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Moreover, by leaving in ruin and disarray the cities of the Kievan Rus alliance, the Mongols paved the way for the distinct nation states that would come of these regions. It is thus that even in spite of its 300-year occupation, the Mongolian Empire would actually be an early catalyst for the formation of the Belarus, the Ukraine, Poland, Hungary and the Russian Empire.
Likewise, by holding under its sway the Russian expanse during the Renaissance Era in Europe, Mongolian rule may be an explanation for the absence of any such period in pre-Soviet history. The distinction of this warrior empire from the feudalist trappings of estern Europe detained Russian modernity relative to its continental neighbors in a way that may be said to have largely forged the lesser economic fortunes and slower pace of cultural development experienced by Slavic Europeans. Still, it was because of Mongolian rule that Moscow…
Dutch, S. (1998). The Mongols. University of Wisconsin-Green Bay. Online at http://www.uwgb.edu/dutchs/WestTech/xmongol.htm
Federal List of Russian Tour Operators. (2010). Page 1 (History of Russia: IX - XVIIth centuries). Parallel Sixty.
Interknowledge Corp. (IC). (2005). The Mongols and the Emergence of Moscow. Geographia. Online at http://www.geographia.com/RUSSIA/rushis03.htm
Nicolle, D. & Shpakovskii, V.O. (2001). Kalka River, 1223: Ghengis Khan's Mongols Invade Russia. Osprey Publishing.
The Mongols, like any other culture with a lengthy history and a modern-day presence, have historically been the subject of significant criticism amongst Middle Eastern scholars. Ibn al-Athir's account of the Tatar's invasion of the Middle East is a bloody and horrendous tale of ruthless murder and destruction, as he states, "these Tatars spared none, slaying women and men and children, ripping open pregnant women and killing unborn babes."[footnoteRef:1] This description by al-Athir certainly seems to justify the view that these Mongols are a savage, ruthless people. However, illiam of Rubruck (a.k.a. illem van Ruysbroeck) gives an account of the Mongols, describing a very civil and almost unexpected visit to the Khan's palace. As he was a very devout and pious monk, he is greeted in a harmless manner and invited to debate the principals of Christianity within the Khan's court. He describes an interaction with Mangu Khan's…
1. "Ibn al-Athir: On The Tatars, 1220-1221 CE." A Literary History of Persia,. Ed.
Jerome S. Arkenberg. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1902. Web.
2. "William of Rubruck's Account of the Mongols." UW Departments Web Server. Silk Road Seattle. Web. 23 Nov. 2010 .
What major developments in trade and the world economy were in place around 1400? What impact did the Mongols have on this?
In 1400, about 350 million people inhabited the entire planet, most of which concentrated themselves in key areas of the globe. China had some of the world’s largest and most densely populated cities, and increasingly collaborated with Central Asian allies for the establishment and perpetuation of global trade routes. As world populations expanded, geographic and climatic conditions also changed. World trade increasingly became as much a necessity as a drive for economic and political empowerment. This was especially true for the Mongols. A pastoral-nomadic civilization, the Mongols were susceptible to fluctuations in climatic conditions and depended on trade with China to mitigate uncertainties and crises (“Mongols in World History”). As with most of the world, Mongols faced a variety of threats including disease and natural disaster.
Marks, R.B. (2015). The Origins of the Modern World: A Global and Environmental Narrative from the Fifteenth to the Twenty-First Century (3rd Edition). Rowman and Littlefield Publishers.
“Mongols in World History.” Asia for Educators, Columbia University
Mongols and Global History
The Mongol conquest triggers one to wonder why they arose in the 13th C. to conquer the rest of the world. Theirs was the largest land empire ever known in Man's history. So why did the Mongols succeed so much (The Mongols in orld History: The Mongol Conquests)? This paper attempts to extract the main factors from the many discussions and speculations regarding the conquest of the Mongols.
Ecological factors: from 1180 to 1220, the average annual temperature in Mongolia dropped drastically. This phenomenon effectively cut short the grass growing season. Such an eventuality placed direct survival risk on the path of the Mongols since their animals would not have enough to feed on. They had no option but to seek pastures elsewhere. Secondly, it is noted that the northern and western China neighbors tried to reduce the trade volumes they had with Mongolia. Owing to…
"The Mongols in World History: The Mongol Conquests." 2004. Web. 10 Nov. 2016.
Guisepi, Robert. The Last Great Nomadic Challenges - From Chinggis Khan to Timur. 1992. Web. 10 Nov. 2016.
Kingsberg, Harold. How were the Mongols able to conquer advanced civilizations? 2014. Web. 10 Nov. 2016.
Rossabi, Morris. "All the Khan's horses." Natural history 103 (1994): 48-48.
Fall of Baghdad to the Mongols
Fall of Baghdad
Amitai-Preiss, Reuven. 1998. Mongols and Mamluks: The Mamluk-Ilkhanid War. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Dutch, Steven. 1998. "The Mongols." Natural and Applied Sciences.
MacMillan, Margaret. 2009. "Rebuilding the World after the Second World War ." The Guardian.
Morgan, David. 1990. The Mongols. . Boston: Blackwell Publishing.
Medieval Source Book: A literary History of Persia (45-46)
The author Browne (2009) describes an encounter so vicious and so ruthless under the hands of some people from the East. These people invaded Asia with only one purpose, to kill. The author reiterates that there is a good chance that there has never been another calamity as vicious as the one encountered by the Persians during this period. According to him even the affliction that was meted on the children of Israel by Nebuchadnezzar was nothing compared to what he encountered. He says that the number of people massacred by these accursed miscreants in a single city exceeded the entire population of the children of Israel. The author goes ahead to say that it is very likely that the world will never encounter anything as vicious as what he encountered.
The Tatars, as the author calls them, were people who…
It is not under doubt that the style of Muscovite government as full scale bureaucracy comes directly from the style of division and local governing which was so common to the Mongol empire. Some of the practices which were used heavily in the Muscovite governments of the mid thirteenth century are so like obscure Mongol practices as to be indistinguishable. There is, however, no explanation for this borrowing and no easy explanation why as no sociopolitical texts from the era exist.
In Ostrowski's paper, it is noted that toward the end of the basquaq system of government, many of the Muscovite grand princes made frequent trips to the center of the Mongol empire, staying there in residence for extended periods of time. These visits are chronicled and in fact the Grand Prince Semen traveled to Sarai at least five times during his reign. As was previously noted, many of the…
China and the Mongol Conquest
China and Mongol Conquest
The 13th century saw the influence of the Mongol Empire which Genghis Khan established stretching from the borders of Poland in the west to the East around Yellow Sea. Grandson of Genghis named Kublai Khan was the ruler of this empire in 1260 after which he went a head to consolidate his power when he relinquish the Mongol conquests outside China and established his capital where modern-day Beijing is now located.
As Venetian merchants, Nicolo Polo and his brother traveled overland in 1260 to the Mongol capital where they remained within the court of Khan until when they reached Venice in 1269. The two merchant once again traveled (though dangerous trip) to Kublai Khan's court in 1271 accompanied by their seventeen-year-old son Marco. They had to take three and a half years before their adventure came to an end. After staying…
Jeffrey Hays (2008) "MARCO POLO." http://factsanddetails.com/china.php?itemid=48
Morris Rossabi (2004) "The Mongols in China." Columbia University. http://afe.easia.columbia.edu/mongols/china/china.htm
Russia and the Mongol yoke: How bad was it?
The Mongol invasion forever changed the culture of Russia. It brought to an end the period known as the 'Kievan Rus' as the Mongols took control and "captured, sacked, and destroyed Kiev, the symbolic center of Kievan Russia."[footnoteRef:1] The Mongol invasion certainly changed Russia irrevocably: it is not simply that some of the measures of the Mongols were oppressive in nature, but that the autocratic methods of control used by the Mongols were later adopted by Russian leaders, and led to the development of a Russian form of government that was profoundly different from that of Russia's European neighbors. The 'Mongol yoke' ironically produced what we think of now as 'Russian culture.' [1: Dustin Hosseini, "The Effects of the Mongol Empire on Russia," Vestnik: The Journal of Russian and Asian Studies. 12 Dec 2005. Available: http://www.sras.org/the_effects_of_the_mongol_empire_on_russia [17 Apr 2013]]
Hosseini, Dustin. "The Effects of the Mongol Empire on Russia." Vestnik: The Journal of Russian and Asian Studies. 12 Dec 2005. Available: http://www.sras.org/the_effects_of_the_mongol_empire_on_russia [17 Apr 2013]
Stearns, Peter. et al. World Civilizations: The Global Experience. New York, 1992. Available:
[17 Apr 2013]
To the north of Tajikistan lies Kyrgyzstan, to the west lies Uzbekistan, to the east lies China and to the south lies Afghanistan. This state was formed due to the split of Central Asia in 1920 under Soviet rule. It covers an area of 143,100 sq. km. 
Soghdiana, the northern part of today's Tajikistan, was settled by Iranian tribes between 1,000 and 500 C. Important cities of Tajikistan today Khujand and Panjkakent belonged to Soghdiana in ancient times. During their tarvelling to China and to the west, Soghdians adopted other religions such as Zoroastrianism, Christianity, huddism and they also shared their knowledge with people whom they met on their way. During sixth to fourth centuries .C, Tajikistan belonged to ancient Persia's Achaemenid Empire that was ruled by Darius I. In 333 .C., Alexander the Great conquered it. 
In early Eighteenth Century, Islamic Arabs…
 Central Intelligence Agency, https://www.cia.gov (accessed February 18, 2013)
 The Land of Tajiks, http://www.oocities.org/tajikland/History.html (accessed February 18, 2013)
 Early History, http://countrystudies.us/tajikistan/3.htm , (accessed February 18, 2013)
 Tajikistan - History & Background, http://education.stateuniversity.com/pages/1503/Tajikistan-HISTORY-BACKGROUND.html , (accessed February 18, 2013)
Spices Tea impacted global trade. eference Book: A History World Societies, Eighth Edition, Volume 1 by: McKay, Hill, Buckler, Ebrey, Beck, Crowston, & Wiesner-Hanks
By the time of the death of Chinggis, the Mongol Empire stretched from the Pacific Ocean in the east to the Caspian Sea in the west. How can we account for this astounding expansion?
"Perhaps no empire in history has risen so spectacularly as that of the Mongols. In less than 80 years, a band of warriors originally comprised of several men grew to an empire that encompassed all from the Pacific Ocean to the Danube iver" (The Mongol Empire, 2001, All Empires). The reasons for the domination of the Mongols are rooted partially in their superior military and tactical skills. In contrast to the heavy armor of medieval knights, Mongols dressed lightly and rode small, speedy horses. Their austere lifestyle made them well-suited to battle.…
Genghis Khan and the great Mongol Empire. (2012). Macro History. Retrieved:
McKay, Hill, Buckler, Ebrey, Beck, Crowston, & Wiesner-Hanks. A History of World Societies:
Vol 1. 8th Ed.
Zhu Yuanzhang: First Ming Dynasty Emperor
Zhu Yuanzhang was founder of the Ming Dynasty, the one dynasty that endured for so long (1368-1644), considering the fact that it was established by a commoner. The reason Ming Dynasty and its first emperor Yuanzhang occupy special place in Chinese history is because this was one of the only lonely two dynasties to have been formed by a landless peasant. It is not everyday that commoner emerges from nowhere, overthrown powerful rulers of the time, establishes his own dynasty that endures for three long centuries. But Yuanzhang managed to achieve this colossal feat and thus his name went down in Chinese history as a competent emperor, second commoner only after Liu Bang of Han Dynasty to rule China.
Yuanzhang's rise to fame and power was simply unprecedented in history. Born to a very poor family in Anhui province in 1328, Yuanzhang was orphaned…
1) David Curtis Wright; John E. Findling-editor, Frank W. Thackeray -- editor THE HISTORY OF CHINA, Greenwood Press. Westport, CT. 2001
2) Michael, Franz; China through the Ages: History of a Civilization. Westview Press: Boulder, CO. 1986.
3) Edward Thomas Williams: A Short History of China. Harper & Brothers. New York. 1928.
There are a number of factors that contributed to the rise of the Mongols in China. Chief among these is that after the Mongols invaded China, they were able to establish strong political control over the area. This was an extension of the Mongol system of governance that had been utilized in many of the lands conquered by the Mongol empire. Marco Polo, who visited Khanbalik during the reign of Kublai Khan, described the system of governance that the Mongols had imposed on China. They "appointed twelve…barons to supervise all decisions concerning the movement of the armies…" Polo noted that this council led to a high quality of decision-making with respect to resource deployment, and allowed for a stronger overall military presence in China as a result. Polo also noted that this tactic allowed the military leaders to identify the stronger soldiers and units, and cull the weak…
Ibn Khaldun conceptualized history in terms of transformations of social and political power, leading to cultural changes. This was especially true for the expanding Muslim world, of which Ibn Khaldun was a part. During the Middle Islamic periods, scholarship and learning became entrenched throughout the Muslim world and would have a tremendous impact on the evolution of human consciousness and society. Art, architecture, science, medicine, math, and engineering all flourished during the Middle Islamic period. Although these were the primary external features of the Middle Islamic period, also referred to as a golden age, there were underlying political, socio-religious, and economic developments that caused and characterized changes taking place throughout the Mamluk, Mongol, and Timurid periods.
Abbasid rule had a major impact on political, socio-religious, and economic developments. The Abbasid caliphates stressed schools of learning and formal modes of education that were rooted in Islam but which also transcended…
Egger, V.O. (2007). A History of the Muslim World. Pearson.
Although little is known about the group, it is clear that they have been able to maintain their identity and lifestyle despite numerous challenges ("Sarakatsani"). Today, they are still known as pastoral Christians. In being able to preserve this identity and history, the group has contributed to society's diversity and spoken to a group's ability to remain isolated and unified in society.
Finally, the Mongols operated as another important and well-known nomadic group who frequently terrorized the sedentary people's nearby. Although they certainly lived a warrior's lifestyle, Guzman writes that the Mongols should receive more credit as to their important role in revitalizing and progressing society, leaving a lasting impact. Thus, nomads have long been a function of history. Their position in relation to their sedentary counterparts has lead to their function of offsetting those counterparts and creating lasting legacies of their own.
Guzman, Gregory G. "Barbarians: Influence…
Guzman, Gregory G. "Barbarians: Influence of Nomads on Civilization." MSN. n.d. 27
Mercer, Billy Jean. "The Ancient Hebrew Culture." The Clarion Call. n.d. 27 July 2009.
Improvements to The Chinese System and Ideals Done by Kublai Khan
Genghis Khan moved his troops into the quasi Chinese Chin-rule north China in 1211, and in 1215 they crushed the capital city. Hisson Ogodei vanquished all of North China by 1234 and ruled it from 1229 to 1241. Genghis Khan's grandson, Kublai Khan, vanquished the Chinese Southern Song in 1279, and out of the blue all of China was under foreign rule (Johnson, 2014).
In 1271 Kublai Khan named his administration Yuan which signifies "origin of the universe." The Yuan tradition in China kept going from 1279 to 1368. Kublai Khan took after a speculative approach of Sinicization, that is, he adjusted to the Chinese method for administering and when you take a look at his picture, he looks especially like other Chinese rulers. Then again, in spite of the fact that he utilized some Chinese in low…
John Kellys "the great mortality"
The bacillus Yesinia Pestis made two continents pay intolerably high life prices both in human and animal lives. Along a few decades in the first half of the thirteenth century, it engulfed Eurasia and kept the world under its terror, making many think its end was near (The Great Mortality).
The Great Plague has carved in the history of humanity signs that will never fade with the passing of time because of its enormous toll on human lives. John Kelly's book "The great mortality" places the plague in a historic context and tackles the topic of Black Death from the perspective of the twentieth century. The word is not free from the deadly attack of infectious diseases, viruses are still threatening animals and human beings alike. John Kelly points out in the introduction to his book that in spite of the numerous victories reported by…
Once the practice of Islamic worship the women of that region began to be subjected to stricter codes, from marriage to dress and the risk of honor becoming an even greater issue grew. The terrorization by the Mongols and Turks was quite different from the terror under Saddam. The Mongols and Turks utilized slavery, rape, beatings and murder. Saddam instead took on an entirely different approach. His first goal was fear coupled with violence to maintain the plans he made for the society and culture. He was less about Islam and more about self-promotion and the glorification of Iraq. This type of leader is most like Josef Stalin of the Soviet Union. One never knew when or why you might be targeted.
Following the fall of the Ba'th government, the population of women in Iraq was at approximately 60%. They are a definite majority and should be in a better…
"AEI - Post-Saddam Iraq Conference Series." Welcome to AEI. Web. 7 July 2010. .
Chesler, Phyliss. "Are Honor Killings Simply Domestic Violence?" The Phyllis Chesler Organization. Web. 7 July 2010. .
Coleman, Isobel. "Women, Islam, and the New Iraq | Foreign Affairs." Home | Foreign Affairs. Web. 7 July 2010. .
"Culture in Post-Saddam Iraq:: Middle East Quarterly." Middle East Forum. Web. 7 July 2010. .
S. And maintain approximately as many members (both domestically and abroad) as the Hell's Angels. Their criminal activities are more focused on the manufacturing, distribution, and sales of cocaine, marijuana, and methamphetamines. The banditos use "puppet" or minor affiliate clubs who are not themselves Banditos but operate with the Banditos' authority and conduct some the parent club's criminal activities on their behalf.
In the modern era, widespread crackdowns and joint operations initiated by state and federal law enforcement authorities and legislative tools such as the federal acketeer Influenced and Corruption Organizations (ICO) Act have greatly reduced the influence of the Italian Mafia/LCN in American society but organized crime still persists, even if on a much smaller scale than half a century ago. However, whereas the power and reach of LCN has been greatly reduced, a significant influx of newer criminal enterprises has filled much of the gap vacated in…
Henslin, J. (2002). Essentials of Sociology: A Down-to-Earth Approach. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
Macionis, J. (2003). Sociology. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
Pinizzotto, a., Davis, E., and Miller, C. "Street Gang Mentality: A Mosaic of Remorseless Violence and Relentless Loyalty." FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin,
September 2007: 1-7.
For a society whose entire livelihood was tied to the migration patterns of animals, this factor is a vital change (Bellwood, 2004).
As mentioned, the technological advancements required for progress were vast, but were somehow attained by the Paleolithic people. The plow, loom, wheel, clay bricks, and calendars were all developed, despite a lack of knowledge surrounding such technical aspects (Bellwood, 2004).
Perhaps the largest factor in the transition was the changing global climate.
During the late Paleolithic period, the farmers of the Middle East concentrated on grain crops and plants that originated in a wet climate. However, these climates changed drastically, forcing the farmers to develop new farming methods to avoid starvation. As a result, some began to travel long distances to find food, but always remained near a water source. The key factor at this time was the change due to the end of the last ice age.…
Bellwood, P. (2004). First Farmers: The Origins of Agricultural Societies. New York: Blackwell Publishers.
History of China." China Discovery. Travel China Guide. 2004. Obtained April 27, 2007 at http://www.travelchinaguide.com/intro/history/ .
Mote, F.W. (1999). Imperial China: 900-1800. Boston: Harvard University Press.
Rossabi, M. (1983). China among Equals: The Middle Kingdom and Its Neighbors, 10th-14th Centuries. Berkeley: University of California Press.
The powers of the lords reduced a central government, but the overall loyalty to the Shogunates did protect the realm for 150 years, as well as act as an organizational tool for later Japanese governmental philosophy (Duus).
During the Kamikura period, there was also heavy influence from China in the exporting of Zen Buddhism. This view was popular, particularly among the samurai, which were now one of the leading social classes in the realm. Combining Buddhism with samurai traditions, for instance, allowed for a radical and intolerant sect, the Lotus Sutra, to grow in popularity from 1253 on. This Nichiren viewpoint remained and important force in Japan well into the 20th century (Buddhism).
Possibly due to the role of the Shogun and the need for order, the Shikimoku legal code arose in 1232 along with the traditions of the Samurai and the Bushido Code. Shikimoku stressed Confucian values like the…
Buddhism. JapanGuide.com. 2008, Web. Retrieved from: http://www.japan-guide.com/e/e2055.html .
Kamakura Period (1192-1333). JapaneGuide.com. 2008. Wed. Retrieved from: http://www.japan-guide.com/e/e2133.html
Blomberg, C. The Heart of the Warrior. New York: Routledge, 1995. Print.
Deal, W. Handbook to Life in Medieval and Early Modern Japan. New York: Oxford University Press. 2008. Print.
427). The limitations of the steppe people -- for example, the Mongols -- was running into geographical conditions that they were not used to. India was sheltered from invasion by the Tibetan barrier (until a way to go around it was found). These examples show how the lay of the land influences history.
His third key in describing geo-historical dynamics is the technological rivalry between land and sea. His often used term for this is "mobility of power." Mackinder contrasts land-power and sea-power. Land-power during the Columbian period means horses or camels such as those the Mongol hordes used for conquest. These are appropriate instruments for traversing the steppes and engaging in raids across relatively flat land. In contrast to this is sea-power: "Mobility upon the ocean is the natural rival of horse and camel mobility in the heart of the continent" (p. 432). Sea-power is crucial for the outlying…
Mackinder, H.J. (1904). The Geographical Pivot of History. The Geographical Journal, 23(4), 421-437.
Although the most powerful nomadic influence over Eurasian politics, economics, and religion -- it was not the first.
The earlier Turkish nomadic factions coming from Central Asia also had heavy influences on both Asia and the rest of the world. During the Post-Classical Era, the Turks began to regain a new strength that once again threatened the European empires to the est. As the Turks grew more and more powerful, this power began to seriously impact both Asian and European politics during the time. The Middle East was greatly shaped, both politically and religiously, by theinfluence of the Turks, "Turkic groups later known as the Seljuks migrated into the Middle East, where they played an important role in Islamic civilization," (Invictus 1). This group of Turks strengthened the role of Islam as both a religion and a political policy within the region. As the area became increasingly dominated by Islamic…
Invictus, Imperator. "History of Central Asia: An Overview." All Empires. 2006. Retrieved 10 May 2009 at http://www.allempires.com/article/index.php?q=history_central_asia
NEC PLURIUS IMPAR (not unequal to many things)
History is written for historians to understand. If Schleiman's Troy had 16 layers to it before finding virgin ground, so is history a layered version written by the State Historian for the Ruler. To be recorded as Official History. ut, like the 20,000 people that may live in a crowd, history, such wise, has 20,000 versions. For each life is sacred. And each existence original.
The historical context of the ten given sources span from Africa to the Americas to China. In the 15th Century, this was right at the end of Umayyid rule, circa 1492 with the fall of Granada in Spain and the Mongol invasion in 1362 in Persia. In between in Europe, was the beginning of the Renaissance (1560). It was the end of the Dark Middle ages of the Occident and the beginning of the Dark Ages of…
Campbell, Sir Robert. Louis XIV. London: Longmans, 1993.
Daniell, Charles Thornton Forester and F.H. Blackburne. The Life and Letters of Ogier Ghiselin de Busbecq. London: C. Kegan Paul and Company, 1881.
Mettan, Roger R. Government and Society in Louis' XIV's France. Basingstoke: Macmillan, 1977.
Spence, Jonathan D. Emperor of China. New York: Alfred A. Knopff, 1974.
The more important someone's rank in society was, the bigger the obligations became and thus, the responsibility increased.
Mesopotamia was a region between the two rivers Tigris and Euphrates where the swing of world's first civilization emerged. Various cultures occupied the region and were brought together solely by their customs and religion. Trade came in as the result of agriculture, it brought prosperity and urbanization. The rise of cities led to economic and political developments, one city being conquered by another until the establishment of the first Mesopotamian empire by Sargon that lasted about 150 years until outside powers such as the Hittites (who raided Babylon) gained control over some areas. During the Middle Bronze Age, the Assyrians conquered much of Mesopotamia and, with the rise of the Babylonian dynasty, trade was once again favoured and brought along warfare.
The Alexandrian Empire was favoured by a number of its king's…
Invention of Gun Powder and the Impact it Had on the Chinese Society and Warfare
The invention of gunpowder was driven by the quest for unending life. Gunpowder, however, ended up being more or less a death potion, responsible for the development of the deadliest war weapon, after the atomic bomb. An invention dating back to the Song and Tang Dynasties, between the 9th and 11th centuries, gunpowder came to be considered one of China's "Four Great Ancient Inventions,' alongside the compass, printing, and papermaking. Due to its explosive nature, gunpowder was first used for fireworks, and later, as an explosive in war. Prior to gunpowder invention, the Chinese military used fire as their main war weapon. Fire, however, had limited coverage, and Chinese strategists sought to develop a weapon with wider coverage.
Gunpowder was employed in warfare in the 15th century. It evolved from the ancient cannon to the…
Black, Jeremy. War: a Short History. Maiden Lane, NY: Continuum, 2009.
Chase, Kenneth. Firearms: a Global History to 1700. West Street, NY: Cambridge University Press, 2003.
Gunpowder and Firearms. Washington University. http://depts.washington.edu/chinaciv/miltech/firearms.htm
Panciera, Walter. "Venetian Gunpowder in the Second Half of the Sixteenth Century: Production, Storage, Use." In Gunpowder, Explosives and the State, edited by Brenda Buchanan, 93-120. Burlington, VT: Ashgate Publishing Company, 2006.
Business in ussia
The ussian Federation occupies most of Eastern Europe and north Asia. It stretches from the Baltic Sea in the west to the Pacific Ocean in the East and from Arctic Ocean in the North to Black Sea in the south (Pearson Education, 2012). It is the largest of the 21 republics that make up the Commonwealth of Independent States. There are also 6 federal territories, 2 federal cities, 49 regions, 1 autonomous region, and 10 autonomous areas (Pearson Education, 2012). Norway and Finland borders the Federation in the northwest while Estonia, Latvia, Belarus, and Ukraine border it in the west. In the south it is bordered by Kazakhstan, Mongolia, China, and North Korea. ussia occupies a land area of approximately 17,075,500 sq km (Pearson Education, 2012).
ussia is spread over all climatic zones except tropical. West of the Ural mountains from the Black Sea to the Arctic…
Kwintessential (2004). Doing Business in Russia. Retrieved from http://www.kwintessential.co.uk/etiquette/doing-business-russia.html
Pearson Education (2013). Russia: Maps, History, Government, Geography, Culture, Facts,
Guide and Travel. Retrieved from http://www.factmonster.com/ipka/A0107909.html
Russian Embassy (2012). Russian Geography-Regions of Russia. Retrieved from http://rusemb.org.uk/russiageography/
New scholarship suggests that Byzantine Empire was as successful as was ome in shaping modern Europe (Angelov, 2001).
Islamic Golden Age
The Islamic Golden Age (also called the Caliphate of Islam or the Islamic enaissance) was a center of government and political, cultural and religious traditions that arose in the early 6th century AD from the teachings of the Prophet Mohammed and reached its height between the 8th to 13th centuries (Kraemer, 1992). The Golden Age was centered around the Saudi Arabian peninsula. Its first capital was Media; at its greatest extent, the Caliphate controlled all of the present day Middle East, northern Africa and parts of Spain, and extending to the Indus Valley. It was thus one of the few empires that rules over three continents (Kennedy, 2001).
After the end of the classical empires of the Middle East (such as Egypt and Assyria) the region was politically and…
thinkquest.org. (1999). Retrieved March 27, 2010, from SPQR Online: http://library.thinkquest.org/26602/government.htm
Islam and Islamic History in Arabia and the Middle East. (2001). Retrieved March 28, 2010, from islamcity.com: http://www.islamicity.com/mosque/ihame/Sec12.htm
The European Voyages of Exploration. (2001). Retrieved April 5, 2010, from the Applied History Research Group: http://www.ucalgary.ca/applied_history/tutor/eurvoya/index.html
Mummies and Mummification. (2003). Retrieved March 30, 2010, from Digital Egypt: http://www.digitalegypt.ucl.ac.uk/mummy/ok.html
Although Nazarbayev is credited with maintaining domestic ethnic stability after the breakup of the Soviet Union, he has "allowed an inner circle of family members, friends, and business associates to exert formal and informal influence over vital economic resources and political positions," (Freedom House).
In the most recent presidential election in 2005, Nazarbayev obtained an unbelievable 90% of the vote. Presidential elections in Kazakhstan can generally be described as shams and have been criticized "by all major international organizations as falling short of international standards," (Freedom House). For example, in 1999 Nazarbaev barred his opponent from running based "on a technicality," (BBC). The current Kazak parliament does not include a single member from opposition parties (Freedom House). Currently, all parties represented in the Kazak parliament are supportive of Nazarbaev.
In response to accusations that he and his Otan party have been suppressing political dissent, Nazarbayev claims that he supports a…
Bashiri, Iraj. "Kazakhstan: An Overview." Retrieved Dec 10, 2006 at http://www.angelfire.com/rnb/bashiri/Kazakhstan/Kazakh.html
BBC News. "Country Profile: Kazakhstan." 10 Dec 2006. Retrieved Dec 10, 2006 at http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/asia-pacific/country_profiles/1298071.stm#facts
CIA. "Kazakhstan." The World Factbook. 30 Nov 2006. Retrieved Dec 10, 2006 from https://www.cia.gov /cia/publications/factbook/geos/kz.html
The Economist Intelligence Unit's Quality of Life Index." The World in 2005. Retrieved Dec 10, 2006 at http://www.economist.com/media/pdf/QUALITY_OF_LIFE.pdf
(Ibid.) As a result, life expectancy in pre-1950 Tibet was thirty-six years; 95% of Tibetans were illiterate and a similar percentage of the population was hereditary serfs and slaves owned by monasteries and nobles. (Hessler, 1999)
In such a back drop, Mao's Communism, which promised the emancipation and rule of the poorest peasants, ought to have been embraced with open arms by the Tibetan peasants. The fact that it took almost a decade, after the initial foray of the Communists into Tibet in 1951, to do so was mainly due to two reasons. The first was the recognition of the special status of Tibet by the Chinese Communist leadership and its slow introduction of social and economic reforms in the region leaving the ruling elite intact; the second was the deep rooted deference for religion among the Tibetans combined with a complete absence of the tradition of class revolt in…
Hessler, P. (1999). "Tibet through Chinese Eyes." The Atlantic Monthly. Volume: 283. Issue: 2.
Lixiong, W. (2002). "Reflections on Tibet." New Left Review. March-April 2002. Retrieved on November 19, 2006 at http://newleftreview.org/A2380
Particularly the Tibetans in exile
The Dali Lama has pursued the "middle way approach" since the 1970s after renouncing independence but seeking "genuine autonomy."
ecord keeping is an integral part of human civilization as it offers a way to physically store information for later use and through the years the art has advanced with technology. The invention of the printing press in 1445, allowed for mass production of texts making information easier and accessible and this greatly influenced human religion through sharing of ideas, communication as it was easier to print and psychology whereby information was judged using a critical approach. In this discussion though, we review how historical records were kept before the printing press while considering records left behind before the technology.
Before the printing press, only the noteworthy information was recorded because the art of recording was considered quite expensive then. For instance looking at the Mongolian history, a lot happened in their reign and it is evident that information had to be passed from one generation to another to…
The Art of West African Kingdoms. (1987). Washington, D.C: Smithsonian Institution.
Bourgeois, J.-L. (1987). The History of the Great Mosque of Djenne. African Arts, 20(3), 54-62, 90.
Sen, S., & Sen, S.N. (1993). Studies in Indian history: historical records at Goa. New Delhi: Asian Educational Services.
Society, U.S.C.H. (1959). Historical Records and Studies. London: The Society.
Although scientists found artifacts and art objects of the Olmecs; until this century they did not know about the existence of the Olmecs. Most of the objects which were made by this community were associated with other civilizations, such as Mayan, Toltec or Chichimecan. The Olmec lived between 1600 B.C. And 1400 B.C. In South Mexico. The name of this tribe comes from an Aztec word "ollin" which means "land of rubber."
At first they ate fish and they later start to farm, and that made it possible for them to "develop the first major civilization in Mesoamerica." (The Olmec Civilization) Thanks to the steady food supplies the Olmec population grew and some came to have other occupations. "Some became potters or weavers. Others became priests or teachers." (Ibidem) Once the population grew, so did their farming villages which developed into cities. The present-day city of San Lorenzo was…
1. The Olmec Civilization, Retrieved December 14, 2012, from the Pleasant Valley School website: http://www.pvsd.k12.ca.us/180120521134440680/lib/180120521134440680/11-2_SG_7th.pdf
2. Villeacas, Daniel, Mother Culture of Mexico: The Olmecs, Denver Public Schools, 2005, Retrieved December 14, 2012, from the Denver Public Schools website: http://etls.dpsk12.org/documents/Alma/units/MotherCultureMexicoOlmecs.pdf
3. Olmec -- Masterworks of Ancient Mexico, Retrieved December 14, 2012, from the Los Angeles County Museum of Art website: http://www.lacma.org/eduprograms/EvesforEds/OlmecEssay.pdf
4. Hansen, Valerie, Curtis Kenneth, Curtis, Kenneth R., Voyages in World History: To 1600, Volume 1, Cengage Learning, December 30, 2008
Power Politics and Glory
Example 1: The Great Wall Of China
It is a common phenomenon for an object to be associated with the ruler or the country in question. The Great Wall of China, where not only served as a defense system, but also consolidated the image of China as a mighty power for many years. The Wall -- acted more as a psychological defense mechanism -- giving the image of China as a united nation.
The design and the emergence of the wall was only possible in the then current prevailing Political Condition of the country, when the country needed to defend itself from foreign attacks by the Mongols.
The design of the Wall was used as a medium to inspire fear and an image of a strong state -- depicted by the strong wall itself. Aesthetic consideration was not point or considering factor, as the main point…
Carlisle, Lyndsay. "Walls and their impacts in a worldwide historical Context." Mexico: National Institute Of Ecology, n.d.Web. 27th Aug 2011
Ecotourism & Adventure Specialists . "The Palace at Paleanque National Park." n.d. Web. 28th Aug 2011.
Great Wall of China. n.d. Web. 27th Aug 2011.
Iliana Papadopoulou, Anastasia Veneti. "Committed Art and Propaganda." Annual PSA Conference. Leeds: Political Studies Association, 2005: 1-16.Web. 28th Aug 2011
Today when one thinks of a country with explosive economic growth and a bright future both economically and politically, China comes to mind. China has risen in prominence on the global stage at an exceedingly fast rate. It is sometimes referred as the United States, next great potential rival, and with good reason. It is officially known as the People's epublic of China and is the world's most populated country in the world, with over 1.35 billion people (CIA). It is ruled by a single political party, the Communist Party, with Beijing being the capital and therefore, the epicenter of political power in China. China is also the second largest country in regards to land area. It is a diverse geological country, its landscape consisting of deserts, forests, to subtropical forests in the south (CIA). A country with vast natural resources, its population being of them, and a rising…
China. (n.d.). Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved March 13, 2014, from https://www.cia.gov /library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ch.html' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
Ly, Tran, and Ho Epochs
The Dai Viet Kingdom had its origin in the middle of the 10th century until around the middle of the 11th century, when local chiefs were able to vie for control in what is now Land of Viet
However, regionalism is the pattern. As the Northern Tang dynasty crumbled, it lost control over South (which are now parts of Northern Vietnam)
The weakening of Northern Tang gradually led to the emergence of the Dai Viet kingdom
There was still a lot of in fighting, though. Chieftan Dinh Bo Lihn conquered the "Twelve Warlords" and established a capital at Hoa Lu, south of the Red River Delta not far from modern day Hanoi.
Dinh Bo Linh was succeeded by Le Hoan, who fought off Song Dynasty encroachment. Thus they gained regional dominance
Then Ly Cong Uan in early 11th cent, supported by Buddhist community, moved the…
As our textbook demonstrates, there were a range of factors that “loaded the dice of fate” in the favor of Britain to ensure that the industrial revolution occurred around 1800 in their nation. One of these factors were raw materials crucial for industrialization to occur. As our textbook illuminates, Britain had large quantities of coal and iron to use and invest in this revolution, and to ensure its success.[footnoteRef:1] There was also the advantage of accessibility of New World lands as means of financial investment and also to offer raw materials, should the movement of industrialization warrant it.[footnoteRef:2] However, perhaps the more compelling reason was social and environmental. Great Britain fostered an environment that was experimental and that frankly encouraged experimentation. For a great mind, this is a crucial. Even the most brilliant minds need the opportunity to try and fail repeatedly in order to create a more brilliant invention.…
The Interaction of Capitalism and Industrialization
Capitalism is one of the oldest economic systems in the world today and is founded on the concept of private ownership: what’s mine is mine and what’s yours is yours. It is also founded on the private ownership of all aspects of production, such as investment capital, land, and labor that is employed to create profits. Many scholars view capitalism as being synonymous with the free market system. Some have argued that capitalism is the protection of individual rights and property rights.[footnoteRef:1] Industrialization is a term very closely connected with the industrial revolution. Industrialization refers to the journey/procedure via which a region or local economy metamorphosizes from one founded on the dependence of agrarian pillars (such as farming) to one that is founded on the manufacture of goods. Via industrialization, manual labor on the small scale is replaced by mass production through mechanized means,…
Camera angles that focus on wretched faces, of young boys in red coated uniforms begging for mercy, and of the arrogance of the British officer corps, not just towards Americans, but towards their own enlisted men, are shown with filming skill. As might be expected for this type of film, John Williams' score was masterful and very much in line with the generation of epics from the 1950s and 1960s -- painting a realistic picture of the film without dialog. Similarly, the audience is set up between the idyllic farm and hard work of a widower in the opening scene to the juxtaposition and hoped for return to normalcy in the final moments -- however, knowing that things will never be as they were (See: http://www.tcm.com/tcmdb/title.jsp?stid=336714&contentTypeId=130&category=trailer). The scene, however, that most stays with the audience is not one of the grander battles, but a one-on-one battle between Benjamin and Tavington,…
REFERENCES and WORKS CONSULTED
Bittarello, M.B. (2008). "Re-Crafting the Past: The Complex Relationship
Between Myth and Ritual." Pomegranate: The International Journal of Pagan Studies. 10(2): 214.
TRAILERS and PREVIEWS
Brown, Todd. (2007). "Footage from Taras Bulba." Twitch. Cited in:
It was almost terminally weakened by Andrei Boglyubsky, prince of a rival Slavic clan, who attacked and plundered Kiev in 1169; he then took on the title of Grand Prince. He chose not to rule from Kiev, however. His decision marked the beginning of the end of Kievan us' and the city of Kiev's influence.
Starting in 1223, large armies of Mongols began invading the region, further weakening the power of Kiev. As that city's power waned, Moscow's grew. By 1308, the Metropolitan of the Church chose to move his see to Moscow, furthering the transference of power from Kievan us' to ussia.
It was during Ivan III's reign that Kiev was finally liberated from the menace of the Tatars. Since Byzantium had fallen to the Turks in 1453, Ivan proclaimed ussia to be the successor state to Byzantium, a claim that was enhanced by Ivan III's 1472 marriage to…
Kievan Rus'. [email protected] State University, Mankato.
Kievan Rus'. Wikipedia. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kievan_Rus .
Kies, Lisa. The Iconography of the Russian Iconostasis. http://www.strangelove.net/~kieser/Russia/iconostasis.html.
During this Diaspora, the African Slave Trade transferred 9-12 million people from one continent to another with major repercussions on cultural and political traditions in the New World. There have been a number of modern Diasporas based on the post-Cold War world in which huge populations of refugees migrated from conflict, especially from developing countries (Southeast Asia, China, Afghanistan, Iran, Latin America, South American, Rwanda, etc.).
Part 1.2.1 - Civil Law is a legal system inspired by Ancient Roman law. In Civil law, laws are written into a codified collection that is a group of ideas and systems that work in tandem to help organize societies without the need for judicial interpretation. Overall, civil law is in place to formulate general principles and to distinguish substantive rules from procedural rules, and is based on the tenet that legislation is the primary source of law.
Conceptually, civil law is a group…
Even with the fact that the tribesman was not acquainted with the religion, it is very possible that Africans in general felt that Christianity contained a series of concepts that were also present in their cultures." Though the peoples of this vast area spoke many languages and had different customs, through Christianity they were linked together in the confession of the creed of Nicaea" (ilken).
Islam had nonetheless experienced a rapid spread over the Arab Peninsula, but this can be attributed to the fact that most people in the territory had been Arab and because they saw the opportunity of adopting a religion that also had the function of uniting all the Arab people. Moreover, one can understand how Christianity had more success in converting individuals because it had mainly been directed at getting the people it came across to think spiritually and to appreciate God as a spiritual concept.…
Goddard, Peter a. "Converting the Sauvage: Jesuit and Montagnais in Seventh-century New France," the Catholic Historical Review 84.2 (1998)
Jenkins, Philip. "The Forgotten Christian World: In the First Millennium, Christianity Spread East from Palestine to Iraq, and on to India and China, Becoming a Global Religion Accepting of, and Accepted by, Other Faiths. But with the Mongol Invasions of the 13th Century, Christianity's Eastern Journey Came to an End, and the Religion Became Ever More Closely Identified with European Culture. Philip Jenkins Recovers This Lost History," History Today Apr. 2009
Osman, Ghada. "Pre-islamic Arab Converts to Christianity in Mecca and Medina: an Investigation into the Arabic Sources," the Muslim World 95.1 (2005)
Wilken, Robert Louis. "Christianity face-to-face with Islam," First Things: A Monthly Journal of Religion and Public Life Jan. 2009
And in such instances where one might be sold, the selling nobleman was given the right to retain the individual's family and property.
hough the laws would stop short of allowing the right of the noble to kill a serf, the penalty for doing so was a nominal monetary fine of a negligible sum to a member of the landed gentry. herefore, prohibition on killing a serf was pointedly low. It is thus that the Russian feudalist system created a scenario in which the seeds of Communist revolution could ultimately be sowed. With literally half of its population living in abject slavery and the stability of the central government constantly threatened by invading Mongols and rebelling Cossacks, the slave population increasingly came to represent a serious threat to the continued survival of the ruling class. First through its constant undermining of the system by flight from ownership and thereafter by…
Though the laws would stop short of allowing the right of the noble to kill a serf, the penalty for doing so was a nominal monetary fine of a negligible sum to a member of the landed gentry. Therefore, prohibition on killing a serf was pointedly low. It is thus that the Russian feudalist system created a scenario in which the seeds of Communist revolution could ultimately be sowed. With literally half of its population living in abject slavery and the stability of the central government constantly threatened by invading Mongols and rebelling Cossacks, the slave population increasingly came to represent a serious threat to the continued survival of the ruling class. First through its constant undermining of the system by flight from ownership and thereafter by increasingly organized slave revolts, the serf population demonstrated the sheer irrationality of enslaving so large a population to the service of so few. Ultimately, the great many would come to recognize their power.
So would this be the recognition of the Tsar Alexander II, who in 1861 responded to a fear that ultimately the imbalance of this system would come to destroy the noble class by emancipating those in bondage and abolishing slavery. The impracticality of the system and the harsh survival imposed upon so great a population would have irreparable consequences though. For the people of Russia, emancipation would not ease its suffering or quell its anger. The 'agreement' forged in the name of emancipation would forge a system still deeply exploitive and absent of opportunity for those without land. The lives of the Russian peasantry would be little changed by emancipation, such as slavery had plunged so many into a condition of great inequality.
This would most assuredly by the cause for Russia's role in the spread of communist and socialist ideologies, which were predicated on the understanding that the enormity of the slave classes were sufficient to justify their empowerment. Thus, in 1918, when the Bolsheviks stormed the Alexander Palace and executed Tsar Nicholas II and his family, the prophecy of Alexander II before him may be said to have largely come true. The Marxist principles which underscored the Revolutionary Era, pushed forward by Russia's struggles in the Russo-Japanese War and World War II, would be the inevitable outcome of a serfdom that was too late and too large to occur without terrible consequences.
Also, Anna finds more lies as she analyses illiam's past, concluding that lies play a vital role in people's lives. The fact that even illiam's mother had to lie relating to her son's real father convinces Anna to think less about illiam's life. Ursula having similar beliefs to Anna contributes to them wanting to find out more about illiam's past, and, to try to understand it.
hen finally deciding to brake up from Piotr, Anna does not attempt to bring any reasons for her decision, as she simply claims that she fell in love with someone else. This proves to be too much for Piotr that cannot conceive how something like this can simply happen. Anna's mother also finds it hard to accept that her daughter would brake up with her husband. Even with that, she had not actually been against Anna's decision because of her being determined to quit…
1. Duffy, Christopher. (1991). "Red storm on the Reich: the Soviet march on Germany, 1945." Routledge.
2. Kemp-Welch a. (2008). "Poland under Communism: a Cold War history." Cambridge University Press
3. Stachniak, Eva. (2000). "Necessary lies." Dundurn Press Ltd.
Kemp-Welch a. (2008). "Poland under Communism: a Cold War history." Cambridge University Press.
There is no market for Internet sales.
The promotion function is complicated by the nation's demographics. Promotion must be conducted in multiple languages. Promotions in Russian -- which is understood by all -- will not be respected by either the Kyrgyz or the Uzbeks. Ads strictly in Kyrgyz, on the other hand, will not attract the Russian audience as they will not understand them.
Promotions should feature either nationalist or ethnocentric motifs in order to gain the strongest consumer response. Emotion-centered promotion can be successful, rather than appeals featuring intellectual arguments.
There are limited media outlets, but those that do exist command a healthy market share. There are competing media from Russia and surrounding Central Asian states as well. Newspapers are popular, as is television. There is a radio presence. The online advertising market is in its infancy. Because of the limited size of the advertising industry, promotional budgets…
CIA World Factbook. (2009). Kyrgyzstan. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved December 7, 2009 from https://www.cia.gov /library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/kg.html' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
Vietnamese people are generally polychromic, in particular with respect to privacy and family relations. They are high-context people who value and gather information about their world to be used later to guide behavior in different situations. Vietnam is a high power distance culture, where roles are formally defined and accepted. The have high uncertainly avoidance. For example, when meeting somebody they will first ask that person's age because age guides certain rules of etiquette. It would be awkward for a Vietnamese to not know somebody's age because they would be unsure of how to address that person or of that person's formal authority with respect to their own.
Vietnam is a masculine country as well (Nguyen & Hau, 2007). The people are ambitious, as the explosive growth of their economy indicates. They have clearly defined gender roles as well. Yet, they are a collectivist country. The family remains the strongest…
No author. (2009). Vietnam. CIA World Factbook. Retrieved October 25, 2009 from https://www.cia.gov /library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/vm.html' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
(Harvey, 2003) the suspicion of the United States of the "Soviet Expansionist tendencies" had increased by the 1970s and Harvey states as well that "The pervasive mentality of Washington officials during these years was dominated by the communist domino theory which led many Washington politicians to believe that the Soviet Union sought to take over the entire world." (2003) the United States had always received a safeguard provided by the shah for their Middle East interest of oil and it was this that resulted in the United States perceiving the Soviet-Afghanistan relations as a "considerable threat...before 1979." (Harvey, 2003)
Harvey reports that while Department of State records from the early 1970s report that the United States was indifferent to the relationship that was developing between the Soviet Union and Afghanistan that the truth is that "...Recently declassified ntelligence reports also reveal that the "official history record is false."
Isby, David C. (1999) War in a Distant Country. New York: Arms and Armour Press, 1989. Rashid, Ahmed (2000) Taliban. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2000.
Terrorism Project. (2001) "Lessons from History: U.S. Policy Towards Afghanistan, 1978-2001." 5 October 2001. Online available at; .
United States Department of State (1976) Annual Policy Assessment, March 9, 1976.
Lastly, a loss of Ajaristan (Ajaria) would weaken Georgias buffer with Turkey and increase loss of lack Sea shoreline:
In the conflict between the Ossetians and Ingush, the Russian government favored the "always loyal Ossetians" over the discontented Muslim Ingush. The conflicts with the Georgians in the south and the Ingush in the west have fueled the growth of Ossetian nationalism, but the majority hope for autonomy, not full independence, fearing the loss of Russian protection in the volatile region they have inhabited since ancient times. The Ossetians, although needing Russian protection in the mostly Muslim region, continue to work for the unification of their small nation in a single political entity. In 1996, the governments of North and South Ossetia signed a treaty of friendship and cooperation. Relations between the South Ossetians and the Georgian government improved in the late 1990s. The Georgian government of Eduard Shevardnadze proposed in…
Abbott, Wilbur Cortez. The Expansion of Europe: A History of the Foundations of the Modern World. Vol. 2,. New York: H. Holt and Company, 1918.
Atal, Yogesh, ed. Poverty in Transition and Transition in Poverty: Recent Developments in Hungary, Bulgaria, Romania, Georgia, Russia, Mongolia. New York: Berghahn Books, 1999.
Black, Cyril E., Robert D. English, Jonathan E. Helmreich, a. James McAdams, and Paul C. Helmreich. Rebirth: A Political History of Europe since World War II. 2nd ed. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 2000.
"Bulgaria, Romania Pledge Support in Georgia's EU Aspiration" May, 9th 2005, http://www.washprofile.org/en/node/6355
D., various rulers expanded the religion in what was known as the Golden Age of Islam. Muslims made huge advances in military might, the sciences, and the arts. However, the different factions of Islam haunted the religion, even in the Golden Age of its existence. Gregorian then goes to explore the territorial dispute which led to the centuries of fighting with Christian nations in what was known in the West as the Crusades. However, it was not the Christian Westerners who did the most damage to the Muslim strongholds but barbaric Mongols who eventually ended the Golden Age of Islam. The rise of the Ottoman Empire in the 15th century revived the greatness of the Muslim tradition. The modern era, with the culmination of the Industrial Revolution, later diminished the grandeur and power of the various Muslim empires in the Middle East and Asia. With this decline many empires which,…
"9.8% in urban areas; substantial unemployment and underemployment in rural areas; an official Chinese journal estimated overall unemployment (including rural areas) for 2003 at 20% (2004 est.)" (CIA orld Factbook "China") the occupation breakdown for the nation is also rather simplistic, with a large protion of the population still being engaged in agricultural industries: "agriculture 49%, industry 22%, services 29% (2003 est.)" (CIA orld Factbook "China")
Cultural habits of China are relatively universal as the nation has relatively few national minorities and limited immigration from other nations due to its communist legacy. The majority ethnic group Han Chinese constitutes 91.9% of the total population with the significant minorities including Zhuang, Uygur, Hui, Yi, Tibetan, Miao, Manchu, Mongol, Buyi, Korean, and other nationalities, constituting only a total of 8.1%. There is though a significant social and cultural disparity between urban and rural populations. Urban China is relatively modern, with many conveniences…
CIA World Factbook "China" at http://www.umsl.edu/services/govdocs/wofact2005/geos/ch.html
Goldberg, Jonah. "10 Million Missing Girls." National Review 30 Jan. 2006: 8.
S. democracy. In 1998, the Center for the Study of Latino Health and Culture at UCLA convened several middle-aged Latinos to discuss the Latino society in California while they were growing up. Born in the 1940s and 1950s, they remembered a much more segregated and exclusionary society than the one today, and the hurt remains: They described growing up in a situation in which being Latino was simply not validated. "Back then [1950s]... who cares? You're just a Mexican, you're a 'beaner,' you know, you're a 'greaser'" (Hayes-Bautista, 2004, p. 14).
The Mexicans born after the war had a very different experience than their parents and grandparents. The children of the postwar era were mostly children of U.S.-born Mexicans and grew up in barrios populated almost completely by the U.S.-born residents (Hayes-Bautista, 2004, p. 19)
Much did not change for the Mexicans from the 1940s to 1960s, with discrimination and…
Hayes-Bautista, David E. Latinos in the Golden State. Berkley: University of California Press, 2004.
Kowalski, Kathiann. Life in the Barrio. Cobblestone (2004) 25.5.
Menchaca, Martha. Mexican Outsiders. Austin: University of Texas Press, 2004.
Moore, Shirley Ann Wilson. We feel the want of protection: The politics of law and race in California, 1848-1878. California History (2003) 81:3-4, 96(31).
riters accused of composing subversive works were jailed, exiled, or executed" and thus silenced (Pamintuan, 2003).
Such puritanical attitudes on the part of the leadership seemed to be embraced by the common people. For example, a woman's virtue was held in particularly high regard during this period. The number of widows who honored their dead husbands by refusing to remarry or by committing suicide reached a historical high (Pamintuan, 2003). The government sponsored special female-only homes to support impoverished widows who refused to marry, to honor the memory of their dead husbands (Pamintuan, 2003).
The first Manchu emperor's successors, Yongzheng and Qianlong, were equally long-lived, ensuring stability of the regime and sustained peace. Also, they were quite effective in accumulating imperial intelligence in outlying areas of the empire. "Missives called 'memorials' were sent from trusted officials in these areas directly to the emperor with seals to guarantee that the document…
Nilsson, Jan-Erik. "Qing." Chronology. Text based on China: A Country
Study by Federal Research Division, Library of Congress, Edited by Robert L. Worden, Andrea Matles Savada and Ronald E. Dolan. Research Completed July 1987. Created 2002. Updated 23 Feb 2007. http://www.gotheborg.com/index1.htm?http://www.gotheborg.com/chronology/qing.shtml
Pamintuan, Tina. "Breaching the Great Wall: How the Manchu Took China."
Humanities. March/April 2003. Volume 24/Number 2. http://www.neh.gov/news/humanities/2003-03/greatwall.html
Laterite is a soft stone, easily cut, which dries to a very hard material. It was not easily carved, so it was used for foundations and walls.
During the 7th and 8th centuries, larger temples were built of sandstone, which was available from the Kingdom of Chenla, quarries. Sandstone is easily carved, so by the 7th century carvings of good quality and detail were found on the lintels of the doors of the temples. Towards the end of this century, some temples were made entirely of stone, some of these tall, single tower temples still survive in Indo-China and Cambodia.
Unfortunately, there were significant problems that the architects were not able to overcome when designing the great pyramids of Angkor at and Bayon. Sandstone may fit together very well, but vertical joints, running on top of one another, makes a wall very unstable. A whole wall would fall down if…
Angkor.com, The Angkor Wat Portal. 2006. http://www.angkor-planet.com/UK-hase.html .
Facts and Figures. Angkor Wat.com. 2006. (Website) http://www.angkorwat.org/.
Gilbert, Richard and Hang, Sovandy. Cambodian for Beginners. Bangkok: Paiboon Poomsan Publishing, 2004.
Jacobson, Matt. Adventure Cambodia: An Explorer's Travel Guide. London: Silkworm Books, 2005.
hen a greater variety of representatives were
present, the term zemskii sobor or assembly of the land was applied to the
group. This group did not really have any political power as a legislative
body. However, it was a way for Ivan's administration to gather support
amongst a wide range of people.
Ivan felt that he needed the support of the people and of the church
to accomplish his reforms. Consequently, one of his early and important
reforms involved changes in the church. ith Ivan's blessing, the Stoglav
Council made many revisions in church policy ranging from ways of worship
to church court to monastic life to Christianity for the average person.
All of these new policies were documented in a book called Stoglav.
Ivan was a pious person himself and he saw the necessity of bringing the
church on board with the various changes that he intended to make.…
Crummey, Robert O. The Formation of Muscovy: 1304-1613. London: Longman,
De Madariaga, Isabel. Ivan the Terrible: First Tsar of Russia. New Haven:
University Press, 2005.
Pavlov, Andrei and Maureen Perrie. Ivan the Terrible: Profiles in Power.
Pearson Longman, 2003.
With only one front these tensions should be lessened and a more cohesive effort should be expected by the various forces comprising the Coalition.
Jones acknowledges that America is stuck in Afghanistan for some time and, therefore, must take a special effort to effectuate changes that will be long-lasting. The key to any lasting change in Afghanistan, Jones believes is to build it from the bottom-up. This requires that America abandon any attempts to build entirely from the top down. It would be more prudent to develop a bottom up strategy. The window to do so is there. Many Afghans detest the Taliban for trying to impose their ideology on them and are open to change. Obtaining the support of the local population is the key to the success of this program, Jones believes, and soliciting tribal, religious and other local leaders to assist in this process is crucial and…
' (Adams, 1982) Local agencies helped the magistrate, remedied public mores, and also inspected the conduct of the "Hyangni" and served as power base for the local "yangbans. "Yangbans" were dispatched to the province from the capital. Yangbans -- constituted of the class of advantaged / privileged civil and military servicemen. Yangins constituted of middle-level bureaucrats, peasants and merchants, whose children were allowed to sit the exam for governance service. "Chungins" -- were technical personnel and professional specialists composed of the side children of 'Yangbans"
Leonid (2011) points out that 'The literati composed of the dominant social class in Choson Korea. Most of them were the "Yangbans" the members of the two orders of officialdom who served as civil or military officials.' Since it was this yangbans who directed the government, economy and culture of Choson Korea, it may be designated a Yangban society as opposed to the aristocratic society…
Buzo, Adrian. (2002). The Making of Modern Korea: A History. New York: Rout ledge
Carter J. Eckert, Kibalk Lee (2009) Korea Old and New, A history, Lehokak: Publishers for Korea Institute, Harvard pp 107-131.
Cumings Bruce. (1997). Korea Place in the Sun: A Modern History. New York: W.W. Norton.
One of the most brilliant contributions of the Byzantium is its contribution to modern music and the development of what the world has come to appreciate as the foundations of classical music. The Byzantine "medieval" (Lang, 1997), in fact, the Byzantium influence is considered to be critical to the development of the Greek music and the relative genius behind Greek music (Lang, 1997)
The quoted sovereign melody (Lang, 1997) is the oft punctuated contribution to the sovereign nature of today's music throughout the world. The Byzantium facilitated the sovereign method of music ostensibly from what would be the earlier influences to the Byzantine Empire. Lang continues to point to such influence as having its origins in the Orient (Lang, 1997).
Sports were a major part of the Byzantine Empire and are representative of the development of competition within the Roman Empire and subsequently to the importance of sporting events within…
, lands useful to man, but according to technical and conspicuous for purposes that each civilization.
When business needs and adds prestige to urban heritage, religions, however, that mark their territories of pagodas, churches, monasteries, mosques and other places of worship, this singularity is affirmed more, while the forms of urban and rural habitat are specified, they are luxuries or miserable. And civilization, always customary in everyday life acquires additional visibility monumental materializing the skills of craftsmen-artists who enrich the work of the builders.
Added to this are, of course, the wealth and prestige that comes from adding additional, oral traditions of all time, written tradition gradually spread to shops and palaces, and the ideological apparatuses of all kinds, from which they eventually win the depths of peoples. o, the graphics become, like languages, distinctive marks of the various civilizations.
Maturation profoundly affects trade flows of civilization. On the one…
Stocking, George, Victorian Anthropology, Free Press, 1991, ISBN 0-02-931551-4
Trigger, Bruce, Sociocultural Evolution: Calculation and Contingency (New Perspectives on the Past), Blackwell Publishers, 1998, ISBN 1-55786-977-4
Reade, Julian 2001 Assyrian King-Lists, the Royal Tombs of Ur, and Indus Origins. Journal of Near Eastern Studies 60(1):1-29
Mughal Empire and the Indian Identity
In a certain regard, the Mughal Empire was inherently foreign when it assumed the seat of power that would see India through several hundred years. Descendent from the same Mongolian seat of power which produced Genghis Kan and the Tartars, heavily influenced in its culture by the Persians and initiated by a royal descendent ruling in Afghanistan, the Mughal Empire is something of a hybrid. It is thus that its claims to 'Indian' heritage are called into question. However, a consideration of Indian culture today and in a retrospective regard suggests that our current understanding of the Indian identity is necessarily shaped at least in part by the Mughal influence. Therefore, as to the discussion of the Mughal Empire's claim to Indian identity, it is appropriate to suggest that it would be a prime determinant of the Indian identity as we know it today.…
Abrams, H.N. & Welch, S.C. (1963). The Art of Mughal India. New York City: The Asia Society, Inc.
Bowle, J. (1962). Man Through the Ages. Boston: Little, Brown and Company.
Lane-Poole, S. (1970). Mediaeval India Under Mohammedan Rule (A.D. 712-1764). Haskell House Publishers, Ltd.
Malik, H. (1963). Moslem Nationalism in India and Pakistan. Public Affairs Press.
Botticelli's Birth Of Venus And Duccio's Maesta
The representation of women in estern art has changed throughout history, and for much of estern history this representation was oriented around the dominant female figure in contemporary society; that is, Mary, mother of Jesus. However, the gradual shift away from a dominantly monotheistic cultural hegemony seen in the Renaissance and eventually the Enlightenment brought with it new (and the case of this study, old) means of representing women beyond the confinements and discourse of the Madonna and Child. By comparing and contrasting Duccio di Buoninsegna's Virgin and Child Enthroned Amidst Angels and Saints (which is the main altarpiece of the artist's Maesta) with Sandro Botticelli's The Birth of Venus, one is able to see how the changing cultural standards which came about during the shift from the conservative, Eastern-influenced Late Gothic art of Duccio to the freer, more naturalistic art of Botticelli's…
Botticelli, Sandro. "The Birth of Venus."Wikipedia.org. Google Art Project, c. 1486. Web. 12
Jun 2011. .
Duccio. "Maesta." Wikipedia.org. N.p., 1308-1311. Web. 12 Jun 2011.
The two cities I am going to compare are Irkutsk and Tampa. Irkutsk is located in Siberia, along the shores of the Angara River, near the shores of Lake Baikal. Tampa lies on Tampa Bay, near the shores of the Gulf of Mexico. Its inland location and northerly latitude characterize the weather of Irkutsk, which is very cold for most of the year, with five freezing months from November to March where the temperatures drop significantly. Summers are mild. Tampa's southerly location gives it a warm climate, with freezing temperatures seldom if ever occurring. The climate is warm, sunny, and humid. Summers are hot and humid with frequent thunderstorms. The average July temperature in Irkutsk is 64.5, and the average January temperature is -0.9F. The average July temperature in Tampa is around 90, and in January it is 70 (U.S. Climate Data, 2012); orld Climates, 2012).
Irkutsk has a…
Babrs. (2006). History of Irkutsk. Thinkquest.org. Retrieved March 29, 2012 from http://library.thinkquest.org/05aug/01907/history.htm
RussiaTrek.org. (2012). Irkutsk city, Russia. RussiaTrek.org. Retrieved March 29, 2012 http://russiatrek.org/irkutsk-city
US Census.gov. (2012). Tampa (city), Florida. U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved March 29, 2012 from http://quickfacts.census.gov/qfd/states/12/1271000.html
US Climate data. (2012). Tampa, Florida. U.S. Climate Data. Retrieved March 29, 2012 from http://www.usclimatedata.com/climate.php?location=USFL0481