Vanity Fair. 3 Jun. 2009. Web.

28 Feb. 2012.
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International Crime Terrorism and Organized Crime Trends

Words: 3182 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30816158

International Crime, Terrorism, And Organized Crime Trends

Comparing contrasting topics international crime, terrorism, organized crime trends

This research has confirmed the possibility of close correlation between money laundering activities, Islamic terrorist fundraising, organized crime, and corruption of public officials throughout Brazilian Hizballah region. The organized crime networks and the Islamic extremists of Brazil must be examined in collaboration because they are connected to wider networks in Latin America zone and across the world. All the organized activities and terrorists in Brazilian Hizballah were facilitated by corrupt officials, which were driven by the benefits of lucrative criminal activities conducted such as business ventures by terrorists and organized crime groups. Consequently, there was a mutually beneficial association among the three sectors. In this study, Brazilian Hizballah will serve as a microcosm.

Introduction

A number of free-Trade American regions with massive Middle Eastern populations permit organized crime mafias, Islamic terrorist groups, and corrupt…… [Read More]

References

Almeida, J. (2008). Brazil in focus: Economic, political and social issues. New York: Nova Science Publishers.

Duyan, A., & NATO Emerging Security Challenges Division. (2012). Defence against terrorism: Different dimensions and trends of an emerging threat: [proceedings of the NATO Advanced Training Course on Defence Against Terrorism: Different Dimensions and Trends of the Emerging Threat - Terrorism, Kabul, Afghanistan, 23-27 May 2010]. Amsterdam: Ios Pres in cooperation with NATO Emerging Security Challenges Division.

Friedlander, R.A., Levie, H.S. & Lovelace, D.C. (2009). Terrorism: Documents of international and local control. Dobbs Ferry, N.Y: Oceana Publications.

Giraldo, J.K. (2007). Terrorism financing and state responses: A comparative perspective. Stanford, Calif: Stanford Univ. Press.
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Subprime Loans Are Said to Be Among

Words: 1545 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71238431

Subprime loans are said to be among the biggest reasons for the most recent financial crisis which hit the world economy at the end of year 2008. Had the lenders considered the level of income and repaying abilities of the borrowers before lending them money, the World's financial sector would not have seen such critical circumstances. The consequences of subprime loans have not ended yet; economists and researchers in the field of International Finance are of the view that they may further get worsen in the coming five to ten years period. Beside the criticism regarding the approval of subprime loans to low income borrowers, the lenders have also been strongly criticized for using unethical business practices in their customer dealings and transactions (Mandal, 2010).

This paper investigates the consequences and risks that were caused by subprime loans in the World's financial sector and their impact on the lenders, borrowers,…… [Read More]

References

Donath, L.E., & Cismas, L.M. (2009). The Current Financial Crisis Revisited -- Causes and Remedies, the Romanian Economic Journal, 31 (1): 85-92.

Goldmann, P. (2010). Financial Services Anti-Fraud Risk and Control Workbook, 1st Edition. Hoboken, N.J.: Wiley.

Jennings, M. (2012). Business Ethics: Case Studies and Selected Readings, 7th Edition. South-Western Legal Studies in Business. Australia; Mason, OH: South-Western.

Magdoff, F., & Foster, J.B. (2009). The Great Financial Crisis: Causes and Consequences. N.Y: Monthly Review Press
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Organized Crime Scholar Mark C Gribben Defines

Words: 1777 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29747650

organized crime scholar Mark C. Gribben, defines organized crime as "an ongoing criminal enterprise consisting of multiple actors working for economic gain who use or will use force to promote and protect their enterprises." y this definition a number of groups might fit into the definition of organized crime. Street gangs, hate groups, drug cartels, and the Mafia are merely the tip of the iceberg when it comes to organized crime in the United States.

The preceding graphic demonstrates the scope of organized crime in America. It is important to understand that the crimes within the largest circle are those which are generally considered organized in nature. Those outside the circle, such as the solo murder or the one-time bank robbery are not considered to be organized. They key elements of organized crime must include "ongoing criminal activity with multiple actors."

The following pages will explore organized crime in America.…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Israely, Jeff. "Meet the Modern Mob." Time. 2 June 2002. http://www.time/world/printout/0,8816,257072,00.html

Organized Crime Ed. Mark Gribben. February 2003. http://organizedcrime.about.com/library/weekly.htm

Lindberg, Richard C. "The Mafia in America: Traditional Organized Crime in Transition." Search International. February 2003. http://www.search-international.com/Articles/crime/mafiaamerica.htm

Is This the End of R.I.C.O. February 2003. http://www.fsu.edu/~crimdo/rico.html
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History of Swiss Banking in

Words: 2877 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3277343

The asylum automatically granted under the Swiss constitution was denied for those seeking it for religious reasons. y 1942, only 9,150 foreign Jews were legally resident in Switzerland, an increase of just 980 since 1931. It was the Swiss government that requested the German government to help it identify Jews by stamping all Jewish passports with a prominent letter "J," following the Nuremberg acts in 1935. "y 1942, acting at the behest of Switzerland's establishment and the majority of its people, its authoritarian police apparatus was dedicated to keeping the country 'pure' and to saving it from being 'overrun with Jews'." Until 1942, the working Jewish community in Switzerland was forced by the government to support Jewish refugees.

The other side of the German interest in Switzerland's banks was related to the business of Germany and the looting of conquered countries. y 1941, Germany had exhausted all of its foreign…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Bazyler, Michael J. Holocaust Justice: The Battle for Restitution in America's Courts. New York: New York University Press, 2003.

Borowiec, Andrew. "World's leaders gather in Geneva." The Washington Times. http://washingtontimes.com/world/20-5793r.htm.

Bower, Tom. Nazi Gold. New York: Harper Collins, 1997.

Clarke, William. "Nazi Gold: The Role of the Central Banks - Where Does the Blame Lie?" Central Banking, Volume VIII Number 1. Summer 1997. April 22, 2005.  http://www.bigeye.com/nazigold.htm .
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National Institute of Justice Nij Department of

Words: 1160 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 21067627

National Institute of Justice (NIJ): Department of Justice

Research question/hypothesis

Importance of research to general knowledge

Methodology (Data collection approach, collection of data and analysis techniques)

f. Analysis techniques to be implemented

Main Body

The purpose of the proposal

Review of relevant literature

Implication of policy and practice

Dissemination strategy

Dependant and Independent variables

Due to tremendous increase in crime rate, there is urgent need to evaluate and understand criminal behavior, to implement programs and develop strategies that will prevent criminal activities and curb crime increase, using considerately cost effective approaches and technological inputs.

With regards to the nature of the problem, the most convenient way that will be cost effective and easy to implement will be the use of Reserve Officer Training Corps (ROTC) programs being integrated into the high school syllabus as an incentive which will make the program more appealing to the students, hence allowing for prevention…… [Read More]

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Offshore Financial Centres and Their

Words: 22477 Length: 60 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31068943



Because the home country is not required to reimburse foreign depositors for losses, there is no corresponding financial penalty for lax supervision; there is, though, a benefit to the country with lenient regulatory policies because of increased revenues generated and the employment opportunities these services provide (Edwards 1999). Furthermore, banks seeking to conduct multinational business are attracted to countries where incorporation laws and the regulatory framework offer less regulatory oversight (Edwards 1999). The quid pro quo nature of offshore financial services is clearly indicated by Edwards's observation that, "Multinational banks provide the offshore financial centre with increased tax revenue and employment for its citizens. Because the benefits outweigh the costs, offshore financial centres have a powerful incentive to maintain lenient regulatory policies. As a result, multinational banks incorporated in an offshore financial center successfully avoid supervision by an effective home country regulator" (1999, p. 1267). Given the scope of the…… [Read More]

References

Black's Law Dictionary. (1999). St. Paul, MN: West Publishing Co.

Boise, C.M. & Morriss, a.P. (2009). 'Change, Dependency, and Regime Plasticity in Offshore Financial

Intermediation: the Saga of the Netherlands Antilles.' Texas International Law Journal, vol. 45,

no. 2, pp. 377-379.
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Analyzing the Illicit Finance

Words: 1772 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98997368

Illicit Finance

Why is the internet important to money laundering?

A large number of nations now have aggressive policies in place against money laundering, rendering it exceedingly difficult for offenders to apply traditional money laundering tactics. But this also leads them to strive at creating new tactics with the Internet being one of the popular new modes they employ (Kassner, 2013).

Globalization and the Internet have made it possible to pay for services online. Several online merchants and customers make use of the numerous web-based payment services available. A number of these individuals aren't eligible to own credit cards or have no bank accounts. Thus, web-based payment services enable them to purchase products/services online and transfer cash directly. Numerous online sellers are very willing to get paid online, since they are cheaper than credit card payments (Delta & Matsuura, 2008).

The web-based payment services may be located anywhere in the…… [Read More]

References

Delta, G., & Matsuura, J. (2008). Law of the Internet. Aspen Publishers Online. Retrieved from  https://www.techopedia.com/2/29789/internet/world-wide-web/money-laundering-the-internet-way 

IMF. (2016). Anti-Money Laundering/Combating the Financing of Terrorism. Retrieved from  https://www.imf.org/external/np/leg/amlcft/eng/aml1.htm 

Kaplan, E. (2006). Tracking Down Terrorist Financing. Retrieved from http://www.cfr.org/terrorist-financing/tracking-down-terrorist-financing/p10356#p6

Kassner, M. (2013, Dec). Money Laundering, the Internet Way. Retrieved from Techopedia:
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Future of Eurasian Organized Crime

Words: 7401 Length: 25 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30485101

Ashley, Assistant Director, Criminal Investigative Division of the FI relates that in 1991: "...the U.S. Attorney's office in Los Angeles charged 13 defendants in a $1 billion false medical billing scheme that was headed by two Russian emigre brothers. On September 20, 1994, the alleged ringleader was sentenced to 21 years in prison for fraud, conspiracy, racketeering, and money laundering. He was also ordered to forfeit $50 million in assets, pay more than $41 million in restitution to government agencies and insurance companies victimized by the scheme." (2003) Ashley relates that the first Eurasian organized crime investigation of a significant nature involved a major underworld figure in the United States and specifically, Vyacheslav Ivankov who is a powerful Eurasian organized crime boss. Ashley states that Ivankov "...led an international criminal organization that operated in numerous cities in Europe, Canada, and the United States, chiefly New York, London, Toronto, Vienna, udapest,…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Albini, Joseph L. And R.E. Rogers. "Proposed Solutions to the Organized Crime Problem in Russia." Demokratizatsiya Winter 1998: p. 103.

Crime Without Punishment." (1999) the Economist August 28, 1999 the Makings of a Molotov Cocktail. The Economist 344, no. 8025.

Edward H. Sutherland (nd) Differential Association Theory. Online Criminology FSU.EDU available at http://www.criminology.fsu.edu/crimtheory/sutherland.html

Eurasian, Italian and Balkan Organized Crime (2003) Testimony of Grant D. Ashley, Assistant Director, Criminal Investigative Division, FBI Before the Subcommittee on European Affairs, Committee on Foreign Relations, United States Senate. 30 Oct. 2003. Federal Bureau of Investigations. Online available at http://www.fbi.gov/congress/congress03/ashley103003.htm
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Countering Illicit Finance a Number

Words: 1348 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2942489

Criminal gangs do exploit global trade networks using confusing documentation associated with legitimate business transactions. Such criminals ideally make use of Trade-ased Money Laundering (TML). This is a scheme that Colombian drug cartels have capitalized on. Homeland Security Intelligence has in this regard instituted Trade Transparency Unit (TTU) to counter TCOs resolve to launder illicit proceeds through manipulation of international trade and financial systems. The TTU partners with foreign nations to exchange trade data

. It has partnered with Mexico, Panama, razil, Colombia, Ecuador, and Paraguay to mention but a few countries with a view to identifying, investigating, and prosecuting international criminal gangs that engage in TML. The ICE, ITU, and intelligence analysts in the field together with the foreign customs and law enforcement agencies responsible for border control and enforcement of financial crimes make use of TTU's computer systems called the Data Analysis and Research for Trade Transparency System…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Department of Homeland Security, (2012). "Written testimony of U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement Homeland Security Investigations Investigative Programs

Assistant Director Leigh Winchell for a Senate Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs, Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations hearing titled "U.S.

Vulnerabilities to Money Laundering, Drugs, and Terrorist Financing: HSBC Case

History"16 Jul. 2012.
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The Evolution of Organized Crime

Words: 2207 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 78718392

History Of Organized Crime

More than a century of motion pictures and more than a half-century of television productions have created a somewhat romanticized version of organized crime as typified in "The Godfather" series. Indeed, there is even a National Museum of Organized Crime and Law Enforcement, commonly known as "The Mob Museum" in Las Vegas which is a popular tourist destination (Green, 2013). The reality of organized crime, however, contrasts sharply with any romanticized depiction and the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) emphasizes that organized crime is not only prevalent in the United States, it has become far more complex and broader in scope compared to the past. To determine the facts about the history of organized crime, this paper provides a background and overview followed by an analysis of some of the main sources of revenues for these criminal organizations. Finally, the paper concludes with an analysis of…… [Read More]

References

Calderon, F. (2015, Summer). Drug trafficking and organized crime: Connected but different. Harvard International Review, 36(4), 52-55.

Drug trafficking. (2016). United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. Retrieved from https:// www.unodc.org/unodc/en/drug-trafficking/.

Green, M. (2013, October 1). How the Mob (Museum) was won: Building a history of organized crime in the U.S. UNLV Gaming Research & Review Journal, 17(2), 101-104.

Kelly, R. J. & Chin, K. L. (1999). Handbook of organized crime in the United States. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.
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Narcoterrorism and the Future

Words: 18088 Length: 70 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91167730

Mexico faces an array of drug-related problems ranging from production and transshipment of illicit drugs to corruption, violence, and increased internal drug abuse. Powerful and well-organized Mexican organizations control drug production and trafficking in and through Mexico, as well as the laundering of drug proceeds. These organizations also have made a concerted effort to corrupt and intimidate Mexican law enforcement and public officials. In addition, the geographic proximity of Mexico to the United States and the voluminous cross-border traffic between the countries provide ample opportunities for drug smugglers to deliver their illicit products to U.S. markets. The purpose of this study was to develop informed and timely answers to the following research questions: (a) How serious is the trade in illicit drugs between Mexico and the United States today and what have been recent trends? (b) How does drug trafficking fund terrorist organizations in general and trade between Mexico and…… [Read More]

References

Delaware fact sheet. (2014). Friends of Narconon, International. Retrieved from http://www.friendsof narconon.org/drug_distribution_in_the_united_states/delaware_drug_facts/delaware_fact

sheet/.

Drug threats in Wilmington. (2014). Drug Enforcement Edu.org. Retrieved from http://www.

drugenforcementedu.org/delaware/wilmington/.
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Business Law Berkeley Premium Nutraceuticals

Words: 2742 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20041024

The grand jury returned a 112-count indictment against Steve Warshak, company president; his mother, Harriet Warshak; general counsel Paul Kellogg; and former employees Charles Clarke Jr., Steven Pugh and Amar Chavan. A company called TCI Media, which was allegedly used to launder money, was also part of the indictment. The charges include 77 counts of money laundering, 12 counts of mail fraud and four counts of bank fraud (Berkeley president, others indicted for fraud, 2006).

After the Grand Jury indictments were handed down The U.S. Attorney's Office in Cincinnati filed a new complaint against Berkeley Premium Nutraceuticals that included the freezing of various assets worth almost $2 million. The complaint alleged that Berkeley owner Steven Warshak and others participated in a complex, large scale mail and wire fraud operation. This amounted to another felony charge being added to the long list that had already been handed down. The frozen assets…… [Read More]

References

1. Berkeley Nutraceuticals files for Chapter 11 bankruptcy. (2008). Retrieved June 10, 2009, from Business Courier Web site:

http://www.bizjournals.com/cincinnati/stories/2008/09/15/daily26.html

2. Berkeley Premium Nutraceuticals, Inc. (2009). Retrieved June 10, 2009, from Business Courier

Web site:
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IRS-CID the Internal Revenue Service

Words: 5371 Length: 16 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1767886



There are ten Fraud Detection Centers across the United States, and these are meant to detect refund fraud and to identify prevention measures. Each of these offices has a Resident Agent in Charge to direct, monitor, and coordinate operations supporting electronic and paper tax filing, and each Center performs activities that include educating Submission Processing Center and Customer Service Center personnel on fraud awareness and detection.

Criminal investigation in the agency started shortly after the Revenue Act of 1913 was passed, and that act imposed a modest tax of 1% on net incomes of individuals, estates, trusts, and corporations. In addition, another tax, or surtax, graduated from 1 to 6%, was applied to income exceeding $20,000. Over time, many laws have been passed that have changed the rates and other aspects of revenue assessment. Tax evasion was noted as early as 1919, when many serious allegations concerning alleged tax frauds…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Baker, Jeremy and Rebecca Young. "False Statements and False Claims." American Criminal Law Review, Volume 42, Issue 2 (2005), 427.

Berlau, John. "Return of the 'Audits from Hell': IRS Commissioner Charles Rossotti Once Pledged to Champion Taxpayer Rights, but Instead Americans Find Themselves Facing the Resurrection of Random Audits." Insight on the News, Volume 18, Issue 27 (July 29, 2002), 15.

Cochran, Amanda a. "Evidence Handed to the IRS Criminal Division on a 'Civil' Platter: Constitutional Infringements on Taxpayers." Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, Volume 91, Issue 3 (2001), 699.

Craig Jr., James L. "Guidance on Financial Status Audits: It's Not Just for CPAs." The CPA Journal (2007), http://www.nysscpa.org/cpajournal/1996/0796/features/Guida.htm.
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Combating Terrorism a Policy

Words: 3748 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42684376

Policy ecommendation in Combating Terrorism

Policy Project Part 1: Project outline

In the aftermath of the September 11 terrorist attacks, the U.S. government and the international community reviewed typologies for the financing of transnational terrorism and examined ways to combat such financing. Unfortunately, evidence indicates that al Qaeda and other terrorist groups apparently affiliated with or inspired by al Qaeda have worked quite economically, using low-budget methods to operate. After reviewing two typologies, this part of the paper discusses applicable legal mechanisms for preventing and prosecuting the financing of transnational terrorist networks and considers proposals for improving the effectiveness of efforts to combat foreign-affinity terrorist financing (euter & Truman, 2004; Carter, 2008).

Typologies

The evolving effects of globalization and the transnational nature of terrorism have combined to create almost limitless possibilities for terrorists looking to finance operations (Sheppard, 2008). One problem with combating terrorist financing is that many forms of…… [Read More]

References

Alexander, Yonah, and Donald J. Musch, eds. (2012). Terrorism, Documents of International and Local Control. Vol. 35. Dobbs Ferry, New York: Oceana.

Andreas, Peter, and Ethan Nadelmann. (2013). Policing the Globe: Criminalization and Crime Control in International Relations. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Carter, Barry E. (2008) International Economic Sanctions: Improving the Haphazard U.S. Legal Regime. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Cesari, Jocelyne. (2009) Muslims in the West after 9/11. New York: Routledge.
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New Ways to Combat Organized Crime

Words: 2337 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66009522

Organized crime presents certain unique challenges for law enforcement in the 21st century. As noted by Bjelopera & Finklea (2012) in their report to Congress on the history of organized criminal activity in the United States, modern organized criminal networks tend to be more fluid and less hierarchical than organized associations of the past. Organized crime networks are also more apt to outsource critical aspects of their operations, which can make building a unified case a challenge for law enforcement agencies (Bjelopera & Finklea, 2012, p.1). Diverting resources to combat terrorism have also left law enforcement agencies in the United States with fewer financial resources to combat other forms of organized crime, although some of the methods to trace both types of organizations, such as patterns of money laundering, are similar between both of these types of illicit associations.

Organized crime is defined as "criminal activity that, through violence or…… [Read More]

References

Bjelopera, J. & Finklea, K. (2012). Organized crime: An evolving challenge for U.S. law

Enforcement. CRS Report for Congress. Retrieved from: https://fas.org/sgp/crs/misc/R41547.pdf

Bradley, T. (2015).Cybercrime is the modern-day mafia. Forbes. Retrieved from:

http://www.forbes.com/sites/tonybradley/2015/10/16/cybercrime-is-the-modern-day-mafia/2/#b80e949bb71d
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Illicit Finance

Words: 1260 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 22690119

Illicit finance has come to be a significant issue not only locally, but also internationally. There are numerous delineations of illicit finance, but fundamentally it comes about from the practices, approaches and crimes targeting to transfer financial capital within and out of a nation in violation of national and global laws. Across the world, government administrations are working in tandem and joining forces to combat different illicit financial flows, which include tax evasion, global bribery and money laundering (OECD, 2014). Despite the fact that the precise scale of the problem is unidentified, illicit finance has had shattering and disparaging effects on developing nations. In the recent number of years, nations have executed and put into practice standards and abided by most recommendations provided (OECD, 2014). The fight against illicit finance is largely dependent on the quality of state regulations and whether they abide by the set global best practices. This…… [Read More]

References

Gossel, S. (2016). Africa Needs New Ways to Stem Illicit Financial Flows. Eyewitness News. Retrieved from:  http://ewn.co.za/2016/05/10/OPINION-Africa-needs-to-develop-new-ways-to-stem-illicit-financial-flows 

Herkenrath, M. (2014). Illicit Financial Flows and their Developmental Impacts: An Overview. International Development Policy.

OECD. (2014). Illicit Financial Flows from Developing Countries: Measuring OECD Responses. Retrieved from:  https://www.oecd.org/corruption/Illicit_Financial_Flows_from_Developing_Countries.pdf 

The World Bank. (2016). Illicit Financial Flows (IFFs). Retrieved from: http://www.worldbank.org/en/topic/financialmarketintegrity/brief/illicit-financial-flows-iffs
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US Security

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Sealing Up the Cracks

Security in a Post-9/11 World

On September 11, 2001, America was changed forever. From out of the ruins of the World Trade Center, and over the unmarked graves of nearly three thousand innocent people, a new world took shape. It was a world in which the citizens of the United Sates found themselves suddenly vulnerable to the murderous plots of a handful of fanatics. A trip to the mall, a drive over a bridge, a meeting at the office: an everyday event could spell disaster. Americans were discovering for the first time what so many around the globe had known for years, that the scenes of daily life could become the settings of terror. ut what was to be done? Were the people of the United States to spend their lives looking over their shoulders? Was the free and open society so cherished by each and…… [Read More]

Bibliography

American Civil Liberties Union. "USA Patriot Act Boosts Government Powers While Cutting Back on Traditional Checks and Balances." American Civil Liberties Union Freedom Network: In Congress. American Civil Liberties Union. November 1, 2001.

Ashcroft, John, Attorney General of the United States. "Reorganization and Mobilization of the Nation's Justice and Law Enforcement Resources." Address given November 8, 2001. http://www.usdoj.gov/ag/speeches/2001/agcrisisremarks11_08.htm

EFF Analysis of the Provisions of the U.S.A. PATRIOT Act that Relate to Online Activities." Electronic Frontier Foundation. October 31, 2001. http://www.eff.org/Privacy/Surveillance/Terrorism_militias/20011031_eff_usa_patriot_analysis.html

Evoy, Susan. Computer Professionals for Social Responsibility. "Comments on Legislative Proposals to Protect National Security and Their Impact on the Communications Infrastructure." October, 2001.
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Insurance Fraud

Words: 11287 Length: 35 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71815562

Insurance Fraud

After tax evasion, insurance fraud is considered the highest-ranked among white-collar crimes. The original concept of insurance, as a for-profit endeavor, was to collect funds from a large number of people to pay for damages and accidents that involved a small percentage of the population that paid premiums. Insurance fraud is an ever-growing problem. Solving or eliminating this problem requires the resources and knowledge of individuals or associations with expertise ranging from not only insurance, but also law enforcement, legal issues and the social sciences. The concept of insurance fraud, both, by an individual and a corporation, has become so pervasive in today's society that the general population has learned to tolerate and condone these crimes.

Various organizations, funded by state and federal governments, and supported by the insurance company, are trying to increase the awareness of this problem among the general population. Annually, an average American family…… [Read More]

Bibliography

AAA, American Automobile Association. Insurance Fraud-- It Costs Consumers Billions of Dollars Every Year, but Csaa Is Fighting Back - and You Can Help. 2002. Available. October 15, 2002. http://www.csaa.com/global/articledetail/0,8055,1005000000%257C2974,00.html

CAIF, Coalition Against Insurance Fraud. Insurance Fraud: The Crime You Pay For. 2002. Available. October 25, 2002.  http://www.insurancefraud.org/about_us_set.html 

Phony Health Coverage -- People Left Dangerously Uncovered Throughout U.S. 2002. Available. October 27, 2002.  http://www.insurancefraud.org/search_set.html 

Childers, S. David, and Christy A. Chism. The Extraordinary Scope and Potential Regulatory Pitfalls of the Insurance Fraud Protection Act. 2002. Available. October 27, 2002. http://www.ibrinc.com/ifpa.html
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Disrupting Terror Group Finances to

Words: 2847 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20790868

Financial and law enforcers, military and reporting of intelligence are carried out by respective agencies drawn on limited coordination efforts (Whitmore, 2002). While agencies can pull and push intelligence data, these structures lack a centralized system for collecting intelligence. This limits the ability to conduct a meta-analysis of data across inter-agencies systems. Lack of proper coordination efforts reduces the usefulness of financial intelligence thus making it difficult to link the financial intelligence with other useful information. Critics claim that financial evidence is useful in supporting a case; it does not lead to prevention of terrorism attacks (Linden, 2007).

However, a centralized system of coordination may be an effective way of exploring financial data through linking it with other useful information. This can be made useful if the agencies improve their overall understanding of the financial networks of terrorists. The new homeland security departments are signals that there are efforts for…… [Read More]

References

Amos, M. & Petraeus, D. (2009). The U.S. Army Marine Corps Counterinsurgency Field

Manual. New York: Signalman Publishing

Center for Excellence Defense against Terrorism (2008). Responses to Cyber Terrorism.

California: IOS Press
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Terrorism and Illicit Finance as

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S. interests. What is different is that we have names and faces to go with that warning."3 This emphasis on recognizing the adaptability

3 Dennis C. Blair, Annual Threat Assessment of the U.S. Intelligence Community for the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence, (U.S. Senate Armed Services Committee, 2010).

of the terrorist is central to the government's overall response, in terms of both planning and execution, as evidenced by findings presented in the wealth of threat assessment material released to the public each year.

With the oft mentioned terrorist training camps and secret underground bases littered throughout the Middle East long since located and reduced to rubble, jihadists the world over have increasingly turned to the internet to lure potential borrowers and launder funds on a global scale.4 the last Homeland Security Threat Assessment, delivered to the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence in 2008 and covering the period from that date…… [Read More]

Referenced

Bennetch, Paul. 2012. "Terrorism expert: al-Qaida's 9/11 tactics an 'abject failure'." Cornell Chronicle [Ithaca, NY] 13 Mar 2012. Retrieved from http://www.news.cornell.edu/stories/March12/BergenCover.html

Blair, Dennis C. 2010. United States Senate Select Committee on Intelligence. Annual Threat Assessment of the U.S. Intelligence Community for the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, Retrieved from http://intelligence.senate.gov/100202/blair.pdf

Esposito, Richard, Matthew Cole, and Brian Ross. 2009. Officials: U.S. Army Told of Hasan. ABC World News. Retrieved from  http://abcnews.go.com /Blotter/fort-hood-shooter- contact-al-qaeda-terrorists-officials/story?id=9030873

Holt, B. 2010. Islamic wealth management. Unpublished raw data, Thomas Jefferson School of Law, San Diego, CA.
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Mortgage Fraud

Words: 13949 Length: 38 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29194376

Mortgage Fraud

If a rash of armed bank robberies swept across merica next year, and if in these robberies criminals absconded with $30 billion dollars, one may be certain that a public panic would ensue. The banking system would likely be changed forever. If thousands of armed thugs went rampaging across the nation forcing people out of their homes, into the streets, and then destroying the properties, leaving the occupants homeless -- well then one might be certain that fear would force our society to adapt its proceedings and its policies to fight this thuggish threat. Yet in many ways this is precisely the situation currently occurring with recent rise in mortgage fraud and abuse. Certainly, the criminals are armed with paperwork instead of shotguns, but the impact they are having is no less real. "uthorities have stated that fraud is involved in $60 billion in loans annually, resulting in…… [Read More]

ACORN. 2004. Separate and Unequal: Predatory Lending in America.

Association of Community Organizations for Reform Now, February.

The way in which appraisals are based on the racial "desireability" of neighborhoods is an essay to itself.
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Administrative Agency the Proposed Regulation

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(Olson, 1999) the feminist theory is when you are making the arguments that the social structure in place is unfair or targeting a particular group of people. The critical legal studies theory is when you are looking beyond the issues of civil liberties and are instead focused on if the action is effective in supporting particular rights. The moral theory is when you are arguing that the best way to interpret the law is based upon what is best for society using: case precedent, established legal principals and the law. Intellectual capitalism is when you are arguing that freedom of speech is the best way for the minority of having their voices heard. Where, you are using the different actions to justify that the government could be stifling this free speech, which is leading the activity in question. The over regulation theory is when the federal / state government will…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Amendment to the Bank Secrecy Act Regulations Reports of Foreign Financial Accounts. (2010). Retrieved May 19, 2010 from Regulations.gov website: http://www.regulations.gov/search/Regs/home.html#documentDetail?R=0900006480aaf473

History of Anti-Money Laundering Laws. (n.d.). Retrieved May 19, 2010 from Treasury Department website: http://www.fincen.gov/news_room/aml_history.html

Olson, B. (1999). Application of American Legal Theories. Retrieved May 19, 2010 from Boston College website: http://www.bc.edu/bc_org/avp/law/st_org/iptf/commentary/content/1999122601.html

Schlick, a. (2010). A Third Way Legal Framework for Addressing Comcast Dilemma. Retrieved May 19, 2010 from FCC website: http://www.broadband.gov/third-way-legal-framework-for-addressing-the-comcast-dilemma.html
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USA Patriot Act the Uniting

Words: 620 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1922676

The result is thousands of people denied the necessary refuge that they seek. Clintora condemns this as a "major policy gap (that) threatens not only human rights in individual countries but also jeopardizes international and regional stability and American regional influence and economic interests."

Kreimer (2007) expounds upon the fact that few legislators had time to fully read the PATIOT Act, when it was first proposed. Once enacted, there was significant concern about the expansion of powers for unchecked surveillance. However, many of the Acts provisions were subject to a four-year sunset requirement. It was believed that Congress would carefully examine how organizations, such as the FBI, utilized their power under the PATIOT Act, when deciding whether or not to certain provisions would go by the wayside come 2005. Yet, in 2006, after much political wrangling, most of the PATIOT Act was reenacted, with little change to the original wording,…… [Read More]

References

Clintora, E. (2008). Refugees or terrorists? Kennedy School Review, 8. Retrieved December 4, 2008, from Academic Search Complete database.

Kreimer, S. (Winter 2007). Rays of sunlight in a shadow 'war': FOIA, the abuses of anti-terrorism, and the strategy of transparency. Lewis & Clark Law Review, 11(4). Retrieved December 4, 2008, from Academic Search Complete database.

Yager, L. (30 Oct 2008). USA PATRIOT Act. GAO Report. Retrieved December 4, 2008, from MasterFILE Premier database.

The USA PATRIOT Act
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Terrorism Compare and Contrast a

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Jewish people believed they were promised land of their own, and the Palestinians believed that they would be given a defined homeland as well. However, the governments making these decisions were outside the Middle East and were acting in their own interests, not the interests of the people living in the areas affected. When the United Nations recognized Israel as a political entity after World War II, it did so in response to the outrage of Germany's Holocaust. While this was understandable to Western countries, Palestinians felt that they had been cheated out of their homeland and that instead it had been given to Israel.

The differences between fundamentalist and more moderate Islam comes down to the nature of Islamic belief. Islam does not make any real distinction between religion and government. In the Koran, religion and government are completely intertwined. So to fundamentalist Moslems, a non-fundamentalist Islamic country in…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Merey, Can. 2004. "Still no trace of Osama bin Laden."

Manila Bulletin, December 29.

Staff writer. 2005. "Irish Republicans in crisis over money laundering probe. Agence France Presse English, Feb. 19

Weisbach, Jessica. 2004. "The Psychology of the Terrorist Mind: Attempting to Understand as a Possible Means towards Prevention," in Peace, War and Human Nature. Accessed via the Internet 8/4/05. http://gseweb.harvard.edu/~t656_web/peace/Articles_Spring_2004/Weisbach_Jessica_terrorist_mind.htm
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Criminology Counterrorism the USA Patriot

Words: 1649 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80511648

These liberties are those on which this country was formed and have been upheld for many years as absolute certainties.

The Patriot Act has put a lot of doubt on whether these liberties are still protected guarantees. With this act giving the Government the power to use wiretaps to spy on people, search warrants to look for things that they don't even have to tell you about and the ability to look at ones private computer records it makes you wonder what this country is coming to. How is it that we the people have allowed it to come to this? What has happened to the guts on which this country was built? Back then this type of act would never have been passed and put into practice. Although it can be argued that this is because times are so much different now than they were back in the day,…… [Read More]

References

Patriot Act. (2010). Retrieved February 26, 2010, from Conservapedia Web site:

 http://www.conservapedia.com/Patriot_act 

Patriot Act - Eight Years Later. (2009). Retrieved February 26, 2010, from American Civil

Liberties Union Web site:  http://www.reformthepatriotact.org/
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Criminal Justice RICO in 1970

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Since ICO focuses on a pattern of behavior instead of just on the criminal acts that are involved prosecutors find it relatively easy to prove these cases. If an organization is convicted of committing two of the specified crimes within a ten-year period then they can be convicted of racketeering.

Legitimate business owners deserve to have protection from groups that wish to pursue illegal activity. The ICO Act was put into place in order to afford these legitimate businesses this protection. Since the interpretation of the ICO Act has been expanded we have also seen protections from mail fraud and wire tapping to be included in the protections that are guaranteed to the people. The ICO Act is always going to be subject to interpretation, but the protections that if gives business owners will always be seen as good.

eferences

Cecil, Greek. (1991). Is This The End of ico? Or…… [Read More]

References

Cecil, Greek. (1991). Is This The End of Rico? Or Only The Beginning: The Ongoing Debate

Over the Expanded Use of Criminal and Civil Rico. Retrieved April 20, 2009, from Web

site: http://www.fsu.edu/~crimdo/rico.html

Chapter 96 -- Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations. (2000). Retrieved April 20, 2009,
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Offshore Financial Centers Info Definition

Words: 3707 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68177240

Similarly, an offshore might set up a wholly owned subsidiary in an OFC to extend offshore fund administration facilities or other facilities. (the future for offshore financial centers (OFCs)) multinational corporation establishes an offshore bank to deal with its foreign exchange operations or to ease out financing of a joint venture spanning on a global basis. An onshore bank sets up a wholly owned subsidiary in an OFC to extend offshore fund administration services. The proprietor of an onshore bank coming under legal regulation sets up a branch "satellite" bank in an OFC. The appeal of an OFC might comprise no capital tax, no restraining tax on dividends or interest, nil taxation on transfers, nil corporation taxes, no capital gains tax, no exchange controls, lenient legal rules and management, less strict reporting necessities, and trading limitations. Offshore corporations or international business corporations -IBCs are means having restricted liability recorded in…… [Read More]

References

Dwyer, Terry. Harmful Tax Competition and the future of Offshore Financial Centers such as Vanuatu. Pacific Economic Bulletin. Retrieved at http://www.freedomandprosperity.org/dwyer-11-00.pdf. Accessed on 22 April, 2005

Lavoie, Franaois. Canadian Direct Investment in 'Offshore Financial Centers. Balance of Payments Division. Retrieved at http://www.statcan.ca/english/research/11-621-MIE/11-621-MIE2005021.htm. Accessed on 22 April, 2005

Offshore Financial Centers: IMF Background Paper. Monetary and Exchange Affairs Department. June 23, 2000. Retrieved at  http://www.imf.org/external/ np/mae/oshore/2000/eng/back.htm#box1Accessed on 22 April, 2005

Powell, Colin. The Changing Shape of Offshore Jurisdictions. The International Lawyers Network Regional Conference. 5 September, 2002. Retrieved at http://www.jerseyfsc.org/generalinfo/publicspeech_internationallawyers.html. Accessed on 22 April, 2005
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Terrorist Groups Use of Cloud Technology

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Terrorist Group's Use Of Cloud Technology

After the 1980s there have been changes on a global scale that included post cold war developments. The changes in Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union coupled with the technological change on the nations of the East caused structural and perceptional changes that were needed to make them competitive in high technology; which included everything from military to the service sector. There was advance of science and technology in the context of world affairs, however lopsided development led to religious fundamentalism and also the terrorist ethos.

The world was for a long time in dread of nuclear weapons, but these too have taken a different dimension. Nations, even rogue nations with nuclear power are not the threat but a fanatic group that succeeds in hijacking a nuclear missile, for example, is. Though science and technology have been blamed for environmental disasters, the proliferation of…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Baker, John C, et al. Mapping the Risks: Assessing Homeland Security Implications of Publicly Available Geospatial Information. Rand: Santa Monica, CA, 2004.

Costigan, Sean S; Gold, David. Terrornomics.

Ashgate Publishing, Ltd., 2007.

Furht, Borko; Escalante, Armando. Handbook of Cloud Computing.
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Enron Was the Seventh Largest

Words: 27112 Length: 99 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 47234018



Enron could engage in their derivative trading strategy with no fear of government intervention because derivative trading was specifically exempted from government regulation. Due in part to a ruling by the Commodity Futures Trading Commission's (CFTC) chairwoman, Wendy Graham, derivatives remained free of regulatory oversight. Ms. Graham, wife of Texas senator Phil Graham, made this ruling 5 weeks before resigning as chairwoman of the CFTC and joining the Enron oard of Directors in 1993.

Derivative accounting is further complicated because there is no consistent way to fairly report their value and risk in a company's financial report. In 1998 Rule No. 133, "Accounting for Derivative Instruments and Hedging Activities" was developed by the Financial Accounting Standards oard (FAS), an independent agency that sets guidelines for corporate auditors. Rule 133 contains more than 800 pages, which further complicates its adoption and consistent interpretation by various companies. SFAS No. 133 was subsequently…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Dettmer, Jamie, and John Berlau. "Requiem for Enron: There's Enough Blame to Go around for the Collapse of the Energy Giant From Executives to Auditors to Financial Analysts to Congress." Insight on the News 7 Jan. 2002: 12+. Questia. 10 Mar. 2005 .

Folbre, Nancy. "Blowing the Whistle on Poverty Policy." Review of Social Economy 61.4 (2003): 479+. Questia. 10 Mar. 2005 .

Gup, Benton E., ed. Too Big to Fail: Policies and Practices in Government Bailouts / . Westport, CT: Praeger, 2003.

Hartgraves, Ai L., and George J. Benston. "The Evolving Accounting Standards for Special Purpose Entities and Consolidations." Accounting Horizons 16.3 (2002): 245+..
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Services Sector Comprises Vast Groups

Words: 4816 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99330239

Banks have thus the role of distributing these products to their customers. Added to that in the international arena banks are dealing more with derivatives and foreign exchange, making the role of the bank far more important in the overall well being of the economy. Banks are diversifying and redefining themselves as trading, banking and service institutions. The banks are multifunctional and are known by various terms like the 'clearing bank' in UK, 'Commercial banks' and 'Investment banks' or 'Merchant banks'. Banks are thus redefining themselves to suit the wider rage of operation sand services offered. (Cranston, 1997, p. 3)

2. Globalization of banking sector

Globalization is a phenomenon that has invaded all industries and human life. The changes that have come about after the break down of the cold war and the new social interaction between nations have affected the financial sector as well. Globalization has removed restrictions for…… [Read More]

References

Ashdown, Neil H. (2002) the Impact of Banking Policy on Trade and Global Stability.

Quorum Books. Westport, CT.

Chambliss, William J; Block, Alan a; Weaver, Constance a. (2004) All Is Clouded by Desire: Global Banking, Money Laundering, and International Organized Crime. Praeger. Westport, CT.

Cranston, Ross. (1997) Principles of Banking Law. Clarendon Press. Oxford.
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Stratton Oakmont Scandal

Words: 1596 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40711036

Wolf of Wall Street, Jordan Belfort, committed a classic pump and dump scam, under the guise of his investment firm, Stratton Oakmont. This crime went on for several years before the company was investigated, closed, and Belfort sent to prison. The following paper outlines this case in detail.

The Crime & How it was Committed

The securities industry is governed by the Securities Exchange Commission, which exists in part to ensure that the capital markets are trustworthy. When investor trust in the markets is compromised, this makes it more difficult for firms to raise capital. Thus, it is imperative for any country to have securities regulators that ensure a fair and honest capital market system, including the stock market. There are many ways to commit fraud in the stock market, one of which is the pump and dump scheme that Stratton Oakmont committed.

The principle is fairly simple. The company…… [Read More]

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Sex Slavery ABC News 2006

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(2009, Oct. 4). 25,000 Nepli girls involved in sex trde in Indin cities.

Commercil sex brothels in the towns of Delhi, Mumbi, Pune nd Kolkt feture young girls believed to hve been kidnpped from Nepl, ccording to the rticle. There re n estimted fifty brothels in Pune, nd mny of them re reportedly owned by dult women from Nepl. In those 50 brothels there re bout 500 Neplese girls working in sexul slvery, the rticle sserts. This informtion comes through report tht ws intended to get the medi interested in reporting these terrible crimes. Retrieved Feb. 13,

2010, from http://www.expressindi, com/fullstory.php?newsid=55901.

Hwii News Now. (2010, Februry 10). Hwii mn chrged with sex trfficking t Super Bowl. A mn who is lleged to be pimp from Hwii is being chrged with bringing teenge Hwiin girl to the Super Bowl in Mimi -- nd llegedly used her to mke money. Fred Collins…… [Read More]

and Customs Enforcement agents that they were promised good jobs and a better life in the United States, so they came to the U.S. with high hopes. But when they arrived it turned out that they had to work in the bar for $20 a day until they paid off their "smuggling fees" of around $4,500. Part of their job was to have sex with customers "for money."

Retrieved Feb. 14, 2010, from the Monitor http://www.themonitor.com.

WTOV9.com. (2010, Feb. 14). Report: Human Trafficking Big Business in Ohio. This article on WTOV9 tells the story of how teenager Theresa Flores was raped and had photos taken of the act of being raped. The attacker said unless she submitted to being a hooker for his gang, her photo would be on the Internet and everyone would know she had sex (even her priest) So she went along for 2 years. Moreover, the story claims that as many as 1,000 children born in Ohio each year are forced into sex slavery. Retrieved Feb. 14, 2010, from http://www.wtov9.com/news/22553109/detail.html.
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Role of Civil Sanctions in

Words: 2951 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39123081

If police officers are not sufficiently deterred by the prospect of evidence being suppressed at a hearing where a person's liberty is in jeopardy, it is a fortiori that they will not be deterred by the possibility of suppression at a civil forfeiture hearing where only the person's property is in jeopardy.

Law enforcement officials have much to gain in the outcome of the issues raised in Scott, and will likely bring challenges to the exclusionary rule in civil forfeiture. While the court's trend is moving away from applying the exclusionary rule in civil contexts, law enforcement agencies are increasingly relying on civil tools to attack crime. At the forefront of this movement is the use of civil forfeiture to seize the fruits and instrumentalities of the narcotics trade. Civil forfeiture statutes allow law enforcement officers to seize privately held assets that have been used in a crime, a practice…… [Read More]

References

Crandley, Mark J (2001) a Plymouth, a parolee, and the police: the case for the exclusionary rule in civil forfeiture after Pennsylvania Board of Probation and Parole v. Scott.

Albany Law Review

Bilionis, Louis D. (1998) Process, the Constitution, and substantive criminal law.

Michigan Law Review
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Predominantly Latino Gangs Mara Salvatrucha

Words: 17380 Length: 40 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44825476



Government

Since gang-related crimes fall within the jurisdiction of state, this research will give an insight on the need to find solutions that increasingly include all levels of government. Congress needs to pass legislation that will change immigration enforcement laws and make more aliens deportable. In addition, the federal government should take a more active participation in helping local and state jurisdictions develop anti-gang responses. The local, state and federal governments must take a stand, and combine forces to combat the immigration problem that continue to plague this country into the next generation.

Importance of the Study

The die has been cast, there is no turning the clock back now and the Mara Salvatrucha and 18th Street Gang have established themselves in the United States and far beyond. The origins of the current situation with MS-13 and the 18th Street Gang date back to the late 1980s and early 1990s…… [Read More]

References

Armstrong, W. (2009, February 16). 'Sanctuary cities' protect murderous illegal aliens. Human Events, 64(37), 8.

Bansal, M. (2006) Chertoff: Street Gangs a Threat to National. Retrieved November 12,

2006 from  http://www.CNSNews.com .

Barber, B. (1996). Jihad vs. McWorld: How Globalism and Tribalism are Reshaping the World. New York: Ballantine Book.
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Financial Crimes Knights Templar the Order of

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Financial Crimes

Knights Templar

The Order of the Knights Templar (Poor Knights of Christ and the Temple of Solomon) was founded in 1118 to protect Christians on pilgrimage to Jerusalem (Blacktorne, 2011). The Order was sanctioned by King Baldwin II of Jerusalem and he quartered the nine original knights in the old stables at the Temple of Solomon. All members had to give over all of their wealth and goods to the Order and take vows of poverty, chastity, piety, and obedience just like other monks (Langue, 2011). A majority of the members joined for life, although a select few were also allowed to join for specific duration.

The Templars' were considered the first international banking organizations. Although this wasn't there specific title they charge a fee (interest) for issuing letters of deposits (checks). Some also view them as a multinational corporation; however the banking reference seems to hold more…… [Read More]

6- BCCI "Bank of Credit and Commerce International

The Bank of Credit and Commerce International (BCCI) was a major international bank founded in 1972 by Agha Hasan Abedi, a Pakistani financier. The Bank was registered in Luxembourg. It operated in 78 countries, had over 400 branches, and had assets in excess of twenty billion making it the seventh largest private bank in the world by assets (Kanas, 2005). In the late 1980's BCCI became the target of a two-year undercover operation conducted by the U.S. Customs Service. This operation concluded with a fake wedding that was attended by BCCI officers and drug dealers from around the world who had established a personal friendship and working relationship with undercover Special Agent Robert Mazur (Lohr, 1991).

After a six-month trial in Tampa, some of the key bank officers were convicted and received lengthy prison sentences. BCCI came under the scrutiny of regulatory bodies and intelligence agencies in the 1980s due to its perceived avoidance of falling under one regulatory banking authority. It was actually set up to be not under any regulatory bodies' control at all. Thus the international bank could help people who wanted to hide money from taxation or even launder money. The true extents of the ties with other banking institutions were never fully uncovered. The prosecutors claimed that they busted the largest money laundering system ever yet many reports at the time feel like they barely scratched the surface (Baquet, 1991).
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Analyzing Foreign Corrupt Practices Act Fcpa

Words: 5505 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19277173

FCPA

The following till take a look at Foreign Corrupt Practice Act or in other words the FCPA.

Discovering the corporate payments difficulty in the middle of the 70s from a blend of work by the Watergate Special Prosecutor office, this includes related additional work and inquiry by SEC-Security and Exchange Commission and the Multinational Corporations Subcommittee by Senator Frank Church. In 1975, within four months, separate hearings were held by the Church Committee on Gulf Oil, Mobil Oil, Northrop, and Lockheed (Koehler). Every one of these corporations became the main subjects of allegations, concerning uncertain payments made either directly or indirectly to officials of foreign government or foreign political parties bearing a business purpose in mind. For example, the Gulf Oil primarily involved the contributions made to political campaigns of the epublic of Korea President. Northrop was mainly involved in making payments to a general in Saudi Arabia. Principally,…… [Read More]

References

Burns, D., Sullivan, & Gibson. (2009). Navigating the FCPA's Complex Scienter Requirements. Retrieved March 18, 2016, from http://www.gibsondunn.com/publications/Documents/Burns-Sullivan-NavigatingTheFCPAComplexScienterReq.pdf

Harris, A. (2011). Scholarship @ Claremont -- Claremont Colleges Research. The Impact of the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act on American Business from 1977-2010. Retrieved March 18, 2016, from http://scholarship.claremont.edu/

International Whistleblower Reward Law Information Center. (n.d.). History of the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act. Retrieved March 17, 2016, from http://www.internationalwhistleblower.com/history.html

KOEHLER, M. The Story of the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act. Ohio State Law Journal, 73(5). Retrieved, from http://moritzlaw.osu.edu/students/groups/oslj/files/2013/02/73.5.Koehler
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Trafficking Victims Protection Reauthorization Act

Words: 11509 Length: 42 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 356695

Government

The Trafficking Victims Protection eauthorization Act

Final Project / Dissertation

Degree: Juris Doctorate Specialized

Major:

Specialization: Constitutional Law

Full Address:

The Trafficking Victims Protection eauthorization Act

This paper reviews the rights and protection that a state and federal government official provides to citizens that have been the subject of human trafficking crimes. Citizens need the protection of the police and other law enforcement officials to report human trafficking crimes and to protect and assist those that need their assistance. This paper will seek to explain the definition of human trafficking, how it works, victim support, issues with upholding and implementing legislature and the solutions which can be used to satisfy the public.

Table of Contents

Introduction

eview

Elements of Human Trafficking

Victims of Trafficking and Violence Protection Act of 2000

TVPA (2008)

Mann Act

Travel Act

Alien Smuggling, Harboring and Transportation

United States

New York State's Human Trafficking Law…… [Read More]

References

1. The Crime of Human Trafficking: A Law Enforcement Guide to Identification and Investigation. (n.d.). http://www.vaw.umn.edu/documents/completehtguide/completehtguide.pdf

2. Trafficking in Persons Report. (2006). Washington, DC.: U.S. Department of State.

3. United States Constitution Bill of Rights. (n, d.). http://topics.law.cornell.edu/constitution/billofrights

4. 13th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution: Abolition of Slavery (1865). (n.d.)
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Combating Future Terrorism

Words: 1028 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61871805

Combating Future Terrorism

The Continuing Threat Posed by Islamic Terrorists

Brinkley. J. (2013). Islamic Terror: Decentralized, Franchised, Global. World Affairs, 176(2),

Professor of Journalism Joel Brinkley explains that many countries around the world have been attacked by Muslim radicals (he includes Tanzania, where extremists beheaded a Christian pastor because he was training to become a meat butcher and the radicals asserted this trade was "theirs alone"), and that "…jihadist atrocities" have become a "status quo to be lived with" in many parts of the world. His point? There is violence all around the world due to the hatred and intolerance by radical groups, most of them Islamic, and Americans may as well get used to this chaotic and bloody situation. And indeed, he sees that more terrorist attacks against the U.S. are likely. He doesn't offer any way to avoid those attacks, however.

Loss of Some Civil Liberties and Americans'…… [Read More]

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Terrorism Coady Notes That it

Words: 1793 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80767628

The government has authority to impose a civil penalty on a domestic entity or organization, and may bring charges pursuant to the Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organization Act based on predicate crimes that "include the offenses of providing material support or resources to a foreign terrorist organization, or intentionally or knowingly collecting or providing funds for use in carrying out terrorist activities, as well as money laundering" (Crimn 2004). Moreover, the Internal Revenue Service may suspend the tax-exempt status under the Internal Revenue Code of any organization that is identified or designated as a terrorist organization (Crimn 2004).

The attacks of September 11th were a wake-up call to authorities to the need for cooperation between the various agencies. The Patriot Act provided American local, state and federal agencies an arsenal of tools to investigate, prosecute, and deter terrorist activities.

orks Cited

Bulzomi, Michael J. (2002, July 01). Investigating international terrorism…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bulzomi, Michael J. (2002, July 01). Investigating international terrorism overseas:

constitutional considerations. The FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin. Retrieved November 10, 2006 from HighBeam Research Library.

Crimn, Nina J. (2004, March 01). High alert: the government's war on the financing of terrorism and its implications for donors, domestic charitable organizations, and global philanthropy. William and Mary Law Review. Retrieved November 10, 2006 from HighBeam Research Library.

Donohue, Laura K. (2006, March 22). Anglo-American privacy and surveillance.
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Effectiveness of ASEAN

Words: 14078 Length: 37 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84307607

ASEAN

The study will be delving into: What ASEAN constitutes and what remains beyond its scope? The aim of this study will be handing out a wide-ranging presentation of the present stance of ASEAN and its accomplishments till date, along with its challenges. The paper is intended as a suggestion for a master-plan that can be employed as a future pathway where ASEAN political-security support must be going towards in the forthcoming years.

To start with let us have a brief introduction of the organization. The creators of the Association of South East Asian Nations - ASEAN, visualized it as ultimately assembling all the nations of the region and managing them to lend a hand in assuring the peace, permanence and growth of the area. While the area was in a state of turmoil, a lot of nations were under pressure for the existence of the nation or autonomy. First…… [Read More]

References

ADBI (2002) "Did East Asian Developing Countries lose Export Competitiveness in the pre- Crisis 1990's?" ADBI Research Paper 34; Tokyo.

Altbach, Eric. (1999) "Growing Pains: ASEAN at 30" Japan Economic Institute Report. No. 23; June 19

Author Unkown. (1999) "Weathering the Storm: Hong Kong and the Asian Financial Crisis" Conference sponsored by the Far Eastern Economic Review. Hong Kong. 11 June.

Baietti Aldo. (2001) "Private Infrastructure in East Asia: Lessons Learned in the Aftermath of the Crisis." Washington, D.C. World Bank.
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Southwestern Border Combating Drug Trade

Words: 4279 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37872183

Combating Drug Trade Along the Southwestern Border

Proposed Strategy for Combating the Drug Trade along the Southwestern Border

The issue of drug trafficking and smuggling has been a serious concern for both Mexico and the United States for decades. Mexico has been identified as the primary supplier of narcotics to the U.S., with the Southwestern border accounting for between 90 and 95% of all illicit drugs smuggled illegally into the U.S. market. In 2007, the presidents of the two countries held a summit, where they pledged to work together, collaboratively in the fight against drug trafficking. Today, substance use accounts for approximately 26% of crimes committed in the U.S. Both the U.S. and the Mexican governments recognize the security threat posed by illicit drug use, and have committed themselves to addressing the problem once and for all. The two countries have implemented numerous initiatives geared at curbing the growth of…… [Read More]

References

Beith, M. (2010). The Last Narco: Into the Hunt for El-Chapo, the World's Most Wanted Drug Lord. New York, NY: Grove Press.

BJS. (2015). Drugs and Crime Facts. Bureau of Justice Statistics. Retrieved January 6, 2015 from http://www.bjs.gov/content/dcf/duc.cfm

Campbell, H. (2010). Drug War Zone: Frontline Dispatches from the Streets of El Paso and Juarez. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press.

Engel, R. S. & Johnson, R. (2006). Toward a Better Understanding of Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Search and Seizure Rates. Journal of Criminal Justice, 34 (6), 605-617.
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History Sama Saudi Arabian Monetary Agency

Words: 837 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20800732

SAMA

Historical evolution of functional responsibilities of SAMA

History of SAMA (Saudi Arabian Monetary Agency)

The Saudi Arabian Monetary Agency (SAMA) was established on October 4th, 1952 and is headquartered at iyadh, Saudi Arabia. SAMA operates as the central bank of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). Before setting up the Saudi Arabian Monetary Agency, KSA utilized the service of Saudi Hollandi Bank as the central agency to keep the governments gold reserves. The idea of setting up SAMA as the central government operated agency was materialized by Abdallah Sulaiman, the then finance minister of KSA. The currency that SAMA regulates and prints is the Saudi iyal, the official currency of KSA. The establishment of SAMA was decreed by King Abdul Aziz on 25/7/1371H, 20th of March, 1952 (SAMA, 2013).

Historical perspective

SAMA is currently the official agency charged with management of financial system. With the evolution and development of…… [Read More]

References

Ramady, M.A. (2010). The Saudi Arabian economy: policies, achievements, and challenges. Springer.

SAMA. (2013). Historical Preview. Saudi Arabian Monetary Agency. Retrieved from: [http://www.sama.gov.sa/sites/samaen/AboutSAMA/Pages/SAMAHistory.aspx]
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RICO Act and the Mafia

Words: 2269 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91763001

Oreto, 37 F.3d 739 (1st Cir. 1994). The 2st Circuit rejected the defendant's claim that requiring two predicate acts for conviction under one theory of liability but only one act for conviction under "loan sharking," violated equal protection.

Due Process. The forfeiture provisions of RICO have been criticized for violating the Due Process Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment. Numerous cases have rejected this criticism including U.S. v. Nichols, (10th Cir. 1994).

Tenth Amendment. Arguments that RICO unconstitutionally intrudes upon state sovereignty in violation of this Amendment have all been summarily rejected. U.S. v. Thompson, 685 F.2d 993-1001 (6th Cir. 1982).

Most experts agree that RICO has been abused since its first effective use against the Mafia in the 1980s. For certain, it has virtually destroyed the Mafia -- lakey's intended goal and its only intended purpose at the time. However, even prior to the first Mafia convictions under its statutes,…… [Read More]

Bibliography

AJFL. (2004). Divorce law determines how much property forfeited under RICO. American Journal of Family Law (AJFL), 175(3). Gordon, M. (2002). Ideas shoot bullets: How the RICO Act became a potent weapon in the war against organized crime. Retrieved March 15, 2010, from Villanova.edu: http://www.publications.villanova.edu/Concept/2003/Gordon%20Formatted%20Paper.htm

Harvard Law Review Assoc. . (2008). Ninth circuit holds that RICO enterprise need not have any particular organizational structure. Harvard Law Review, 1652(8).

Holt, M., & Davis, K. (Spring 2009). Racketeer influenced and corrupt organizations. (Twenty-fourth annual survey of white collar crime). American Criminal Law Review, 975+.

Jacobs, J., & Peters, E. (2003). Labor racketeering: The Mafia and the unions. Crime and Justice: A Review of Research, 229-282.