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Montessori is an educational approach that was created by the doctor and pedagogue, Maria Montessori. The basic pillars of a Montessori education revolve around the ideas of the necessity of independence, freedom within certain limits, and an overall respect for a child's organic development, in regards to all that is both psychological and physical, but also verbal, intellectual and even social. Some scholars argue that no two Montessori schools are alike and that no two Montessori classrooms are even alike. Even so, there are certain tenets of a Montessori education that continue to subsist. For instance, classrooms where there is a mix of ages is a common trend, such as a classroom with toddlers to even six-year-olds socializing and learning together. Unlike traditional schools where students have to work on certain tasks as clearly dictated by a teacher, students in Montessori have the option of engaging in activities from a…
Fouts, R. (1998). Next of Kin. Turtleback Books.
Krishnamurti, J. (2010). Education and the Significance of Life. New York: Harper Collins.
Lillard, A. (2008). Montessori: The Science Behind the Genius. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Montessori, M. (1955). The Formation of Man. Theosophical Publishing House.
The Child as an Active Learner
Foundations of the Montessori Learning Approach
Maria Montessori was a native of Chiaravalle Italy, born in 1870 during the time when Italy was declaring its independence (Kramer, 1988). Montessori did not originally wish to go into teaching, but your life path lead her to become the founder of the Montessori schools and philosophy. Montessori refused to assume traditional women's roles. Her independent spirit is reflected in her teaching methods which emphasizes independence, freedom within limits, and respect for the child's own natural psychological development. This research will explore the underpinnings of the Montessori approach and its relation to other learning theories.
There many schools that claim to be Montessori schools, but unless they have at least five basic elements, they are not true Montessori schools. These five elements are:
• mixed age classrooms, with classrooms for children ages 2-1/2 to…
American Montessori Society. (2011). Introduction to Montessori. Retrieved fromhttp://www.amshq.org/Montessori%20Education/Introduction%20to%20Montessori
American Montessori Society Head Quarters. (AMSHQ). (2011). AMS and the Montessori
Movement. Retrieved from http://www.amshq.org/Montessori%20Education/History%20of%20Montessori%20Educ
ole of Montessori Directress
Characteristic of a Directress
ole of Montessori Directress
Personal Preparation and Development of the Montessori Directress
The role of a teacher in a Montessori classroom is played by a fully trained Montessori directress. The Montessori directress usually has the qualification of a normal teacher but she also has the qualification of a one year teacher education diploma. The directress is a guide for the children during the process of self-development. She makes the child comfortable with the environment and helps the child to discover ways of survival in any particular environment. The directress should be a calm, intelligent and helpful person to set a good example for the children.
The Montessori Directress is a teacher, who guides the children towards the path that leads them to self-awareness and maturity. She not only…
Asrani, A. (2009, November 22). Montessori Education. Role of a Montessori Directress.
Burke, A. (1996). The Montessori Teacher: Roles and Responsibility. A Way of Learning.
Conventry, A. (2012, December 7). Becoming a Directress. Montessori Style Teaching in Preschool.
Irinyi, M. (2010, April 9). Montessori Teacher Training. Personal Preparation and Development for the Montessori Teacher.
REGGIO EMILIA MODEL?
Image of the child?
Child influenced by forces within self impelling towards growth
A natural intelligence that involves rational, empirical, and spiritual aspects
Child influenced by forces within self impelling towards growth.
Child is social from birth impelled by wonder and curiosity?
Child influenced by forces within self impelling towards growth?
Teaching and learning?
Development is a series of six-year periods each with its own particular sensitivities and education has to be tailored accordingly.
Child is eager to learn and seeks education through play, reality, and work
The child learns by creating changes in the environment / system in which she is involved.
Children explore and investigate a quantity of multisensory elements.
There is no scope and sequence. There is plenty of review.
unity of spirit, soul, and body. Good education restores the balance between thinking, willing, and feeling.
There are three cycles…
Barnes, Henry. (1991). Learning that grows with the learner: An introduction to Waldorf education. Educational Leadership, 49(2), 52-54
Chattin-McNichols, John. (1992a). The Montessori controversy. Albany, NY: Delmar.
Chattin-McNichols, John. (1992b). Montessori programs in public schools. ERIC Digest. Champaign, IL: ERIC Clearinghouse on Elementary and Early Childhood Education
Dahlberg, Gunilla; Moss, Peter; & Pence, Alan. (1999). Beyond quality in early childhood education and care: Postmodern perspectives. London: Falmer Press
Montessori education system
Education is one of the central needs for every child while growing up and it is essential to provide an environment that enables the child to grow physically, emotionally, socially and also intellectually. When an environment does not seem to offer all the above growth factors, particularly to the children, then that environment or the education system fails to meet the needs of the child.
In the course of acquiring the above mentioned development, children need to have sufficient freedom, guidance, security from harm as well as space to play so that they are in a good position to grow in an all round manner.
The Montessori learning system or environment is noted to be one of the best environments that offer children, particularly between the ages 3 years to 13 years, an ideal environment to grow in all the necessary aspects.
Characteristics of the…
Montessori Education (UK) Ltd., (2012). The Outdoor Environment. Retrieved July 1, 2012 from http://www.montessorieducationuk.org/?q=eyfs/enabling-environments/learning-environment/outdoor-environment
The International Montessori Index (2011). Montessori Materials & Learning Environments
for the Home and the School. Retrieved July 1, 2012 from http://www.montessori.edu/ prod.html
Montessori School Advantages
hy would a parent send a child to a Montessori classroom? The answer to that question will be provided in this paper, because Montessori schools provide educational opportunities for children that are rarely if ever successfully offered elsewhere. The strategies employed by Montessori teachers are far more holistic than in traditional public school environments, and hence, Montessori has earned a sterling reputation therein. This paper provides the background of Montessori, the advantages of Montessori, and how a teacher would create a sense of joy within a child that has learned to read well.
Proven Educational Excellence
A study that scientifically tests the positive impact that Montessori has on students was published by Tunisia Riley for the AAAS (American Association for the Advancement of Science). This study claims to be the first to "scientifically test the impact on Montessori education, and the results show that Montessori schools can…
Britton, Lesley. (1992). Montessori Play & Learn: A Parents' Guide to Purposeful Play from Two to Six. New York: Random House Digital.
Montessori, Maria, and Gutek, Gerald Lee. (2004). The Montessori Method: The Origins of an Educational Innovation: Including an Abridged and Annotated Edition of Maria
Montessori's The Montessori Method. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.
Richards, Erin. (2006). A bright spot for city's schools: Montessori students outperform traditionally taught students academically and socially, report finds. Milwaukee Journal Sentinel. Retrieved August 8, 2011, from EBSCOHost.com.
Montessori -- Cosmic Educational Strategies
The success that the Montessori system of learning has achieved is in part due to the theory of cosmic education and its affect on children. Maria Montessori wrote that the universe is "…an imposing reality, and an answer to all questions… All things are part of the universe and are connected with each other to form one whole unity…" (To Educate the Human Potential). Moreover, this paper presents -- through the literature -- how a child can be led to acquire new powers in the process of cultural learning through activities, movements, particularly those that are interesting to him. The Montessori method allows the child (under 6 years of age) to construct useful, culturally-related strategies that will remain with him for all his life.
The Cosmic Educational Experience at Montessori
"Rocks, water, air -- solids, liquids, gasses: each is what it is because of its…
Brantmeier, Edward J. Lin, Jing, and Miller, John P. (2010). Spirituality, Religion, and Peace
Education. Charlotte, NC: IAP.
Gettman, David. (1987). Basic Montessori: Learning Activities for Under-Fives. New York:
Montessori and Exercises in Practical Life
Learning is a life-long adventure in the philosophy of discovery. To maximize learning, one cannot underestimate two things: learning opportunities and the environment surrounding the learning activity. Learning opportunities must be interesting, meaningful, and purposeful for learners -- particularly children. At the very crux of the ideas surrounding the philosophy of education, however, there are two basic views: 1) humans are born with the innate right to learn and self-actualize to their highest degree, or; 2) humans require a strict hierarchy of learning, which then leads to a similar hierarchy within their social contract. To examine this view, we will focus on the philosophy of Maria Montessori, who used both philosophers as a matrix in her early years of forming her unique philosophy of education (Kilpatrick 1914).
Maria Montessori, for example, based much of her philosophy on the work of 19th century philosopher Jean-Jacques…
Aukerman, R., 1984. Approaches to Beginning Reading. New York: John Wiley.
Bower, B., 2006. Montessori Learning Aid: Alternative School Shows Impact on Poor Children. Science News, 170(14), pp. 212-22.
Damon, W., et.al., 2006. Handbook of Child Psychology. New York: John Wiley.
Hainstock, E., 1997. The Essential Montessori. New York: Plume Publishers.
That is why the child's psychic manifestations are at once impulses of enthusiasm and efforts of meticulous, constant patience" (1963, p. 223).
Empirical observations suggest that children want and need guidelines and rules to help them understand what is expected of them in terms of behavior, but they desperately want to be able to learn on their own and achieve a sense of accomplishment through their own endeavors - this is how people grow and learn. In fact, this is one of the most important aspects of the Montessori approach to helping children develop: "In the special environment prepared for him in our schools, the children themselves found a sentence that expressed this inner need. 'Help me to do it by myself!' How eloquent is this paradoxical request! The adult must help the child, but help him in such a way that he may act for himself and perform his…
Montessori, M. The absorbent mind.
1964). The Montessori method.
1913). Pedagogical anthropology. New York: Plume.
1963). The secret of childhood. author. Bombay: Orient Longmans.
Montessori educational practice helps children develop creativity, problem solving, critical thinking and time-management skills. The practice is designed to help them contribute to society and the environment, and to become fulfilled persons in their particular time on Earth in mixed age-group classes with individual choices in research and work, and time for uninterrupted concentration ("Montessori," 2012). The adult serves as the helper, or facilitator, but methods, discovery and learning are under the child's control to the extent possible. The idea is to teach children how to think and reason. The practice is designed to help children become independent and follow their passions. It equips them for real life. For example, it prepares them to be able to find information rather than merely be receptacles of information given to them by the teacher. Dr. Montessori believed that children learned best by their own interactions with the things to be learned: "[The…
Malm, B. (2004). Constructing professional identities: Montessori teachers' voices and visions. Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research 48(4), pp. 397-412.
"Maria Montessori quotes" (2012). Retrieved from http://thinkexist.com
"Montessori" (2012). The International Montessori Index. Retrieved from http://www.montessori.edu/
"In mysterious period immediately birth, child - a psychic entity endowed a specially refined form sensitiveness - regarded ego asleep. But a sudden wakes hears delicious music; fibers begin vibrate. The baby sound reached ears, soul responsive sounds.
"In the mysterious period which follows immediately after birth, the child - who is a psychic entity endowed with a specially refined form of sensitiveness - might be regarded as an ego asleep. But all of a sudden he wakes up and hears delicious music; all his fibers begin to vibrate. The baby might think that no other sound had ever reached his ears, but really it was because his soul was not responsive to other sounds. Only human speech had any power to stir him."
The Montessori philosophy sees education as a process of discovery. The teacher strives to help the child discover within him or herself what already exists.…
Language. (2012). Five mile Montessori. Retrieved:
Stephenson, Susan Mayclin. (2010). Child of the world, Montessori from three to six years.
3) Tesselations: Floor tiles or tessellations teach coordination and independence and 'patterning' sequences
4) Constructive triangles:
The geometric cabinet consists of various different triangles of different types. By manipulating the differently colored triangles to create new triangles of different types, the child gains tactile preparation for later geometry.
5) Fraction boards.:
Understanding fractions not as numbers but as spatially and sensorially meaningful 'partial' objects is reinforced through this activity.
6) Binomial and trinomial cubes:
Doubling and tripling as physical entities through manipulation of cubes first used to teach simple numbers helps build upon previous sequential learning of tactile concepts.
A g) Montessori materials for concept and symbols 1 to 10:
1) Number rods:
ed rods' which vary only in length, from one to ten centimeters in high, indicate variation in length and how numbers ascend in value from one to ten in a visually meaningful and observable fashion.
Retrieved January 11, 2009 at http://www.ux1.eiu.edu/~cfsjy/mts/math/_link.htm
Shu-Chen, Jenny Yen (1995-1999) Sensorial motor development index.
Retrieved January 11, 2009 at http://www.ux1.eiu.edu/~cfsjy/mts/sensor/_link.htm
Montessori and Bronfenbrenner
The most effective classroom environment is one in which there is a sense of trust, advocacy for the student, engaging learning activities, and a sense of regular adventure. Students should be encouraged to actualize, to participate, and to think of their classroom as a community. Because each individual is unique in their learning style, classroom success is based on flexibility and the willingness to adapt and evolve on a moment's notices -- the idea of fluid intuition taken to the nth degree. Within the modern pedagogical rubric, classroom management remains challenging at almost every level. One way to understand the theoretical basis of learning and the pedagogical issues surrounding learning is to understand some of the theories surrounding the subject. We need a template or structure from which to base our assumptions, and to formulate the reasons for our decisions and ideas.
Maria Montessori, for example, based…
REFERENCES and WORKS CONSULTED
Bronfenbrenner, Y. (1979). The Ecology of Human Development. New Haven, CT: Harvard University Press.
Dougiamas, M. (1998, November). A Journey into Constructivism. Retrieved from Dougiamas.Com: http://dougiamas.com/writing/constructivism.html
Hainstock, E. (1997). The Essential Montessori. New York: Plume Publishers.
Johnson-Larid, P. (2009). How We Reason. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
" (Editors). In traditional settings, many of these items are not covered, leading to less community involvement, fewer manners, and fewer skills that will be necessary as the children mature.
Many proponents of Montessori education cite studies that indicate Montessori students consistently outperform traditional students in most educational areas, including language arts and math. However, some studies indicate that may not be the case. One study says, "Overall, the results were mixed and failed to support the general hypothesis that Montessori students demonstrate superior academic performance" (Lopata, Wallace, and Finn). In fact, the Montessori students in grades 4 and 8 only scored higher on one contrast significantly lower on 4 out of 12 and no difference on 7 out of 12 contrasts (Lopata, Wallace, and Finn). This indicates more study is necessary to determine the truth about academic achievement and Montessori education.
Additionally, there can be troubles and misunderstandings with…
As Mary Conroy and Kitty illiams state there is something different about the Montessori method that makes outsiders rush to extremes in their attempts to classify it: "I've heard Montessori is too free and chaotic' or 'I've heard Montessori is too structured'" (Conroy, illiams). The truth is that the Montessori method is neither. It is, in fact, something completely different. This paper will analyze just how discipline and obedience are instilled in children from the Montessori Perspective.
As Conroy and illiams not, "the best Montessori teachers or facilitators understand that maintaining the delicate balance [between freedom and structure] is one of the most challenging and rewarding aspects of their job." This challenge is brought into perspective by Montessori's own definition of discipline: "discipline is 'not…a fact but a way'" (Conroy, illiams). This way, as Montessori observed, was found independent of the teacher when the children were given…
Conroy, Mary; Williams, Kitty. "The Montessori Approach to Discipline." Tomorrow's
Child. Web. 2 Dec 2011.
Isaacs, Barbara. Bringing the Montessori Approach to Your Early Years Practice. NY:
Routledge, 2010. Print.
Sensorial Theory Paper
Sensorial work aims to enhance a child’s acquisition of information that is not only conscious, but also clear in a way that enables the child to make sense of the environment and create or fashion classifications. It is important to note that Maria Montessori was of the opinion that a child’s sensorial experiences commenced at birth and that a child’s study of the environment takes place through these senses. This text concerns itself with sensory education. Amongst other things, it will highlight sensory education mechanisms and define the role of teachers in sensory education. Further, the text will also restate the relevance of sensory education and how it leads a child to abstraction.
Sensory Education: Background
Sensory education does not have an assigned definition. This is to say that no standard definition for sensory education exists. In that regard, therefore, it would be prudent to rely…
Issacs, Barbara. Understanding the Montessori Approach: Early Years Education in Practice. New York, NY: Routledge, 2013.
Montessori, Maria. The Discovery of the Child (Vol. II). Amsterdam: Montessori-Pearson Publishing Company, 1965.
Montessori, Maria. Dr. Montessori’s Own Handbook. New York: Schocken Books, 1965.
Povell, Phyllis. “Maria Montessori: Portrait of a Young Woman.” American Montessori Society. 19.1 (2007): 22-24.
The world and scope of philosophy in a modern context is expansive and wide. A primary reason for this would be the fact that there are many great minds and scholars when it comes to the subject. Two of those people would be Waldorf Steiner and Montessori. This brief report will be a review and summary of the similarities and differences between those two great minds. With those two experts in mind, there will be a special focus on two forms and examples of creative curriculum. Prior to that being done, there will be a review and summary of each of the experts in question and how they do and do not intersect. While there is a lot of overlap between the Waldorf and Montessori models, this overlap is not absolute.
As one might gather, the obvious parallel and story being told when it comes to this report…
AMSHQ. (2017). Introduction to Montessori Method. Retrieved December 05, 2017, from https://amshq.org/Montessori-Education/Introduction-to-Montessori
Cook, C. (2014, August 04). Why are Steiner schools so controversial? Retrieved December 05, 2017, from http://www.bbc.com/news/education-28646118
History of Waldorf Education. (2017). Retrieved December 05, 2017, from https://waldorfeducation.org/waldorf_education/rudolf_steiner_waldorf_history
Kirby, D. (2011, February 02). Waldorf Teachers.com - Waldorf Employment in Waldorf Schools. Retrieved December 05, 2017, from http://www.waldorftoday.com/2012/03/the-autism-vaccine-debate-why-it-wont-go-away/
The public school system is the common form of schooling that people like to use as the standard. However, there are other school types that exist. Two of those other types would include the Montessori and Waldorf method. For these two methods, there are similarities and differences when it comes to the teacher role, the play experiences and the curriculum. While the Walforf and Montessori methods are similar, they are also quite different in several ways.
The role of the teacher in the Waldorf method is unique in that teachers move up in grade levels alongside their students. In other words, the students will keep the same teacher even as they move up in levels. The teacher is there to support the child’s development and curiosity. There is a great amount of training and workshops that Waldorf teachers must attend, or choose to attend. When it comes to the…
Montessori approach to teaching / learning involves strategies that seek to develop the whole child. What are the Montessori strategies and how to they work? What are the criticisms, and which of those are valid? This paper reviews and critiques those strategies and evaluations of Montessori, based on the available literature.
According to the Montessori website the strategy in the Montessori classroom is to place the children not by grades but rather by age. So, children ages 2 and 3 years are in one group, children ages 3 through 6 are in another group and children ages 6 through 12 are in yet another group. Why group the children by age? This tactic helps children "…develop social skills," it challenges them to "learn" and to "work together" and because directresses and directors carefully observe the activities and guide the children so the students may develop "at their own pace" (Montessori.com).…
Cossentino, Jacqueline M. 2006. 'Big Work: Goodness, Vocation, and Engagement in the Montessori Method,' Curriculum Inquiry, vol. 36, 63-89.
Kayili, Gokhan, and Ari, Ramazan. 2011. 'Examination of the Effects of the Montessori Method on Preschool Children's Readiness to Primary Education,' Educational Sciences: Theory & Practice, vol. 11, 2104-2109.
Montessori. 2010. 'Montessori Curriculum and Programs: Putting the Montessori Philosophy into Practice in the Classroom,' retrieved July 3, 2012, from http://www.montessori.com .
Soundy, Cathleen S. 2009. 'Young Children's Imaginative Play: Is It Valued in Montessori Classrooms?' Early Childhood Education Journal, vol. 36, 381-383.
The education approach plays a fundamental role in the cognitive development of a child. The Montessori theory of Education introduced in 1903 by Maria Montessori has been identified to significantly contribute to effective cognitive development. The Montessori curriculum has emerged popular across the globe with the Montessori principles being adopted across private and public school setting. The Montessori education philosophy demands a redefining of school and redesigning of the classroom from a constrained environment to a free environment where children have autonomy in interest and pace of learning. The Montessori education is designed to offer sensory training, arithmetic, language acquisition, practical life skills, physical education and self-discipline to the children. The Montessori theory is founded on the philosophy that education process is grounded on two elements; child and environment. The Montessori curriculum is designed to ensure individualized and sequential learning pace. Contrary to the abstract conventional education system that…
Cooeny, A., & Samantha, J. (2018, November 19). The Educational Theory of Maria Montessori. Retrieved from New Foundations
Gutek, G. L. (2004). The Montessori method: the origins of educational innovation, including an abridged and annotated edition of Maria Montessori’s The Montessori method. Lanham, Md: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
Marshall, C. (2017). Montessori education: a review of the evidence base. Npj Science of Learning, 2(1), 11. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41539-017-0012-7
Montessori, M. (1949). The Absorbent Mind. The Theosophical PublishingHouse.
Shivakumara, K., Dhiksha, J., & Nagara, O. (n.d.). [No title found]. International Journal of Educational Policy Research and Review, 3(2).
Ültan?r, E. (2012). An Epistemological Glance At The Constructivist Approach: Constructivist Learning In Dewey, Piaget, And Montessori. International Journal of Instruction, 18.
The Absorbent Mind
“The Absorbent Mind” by Maria Montessori gives a comprehensive education about the various stages of child development. The book has 22 chapters that cover different ideas in six major categories. The first category focuses on the formative education of the child when they are most malleable. Here, under the subcategory of world reconstruction, the author notes that the first two years of development provide the foundation of psychic construction. Under the education for life subcategory, Montessori stresses the need to instill a love for learning in children that can follow them for the rest of their life.
Next, in the second category, the author focuses on the period of growth. The book details how the various stages of psychic individuality develop and transition into the next stage. In another subcategory, the author discusses a new orientation in children where they begin to take an interest in various…
I. Child Psychology and Psychoanalysis
A. Inherent worth of the child
B. Valuing the Child’s innate intelligence, wisdom, and instincts
C. Understanding the child’s sensitivities and learning to appreciate and capitalize on them for learning and development
D. The importance of love and respect for growth
II. Education, Teaching, Learning
A. Evolution of the Montessori “method”
1. Repeating an activity over and over to inculcate skills (repetition)
2. Allowing child to explore and exercise natural inquisitiveness (free will)
3. Children take joy in learning (Link with I.B)
4. Need for teachers to be humble, kind, and yet able and willing to discipline. (Connect with I.B, C, D)
1. Fugues and Barriers to Learning
2. Overcome with careful observation, systematic training and repetition of exercises (link to IIA1).
3. Adult is challenged to become self-aware (Link to II.4)
III. Preparing the Child for Adulthood and Participation in Society
Montessori & High Scope
In order for students understand the contemporary curriculum, it is important that they be able to connect it to themselves in a meaningful way. This is particularly true in the modern classroom that is more diverse than ever before. Connection involves drawing on prior knowledge and experience in order to relate to the text. In this way, the students become participants in the story and are apt to be engaged in the reading process. There are a number of approaches to early-childhood education that range in nature and focus. The HighScope program was developed using the work of both John Dewey and Jean Piaget, as well as the constructivist approach to classroom learning from educational philosopher Lev. Vygotsky. The basic presumption is taking the child's development at present and helping them build upon it continually, pushing the "zone of development" up through a series of steps…
What is HighScope? (2004, June). Retrieved from perpetualpreschool.com: http://www.perpetualpreschool.com/highscope/highscope_info.htm
Hainstock, E., 1997. The Essential Montessori. New York: Plume Publishers.
Hohmann, M., et al. (2008). Educating Young Children. Ypsilanti, MI: HighScope Press.
Kim, S. (2005). The Effects of A Constructivist Teaching Approach. Asia Pacific Educational Review, 6(1), 7-19.
Value of Sensorial Education
Sensorial education is a vital component of the Montessori educational plan and is something which is a pillar of this philosophy. Despite how valuable it is, it is still often misunderstood. "Sensorial education helps develop a child's intellect. Whether you believe intelligence is genetic or produced by environment, you can further it by education. Intelligence is built upon experiences and thought processes. The Montessori materials for ages 18 months to 6 are designed to help a child's mind develop the necessary skills for later intellectual learning" (MontessoriMom.com, 2013). Sensorial education refers to then the stimulus that allows a child to process the world around him or her, ultimately becoming the building blocks of other thought processes. People unfamiliar with the Montessori Method believe that education is merely a task for sharpening the senses, when this couldn't be further from the truth: this is a…
Basu, D. (2011, February 24). How to Extend Montessori Sensorial Education in the Home Environment. Retrieved from yahho.com: http://voices.yahoo.com/how-extend-montessori-sensorial-education-the-7874318.html?cat=25
Da Prato, M. (2011). Montessori for You and Your Child: Frequently Asked Questions of Parents. Indianopolis: Dogear Publishing .
Infomontessori.com. (n.d.). Introduction to Sensorial . Retrieved from Infomontessori.com: http://www.infomontessori.com/sensorial/introduction.htm
Issacs, B. (2010). Bringing the Montessori Approach to your Early Years Practice. New York: Routledge.
educational theory by comparing and contrasting two authors of education theory with the Montessori method of teaching. The writer explores all three ideas and discusses their similarities. The writer used four sources to complete this paper.
Since the advent of the educational system there have been many changes throughout the years. As the world evolves and matures and technology advances the world discovers more things that it wants its students taught. In addition there are many different ways to teach and the system has gone from whole language to back to basics and back again. Several forward thinking theorists have developed education theories in which they discuss what they believe to be the most sound foundation for teaching that is available. In John Dewey's Experience and Education and Curriculum and Aims by Decker F. Walker, and Jonas F. Soltis both suggest and develop critiques on education systems that have been…
Decker F. Walker, Jonas F. Soltis. Curriculum and Aims (Thinking About Education Series)
Publisher: Teachers College Press. (August 1997)
Dewey, John. Education and Experience. Touchstone Books (August 1997)
John Dewey (Accessed 10-27-2002)
American education has evolved considerably since the late 19th century. One of the first philosophers to influence the character of modern American education was John Dewey. Dewey was a progressive, and believed that children should not just sit in classrooms passively memorizing material. Instead, students should learn via experience and interaction with their environments. Dewey's humanistic approach to education revolutionized the ways people thought about schooling and pedagogy. A timeline of American education begins with Dewey, because he was the person to first codify the structure and philosophy of education, and then offer the methods and means to implement those ideas. Dewey is known as a "pragmatist" because of his ability to fuse philosophy and practice, and had "the most significant contribution to the development of educational thinking in the twentieth century," (Smith, 2001).
Maria Montessori was the first female to become a doctor in Italy. Working closely with…
"No Child Left Behind Worsened Education, 48% Of Americans 'Very Familiar' With The Law Say In Gallup Poll," (2012). Huffington Post. Retrieved online: http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2012/08/21/no-child-left-behind-wors_n_1819877.html
Smith, M.K. (2001). John Dewey. Infed. Retrieved online: http://www.infed.org/thinkers/et-dewey.htm
Smith, M.K. (2012). Maria Montessori. Infed. Retrieved online: http://www.infed.org/thinkers/et-mont.htm
This cultural enrichment would provide nutritional information all the children could use when with their families or in their neighborhoods.
constructionist teacher will find examples of careful and systematic thinking about how children learn that can guide him or her in the classroom. Piaget and Vygotsky (Gredler, 2002) give us solid examples of what children are ready for and at what ages they are most likely to benefit from specific kinds of instruction. Piaget's theories help the constructionist teacher be aware that although children think about what they're doing, they go through cognitive developmental stages. Respecting the types of cognitive thinking a child is likely to use at a given age is another way to teach the child respectfully -- by neither teaching below their abilities or by demanding that they perform as little adults.
Maria Montessori might serve as an excellent role model for such a teacher. Montessori looked…
Author not available, "Montessori, Maria." The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition 2004.
Gredler, Margaret E. 2002. "A review and analysis of constructivism for school-based practice." School Psychology Review, Jan. 12.
Shaughnessy, Michael F. 1994. "Educating for understanding (Howard Gardner Interview)." Phi Delta Kappan, March 1.
There are others though that believes that learners are born with certain innate capabilities that are then shaped and formed from the outside (Montessori theory, 2011)
No matter which theory one looks at though the bottom line is that each philosophy is based on the idea that everything possible should be done to encourage as much learning as possible. All philosophies are based on the fact that education should be about learning and that no matter how the learning takes place, what environment is takes place in or under what circumstances the edn result should be something was learned. Educational philosophy in general believes that in order for people to be successful and productive they must learn as much as possible and that this should be done by way of formal education.
Chinn, C. (2012). Epistemological Beliefs. etrieved from http://www.education.com/reference/article/epistemological-beliefs/
Evers, W.M. (2012). How Progressive Education Gets it Wrong.…
Chinn, C. (2012). Epistemological Beliefs. Retrieved from http://www.education.com/reference/article/epistemological-beliefs/
Evers, W.M. (2012). How Progressive Education Gets it Wrong. Retrieved from http://www.hoover.org/publications/hoover-digest/article/6408
Gray, P. (2009). Rousseau's Errors: They Persist Today in Educational Theory. Retrieved from http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/freedom-learn/200902/rousseau-s-errors-they-persist-today-in-educational-theory?page=2
Jean-Jacques Rousseau on nature, wholeness and education. (2012). Retrieved from http://www.infed.org/thinkers/et-rous.htm
A strongly disciplined person is one who demonstrates that he can control himself. Discipline is always goal-oriented, therefore we understand that having the capacity to be extremely disciplined denotes the existence of a strong will oriented towards a specific purpose. The Montessori Method aims to teach the child how to move (dynamism) and the scene for which he is prepared is not school, but life itself. The discipline that he is stimulated to learn is therefore one which applies to the overall social environment.
In order to make sure that the child will grow up disciplined and with respect for the others and the social environment, he must be taught the difference between good and evil. In addition, Montessori stresses that the teacher must make sure "the child does not confound good with immobility and evil with activity, as often happens in the case of the old-time discipline. And all…
Discipline- Merriam Webster Dictionary online, Retrieved from http://www.merriam-webster.com/netdict/discipline?show=0&t=1285512501
Discipline- definition, Retrieved from http://www.lexic.us/definition-of/discipline
Discipline-definition, Retrieved from http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/discipline
Montessori, M.(Everett George, A. translator) (1912) The Montessori method. NY: Frederick A. Stokes, Retrieved from http://digital.library.upenn.edu/women/montessori/method/method.html#V
Teacher Assistance equired and Classroom Administration.
The teacher assistance to be provided would follow the guidance provided by Maria Montessori. According to Elliott, Gettinger and Kratochwill (1992), "Like Froebel, Montessori implemented an early education curriculum that was founded on a developmental theory, employed play as the instructional method, and sequentially introduced developmentally appropriate materials designed to facilitate sensory and cognitive skills" (p. 8). This technique is clearly appropriate for a preschool environment where there will likely be a highly diverse group of children at various developmental stages. In the Montessori-guided classroom, though, a careful balance must be made between helping young children too little and helping them too much. For instance, according to Wentworth (1999), "Helping children too much, or providing them with ready answers to problems, is a negative factor because it prevents the child from using its own resources for knowledge acquisition, and deprives the child of the…
Crocker, a.D., & Orr, R.R. (1996). Social behaviors of children with visual impairments enrolled in preschool programs. Exceptional Children, 62(5), 451.
Elliott, S.N., Gettinger, M., & Kratochwill, T.R. (1992). Preschool and early childhood treatment directions. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Finn, K.V., Lopata, C., & Wallace, N.V. (2005). Comparison of academic achievement between Montessori and traditional education programs. Journal of Research in Childhood Education, 20(1), 5.
Lunenburg, F.C. (2000). Early childhood education programs can make a difference in academic, economic and social arenas. Education, 120(3), 519.
" (Montessori, 9) There is a counter-intuitive disconnect between the priorities of the educational system and the real-life demands of individuals attempting to function ably therein.
Here, Montessori speaks to the incredible irony present even in higher education, where students are essentially intended to be prepared for the real world but are instead isolated in a false environment where priorities such as a streamlined means of graded evaluation, a disregard for the physical or emotional needs of students and an overall proclivity toward isolation from true conditions of worldly socialization tend to misappropriate crucial transitional learning years.
In some regards, Montessori's work is relatively outdated, betraying its origins in the first half of the 20th century by criticizing an absence of services that are now present in many universities. Some of the better funded academic institutions do possess programs availing medical treatment and psychological counseling to students where needed at…
Axelrod, P. (2005). Beyond the Progressive Education Debate: A Profile of Toronto Schooling in the 1950s. Historical Studies in Education
Beyer, L.E. (1999). William Heard Kilpatrick. International Bureau of Education, XXVII (3).
Calhoun School (CS). (2009). Progressive Education. Calhoun.org.
Davies, S. (2002). The Paradox of Progressive Education: A Frame Analysis. Sociology of Education, 75, 269-286.
If one applies ChapStick only on occasion (and not relentlessly) then there is no reason to suspect that you are hooked.
Constant application, on the other hand, can easily lead to dependency and ruined lips, as InsidersHealth.com states: "The lower layers of our skin produce fresh new skin cells, which then die and can dry out by the time they reach the top layer. If you put ChapStick on the dry skin it can interfere with the signaling mechanism that gets your lower cells to start producing more moisture. So while that balm might feel great when you slather it on, it will wear off and leave your skin feeling dry again."
This is the "vicious cycle" that Crossman quotes Dr. Phillips as referring to. It is also the message that Dr. Perricone speaks of, when he warns that lip balm can be bad for lips.
"Addicted to Lip Balm." YouTube. 2011. Web. 3 Dec 2011.
Associated Press, "Bingeing on balm, or hip lip service?" St. Petersburg Times. 22 Jan
2006. Web. 3 Dec 2011.
Bellis, Mary. "The History of Chapstick -- The History of Carmex." About.com. Web. 3
Additionally, participating teachers will be drawn from public schools in the same state to mitigate the possibility that geographic factors will intervene to too great a degree. That said, consideration will be made to distinguish the specific school districts, socioeconomic conditions and racial factors present in different schools. Without making any preemptive deductions, these preliminary details may be used to help yield evidence of connections which might be used for future study.
The Likert Scale model of survey will be distributed through the email listserv at participating schools, requesting respondents to rate on a scale of 1 to 5 to what extent they agree or disagree with statements provided in the survey. These statements will primarily concern the presence or absence of sufficient outdoor recreational opportunities and the connection between said opportunities and academic performance.
This would be considered a true experimental quantitative study, where a control and experimental group…
Brown, P.; Sutterby, J.A. & Thornton, C.D. (2002). Dramatic play in outdoor play environments. Parent Teacher Organization Today.
Burberry, J. & Learoyd, B. (2005). Leeds Childhood Obesity Prevention and Weight Management Strategy. Leeds Children & Young People. Online at .
Montessori, M. (1986). The Discovery of the Child. 4th. New York: Ballantine Books.
Office of Communications (Ofcom). (2004). Children's food choices, parents' understanding and influence, and the role of food promotions. Office of Communications. Online at http://www.ofcom.org.uk/research/tv/reports/food_ads/ .
Professional Interview Analysis
This is in an interview of a lead teacher with extensive experience in public relation, administration and educating. She oversees the formulation and implementation of standards and policies in her school. Since she works in management, per of her job is ensuring that educators working in the school are sufficiently motivated to work. This interview gives a glimpse of all it takes to run a school. It gives insights into the challenges educators might face as they seek to impart knowledge on their students. It presented a great opportunity to also learn about the necessary qualities a lead educator needs to adopt to ensure that the institution they work in is a success.
The lead teacher, Gladys -- not her real name, is a very accomplished professional. She has extensive experience in education, school systems and student issues. She holds a bachelor's degree in education and has…
Arends, R. (2014). Learning to teach. McGraw-Hill Higher Education.
Danielewicz, J. (2014). Teaching selves: Identity, pedagogy, and teacher education. SUNY Press.
Matthews, M. R. (2012). Changing the focus: From nature of science (NOS) to features of science (FOS). In Advances in nature of science research (pp. 3-26). Springer Netherlands.
Moran, R. T., Abramson, N. R., & Moran, S. V. (2014). Managing cultural differences. Routledge.
organization chose research. 2.Examine culture selected organization. 3.Explain determined selected organization showed signs culture identified.
Google is by no means conventional and has proven so in numerous occasions. Starting with its first tweet back in 2009, which was a cryptic binary message that translates into "I'm feeling lucky" to the employment of goats to "mow" the lawn at its headquarters in Mountain View, California, and providing daily, free gourmet meals to its employees, Google's approach has been anything but conventional. Despite having gone public over ten years ago, a direction which span concern in regards to the company's ability to maintain its identity and core values in a corporate culture, Google has managed to stay true to its founding philosophy that Page and rin started out with in 1998 when the company made its official appearance.
Google is said to be a culture of success effected by its management system.…
Brandt, R. (2011). The Google guys: Inside the brilliant minds of Google founders Larry Page and Serghey Brin. New York: Portfolio Trade.
Levy, S. (2011). In the Plex: How Google thinks, works, and shapes our lives. Simon and Schuster.
Lowe, J. (2009). Google speaks: Secret of the world's greatest billionaire entrepreneurs, Sergey Brin and Larry Page. New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons.
Page, L. & Brin, S. (2004). Founders' IPO Letters. An owner's manual for Google's shareholders. Retrieved from: https://investor.google.com/corporate/2004/ipo-founders-letter.html
Under the Act, educational professionals work within the existing institutional framework. Teaching is still an authoritarian model rather than being student-centered. Learning is assessed using the measures that have failed many children in the past. Instead of changing the methods of teaching and assessment, the No Child Left Behind Act bolsters them.
A far cry from progressive education, No Child Left Behind has become highly controversial and in need of reform. Progressives from all sorts of political and ideological backgrounds can appreciate the need to move away from No Child Left Behind and toward true educational inclusiveness.
4. Educating the whole child is a term used widely in Montessori, which is a progressive philosophy of education. The whole child theory assumes that children are naturally curious and eager to learn (the Montessori School). Moreover, the whole child concept takes into account social development as well as academic skills acquisition. Educating…
Foundation for Excellence in Education. Retrieved Jan 29, 2009 at http://www.excelined.org/Default.aspx
Jones, T.S. (nd). Education That Makes a Difference: Success Stories for Conflict Resolution Educators. Conflict Resolution Education Connection. Retrieved Jan 29, 209 at http://www.creducation.org/resources/Success_Story_1/success_01.htm
The Montessori School. "Educating the Whole Child." Retrieved Jan 29, 2009 at http://www.montessorischool.net/educating
Mueller, J. (2008). What is Authentic Assessment? Retrieved Jan 29, 2009 at http://jonathan.mueller.faculty.noctrl.edu/toolbox/whatisit.htm
The school incorporates a lot of natural light and has all updated materials in excellent condition. The Lea school is about 30 years old and, like many Philadelphia public schools, lacks adequate facility funding. Many of the materials and building are outdated and deteriorating.
Students at Penn Alex were significantly more positive than students at Lea regarding their school and rated wall color, variety of wall color, amount of lighting, amount of art work on display, personally having art work on display, overall appearance of the school, peers opinion of overall appearance, and elements that should be changed all higher. In addition, Penn Alex students had more positive attitudes including proud to show visitors, school makes them feel good, school appearance is not distracting, adults care about how the school looks, appearance is fine the way it is, and feelings of responsibility for taking care of the school. Students at…
Ballast, D.K. (2002). Interior design reference manual. Professional Pub. Inc.: Belmont, CA.
Boyatzis CJ and Varghese, R. (1994) Journal of Genetic Psychology; 155(1) 77-85
Hupka, R.B, Zbigniew, Z, Jurgen O., Reidl, L. And Tarabrina, L. The colors of anger, envy, fear, and jealousy: a cross-cultural study. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology 28.(2)156-162
Kuller, R. (1976). The Use of Space -- Some Physiological and Philosophical Aspects. Paper presented at the Third International Architectural Psychology Conference, University Louis Pasteur, Strasbourg, France.
Notwithstanding the challenges involved, the stakes are high and there is little room for false starts or experimentation; therefore, identifying a general set of best practices that Gambian organizations can follow in developing their own set of sustainable productivity practices represents a valuable and timely undertaking, which relates to the purpose of the study which is discussed further below.
Purpose of Study
The overall purpose of this study was to study to provide a review of the relevant juried and scholarly literature together with the findings of a survey of Gambian business leaders to generally identify the most pressing priorities for developing the nation's infrastructure and sustainable organizational productivity. The specific purpose of the study was to determine whether SMEs face the same types of challenges of to optimum performance as their larger corporate counterparts, and to identify any peculiar organizational characteristics that determine levels of performance between SMEs and…
However, including progress reports that are not valued (no a and B. Or percentage grades) allow parents to follow a child's learning (assermann 386). This breaks the cycle of rewarding or admonishing children for subjects that may naturally be easy or difficult. Instead of creating situations that may lead to learning-related anxiety, progress reports give parents information while children continue along a natural learning process.
In the case of teachers, those who enjoy traditional structure may find an open style daunting and initially chaotic. However, giving it a chance may be in their best interest. Many of the common struggles that cause burnout in teachers (again, these include behavioral problems, student apathy, etc.) are lessened in the open classroom. Hertzog reports that many teachers are less stressed by this method (530). Additionally, Dunn reports that teachers often regain their occupational focus because for the first time they feel that children…
Brown, Monica R. "Educating All Students: Creating Culturally Responsive Teachers, Classrooms, and Schools." Intervention in School & Clinic 43.1 (2007): 57-62.
Cuban, Larry. "The Open Classroom: Schools Without Walls Became All the Rage During the Early 1970s. Were They Just Another Fad?" Education Next 4.2 (2004): 68-71.
Dunn, Mary Anna. "Staying the Course of Open Education." Educational Leadership 57.7 (2000): 20-24.
Heimlich, Joe E., and Emmalou Norland. "Teaching Style: Where Are We Now?" New Directions for Adult and Continuing Education 93 (2002): 17-25.
Another way to reinforce teaching is through quizzes and classroom participationg. Quizzes do not only test student knowledge, but also evaluate comprehension, which is a good measure of the job that the counselor educator is doing. Likewise, having students engage in classroom presentations and other peer-to-peer teaching is important because that opens up the opportunity for students to put theory into practice.
Techniques and Methods to Engage Students
Anything that can encourage students to discuss their experience is going to help get students engaged. There are several techniques that teachers can use to encourage that discussion including: assisting students to understand the subject matter by giving them practice in thinking; challenging students to evaluate logic of and evidence for their own and others' positions; giving students opportunities to formulate applications of principles; developing motivation for further learning; helping students articulate what they've learned; and getting prompt feedback on student understanding…
Bass, B. (1996). A new paradigm of leadership: An inquiry into transformational leadership.
Alexandria, VA: U.S. Army Institute for Behavioral & Social Sciences.
Bernard, J.M., & Goodyear, R.K. (2009). Fundamentals of clinical supervision. (4th Ed.) Upper
Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.
teacher teach before burning out or becoming stale?
This paper looks at the ideas of whether teachers should be made to go back into learning to gain a new license after a period of time, also looking at how their time can be best used with initiating new forms and methods into the classroom.
How long can a teacher teach before he becomes stale?
Every school system has a philosophy behind it, these are based on the views and values of those who are in position to educate, along with the society that is the main sponsor of the education. (Freire, 1998).
The philosophy begins with the view of reality and definitions of truth and goodness. There are five basic philosophies of education:
Perennialism is a very conservative and inflexible philosophy of education, based on the view that reality comes from fundamentally fixed truths-especially those relating to God. With a…
Anonymous (2001) Australia's Education System [online] accessed at http://www.immi.gov.au/settle/education/system.htm
Curwin Rick. (1980 Oct), Are your students addicted to praise? Instructor v90 p60(3)
Freire Paulo (1998), Teachers as Cultural Workers: Letters to Those Who Dare Teach Boulder, Colo, Westview Press.
Freire, Paulo (1970) Pedagogy of the oppressed. New York, Herder and Herder,
Validating the Effectiveness of Participation in a Time-Sensitive Closed Therapeutic Group for Preschool Aged Children Allegedly Sexually Abused
This paper will review existing research on allegedly sexually abused preschool aged children. The traumatic psychological effects of the abuse including low self-esteem, poor peer relationships, behavior problems, cognitive functioning and physical/mental health will also be evaluated.
The author notes the paucity of available material on sexually abused children. Very little therefore is known of the effectiveness of psychotherapy to assist in the treatment of the problems of this particular group of abused children - a population of 40 selected children with a mean age of 45, with their parents (either father or mother) and/or caregivers attending sessions in another session hall at the same time the children are undergoing therapy.
This proposed study will therefore focus on how mental health services are provided to preschool children with ages ranging between 4…
As a profession, muckraking has gained a bad reputation ever since President Teddy Roosevelt compared certain journalists to the obsessive lad in the Pilgrim's Progress. In this 1906 speech, Roosevelt likened many journalists of his day to the man who stood in ooze, holding his garden tool and with his eyes fixed downward (Kiee 2001).
However, the "muckraking" techniques of these journalists have shined the light on many issues and practices that need to be addressed.
These exposes regarding corruption and unjust practices have led to public outcry and have spurred social change. After all, the reverse view would paint muckraking as a profession as a research and revelatory-based process that challenges the status quo. One person's muckraker is then another person's crusading journalist.
This paper looks at historic and modern examples of how muckraking has spurred important social changes in American history. The later part of the paper…
2001. Nickel and Dimed: On (Not) Getting By in America. New York: Metropolitan Books.
Goldberg, Jonah. 2001. "The Decline of Muckraking." The American Enterprise. June.
Jensen, Carl. 2003. Stories That Changed America: Muckrakers of the 20th Century. New York: Seven Stories Press.
Once this occurs, is when their horizons are expanded from taking this kind of focus. (Harcourt, 2012) (Howes, 2010) (Burger, 2010)
Authentic inclusion of children with varying abilities
The educator will take into account the child's abilities and will steer them in a direction that enhances them. This takes place by sparking their interest in a variety of areas. When this happens, the student will have a desire to want to learn more. (Harcourt, 2012) (Howes, 2010) (Burger, 2010)
Building parent / family relationships
Family relationships are built by working with the parents and children to create curriculum which is supporting these objectives. (Harcourt, 2012) (Howes, 2010) (Burger, 2010)
How do you think your findings on this research compare with Global Quality Guidelines?
Why is it important to be critical about the research you read, especially as it relates to the experiences of young children and families who cultures may…
Global Guidelines. (2014). World Forum Foundation. Retrieved from: http://worldforumfoundation.org
Burger, K. (2010). How does Early Childhood Care and education affect cognitive development? An International review of the effects of early interventions for children from different social backgrounds. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 25(2), 140-165
Harcourt, D. (2012). Standpoints on quality: Listening to children in Verona, Italy. Australasian Journal of Early Childhood, 37(2), 19-26
Howes, C. (2010). Culture and Child Development in Early Childhood Programs. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
Vision of Student Learning
The vision of Paterson Public Schools is “to be the leader in educating New Jersey’s urban youth” (Paterson, 2017). My vision of student learning is aligned with the school’s vision in the sense that my goal is to help my students be the leaders of their communities, classrooms, schools, and workplaces when they grow up. Part of this leadership must come from character education, which Lickona (1993) and Kristjansson (2014) note is of particular importance in today’s schools. Part of what helps to inform character education is the focus on self-directed learning, which was advocated by Maria Montessori through the Montessori Method (Mangal, 2007). One of the best ways to promote self-directed learning and thereby facilitate character education and achieve the vision of the school is to use computer-assisted instruction as a teaching approach (Hsieh, 2017).
The process needed to implement and promote my vision required…
She is well-connected within the community and is confident that her business would be profitable within a year or two. She has a strong, charismatic personality and is also connected to Milwaukee's artistic community through her husband's architectural work restoring some of the city's beautiful historic buildings. She has a considerable portfolio, and occasionally sold stock photos or worked as a wedding photographer when she was in law school.
Laura realizes that in the current market, individuals and companies may be cutting back on "luxuries" like professional family and staff pictures. However, she has a range of expertise in architectural and interior photography as well as portrait and event photography. She is willing to diversify her skill set and pursue further education if necessary, although in her field an additional artistic degree would only be desirable for teaching or competing for gallery showings at a national level.
According to her…
College Board. (2010). Trends in college pricing, 2010. Retrieved from http://trends.collegeboard.org/
Hung, a., & Yoong, J. (2010). Asking for Help: Survey and experimental evidence on financial advice and behavior change. RAND Working Paper WR-714-1.
Morris, Kenneth M., Alan M. Siegel, and Virginia B. Morris. (1995). The Wall Street Journal Guide to Planning Your Financial Future. New York: Lightbulb Press.
Parisse, a., & Richman, D. (2006). Questions Great Financial Advisors Ask… and Investors Need to Know. Chicago: Kaplan.
However, in the case of this study it is a term that is applied to those children who exhibit successful adaptation even though their personal/home environment places them at heighted risk for maladjusted behaviors (141). It would then make sense that those individuals who either had a biological predisposition, or some sort of nurturing behavior outside the home, to retain increased resilience to adversity would be better prepared for emotional maturity and thus perform better with both cogitative and behavioral tasks. These skills, according to this study, are a defining feature in the child's emerging competency level and, if activated at an early enough age, carry through to adulthood. Further research is necessary, though, to understand how educators and psychologists can actively aide individuals in increasing their resiliency levels.
Buckner, et.al. (2003 and 2009) are clearly interested in the demographic and psychographic effects of poverty on behavior and cognition. In…
Blair, C. (2002). "School Readiness- Integrating Cognition and Emotion in a Neurobiological Conceptualization of Children's Functioning at School
Entry." American Psychologist. 57 (2): 111-27.
Blair, C. And A. Diamond. (2008). "Biological processes in prevention and intervention:
The promotion of self-regulation as a means of preventing school failure." Development and Psychopathology. 20 (3): 899-911.
As the civil rights victories of the Civil Rights era develop in ways that help shape the long-term social culture of the nation, cultural diversity considerations are becoming the standard rather than the exemplary exception to the routine as may have been true throughout much of the last decades of the 20th century. Naturally, as cultural diversity becomes a dominant social theme, it has also impacted all aspects of American education, including special education (Burton, Moore, & Magliaro, 2004; Lascarides & Hinitz, 2000). Naturally, the important need of accommodating cultural diversity within special education programs is at least as important as achieving that objective in traditional education programs. That is because the detrimental effect of every additional barrier to learning and social development is magnified in special education.
Likewise, cultural diversity also entails corresponding lingual diversity. In that regard, the importance of mitigating the potential barriers represented by language issues…
Brehony, K. "Montessori, individual work and individuality in the elementary school classroom" History of Education; Vol. 29, No. 2; (2000): 115-128.
Burton, J., Moore, D., and Magliaro, S. (2004). Behaviorism and Instructional
Technology. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Lascarides, V. And Hinitz, B. (2000). History of Early Childhood Education. New York:
Expeience with Failue Retospective Analysis
I discoveed that thee wee many moe elements of academic pefomance than could possibly be accounted fo in such a boad conceptual appoach. Likewise, the many vaiables that influence and detemine academic pefomance ae inteelated in such complex ways that my assumptions wee, appaently, simplistic albeit idealistic and well-motivated. I discoveed, fo example, that some students ae simply disinteested in many academic subjects, iespective of thei intelligence and self-esteem. In fact, in my expeience, the instances whee poo pefomance appeaed to be linked to ealy educational expeiences wee fa fewe than instances whee entiely diffeent factos seemed to be esponsible. Additionally, I ealized that it was not ealistic to assume that I would necessaily be able to identify the pecise point whee each student fist expeienced difficulties fo seveal diffeent easons. Since that time, I have evised my appoach and now ty to focus moe…
references of individual students so as to present material to them in a manner most conducive to their absorption, particularly where they appear to be more intelligent than their performance would indicate.
Adams, J. "Kant, Pestalozzi and the role of ideology in educational thought," Journal of Philosophy of Education, Vol. 24, No. 2; (1990): 257-269.
Brehony, K. "Montessori, individual work and individuality in the elementary school classroom" History of Education; Vol 29. No. 2; (2000): 115-128.
Burton, J., Moore, D., and Magliaro, S. (2004). Behaviorism and Instructional
The SAS Institute provides "subsidized Montessori child care, free snacks, and unlimited sick time for staff." The result of that impressed Elsen; "An industry-high employee retention rate."
And Elsen couldn't help but be moved by the innovative way in which Southwest Airlines treats employees. The employees at Southwest Airlines are "taught" how the profit-sharing aspect of business works because management stuffs "comic-book style financial statements into Cracker Jack boxes." By seeing the financial realities of day-to-day business dynamics, Southwest Airlines workers know how to "...unleash their creativity to shrink costs and beef up the bottom line," Elsen explains.
She even promotes the book for libraries by suggesting "innovative management is always a winning theme" when it comes to "public and academic library business collections."
Still another review of the book - by Leigh Rivenbark in HR Magazine - explains that what the Freibergs have offered readers is a strategy that…
Elsen, Carol J. (2003). Guts! Companies That Blow the Doors Off Business-as-Usual. Library Journal, 128(20), p. 134.
Freiberg, Kevin, & Freiberg, Jackie. (2004). Guts! Companies That Blow the Doors Off Business-as-Usual. New York: Doubleday.
Hendricks, Mark. (2004). Don't be a hero? Not if this book has anything to say about it.
Entrepreneur, 32(3), p. 29.
It is now recognized that individuals learn in different ways -- they perceive and process information in various ways. The learning styles theory suggests that the way that children acquire information has more to do with whether the educational experience is slanted toward their specific style of learning than their intelligence.
The foundation of the learning styles methodology is based in the classification of psychological types. The research demonstrates that, due to heredity factors, upbringing, and present circumstantial demands, different students have an inclination to both perceive and process information differently. These different ways of learning consist of: 1) concrete or abstract perceivers, where concrete perceivers acquire information through direct experience of doing, sensing, and feeling, and abstract perceivers, instead accept new ideas through analyzing, observing and thinking; 2) active or reflective processors -- active processors understand a new experience by immediately utilizing new information, and reflective processors analyze an…
Bruner, J. (1973). Going Beyond the Information Given. New York: Norton.
Dewey, J. (1910) How We Think. Boston: Heath.
Dryden, G. And Vos, (1999) Jeannette. The Learning Revolution. Austin, TX: Jalmar
Gardner, Howard (1983) Frames of Mind: The theory of multiple intelligences, New York: Basic Books.
Generally, it works by either giving a reward for an encouraged behavior, or taking something away for an undesirable behavior. y doing this, the patient often increases the good behaviors and uses the bad behaviors less often, although this conditioning may take awhile if the rewards and removals are not sufficient to entice the patient into doing better.
Existentialism is important to discuss here as well, and is often seen to be a very drastic way to examine human behavior. There are two types of existentialism. One is Atheistic Existentialism, and the other is Theistic Existentialism.
Atheistic existentialism has its basis in the statement that the entire cosmos is composed only of matter, and human beings see reality in two forms. Those forms are subjective and objective. People who believe in Atheistic Existentialism do not believe that anyone or anything specific made the world. They do not know whether it…
Adams, M.J., Treiman, R., & Pressley, M. (1998). Reading, writing, and literacy. In W. Damon (Ed.), Handbook of child psychology: Child psychology in practice, 4, 275-355. New York: Wiley.
Albertson, L., & Kagan, D. (1988). Dispositional stress, family environment, and class climate among college teachers. Journal of Research and Development in Education, 21(2), 55-61.
Amidon, E. (1980). Personal Teaching Style Questionnaire. Philadelphia: Temple University, College of Education.
Allison, Anne. (1996). Producing mothers. In Anne E. Imamura (Ed.), Re-imaging Japanese women (pp. 135-155). Berkeley: University of California Press.
The educational system up to this point, very likely to continue in the future, has swung back and forth between these two philosophies (individualist and essentialist) in a pendulum effect, as educators seek to engender interest for knowledge in the student. Interestingly the application of the core principles in the Paideia Proposal can be applied to both swings of the pendulum as it demands that the core subjects be taught and demonstrated in a manner that meet individuals greatest possible abilities through presentation hands on and demonstration of learning, that is essential to the proposal. Each student is demonstrating his or her learning through the creation of presentations and/or projects that require analysis outside the classroom. For this to be effective many essential elements must come into play. Educators, in a broader sense, must view and critique the works of students, parents must be actively involved in critiques…
References www.alliance.ed.uiuc.edu www.paideia.org
Adler, M.J.(1998). The Paideia Proposal, New York, Touchstone.
Gutek, G.L. (2000) American Education 1945-2000. New York, Waveland Press Inc.
Roberts, T.. (2002) Learn to care, care to learn. Educational. Leadership, 60(1), 45-49.
Roberts, T. Trainor, a. (2004) Performing for Yourself and Others: The Paideia Coached Project. Phi Delta Kappan, 513-519.
Instead, it is rigid and reinforced with bureaucracy and red tape, thus making it a poor system for education and children.
Educating the whole child." Educating the whole child is an idea that took root in the early 20th century and is making a comeback in education. The educational model is conducted throughout the child's education - from kindergarten through high school, and recognizes the child is a complete being, with spirit, mind, and body, and each item must be addressed in the educational model. The model attempts to educate the "whole" child - heart, head, and hands, by offering education in a variety of areas, from academics to art and practical, hands-on activities. The children are encouraged to play as well as study, to help develop fully rounded personalities and ideas. Teachers also use storytelling, fairy tales, and other folk art as models for teaching and involving the children…
Editors. (2007.) Ism book. Retrieved from the Ismbook.com Web site: http://www.ismbook.com/intellectualism.html17 March 2007.
Gur-Ze'ev, I. (1999). Knowledge, violence, and education. Retrieved from the Encyclopedia of philosophy in education Web site: http://www.vusst.hr/ENCYCLOPAEDIA/main.htm17 March 2007.
Waghid, Y. (2005). Action as an educational virtue: Toward a different understanding of democratic citizenship education. Educational Theory 55 (3), 323-342. doi:10.1111/j.1741-5446.2005.00006.x http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/doi/full/10.1111/j.1741-5446.2005.00006.x
Seguin moved to the United States in 1848 and established a number of schools in various cities for the education of mentally handicapped children. His publication, "The Treatment, Hygiene and Education of Idiots and Other Backward Children," is a landmark textbook dealing with the special needs of children with mental disabilities. Maria Montessori, an Italian pediatrician built on Seguin's work in the early 1900's and her work on the education of the mentally disabled became integrated into many schools around the world (Hallahan & Mercer, 2001).
Special education in the United States remained marginalized until the early to mid-1900's. Samuel Orton, Marion Monroe and Samuel Kirk were especially instrumental in the development of special education during this time (Hallahan & Mercer, 2001). Orton worked extensively to develop ways of teaching reading to children with reading disabilities. He developed the Orton-Gillingham method for reading education, which consistently proved to increase the…
Cook, B.G., Schirmer, B.R. (2003) What is Special About Special Education?: Overview and Analysis. Journal of Special Education, 37, 3, 200-205.
Copeland, I. (1995). The Establishment of Models of education for disabled children. British Journal of Educational Studies, 43, 2, 179-200.
Hallahan, D.P., Mercer, C.D. (2001). Learning Disabilities: Historical Perspectives. Executive Summary. Special Education Programs (ED/OSERS), Washington D.C. Available from: http://www.air.org/ldsummit/ .
Lanska D.J. (2010). Chapter 33: the history of movement disorders. Handbook of Clinical Neurology, 95, 501-546.
Imagining architecture as the structure upon which meaning grows and contributes to the phenomenon of a place is particularly helpful when investigating Holl's Linked Hybrid, because the design expresses a desire to meld the objective, concrete of the building itself to the experience of the residents living and moving within.
Construction on Linked Hybrid began in 2003 and completed in 2009, when Holl's design won the Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat's award for Best Tall Building (CTBUH 2009). Part of a slew of new developments born out of Beijing's revitalization as a result of its hosting of the 2008 Olympic games, Linked Hybrid is a mixed-use development consisting of "a ring of eight 21-story towers, linked at the 20th floor by gentling sloping public sky bridges, lined with galleries, cafes, restaurants, bars and shops" (Busari 2008). Each tower is rectangular, with some towers being additionally linked at the…
Busari, Stephanie. CNN, "Beijing embraces Brave New World of buildings." Last modified June
24, 2008. Accessed November 6, 2011.
Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat, "2009 Awards." Last modified October 2009.
Many fellow psychoanalysts, mostly men who were several years her senior, courted her, the most notable of whom was Ernest Jones, the British analyst who is best remembered for being Sigmund Freud's biographer. The budding romance between the nineteen-year-old Anna and Jones was, however, nipped in the bud by Freud's suspicions and hostility toward Jones' interest in his daughter. (Gardner and Stevens, 1992)
Her Major Contribution
Anna Freud's contribution in the fields of 20th century psychiatry and psychoanalysis is second, perhaps, only to that of her father. Her genial nature apart from the quality of her work made her popular among her colleagues despite her professional differences with psychoanalysts such as Melanie Klein. (Fine 1992)
Anna Freud started her writings by translating her father's works into English and helped him to articulate his current works. She, however, had too much intellect to remain under her illustrious father's shadow all her…
"Anna Freud." (n.d.) Women's Intellectual Contributions to the Study of Mind and Society. . Retrieved on May 6, 2005 from http://www.webster.edu/~woolflm/annafreud.html
Boeree, Dr. C.G. (1998). "Anna Freud." Personality Theories. Retrieved on May 6, 2005 from http://www.ship.edu/~cgboeree/annafreud.html
Gardner, S. & Stevens, G. (1992). Red Vienna and the Golden Age of Psychology, 1918-1938. New York: Paraeger Publishers.
"Life and Work of Anna Freud." (2005). Freud Museum. . Retrieved on May 6, 2005 from http://www.freud.org.uk/fmanna.htm
Criminal Justice ystem Components Analysis
Research the questions below for each of the three criminal justice system components: police, criminal courts, and correctional agencies. Prepare a table or chart that compares and contrasts the information you gather on the components. For example:
Criminal Justice Components
management structure bureaucratic structure with hierarchy of authority and strict regulations
A collection of federal, state, and local public agencies that deal with. They are interdependent
Traditional organizational structures. The chief executive officer is at the top, with other functions dispersed at various layers down through the pyramid
The differences between the organizations in this component as compared to the other two?
The purpose of the police is to maintain order, enforce the criminal law, and provide services.
Courts are the place where defendants / the accused / plaintiffs come to have their please adjudged by judge and jury.…
Barbaree, H.E., Marshall, W.L. (2008). An introduction to the juvenile sex offender: Terms, concepts, and definitions (2nd Ed.). New York: Guilford Press.
Holmes, S.E, James, R.S & Javad K. (2001). Risk Factors in Childhood that Lead to the Development of Conduct Disorder and Antisocial Personality Disorder: Child Psychiatry and Human Development, .31
Rozalski, M., Deignan, M., & Engel, S. (2008). The world of juvenile justice according to the numbers. Reading & Writing Quarterly, 24,143-147.
Against School by John Taylor Gatto
The article is written by a former teacher who retired and hence recounts his experiences and tribulations in the teaching profession. He also airs his observations of the system and the shortcomings that he feels are in the system. He also suggests various ways through which the education system in America can be adjusted to fit the needs of the nation and of the children involved in the system.
Having taught for thirty years, Taylor indicates that there is nothing more commonly shared among children than boredom. It is an event that cuts across the children and the teachers with each side having the other side to blame. The most outstanding reason however is the education system that confines the teachers and the children to a routine for twelve years in compulsory program. The boredom comes from a predictable schedule and content by both…
Christina C. & George D. (2008). Literacy Changes Lives: The Role of Literacy in Offending Behavior -- A discussion piece. National Literacy Trust. Retrieved October 13, 2012 from http://www.literacytrust.org.uk/assets/0000/0422/Literacy_changes_lives__prisons.pdf
Fitzgerald C., (2012). Adult and Family literacy in the U.S.; limitations to our Nation's success. Retrieved October 13, 2012 from http://www.scilearn.com/blog/low-literacy-united-states.php
Literacy and Policing in Canada, (2012). The link Between Low Literacy and Crime. Retrieved October 13, 2012 from http://policeabc.ca/files/factsheets_englishPDFs/Ch02FactSheet02.pdf
Taylor J., (2003). Against School: How public education cripples our kids, and why. Retrieved October 13, 2012 fromhttp://www.wesjones.com/gatto1.htm
Standards for Early Childhood Professionals
There have been a great number of advances, strides, and changes in the field of Early Childhood or Early Childhood Development. Perhaps one of the most overt changes in this field is the nomenclature and jargon. This field was not always called Early Childhood. The field of Child Development is fairly recent as well. Expansion in perspectives on education and human development sparked the invention and subdivisions of stages of development. The stage dedicated to infants, toddlers, and children that have not yet reach the age for formal education is called Early Childhood. Since the existence of Early Childhood, there have become a number of degree and certification programs for Early Childhood. Early Childhood was not always available as a major or degree concentration. Some of the changes and increased formality in Early Childhood have changed the way Early Childhood professionals are educated…
Ackerman, D.J. (2004). What do teachers need? Practitioners' perspectives on early childhood professional development. Journal of Early Childhood Teacher Education, 24(4), 291 -- 301.
Sheridan, S.M., Edwards, C.P., Marvin, C.A., & Knoche, L.L. (2009). Professional Development in Early Childhood Programs: Process Issues and Research Needs. Early Education Development, 20(3), 377 -- 401.