788 results for “Moral Decline”.
One of the best examples in the play is that of the name of Ernest, with which both Gwendolyn and Cecily seem to fall in love in the most superficial manner. Wilde ironically points out that his age is one of ideals, but to this Gwendolyn gives her commentary about the importance of names:
We live, as I hope you know, Mr. Worthing, in an age of ideals. The fact is constantly mentioned in the more expensive monthly magazines, and has reached the provincial pulpits, I am told; and my ideal has always been to love some one of the name of Ernest. There is something in that name that inspires absolute confidence. The moment Algernon first mentioned to me that he had a friend called Ernest, I knew I was destined to love you."(Wilde, 2000, p. 516)
In Wilde's view, moral depravity in the modern age has to do…
Shakespeare, William. Hamlet. London: Methuen, 1961.
Wilde, Oscar. 2000. Oscar Wilde: the major works. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Both Hymnowitz (2004) and Bork (1994) address this question, each taking a different stance on the subject. In “Our Changing Culture,” Hymnowitz (2004) adopts an optimistic view, claiming that the younger generations are returning to traditional family values and rejecting the excesses of their parents’ generation. Bork (1994) disagrees, claiming that liberalism’s “rot and decadence” have been leading to the decay of morality in American society—and possibly in Western society in general (p. 6). Both authors occasionally slip into hyperbole, and both make some valid points backed up with references to popular culture, facts, or data. Ultimately, though, Hymnowitz (2004) makes a far stronger rhetorical case: America’s moral character remains strong
Hymnowitz (2004) argues that America is returning to some of its roots family and cultural values, and not necessarily for the better. The author introduces the subject by using examples from popular culture and media and then offers statistics…
The term moral hazard arises out of a contractual agreement. hen the terms of the contract serve as motivation for one of the parties to behave in a manner that is "contrary to the principles laid out in the agreement" (Investopedia, 2013). An example that is commonly used is when a salesperson is paid entirely on salary. The salesperson in that case has little direct incentive to perform according to the spirit of the contract, save for the threat of dismissal. The deal assumes that both parties will act according to the spirit of the contract, but the way the contract is structured this is not necessarily the case.
The concept of moral hazard is often applied to the financial industry. Most contracts are designed to prohibit moral hazard, but multiple hazards have been identified. For example, homeowners who found themselves in arrears or their homes under water…
Dowd, K. (2012). Moral hazard and the financial crisis. Cato Institute. Retrieved March 6, 2013 from http://www.cato.org/sites/cato.org/files/serials/files/cato-journal/2009/1/cj29n1-12.pdf
Investopedia. (2013). Definition of moral hazard. Investopedia. Retrieved March 6, 2013 from http://www.investopedia.com/terms/m/moralhazard.asp#axzz2MnoRW6v9
Pritchard, J. (2013). Moral hazard -- how moral hazard works. About.com. Retrieved March 6, 2013 from http://banking.about.com/od/loans/a/MoralHazard.htm
Moral Criticisms of the Market
Moral Criticisms Market This assignment requires read article Ken S. Ewert (found eading & Study folder). Note article, Ewert defending free market "Christian Socialists." He states position a rebuttal
Moral criticisms of the market: A critique of Ewert's analysis
It is interesting to read Ken S. Ewert's 1989 criticisms of 'Christian socialists' in light of current debates on other types of economic policies today. Ewert portrays Christian, leftist defenders of socialism as impervious to logic, in contrast to other former critics of capitalism, who grew more acclimated to capitalist principles in light of the failure of the Soviet Union Similar criticisms are made of 21st century religious fundamentalists, who stress the need for private enterprise to address societal problems 'on principle,' even when public regulation might be helpful and who try to define science, including science education, in religious terms rather than in terms of…
Ewert, Kenneth. (1989). Moral criticisms of the market. FEE. Retrieved:
Domestic Violence at the Root
This presents as the most important issue for family dissolution or divorce among low-income families (Haskins et al. 2005). Research conducted by Kathrun Edin and her team found that many poor mothers are willing to bear children even for men they consider unsuitable for marriage. Often, it is because these women believe they are in love with these men and that having children may improve these men's attitude in the long-term. ut these women are aware that their boyfriends or cohabiters have problems with forging long-term relationships. Quarrels often grow out of chronic infidelity, physical abuse, alcoholism and drug addiction, criminal activity and imprisonment. Research showed that these men harbor similar doubts about their women (Haskins et al.).
Some of the problems in these situations and relationships may be managed by quality marriage education when combined with employment, mental health and other support services…
Bergmann, Barbara R. The Economic Consequences of the Decline of Marriage.
Working Paper 0818, Department of Economics: Johannes Kepler University of Linz, 2008. Retrieved on December 11, 2009 from http://www.econ.jku.at/papers/2008/wp0818.pdf
Haskins, Ron et al. The Decline of Marriage: What to Do. Princeton-Brookings:
Princeton University, 2005. Retrieved on December 11, 2009 from Http://www.heartland.org/custom/semod_policybot/pdf/19317.pdf
The line of legitimacy, separating socially approvable use of force from violence, cannot be effectively drawn without an agreement on what constitutes the optimum amount of force necessary to maintain social order and to protect human rights against encroachment. A society subscribing to infinite morality which condemns all use of force as immoral is doomed no less than a society accepting the absolute pragmatism of tyrants. "
As Oleg Zinam proposes, these two extreme social attitudes to morality are equally unprofitable to the societies that adopt them. The attitude of absolute pragmatism can easily lead to the acceptance of political assassinations, as long as such acts may help the final political purpose. An example of absolute pragmatism can be the regime initiated by Hitler, who ordered the extermination of all Jews in an attempt to "purify" the human race by excluding anyone who did not fill in the Arian ideal.…
Ben-Yehuda, Nachman. 1997. Political Assassination Events as a Cross- Cultural form of Alternative Justice.
International Journal of Comparative Sociology, Vol.38: 25-30.
Feliks, Gross. 1974. The Revolutionary Party. Essays in the Sociology of Politics. Westport: Greenwood
This moral sense is often bigger and more powerful than us. Some people could call it psychological effect, others might term it differently but the fact remains that if we are doing something wrong, this moral sense would keep nagging us to the point that we would no longer be able to enjoy what we are doing and might eventually starting harming ourselves.
In order to protect ourselves from such negative consequences, its best to make a decision that is free of guilt. In this way, we can enjoy the fruits of our success and live a more happy life in general. This is really what is in our best interest though we might fail to see it at first.
It also pays to study the offer from an objective viewpoint. If someone else were offered this job: what would you suggest? Would you allow the person to take the…
Richard Garrett, the GOLDEN RULE. Presented to the Starr King School for the Ministry, University of California at Berkeley April 12, 2002
Mill, John Stuart. Excerpts from "Utilitarianism" in Philosophical Problems, an annotated anthology by Laurence BonJour and Ann Baker, editors, Pearson education (2005)
Mill, p. 590
Another important area of change relates to sexual norms and values in the family. Studies show that there has a definite growth in more permissive attitudes towards sex and particularly premarital sex. The number of people who see sex between an unmarried man and woman as "wrong" dropped from 36% in 1972 to 24% in 1996. (the Emerging 21st Century American Family)
These statistics indicate a change for the earlier view of sex as only being acceptable between married couples; which questioned the established norm and role of sexuality in the traditional family.
Another central area of change since the 1950's is the value associated with child rearing and the family. The more traditional concept of the family has at its core the ideal and value of providing secure and moral child - rearing practices. This aspect has changed and there has been a move away for this central value.…
Klein H.S. The Changing American Family. Retrieved January 29, 2007 at http://www.hoover.org/publications/digest/3020821.html
Popenoe D. (1993) American Family Decline, 1960-1990: A Review and Appraisal. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 55 (3), pp. 527-542
The Emerging 21st Century American Family. Retrieved January 29, 2007 at http://22.214.171.124/search?q=cache:aCtD_N20o7QJ:www.norc.org/online/emerge.pdf+Decline+in+the+American+Family+Values&hl=en&gl=za&ct=clnk&cd=6
The American Family Association (AFA). Retrieved January 29, 2007 at http://www.afa.net/about.asp
Rather than hysterically creating units to force fathers to do their duty, the underlying reasons for their lack of dutiful response should be investigated. Once the root causes of family decline are investigated, more effective remedies can be put in place. Certainly what has been done to date has not worked, if statistics like those of Vitz are to be believed.
Furthermore, I do not believe that we are facing a national crisis with regard to the family. Greater equality for women, more tolerance towards divorcees, and more opportunities in terms of work and childcare have opened doors for women that were not available in history. Abused women for example now have the means to escape the situation, be believed by the court, and raise their children with love and respect. Certainly this cannot be seen as a family in decline. Emotional issues and underlying reasons, rather than simple, surface…
Bradly, Robert H. & Crews, Donald A. (2001). "The Crisis of Family Decline in Massachusetts." Annual Report. URL:
Bronson, Po. (2006). Is the family in decline? (Demographics). The Factbook. URL:
Moral Criticism of the Market
I disagree with the author's major premise and conclusion. He contradicts himself by suggesting that the basis of his support for a free market is that it depends on offering something of value to others and that the problem with the dynamics of commercial advertising lies primarily with the individual. The reality of the advertising industry is hardly that it merely increases public "awareness" of available products. In fact, the main effort of commercial advertising is precisely to create the perception of need, even (or specifically) where it is illusory. To use the author's example, by the time someone covets a Mercedes that he sees driving past him on the street, he has already been inundated by years of explicit and implicit messages that the Mercedes symbolizes respect and achievement.
The fashion industry provides an even better example because it no longer exists to fill…
orld History 111
Buddhism -- the religion founded by Gautama Buddha -- has witnessed a steady decline in India, despite the country being one of those in which Buddhism was earliest practiced. The accounts of some well-known scholars have proven that the waning of Buddhism in India dates back to the 7th century AD. hile its decline commenced in the sixth century AD, Buddhism's internal degeneration became evident starting from the next century. Numerous factors were perceived to have had an impact on Buddhism's collapse in India, with all having contributed together to guarantee its decline. Buddhism declined in India because of these main causes: moral decline of leadership, royal persecution, Islamic persecution, and the rise of Buddhism.
Scholars argue that one significant reason for Buddhism's decline in India was the moral decline of the leadership and the leniency in monastic discipline. Buddhist monks' and nuns' moral…
Ahir, D. C. Buddhism Declined in India: How and Why? Delhi: B. R. Publishing, 2005. Print.
Beal, S. (translator) Si-Yu Ki: Buddhist Records of the Western World, London: Trubner & Co., 1884; reprint ed., Delhi: Oriental Books Reprint Corporation. Print.
Goyal, S. R. A History of Indian Buddhism, Meerut, Kusumanjali Prakashan, 1987. Print.
Hazra, Kanai Lal. The Rise and Decline of Buddhism in India. Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers Pvt. Ltd. 1995. Print.
As we have already mentioned, the mood and tone for moral corruption in New York City was prime in the 1920s and while it may seem there are the rich and the poor, class distinction among the rich plays an important role in the novel. Gatsby's success will only carry him so far because of a dividing line that exists between the new wealth and the old wealth. This is best depicted with the est and East Egg sections that divide individuals according to their wealth. Gatsby, regardless of how much money he makes, cannot hold a candle to the old wealth of the community in which Tom and Daisy live. Tom comes from an "enormously wealthy" (6) family and when he moved to the rich East Egg, he "brought down a string of ponies from Lake Forest" (6). The Buchanan's home is "more elaborate" (7) than what our narrator…
Alberto, Lena. "Deceitful traces of power: An analysis of the decadence of Tom Buchanan in the Great Gatsby." Canadian Review of American Studies. 1998. EBSCO Resource Database. Site Accessed November 01, 2008. http://search.epnet.com
Fitzgerald, F. Scott. The Great Gatsby. Bantam Books. New York. 1974.
Fussell, Edwin. "Fitzgerald's Brave New World." ELH. 1952. JSTOR Resource Database. Information Retrieved November 1, 2008. http://www.jstor.org/
Inge, Thomas. "F. Scott Fitzgerald: Overview." Reference Guide to American Literature. 1994. GALE Resource Database. Information Retrieved November 03, 2008. www.infotrac.galegroup.com
cell phone technology in Japan. Specifically it will discuss the moral and ethical issues brought about by Japanese cell phones. In Japan, cell phones are as ubiquitous as they are in the United States. However, the ethics and morals of cell phone usage in Japan are very different from usage in the United States, largely because of moral and ethical issues of how the Japanese view cell phones and their usage.
In Japan, everyone from schoolchildren to the elderly carry cell phones. A group of writers note, "The Japanese term for mobile phone, keitai (roughly translated as 'something you carry with you'), evokes not technical capability or freedom of movement but intimacy and portability, defining a personal accessory that allows constant social connection" (Ito, et al., 2005). This very definition shows that the Japanese view cell phones differently than many other parts of the world, and because of this, they…
Author not Available. (2009). Japanese cell phone culture. Retrieved 29 July 2009 from the Japanese Lifestyle Web site: http://www.japaneselifestyle.com.au/culture/japanese_cell_phone_culture.html.
Betts, R.F. (2004). A history of popular culture: More of everything, faster, and brighter. New York: Routledge.
Dziesinski, M.J. (2004). What is "keitai culture"? Retrieved 28 July 2009 from the Towakudail Blogs Web site: http://towakudai.blogs.com/Keitai.Research.Survey.pdf .
Ito, M., Okabe, D., and Matsuda, M. (2005). Personal, portable, pedestrian: Mobile phones in Japanese life. Retrieved 28 July 2009 from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Web site: http://mitpress.mit.edu/catalog/item/default.asp?ttype=2&tid=10610 .
Wars that have seen far more than the 3,500 deaths that the U.S. saw, and a self-fulfilling prophecy; creating more anger and resentment against the U.S., more potential terrorists, and the complete opposite of what the neo-cons wanted; global downturn and U.S. decline instead consolidating their power and position in the world.
Over 6,000 U.S. soldiers killed in wars in Afghanistan and Iraq, with possibly 100 times that number of civilians in those countries (in Iraq, at an early point, there was an estimated range of 400,000 to 900,000 civilian deaths, which of course Bush had to reject, claiming it used flawed techniques, even though it used estimation techniques his own government agencies taught others to use).
By framing this as a war on terror, an excuse is now afforded to all governments to put in place tough security measured on any potentially flimsy basis. Subsequently, the predicted war on…
Value of Moral Ethics in the Life of Ex-President Clinton
In today's world, working in organizations means working in an environment with people from multicultural backgrounds. If one were asked what type of organization they would like to work in, the chances are the reply will be "ethical organizations." So what exactly is an ethical organization and how positively does the 'code of ethics' apply in a professional working environment? Are they really functioning to benefit the workplace such as the government, which was constantly plagued by lawsuits of sexual harassment, especially during the terms of the Clinton administration or are they just operational in the documents where they rest for the staff to read on new employment?
In today's political world, leaders are looked up to for creating a healthy social environment that is a pre-requisite for a healthy governing environment. More over, a growing population of the working…
Terry L. Cooper, The Responsible Administrator, 4th edition.
NANCY BENAC, Former intern's account gains credibility with Clinton's admission, The Associated Press, Tuesday 18 August, 1998, Website: http://www.slam.ca/CNEWSClinton/aug18_lewinsky.html
Linda K.Trevino, Katherine A.Nelson, Managing Business Ethics, 2nd edition, pp.12
Stuart Taylor Jr., The Case -- For and Against, The National Journal, January 31, 1998
economic, social, and moral changes in America since the end of World War II
Since the end of World War II, the American people have seen an extraordinary change in the economic, social and moral priorities of the nation and its people. Three generations have grown up since the war, each positively and negatively influenced by their parents and social change.
Who They Are
The WWII generation represents the most affluent elderly generation that the United States will see in a long time. This generation benefited from an expanding economy and skyrocketing real estate prices. Its members were the beneficiaries of generous government programs, from the GI ill to government aid in buying their first home. (Wilkinson) high school education was sufficient to get well paying, secure jobs in their adult years. The lower level of education is one reason why members of this generation tend to see things differently…
Wilkinson, Ron. Boomers vs. Gen X Cooperation Clash. BCFM Human Resources Committee, 2002.
Chicowitz, Hershel. Defining G-X'ers. BBHQ, 2002.
Peppard, Nancy. Ties that Blind: Social Disconnects And The Shifting Generational Profiles That Cause Them.College of Law Practice Management, 2001.
International Association of Baby Boomers
5. Eating food that falls on ones shirt - if a person is in public, they should use a napkin to remove the food off of their shirt and have a waiter dispose of it (Dining Etiquette, n.d.).
If one is at a meal or at a business acquaintance's residence, and have just been dished up a serving of appetizing stuffed mushrooms and they are allergic to them, they should politely refuse them if they would seriously be harmed. The hard fast rule is as far as feasible. One should not make a commotion and embarrass anyone. If one suffers from food reaction or has a particular partiality, they should tell the host when they agree to the invite. At a buffet or great assembly it is very easy to pass up getting food that one doesn't consume. However, in a number of circumstances it would be extremely uncomfortable if…
Business Dining Skills for Job Seekers. (2010). Retrieved October 14, 2010, from World ClassBusiness Etiquette Web site: http://www.etiquetteoutreach.com/business-dining-etiquette-tips/
Dining Etiquette. (n.d.). Retrieved October 14, 2010, from Web site:
Echlin, Helena. (2010). Doggy Bag Dilemma. Retrieved October 14, 2010, from Chow Web site:
Alcohol and usiness Ethics
Introduction moral society is built on the basis of a number of unspoken, but generally agreed upon social issues. A moral society generally applies the maxim "treat others in the way you would like to be treated" and this proverb, although it's heard more frequently in the school play yard than in the corporate boardroom, should affect business decisions which affect the community at large. Some would say that operating a business within legal boundaries is not an accurate measure of an ethical business. Within the past few decades, advertising has become the focus of ethical pressure. The 'Joe Camel' cartoon character developed as a spokesperson - mascot for the camel cigarette was pulled after community outrage that the furry, cute character was likely an attempt by the company to market their addictive and destructive products to children.
A tremendous pressure has been brought to bear…
Carson, S. (1995) The Nature of a Moral Business Person. Review of Business, Vol. 17.
Cappel, J., and Windsor, J. (1999) A Comparative Study of Moral Reasoning. College Student Journal, Vol. 33.
Cummings, Christian. (2001) Alcopops. Fm4.org Accessed 25 March 2004. Available from: (http://fm4.org.at)
Don't join the alcopop generation (2001, May 21) U.S. News & World Report.
The problem is that if this trend continues it will have serious consequences for the society as a whole.
Many other great historical cultures have deteriorated and fallen as a result of a decline of social values and standards. We need only refer to the great Roman Empire for clear evidence of the link between a reduction of morals and standards and the demise of the culture. Historians refer to the view that the fall of the Roman Empire can be directly linked to a decline in moral and societal norms and that the culture was destroyed not only by the outside invaders but by internal decay and moral decline. As one expert writes,
The primary reason for Rome's fall was moral decline. Every Roman writer who chronicled the fall of the republic -- Appian, Tacitus, Cassius Dio, Sallust, Cicero, and others -- marveled at the evaporation of ancient virtue…
Bonta, Steve. Lessons of Rome: The Rise and Fall of the Roman Republic
Provides Lessons That Hint at Flaws in Modern Political Policies. The New American, 21 Feb. 2005.
Nursing Home Current Events in Texas. 2001. June 22, 2009.
Mill, Kant, Religion, And Gay Marriage
In theory, freedom and liberty for all appears to be an excellent concept, one which nearly everyone would embrace. However, the practice of this ideology is not always as halcyon as its theoretical mandate. Quite frequently, it is possible for there to be conflicts of interests presented due to the notion that everyone feels entitled to pursue that which he or she wishes. There are numerous examples of this intrinsic conflict of what essentially is a question of free will. One of the most salient of these examples can be illustrated in the issue of the rights of gays to pursue lawful marriage. On the one hand, various members of the gay and lesbian community believe that they should be legally permitted to engage in same sex marriages under their rights of freedom and the pursuance of their own respective happiness.
The conflict, of…
fall of the Roman Empire?
The decline and eventual fall of the Roman Empire happened in the third century. Rome had made many enemies and grew from a revered unchallenged leader of the Mediterranean to a rather weary empire surrounded by a myriad of enemies. Rome experienced a number of significant military defeats over the time. The most significant contributor to the fall of the empire though was the economic policies adopted by the emperors. The decline is noted to have started with the rule of Septimius Severus in 193 AD. The rulership engaged in excesses and spent too much on the military. The currency was debased and inflation rose to crisis levels. Further, the time of poor economic policies coincided with a time when civil wars were commonplace. Assassinations were rife. Army generals made attempts to stage coups and assume ruler ship. The soldiers often murdered the emperor when…
Euggipius. The Life of St. Severinus. Cambridge,: Harvard University Press, 1913.
Ferryl, Arther. The Fall of the Roman Empire: The Military Explanation. London: Thames and Hudson, 1986.
St. Jerome, trans by F. Wright. Select Letters of St. Jerome. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1963.
Marvell put forth the message that the Soul's lamentation was the result of the individual's abuse of his/her Body, the host through which the Soul thrives and survives. Without a healthy 'outer self,' the inner self would be affected as well. The poem's focus was not so much about physical disease and affliction, but instead, social and moral disease, wherein blindness, deafness, and torture of the human soul (or inner self) were the consequences brought about by the individual's exposure to the social and moral decline of human society. Thus, the inner self suffered from the effects of being influenced by external factors, and the social and moral decline Marvell identified as the "disease" that plagued the body was synonymous with the immoral and socially regressive individual who was influenced by society's excesses and faults.
The Body's lamentation, meanwhile, was actually a series of complaints against the Soul's obvious…
Indeed, similarities between Virgil and Dante's depiction of the underworld were evident in Canto IX, wherein Dante witnessed suffering in the City of Dis:
To the high tower with the flame-tipped top
Where at one spot there straightaway stood up
Three infernal Furies stained with blood,
Their bodies and behavior that of women.
Their waists were cinctured with green hydras;
For hair they had horned snakes and poison adders
With which their savage temples were enwreathed.
This passage reflects Dante's subjective interpretation of what Limbo, or the City of Dis, is like: similar to Virgil, he believed that the underworld is a place where suffering thrives and moral decline the cause of humanity's hardships. Furthermore, the underworld is a state where restlessness and dissatisfaction in life is the norm rather than the exception. Fury, as reflected in the passage, reigns in the underworld, an emotional state that was the result…
Three Strikes Law on the African-American Community
Three Strikes legislation, which imposes sentencing enhancement on repeat offenders, often culminating with mandatory life sentences for third-time offenders, has gained popularity throughout the United States. The legislation began in California, where two highly publicized murders committed by convicted felons prompted an outcry against allowing recidivists to return to the community. California did see a decrease in crime rates following its institution of the Three Strikes policy, though there is considerable debate about whether the Three Strikes laws were responsible for that decline. Many other states adopted the legislation, so that about half of all states now have three strikes legislation. While these laws may not necessarily have the desired deterrence effect on crime, the general consensus appears to be that they are not harmful to society; therefore, even if they cannot be proven to be helpful, they should remain in place. However,…
Brown, B. & Jolivette, G. (2005). A primer: Three strikes- the impact after more than a decade.
Retrieved February 13, 2012 from Legislative Analyst's Office website: http://www.lao.ca.gov/2005/3_strikes/3_strikes_102005.htm
Goodno, N.H. (2007). Career criminal targeted: The verdict is in, California's Three Strikes law proves effective. Golden Gate U.L. Rev., 37(2), 461-485.
Jones, B. (1999). Why the Three Strikes law is working in California. Stanford Law & Policy
Jane Addams was a pacifist, becoming involved with peace movements as early as 1898, according to Cimbala and Miller in Against the Tide: omen Reformers in American Society. She opposed the involvement of the United States in orld ar I and was deeply involved in the omen's International League for Peace and Freedom.
Jane Addams was a prolific writer. Elshtain, in Jane Addams and the Dream of American Democracy: A Life, provides a list of books written by Jane Addams, including Democracy and Social Ethics (1902); Newer Ideals of Peace (1907); The Spirit of Youth and the City Streets (1909); Twenty Years at Hull House (1910); A New Conscience and an Ancient Evil (1912); omen at the Hague: The International Congress of omen and Its Results (1915), which was co-authored with two other women; The Long Road of omen's Memory (1916); Peace and Bread in Time of ar (1922);…
Addams, Jane. The Spirit of Youth and the City Streets. New York: The Macmillan Company, 1909, 8.
Addams, Jane. Twenty Years at Hull-House. New York: The Macmillan Company, 1910. Quoted in Stillman, 1998.
Cimbala, Paul A., and Miller, Randall M. Against the Tide: Women Reformers in American Society. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers, 1997.
Elshtain, Jean Bethke. Jane Addams and the Dream of American Democracy: A Life. New York: Basic Books, 2002, xxii - xix.
Origin of Old-Earth Geology and its Ramifications for Life in the 21st Century," Mortenson (2003) offers an apology for and defense of the Christian creation story. The author's primary defense of the iblical creation story is that there are "social, moral, and spiritual implications" of believing in science. The strengths of the article include the fact that it is mildly entertaining, appeals to a specific audience, and provides some insight into the history of science and ideas in the nineteenth century. The weaknesses of the article include erroneous claims and false assumptions. Therefore, the weaknesses of the article outweigh its strengths.
rief Overview and Main Points
"The Origin of Old-Earth Geology and its Ramifications for Life in the 21st Century" is a brief article that primarily outlines the evolution of scientific thought regarding the origin of the Earth. Mortenson (2003) refers to Enlightenment-era scientists and their theories of how the…
Because Mortenson's (2003) article is written for a Christian audience, it is effective in that it supports the Christian worldview. Readers cannot demand more of Mortenson, because the author has never attempted to offer any substantive or logical argument. The article achieves the goal of enabling Christians to deny science, in part by saying that science has been associated with social decay and moral decline. Mortenson (2003) truly believes in the Biblical creation story as being a fact, which is his prerogative.
Mortenson, T. (2003). The Origin of Old-Earth Geology and its Ramifications for Life in the 21st Century. Retrieved online: https://answersingenesis.org/age-of-the-earth/origin-of-old-earth-geology-and-ramifications-for-21st-century/
Thus, the lack of strategic vision and the spreading of intellectual resources -- reaction rather than strategic vision, seems to be at the core of Le Petit's issue. Spreading research dollars and human capital across so many platforms, in fact, does not allow for a focused approach to a specific market niche, but diffuses the line and makes it even more vulnerable to market cannibalization.
Gagne's Task -- Brigitte Gagne' has quite a difficult task, considering that her position in the company is as Director of Research and Development. We are not clear about her horizontal level of authority, but assume she must make recommendations, not necessarily decisions. Her initial tasks, though, seem fairly straightforward:
Institute a strategic plan and stay focuses; if that is high-end, fuzzy logic, so be it.
Move R&D resources onto that project, with only minimal human capital supporting older brands.
Reinvigorate the division with realistic…
I saw them digging up potatoes...while the farmer...watched them in despair and the local policeman looked on gloomily from the distance...What did it remind me of? Of the war, of the worst period of starvation in 1917 and 1918, but even then people paid for the potatoes.|...|
Hauser does not agree with Ostwald that times are finally returning to normal and in fact has his own moral message about the events of the day, as gangs of many men overtake well intentioned farmers by stealing their crops, without recourse and whole families, rather than just unemployed men roam the streets seeking food and refuge. The two, living in the same time see things froma very different perspective, and yet both harbor undertones of morality as a breaking point in the culture of the nation.
It is also important to mention that Germany was seeking and finding solutions in more than…
Hauser, Heinrich. "The Unemployed" (April 1933) in the Weimar Republic Sourcebook, ed. Anton Kaes, Martin Jay, and Edward Dimendberg, Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1994. 84-85.
Kroner, Friedrich. "Overwrought Nerves." In the Weimar Republic Sourcebook, ed.
Anton Kaes, Martin Jay, and Edward Dimendberg, (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1994. 63- 64.
Luxemburg, Rosa. "Founding Manifesto of the Communist Party of Germany (KPD)"
Slave, Not Born a Slave
The Making of Slavery
The sense of proprietorship of slave traders, owners, and other propagators of chattel slavery that was prevalent in the United States until the middle of the 19th century would be absurdly laughable -- were it not steeped in a legacy of perversion, of anguish, of tragedy and of perniciousness. The notion that one had the right to actually own another, the latter of whose sole existence would be to serve the former in any way, shape or method which the "owner" deemed appropriate, has been disproved as largely imaginary, and not something based on any sense of right or morality (no matter how such a historically ambiguous term was defined) numerous times, both during the tenure of slavery in the United States and well afterwards. A casual examination of the wording of the Declaration of Independence confirms this fact (McAulifee, 2010,…
Bland, Sterling. (2001). African-American Salve Narratives: An Anthology, Volume 1. Westport: Greenwood.
Chesnutt, C. (1889). "The Sherriff's Children." The Independent. 41: 30-32.
Davis, A.Y. (1981). "Reflections on the Black Woman's Role in the Community of Slaves." Black Scholar. 12 (6) 2-15.
Douglass, F. (1845). Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, An American Slave. Retrieved from http://www.ibiblio.org/ebooks/Douglass/Narrative/Douglass_Narrative.pdf
Diverse and Changing Face of the Family Structure
The state of marriage has statistically changed in recent years, transforming the familiar structure of the nuclear family into an institution of non-traditional deviations. As with any issue, deviations from the norm pose objections and controversy. In the case of the family, philosophical, theological, and social debates revolve around the question of what constitutes the family structure ideal for raising children. The trend in single parenting, a decline in marriage rates, and the introduction of the homosexual family has led to the conservative opinion calling for a return to traditional family values and ethics to counter the demoralization of America. Sociologists, however, observe that family diversity is healthy and should be supported by society. Thus the depiction of the ideal family framework becomes a struggle between social opinions and political agendas. Society is changing, and the family compositions are reflective of those…
Harms, William. (1999, Nov. 24). "Marriage wanes as American families enter new century,
University of Chicago research shows." The University of Chicago News Office.
Herbst, Matthew T. (2003, July). "Do Family Values Lead to Family Violence?: A Consideration
of the Idea of Family." Quodlibet: Online Journal of Christian Theology and Philosophy. 5:2-3. Retrieved February 17, 2004. http://www.quodlibet.net/herbst-family.shtml
medieval romance has inspired literature for generations. The magic of the Arthurian romance can be traced to Celtic origins, which adds to it appeal when we look at it through the prism of post-medieval literature. The revival of the medieval romance can be viewed as an opposition against modern and intellectual movement that became vogue in modern Europe. These romances often emphasized the human emotions rather than the human intellect and a return to more classical traditions. Poets and writers in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries did not want to feel the oppression from the constraints of their time. Instead, they looked beyond the intellectual to a more mystical and emotional realm. They wanted to achieve another level in their writing -- one that allowed them to stretch their imaginations and their knowledge. The medieval aspects that we find in literature from this era accentuates a different type of thinking…
Carlyle, Thomas. "Past and Present." The Norton Anthology of English Literature. Vol. II
New York W.W. Norton and Company. 1986. pp. 157-70.
Carl Woodring, "The Eve of St. Agnes: Overview." Reference Guide to English Literature.
2nd ed. 1991. Gale Resource Database. Site Accessed April 20, 2005.
" hy is this the case? hy are some concerned about privacy and others not at all? The answer lies in the fact that society is mirroring both authors' perspectives, Orwell's and Huxley's -- one fearful and the other apathetic. Society is thus a dichotomy of two anti-utopian visions.
Yet, Zittrain, like Boyd and Baym, supports the new media technology by asserting that "the Net is quite literally what we make it." So even as society moves toward a state that intertwines both Huxley's and Orwell's visions, another portion of society attempts to keep a balanced viewpoint by suggesting that such movement does not necessarily have to be as bad as it might seem.
In conclusion, although civilization is headed in a direction that looks much like that described by Orwell and Huxley -- those anti-utopian visions are not necessarily what are in store for society. Boyd and Baym do…
Baym, Nancy. Personal Connections in the Digital Age. Cambridge, UK: Polity Press,
Boyd, Danah. "Social Network Sites: Public, Private, or What?" The Knowledge Tree.
2007. Web. 8 May 2011.
Chapter 10 of Harriet Jacobs’s Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl is entitled “A Perilous Passage in the Slave Girl’s Life.” This title is significant because it does not merely refer to Jacobs’s passage through girlhood into womanhood, which would be regarded as a perilous passage for any women during the 19th century, but also the infamous middle passage of African Americans from freedom to slavery. Jacobs’s passage is doubly perilous, both as a slave who runs the risk of being sold further down the river, or to a cruel master, and also as a woman living in constant fear of rape. Eventually, Jacobs feels compelled to submit to Dr. Flint against her will, as a kind of rite of passage of enslaved womanhood, where women have to sacrifice their chastity and dignity to survive.
Jacob paints a poignant portrait of herself striving to uphold her family’s values…
Pluto is the Roman god of the underworld, and Poe is foreshadowing a hellish and horrific experience for the narrator. He also sets up an expectation in the reader and truly tests the thin but palpable sympathetic emotional response that is built in the opening lines of the story. He foreshadows the narrator's actions by stating subtly that the narrator has begun to feel strangely as the story unfolds. The narrator states, "(I) experienced a radical alteration for the worse. I grew, day by day, more moody, more irritable, more regardless of the feelings of others. I suffered myself to use intemperate language to my wife. At length, I even offered her personal violence. My pets, of course, were made to feel the change in my disposition. I not only neglected, but ill-used them.." The reader, now draw into the story, begins to feel like the narrator is not quite…
Man has always asked questions about how the world began. All cultures in the ancient world had origin myths. People looked to higher powers, or deities, or life forces, to explain what they could not understand. esearchers do not know where humankind's need for spirituality comes from, but it is clear, looking at history, that faith and the need to believe in something greater than ourselves are part of what makes us human.
The late Stephen Jay Gould, professor of zoology and geology at Harvard University, believed that science and religion were not in conflict. Because they are entirely different, he argued, they could not be synthesized into any common theme (Mitchell & Blackard 2009, p. 146). His is a view that is shared by many scientists who draw a distinction between science and scripture. Science and scripture offer us two different things. One does not have to…
Carter, K.L. And Welsh, J. 2010, 'The pedagogy of the debate over evolution and intelligent design', Liberal Education, vol. 96, no. 3, pp. 46-53.
Hlodan, O. 2011, 'Molecular insights into classic examples of evolution', BioScience, vol. 61,
no. 4, pp. 264-267.
Miller, K. Darwin and Christian Faith. . [Distinguished Lecture Series, Pepperdine
However, Edersheim also points out that Jews were more child-centered than their contemporary cultures. One example of the Jewish reverence for children is that only Jews and one other culture had prohibitions against infanticide, while other cultures openly permitted the practice.
In chapter seven, Edersheim goes on to discuss the raising of Jewish children. Different ages of children had different roles and expectations. Children learned early on the protection of the Mesusah. In addition to formal instruction, children learned by observing their parents engage in rituals. The book of Proverbs is helpful to an understanding of how Jews were to raise their children. The most important part of the education of a Jewish child was religious education. Much of this instruction came as the result of children watching their parents, because Jews lived their religion as part of their daily lives. In addition to informal instruction, some children received formal…
The basis of Nietzsche's arguments lies in the fact that he disagrees with the view that life is essentially worthless. According to the author, Socrates and other great ancient philosophers all come to the same conclusion after making a number of observations about life and how to live it; that it is worthless. The ultimate result is not only death, but also a wish for death resulting from the fact that there is nothing in life that can truly be said to mean something.
Nietzsche furthermore argues that the modern view is quite different from this: there is a sanctity and purpose to the lives we lead today. Therefore the high regard given to philosophers such as Socrates should be reconsidered. Nietzsche feels that this regard for the ancient philosophers is a symptom of the human herd mentality rather than clear and rational thought. Great philosophers should not be…
" To that end, the Treasury Department would limit executive compensation for institutions receiving "exceptional assistance" (Geithner and Summers, 2009).
Troubles continued in the financial sector -- both Citigroup and the Bank of America needed second rounds of capital infusions, and federal guarantees against losses totaling tens of billions more -- while Ben S. Bernanke, the Federal Reserve chairman, warned that more capital injections might be needed to further stabilize the financial system. On Jan. 16, the Senate voted 52-42 to release the second round of funds (Gerth, 2009).
THE GEITHNER PLANS -on Feb. 10, Mr. Geither presented the rough outlines of the Obama administration's plan. A central piece of the proposal would create one or more so-called bad banks that would rely on taxpayer and private money to purchase and hold banks' bad assets. Another centerpiece of the plan would stretch the last $350 billion that the Treasury has…
business people study ethics. What are the possible benefits to companies, individuals, society and the world of business?
According to a gallop poll administered by the Better Business Bureau in 2008, consumer trust in business professionals is on the decline. Of the consumer populous polled, only 42% expressed trust in banks and financial institutions, representing a 6% decline in trust since 2007, while only 24% responded positively toward contractors and service professionals, representing a decline in trust of 4%. Of the 14 industries polled, trust was lowest in real estate brokers and auto dealers, with a positive trust response of only 13%, representing a 3% decline in trust (Farrell, Fraedrich and Farrell, 2009). In particular, trust levels declined rapidly as a result of public scandals which "cost many companies their emotional appeal, the strongest driver of reputation" (Ferrell et al., 2009).
According to ethics professor Rick Garlikov, the reputation of…
Kohlberg's model of ethical development varies from previous models insofar as development is not the product of maturation or socialization alone, but rather the product of one's cognitive contemplation of moral problems (Cain, 1985). Kohlberg's model coincides with character development specialist Thomas I. White's assertion that ethical character development is the result of ethical reasoning as opposed to a focus on "being a good person" (Ferrell et al., 2009). Studying ethics and contemplating ethical frameworks, therefore, is imperative to the development of an ethical character and the ability make ethically informed decisions.
Crain, W.C. (1985). Theories of Development. Prentice-Hall. pp. 118-136. Retrieved Jan. 31, 2011 from http://faculty.plts.edu/gpence/html/kohlberg.htm
Ferrell, O.C., Fraedrich, J. & Ferrell, L. (2009). Business ethics: ethical decision making and cases. (7th ed.) Mason: South-Western Cenage Learning.
community rating in insurance?
Under which pricing system do insurers have an incentive to engage in preferred risk selection?"
Health insurance providers use the rating system to calculate the charge for their insurance. ating systems such as community rating and experience rating use difference statistical method to estimate the amount a given individual or a group will pay for the healthcare insurance. Using the rating system, health insurance providers have been able to determine the amount an individual or a group will pay for their insurance.
Experience rating is defined as the practice of setting a rate for an individual or a group based on the benefits paid on behalf of that group, and experience rating adjusts future premium based on benefit utilization and experience. In insurance, experience rating is based on the traditional insurance concept, which base the premium of a group individual on the probability of the loss…
Enthoven, A.C. (1980). Health Plan: The Practical Solution to the Soaring Cost of Medical Care. Beard Books. USA.
Feldstein, .P.J. (2011). Health Care Economics. Cengage Learning, USA.
Follmann, J.F. (1962). Experience Rating vs. Community Rating. The Journal of Insurance. 29,(3): 403-415.
Mahdavi, G. (2008). Adverse Selection vs. Advantageous Selection in Life Insurance Market. Graduate School of Economics, Kyoto University, Yoshida-Honmachi, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto.
Kant was no exception to the paradigmatic priorities (i.e. objectivity as knowledge) of the era, and brief reference to the episteme is serves accuracy in discursive analysis of this heritage within American politics and policy thought. For instance, Kant's Critique of Judgment is enormously influential in establishing a connection between judgment and political and moral precepts to conduct in communities. Intellectual lineage to Kant's model of Enlightenment 'reason" combines ritish Empiricism with Continental Rationalism; and partly explains why his philosophical proposition that the existence of persistent war against non-liberal states is a requirement to perpetual peace is reiterated in scholarly expiation since the Enlightenment period, making Perpetual Theory of War as lasting as seminal reference (ehnke, 2009, Caranti, 2006 and Murray, 2003). Discourse Analysis toward the study's cause-and-effect analysis is derived from speeches and interviews taken from the ush administration in Table 1.
President ush -- Speeches and…
Behnke, a. (2009). Eternal Peace, Perpetual War? A Critical Investigation into Kant's Conceptualisation of War. Conference Papers -- International Studies Association, 1-18.
Bolton, J. (2010). Obama's Next Three Years. Commentary, 129(1), 24-28.
Brose, C. (2009). The Making of George W. Obama. Foreign Policy, (170), 52-55.
Caranti, L. (2006). Perpetual War for Perpetual Peace? Reflections on the Realist Critique of Kant's Project. Journal of Human Rights, 5(3), 341-353. doi:10.1080/14754830600812357.
" (Ungar, 2001) in the work of Jerry Williams entitled: "Knowledge, Consequences, and Experience: The Social Construction of Environmental Problems" explored are the "realist and constructionist approaches to environmental-social problems." (1998) Neither view in its current form is adequate as the actual reality is one that "moves beyond relativism and definitional constructionism" recognizing that the natural world is not dependent upon the constructions of humans. (Williams, 1998) the work of Carvalho and urgess (2005) entitled: "Cultural Circuits of Climate Change in the U.K. roadsheet Newspapers 1985-2003" provides an argument supporting "a cultural perspective to be brought to bear on studies of climate change risk perception." This article holds that those who produce and consume media texts "are jointly engaged in dynamic, meaning-making activities that are context-specific and that change over time." (Carvalho and urgess, 2005) Richard a. Kerr in the work entitled: "Global Warming: Rising Global Temperature, Rising Uncertainty" states…
Dunn-Brown, Beth (2007) Far North is 'Ground Zerio' for Global Warming. AP New Wire. 15 April, 2007. Online available at http://news.aol.com/topnews/articles/_a/far-north-is-ground-zero-for-global/20070415145709990002?ncid=NWS0001
Shelden, Ungar (2001) Moral Panic vs. The Risk Society: The Implications of the Changing Sites of Social Anxiety. The British Journal of Sociology. 52 (2) 2001 June.
Williams, Jerry (1998) Knowledge, Consequences, and Experience: The Social Construction of Environmental Problems. Sociological Inquiry. Vol. 68 No. 4. October 1998.
Carvalho, Anabela and Burgess, Jacquelin (2005) Cultural Circuits of Climate Change in U.K. Broadsheet Newspapers, 1985-2003.
Ethics Awareness Inventory
According to the Ethics Inventory, I fell into two categories: those who are obligation-oriented, and those who are results-oriented. In some ways, the ethical beliefs of these two categories are in conflict; for instance, usually people who base ethical decisions on obligation or duty are not as concerned with results as with principles. However, I scored high in the results-oriented category as well. I believe that my ability to span both categories of ethical decision making have proved beneficial for me in the past and will continue to in the future. For example, the ethics awareness inventory analysis indicated that I do not operate in terms of absolutes; I do not feel that there can be any absolute standards of right and wrong because the world is too complex. Therefore, I am more prone to being open-minded and flexible than people who do feel that there should…
Throughout American history the power of the federal government in comparison with the states has been continually debated. This is because there is a principal known as the separation of powers. In the Constitution, this is reserving certain areas of authority for the federal and state governments. The problem is that many of these powers can often come into conflict with one another on a regular basis. As the Constitution, will provide some basic guidelines, but it will not address specific areas. To account for this, the courts are relying on individual interpretations and case precedent. This creates conflicting areas of authority, based upon the general powers that are given to the states and federal government. (Bonnie)
In the case of the federal government, this kind of conflict occurred in 1984 with the passage of the National Minimum Drinking Age Act. This law encouraged the states to raise the…
"Title 23." U.S. Senate, 2000. Web. 9 Mar. 2012
Bonnie, Richard. Reducing Underage Drinking. Washington DC: National Academy Press, 2004. Print.
Once this occurs, is when an organization will face a number of ethical challenges, as they want to maintain healthy profit margins and are forced to push employees to work even more hours. At which point, it is only a matter of time until productivity levels will decline.
The best way to establish ethical practices in various host countries is to create an ethical code, based upon cultural traditions and the ethical standards of the company. This is where you are taking the ethical standards of the organization and are augmenting them, with the values of the country. Once this take place, you would then create an ethical code, to serve as a basic foundation for various moral business practices. At which point, you would conduct consistent ethical audits, to determine how the staff is responding to the different ethical challenges that they will face. Over the course of time,…
Ethical Issues in Business. (2010). Tutor 4 U. Retrieved from: http://tutor2u.net/business/strategy/business-ethics-issues.html
Few Employers Addressing Workplace Stress. (2008). Watson Wyatt. Retrieved from: http://www.watsonwyatt.com/render.asp?catid=1&id=18643
The World Tourism Organziations Global Code on Ethics for Tourism. (2005). Tourism Partners. Retrieved from:
co-written by Rushworth . Kidder and artha Bracy for the Institute for Global Ethics. This article describes and explores the concept of moral courage which is described by the authors as the ability of a person to speak out or do the right thing when faced with a situation. This in spite of risking humiliation, embarrassment or the loss of social standing. It takes a strong spirit and also the employment of several key values in order to exercise one's moral courage. The article clearly defines, relates, explains and provides examples of what is, and what is not moral courage. It also shows how moral courage can be implemented in different situations, and how it transcends time and space because of it being a universal and intangible quality.
The article begins by presenting a situation where moral courage was not employed, it tells the story of St. Paul's School for…
Moral courage goes on to be described by the authors as "facing mental challenges that could harm one's reputation, emotional well-being, self-esteem and other characteristics" (p.4). The authors go on to state that moral courage is closely associated with and connected to our moral sense and core moral values. That is to say, it relates directly to our sense of right and wrong and having the ability, courage, determination and strength to make the right decision in spite of the dangers and repercussions that may result from our decisions.
During the rest of the article the authors go on to employ a variety of strategies that help illustrated their perceived definition of moral courage. Their definition of moral courage is informed by examples and accounts of people in society risking everything, some being both physically and morally courageous during a particular situation, like the situation of an African-American reporter who endured a beating by a white mob in order to allow black students to enter into a previously racially segregated school for the first time in the 1950's. The authors also present the stories of whistleblowers in the political arena that lost everything because of their attempt to employ and exercise moral courage. One very touching and inspiring example of both moral and physical courage is presented in the cases of ordinary European citizens during the takeover of Nazi Germany. Some Europeans felt obligated and were courageous enough to help the persecuted Jews by hiding them in their homes despite the obvious and incredibly dangerous consequences they faced if they were to be discovered. These Europeans chose to be morally courageous because they went against the grain and because they knew that persecuting someone based on their race was clearly unjust. They were brave enough to go against popular opinion while listening to their conscience, as the authors describe it "they made the hard right, instead of the easy wrong." That is something that is truly admirable.
Overall, and in my personal opinion the article is very well written. It is a piece of literature that is informative, useful and also inspiring. In our contemporary experience we are bombarded by multitudes of concepts and situations both in media and in real life that do not necessarily inspire one to be morally courageous. Many of us have little or no understanding at all of what it is to be a righteous and morally honorable person when dealing with everyday situations. This article helps clarify and explain what being morally courageous entails and how we as members of society can apply core moral values and in turn become morally courageous like many of the valiant examples described in the article. Moral courage is a universal value that can be exercised by everyone regardless of race, class, health, physical strength or social standing, this is something that was clearly implied and stated in this article.
This is a pertinent observation and one that is possibly central to understanding the problem of environmental ethics today.
Bugeja goes on to state that "…the new technologies that now keep us constantly connected also keep us constantly distracted" (Bugeja, 2008). He also makes the important point that, "Digital distractions now keep us from addressing the real issues of the day. Each of us daily consumes an average of nine hours of media through myriad technological platforms…" (Bugeja, 2008). In other words, we have become distracted from the holistic view of reality by modern communications technology to the extent that we are out of contact with the environmental issues that surround us.
Bugeja is also of the opinion that this situation has deprived us of the important aspect of critical thought. Critical thinking is defined as "… the ability to engage in reflective and independent thinking, and being able to…
Bugeja M. ( 2008) The Age of Distraction: The Professor or the Processor? The
Futurist, 42 (1).
Consequentialism: The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved from http://www.iep.utm.edu/c/conseque.htm .
Environmental Ethics. Retrieved from http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/ethics-environmental/
Robert Nozick's Entitlement Theory asserts that free market exchanges are manifestations of society's respect for people as equal -- an economic phenomenon that is given a moral dimension/explanation. This theory is hinged on three principles: transfer principle, acquisition principle, and rectification principle. The first principle holds the argument that all holdings or properties freely acquired from others are considered justly acquired. In the same vein of argument, the second principle posits that people are entitled to have holdings/properties, so long as they are acquired in a just manner. Lastly, an "injustice" committed can be rectified by giving the property back to its rightful owner (i.e., a property unjustly acquired can be corrected by returning it back to the original owner/first owner).
John Rawls' theory of distributive justice contains within its argument the principles of liberty and difference. In his theory, Rawls argues that the principles of justice determine how the…
Changes in U.S. Business Ethics Practices
Changes in U.S. Business Ethics Practices Since Sep 11, 2001
The incident of 9/11 made the world pass though many sad and undesirable changes. One of such changes is declining rate of ethical considerations in U.S. based commercial organization. The subject is important to explore as it is likely to affect the image of U.S. business organizations. Furthermore, it is also expected that U.S. literature upon management and business administration may fail to appeal the world as the practices are not aligned with it.
The paper explains the changes in lieu of unfortunate incident of 9/11 in USA and casts light upon the implication of ethical consideration presently enforced in U.S. based organizations.
Changes in U.S. Business Ethics Practices Since Sep 11, 2001
The incident of 9/11 was an unfortunate event for many nations of the worlds including Americans. The incident changed…
Angle, C. (2008). Defining Ethics Good & Evil. New York: Philosophy Publishing.
Bacher, C. (2007). Corporate Social Responsibility. Germany: GRIN Verlag.
Bergen, P. (2011). The Longest War America and Al-Qaeda since 9/11. New York: Free Press.
Carroll, A. And Buchholtz, A. (2011). Business & Society. USA: Cengage Learning.
Rights and Obligations
'Drug use is information that is rightfully private and only in exceptional cases can an employer claim a right to know about such use." I wholly oppose this statement based on moral, as well as practical grounds. This brief considers the moral philosophy of utilitarianism, as well as the implications from which failure to drug test bring to a workplace.
The moral philosophy known as Utilitarianism was "originally proposed in the 19th Century by Jeremy Bentham," tuart Mill and others (Wikipedia, 2005, ¶1). The idea of this theory is one that suggests "the greatest good for the greatest number." My beliefs with regard to the first sentence are aligned with Utilitarian principle for two main reasons. The first are the figures that suggest that "drug abuse has been correlated with a decline in corporate profitability and an increase in the occurrence of work-related incidents," as it is…
Cranford, Michael. (1998). Drug Testing and the Right to Privacy: Arguing the Ethics of Workplace Drug Testing. Retrieved August 5, 2005, from Sundoulous: a fellow slave Web site: http://sundoulos.com/drugtesting/.
Wikipedia. (2005). Utilitarianism. Retrieved August 5, 2005, from Wikipedia: The Online Encyclopedia Web site: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Utilitarianism
ELIANT ON TECHNOLOGY?
Importance of Technology
Now-a-days, technology has revolutionized everything that is happening around the world and most of the people are heavily dependent on modern technology. Since people are relying more on technological gadgets, it has been observed that there has been decline in various skills especially writing, communication and critical thinking skills. However, some argue that technology has brought positive implications in people's lives and unlimited benefits outclass the drawbacks associated with technology (May & Marsden, 2010). As technological gadgets such as laptops, computers, iPads, iPhones and tablets have become a vital part of everyone's life, people are making less use of their ideas and relying on suggestions made by these technological software.
There is no denial of the fact that technology in various cases has made lives simpler for people but there are numerous consequences associated with each technological development which becomes evident after years of…
Antonio, E. (2010). Comparative analysis of cultural dimension in the management of Japan and Romania. Retrieved September 28, 2012 from http://fse.tibiscus.ro/anale/Lucrari2010/039.%20Antoniu%20Eliza.pdf
Baxter, J. (2009). The Good and the Bad Things About Technology: Technology Pros and Cons. Retrieved September 28, 2012 from http://voices.yahoo.com/the-good-bad-things-technology-4584097.html
Ghemawat, P., & Reiche, S. (2010). National Cultural Differences and Multinational Business. Retrieved September 28, 2012 from http://www.aacsb.edu/resources/globalization/globecourse/contents/readings/national-cultural-differences-and-multinational-business.pdf
Kobayashi, J., & Viswat, L. (2010). Cultural Expectations in Expressing Disagreement: Differences between Japan and the United States. Retrieved September 28, 2012 from http://www.asian-efl-journal.com/PTA/Nov_2010_Kobayashi.pdf
More than 98% of respondents had heard of the term "brain death," but only one-third (33.7%) believed that someone who was "brain dead" was legally dead. Using a utilitarian approach, organ donation does provide good for others; and, when managed appropriated, can provide a greater good for society at large. However, utilizing a population for organ harvesting, or changing the model so that organ donation is seen as a profit-center as opposed to a humanitarian endeavor, certainly muddies the waters a bit.
Barbas, M.P. Expanding Knowledge: From the Classroom to Hyperspace. Educational Media International. 43 (1): 65-73, 2006. etrieved from: tp://www.eric.ed.gov/EICWebPortal / search/detailmini.jsp?_nfpb=true&_&EICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=EJ729235&EICExtSearch_SearchType_0=no&accno=EJ729235.
Guo, G., et.al. The VNT 2-eteap in MAOA and Delinquient Behavior in Adolescence and Young Adulthood Associations. European Journal of Human Genetics. 16 (5): 626-34. etrieved from: http://www.unc.edu/~gguo/papers/08%20MAOA %202%20aggression%20EJHG.pdf
Kurth, J. eligion and Globalization. The eview of Faith and International Affairs. 7(2): 15-21, 2009.
Barbas, M.P. Expanding Knowledge: From the Classroom to Hyperspace. Educational Media International. 43 (1): 65-73, 2006. Retrieved from: tp://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal / search/detailmini.jsp?_nfpb=true&_&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=EJ729235&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=no&accno=EJ729235.
Guo, G., et.al. The VNTR 2-Reteap in MAOA and Delinquient Behavior in Adolescence and Young Adulthood Associations. European Journal of Human Genetics. 16 (5): 626-34. Retrieved from: http://www.unc.edu/~gguo/papers/08%20MAOA %202R%20aggression%20EJHG.pdf
Kurth, J. Religion and Globalization. The Review of Faith and International Affairs. 7(2): 15-21, 2009.
Nilsen, D., Kowske, B., Anthony, K. Managing a Diverse, Global Environment is Critical. HR Magazine Review. 50 (8): 41-9. Retrieved from: http://www.shrm.org/Publications / hrmagazine/EditorialContent/Pages/0805tools.aspx
Religion and Spirituality in a Broad Sense
Spirituality and religion are two terms that have rather unstable, historically changing definitions, characterized by numerous implied and explicit theological considerations. Further, the general contention is that these definitions are either overly specific or overly generic. A more astonishing fact is, possibly, these researches' level of concurrence that spirituality represents a private, budding, personal and emotional sphere, whilst religion is more public, group-based and fairly stable. Interviews and questionnaire tools arising out of these definitions characteristically undertake measurements of the spirituality element by posing questions with regard to people's self-identity, psychological experiences, and psychological health. By contrast, the element of religion is measured using questions that relate to religious participation, events and undertakings, observance of community or religious code. (Bender 1).
The ideal approach to spirituality would be considering it as a means to know the divine. Individual means to do so are,…
Even during the golden years of the beauty contest between the wars there were unresolved problems with the nature and purpose of such competitions:
There remained elements of discomfort and tension, only superficially palliated by the scientific discourse, patriotic rhetoric and philanthropic gestures of the contest's organisers. These tensions would be released again in the 1970s when a new generation of feminists added discrimination on the grounds of race and disability, together with a more unequivocal rejection of standardised and homogenised ideals of the body and beauty, to the critique of their forebears.
Yet this phenomenon can be seen as consistent with the change in the status of the beauty contest, from a celebration of values that were of universal appeal (even reflecting ideals of national identity) to a tawdry matter of selling sex. y the 1980s and 1990s such contests were experiencing a decline in entrants, with young women…
Sarah Banet-Weiser, the Most Beautiful Girl in the World: Beauty Pageants and National Identity, Berkeley, University of California Press, 1999
Colleen Ballerino Cohen, Richard Wilk and Beverly Stoeltje (eds), Beauty Queens on the Global Stage: Gender, Contests and Power, New York and London, Routledge, 1997. Useful collection of essays with a global perspective.
Lois W. Banner, American Beauty (New York: Knopf, 1983). A detailed study of the history of the Miss America contest.
Liz Conor, 'Beauty contestant in the photographic scene', Journal of Australian Studies, no 71, (2001). Interesting points on the importance of modern communication/reproduction technologies in 1920s beauty contests.
American Political Behavior Mid-Term and Discussion Chapter and Blog
Module 4/Discussion 1 -- Participation of Young Voters
Young voter participation has been lagging behind other age groups, which has been a major concern. It is a concern because majority of the population that is eligible to vote comprises of the youth. In a nation where 23% of the people are edible to vote, 17% comprises of the youth (Winograd & Hais, 2009). It is also notable that voter registration targets the college students thus a gap in voter turnout between people with collage experience and those without (Putnam, 2000). Young adults were able to vote after the ratification of the 26th amendment, which was in 1971. egardless of this right to vote, young adults do not exercise their civil responsibility to vote. The voter turnout by young adults is usually low over the last years. This is mainly due to…
Hendricks, J.A., & Denton, R.E. (2009). Communicator-in-chief: How Barack Obama used new media technology to win the white house. Lanham, Md: Lexington Books.
Rosenau, J.N., & Singh, J.P. (2002). Information technologies and global politics: The changing scope of power and governance. Albany (N.Y.: State university of New York press.
Putnam, R.D. (2000). Bowling alone: The collapse and revival of American community. New York, NY: Simon & Schuster. (ISBN 0-7432-0304-6)
Wattenberg, M.P. (2008) Is voting for young people? New York, NY: Pearson Longman. (ISBN 10: 0-205-51807-9, ISBN 13: 978-0-205-51807-4)
Full creativity allows the production of greater wealth, for a stronger and more evolved society.
Further in defense of the moral systems or perceived lack thereof in terms of newly created wealth, D'Souza asserts that most wealth currently created is the result of personal effort, rather than means such as inheritance. The wealth can then indeed be seen as the reward for effort, rather than wealth as a result of luck in its pure sense. Morality's role should then not be concerned so much with justifying the accumulated wealth, but rather with using it wisely for the benefit of humanity, creativity, freedom and evolution.
Another characteristic of freedom, as seen above, is the recognition of new and revolutionary ideas, and implementing those when they are superior to the old. In terms of economy this is as true as in terms of morals. Those in power for example refuse to accept…
In the event you cannot honestly recommend him as an employee without lying to the new employer, you might consider explaining the truth of the situation to the new employer by telephone while providing your sister with a "file copy" of a the supposed letter addressed to the new employer on your letterhead, being sure to scribble something like "Here you go Sis...I don't feel right about this, but here's you copy of the letter" on it so that she cannot reuse the letter in her efforts to find her husband a job by lying to other prospective employers in your name.
Granted, it would be unfortunate to have to lie to your sister and to engage in subterfuge to keep peace in the family, but she is the cause of that situation, not you.
Given the choice between a lie that could very conceivably harm other people and a…
'For though beauty is seen and confessed by all, yet, from the many fruitless attempts to account for the cause of its being so, enquiries on this head have almost been given up"
illiam Hogarth, The Analysis of Beauty, (1753)
Not very encouraging words, but if the great artist illiam Hogarth felt himself up to the task, we can attempt at least to follow his lead. That beauty is enigmatic goes almost without saying. Different ages, different cultures, and even different individuals, will have their own definitions of "beauty." The problem is more than skin deep. Any term that can be so widely and irregularly employed is bound to trap the casual researcher ... Or reader ... Or viewer ... Or for that matter, any other human being who attempts to define what is and what is not "beauty." People, places, things -- even ideas dreams -- can…
Al-Braizat, Fares. "Muslims and Democracy: An Empirical Critique of Fukuyama's Culturalist Approach." International Journal of Comparative Sociology (2002): 269+.
Browne, Stephen H. "EDMUND BURKE (1729-1797)." Eighteenth-Century British and American Rhetorics and Rhetoricians: Critical Studies and Sources. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1994. 42-50.
Callaghan, Karen A., ed. Ideals of Feminine Beauty: Philosophical, Social, and Cultural Dimensions. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1994.
"The Eighteenth-Century Beauty Contest." Eighteenth-Century Literary History: An MLQ Reader. Ed. Brown, Marshall. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1999. 204-234.
An analysis of these words, if the analyst did not know the context, would indicate these words (although written in an archaic form) could refer to the modern-day social ills of prosperity, gluttony, greed, and possessions, which our society suffers from in great numbers. It seems as if society today is indeed "drowned in sin," and paying for it in numerous ways, from increased social violence, the decline of the American family, and of course the decline of family values.
In conclusion, "Everyman" is a morality play with a complete message and meaning. It gives the reader moral lessons about how to live their lives so that death is no longer a fearful activity. It also indicates that in the end, all the friends, possessions, and wealth in the world do not matter, because in death, you cannot "take it with you," no matter how hard you try. Thus, the…
Anonymous. "Everyman." Fordham University. 2007. 14 Dec. 2007. http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/basis/everyman.html
Introduction to the Characteristics and Extent of Alcohol, Tobacco or Other Drug Use.
Addiction means physical dependence on a drug, with withdrawal symptoms when its use ceases, and in this sense, alcohol, tobacco, marijuana, cocaine, heroin, hashish, opiates and amphetamines are all addictive drugs. In addition, these drugs also cause psychological dependency since they enhance a person's sense of pleasure, sociability, sexuality and emotional satisfaction, and also mask pain, low self-esteem and anxiety (Wilson and Kolander, 2011, p. 6). Student surveys are "likely to underreport the overall level of substance use and abuse by young people," and since black and Hispanic students have higher dropout and absenteeism rates, this affects survey results as well (Mosher and Akins, 2007, p. 136). Hard drug users and addicts are also more likely to be homeless, which means that their true numbers are always unknown.
All studies and surveys confirm that marijuana…
Goldberg, R. (2010). Drugs across the Spectrum, 6th Edition. Wadsworth Cengage Learning.
Maisto, S.A. et al. (eds). (2010). Drug Use and Abuse, 6th Edition. Wadsworth Cengage Learning.
Mosher, C.M. And S. Akins. (2007). Drugs and Drug Policy: The Control of Consciousness Alteration. Sage Publications.
Wilson, R. And C.A. Kolander. (2011). Drug Abuse Prevention: A School and Community Partnership. Jones and Bartlett Publishers.
One of the best examples in the play is that of the name of Ernest, with which both Gwendolyn and Cecily seem to fall in love in the most…Read Full Paper ❯
Ethics / Morality
Both Hymnowitz (2004) and Bork (1994) address this question, each taking a different stance on the subject. In “Our Changing Culture,” Hymnowitz (2004) adopts an optimistic view, claiming that…Read Full Paper ❯
Moral Hazard The term moral hazard arises out of a contractual agreement. hen the terms of the contract serve as motivation for one of the parties to behave in…Read Full Paper ❯
Moral Criticisms of the Market Moral Criticisms Market This assignment requires read article Ken S. Ewert (found eading & Study folder). Note article, Ewert defending free market "Christian Socialists."…Read Full Paper ❯
Family and Marriage
). Domestic Violence at the Root This presents as the most important issue for family dissolution or divorce among low-income families (Haskins et al. 2005). Research conducted by Kathrun…Read Full Paper ❯
The line of legitimacy, separating socially approvable use of force from violence, cannot be effectively drawn without an agreement on what constitutes the optimum amount of force necessary to…Read Full Paper ❯
Business - Ethics
This moral sense is often bigger and more powerful than us. Some people could call it psychological effect, others might term it differently but the fact remains that if…Read Full Paper ❯
Family and Marriage
Another important area of change relates to sexual norms and values in the family. Studies show that there has a definite growth in more permissive attitudes towards sex and…Read Full Paper ❯
Family and Marriage
Rather than hysterically creating units to force fathers to do their duty, the underlying reasons for their lack of dutiful response should be investigated. Once the root causes of…Read Full Paper ❯
Moral Criticism of the Market I disagree with the author's major premise and conclusion. He contradicts himself by suggesting that the basis of his support for a free market…Read Full Paper ❯
Bernadette alsh orld History 111 'Title' Buddhism -- the religion founded by Gautama Buddha -- has witnessed a steady decline in India, despite the country being one of those…Read Full Paper ❯
As we have already mentioned, the mood and tone for moral corruption in New York City was prime in the 1920s and while it may seem there are the…Read Full Paper ❯
Education - Computers
cell phone technology in Japan. Specifically it will discuss the moral and ethical issues brought about by Japanese cell phones. In Japan, cell phones are as ubiquitous as they…Read Full Paper ❯
Wars that have seen far more than the 3,500 deaths that the U.S. saw, and a self-fulfilling prophecy; creating more anger and resentment against the U.S., more potential terrorists,…Read Full Paper ❯
Business - Ethics
Value of Moral Ethics in the Life of Ex-President Clinton In today's world, working in organizations means working in an environment with people from multicultural backgrounds. If one were…Read Full Paper ❯
economic, social, and moral changes in America since the end of World War II Since the end of World War II, the American people have seen an extraordinary change…Read Full Paper ❯
Business - Ethics
5. Eating food that falls on ones shirt - if a person is in public, they should use a napkin to remove the food off of their shirt and…Read Full Paper ❯
Sports - Drugs
Alcohol and usiness Ethics Introduction moral society is built on the basis of a number of unspoken, but generally agreed upon social issues. A moral society generally applies the…Read Full Paper ❯
The problem is that if this trend continues it will have serious consequences for the society as a whole. Many other great historical cultures have deteriorated and fallen as…Read Full Paper ❯
Women's Issues - Sexuality
Mill, Kant, Religion, And Gay Marriage In theory, freedom and liberty for all appears to be an excellent concept, one which nearly everyone would embrace. However, the practice of…Read Full Paper ❯
History - European
fall of the Roman Empire? The decline and eventual fall of the Roman Empire happened in the third century. Rome had made many enemies and grew from a revered…Read Full Paper ❯
" Marvell put forth the message that the Soul's lamentation was the result of the individual's abuse of his/her Body, the host through which the Soul thrives and survives.…Read Full Paper ❯
Indeed, similarities between Virgil and Dante's depiction of the underworld were evident in Canto IX, wherein Dante witnessed suffering in the City of Dis: To the high tower with…Read Full Paper ❯
Three Strikes Law on the African-American Community Three Strikes legislation, which imposes sentencing enhancement on repeat offenders, often culminating with mandatory life sentences for third-time offenders, has gained popularity…Read Full Paper ❯
Sports - Women
Jane Addams was a pacifist, becoming involved with peace movements as early as 1898, according to Cimbala and Miller in Against the Tide: omen Reformers in American Society. She…Read Full Paper ❯
Mythology - Religion
Origin of Old-Earth Geology and its Ramifications for Life in the 21st Century," Mortenson (2003) offers an apology for and defense of the Christian creation story. The author's primary…Read Full Paper ❯
Thus, the lack of strategic vision and the spreading of intellectual resources -- reaction rather than strategic vision, seems to be at the core of Le Petit's issue. Spreading…Read Full Paper ❯
Family and Marriage
I saw them digging up potatoes...while the farmer...watched them in despair and the local policeman looked on gloomily from the distance...What did it remind me of? Of the war,…Read Full Paper ❯
Slave, Not Born a Slave The Making of Slavery The sense of proprietorship of slave traders, owners, and other propagators of chattel slavery that was prevalent in the United…Read Full Paper ❯
Family and Marriage
Diverse and Changing Face of the Family Structure The state of marriage has statistically changed in recent years, transforming the familiar structure of the nuclear family into an institution…Read Full Paper ❯
medieval romance has inspired literature for generations. The magic of the Arthurian romance can be traced to Celtic origins, which adds to it appeal when we look at it…Read Full Paper ❯
" hy is this the case? hy are some concerned about privacy and others not at all? The answer lies in the fact that society is mirroring both authors'…Read Full Paper ❯
African-Americans - Slavery
Chapter 10 of Harriet Jacobs’s Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl is entitled “A Perilous Passage in the Slave Girl’s Life.” This title is significant because it…Read Full Paper ❯
Death and Dying (general)
Pluto is the Roman god of the underworld, and Poe is foreshadowing a hellish and horrific experience for the narrator. He also sets up an expectation in the reader…Read Full Paper ❯
Intelligent Design Man has always asked questions about how the world began. All cultures in the ancient world had origin myths. People looked to higher powers, or deities, or…Read Full Paper ❯
Mythology - Religion
However, Edersheim also points out that Jews were more child-centered than their contemporary cultures. One example of the Jewish reverence for children is that only Jews and one other…Read Full Paper ❯
Black Studies - Philosophy
Socrates The basis of Nietzsche's arguments lies in the fact that he disagrees with the view that life is essentially worthless. According to the author, Socrates and other great…Read Full Paper ❯
" To that end, the Treasury Department would limit executive compensation for institutions receiving "exceptional assistance" (Geithner and Summers, 2009). Troubles continued in the financial sector -- both Citigroup…Read Full Paper ❯
Business - Ethics
business people study ethics. What are the possible benefits to companies, individuals, society and the world of business? According to a gallop poll administered by the Better Business Bureau…Read Full Paper ❯
community rating in insurance? Under which pricing system do insurers have an incentive to engage in preferred risk selection?" Health insurance providers use the rating system to calculate the…Read Full Paper ❯
Kant was no exception to the paradigmatic priorities (i.e. objectivity as knowledge) of the era, and brief reference to the episteme is serves accuracy in discursive analysis of this…Read Full Paper ❯
" (Ungar, 2001) in the work of Jerry Williams entitled: "Knowledge, Consequences, and Experience: The Social Construction of Environmental Problems" explored are the "realist and constructionist approaches to environmental-social…Read Full Paper ❯
Business - Ethics
Ethics Awareness Inventory According to the Ethics Inventory, I fell into two categories: those who are obligation-oriented, and those who are results-oriented. In some ways, the ethical beliefs of…Read Full Paper ❯
Federalism Throughout American history the power of the federal government in comparison with the states has been continually debated. This is because there is a principal known as the…Read Full Paper ❯
Business - Ethics
Once this occurs, is when an organization will face a number of ethical challenges, as they want to maintain healthy profit margins and are forced to push employees to…Read Full Paper ❯
Business - Ethics
co-written by Rushworth . Kidder and artha Bracy for the Institute for Global Ethics. This article describes and explores the concept of moral courage which is described by the…Read Full Paper ❯
Business - Ethics
This is a pertinent observation and one that is possibly central to understanding the problem of environmental ethics today. Bugeja goes on to state that "…the new technologies that…Read Full Paper ❯
Business - Ethics
Robert Nozick's Entitlement Theory asserts that free market exchanges are manifestations of society's respect for people as equal -- an economic phenomenon that is given a moral dimension/explanation. This…Read Full Paper ❯
Business Ethics Changes in U.S. Business Ethics Practices Changes in U.S. Business Ethics Practices Since Sep 11, 2001 The incident of 9/11 made the world pass though many sad…Read Full Paper ❯
Business - Ethics
Rights and Obligations 'Drug use is information that is rightfully private and only in exceptional cases can an employer claim a right to know about such use." I wholly…Read Full Paper ❯
ELIANT ON TECHNOLOGY? Importance of Technology Now-a-days, technology has revolutionized everything that is happening around the world and most of the people are heavily dependent on modern technology. Since…Read Full Paper ❯
More than 98% of respondents had heard of the term "brain death," but only one-third (33.7%) believed that someone who was "brain dead" was legally dead. Using a utilitarian…Read Full Paper ❯
Religion and Spirituality in a Broad Sense Spirituality and religion are two terms that have rather unstable, historically changing definitions, characterized by numerous implied and explicit theological considerations. Further,…Read Full Paper ❯
Communication - Television
Even during the golden years of the beauty contest between the wars there were unresolved problems with the nature and purpose of such competitions: There remained elements of discomfort…Read Full Paper ❯
American Political Behavior Mid-Term and Discussion Chapter and Blog Module 4/Discussion 1 -- Participation of Young Voters Young voter participation has been lagging behind other age groups, which has…Read Full Paper ❯
Full creativity allows the production of greater wealth, for a stronger and more evolved society. Further in defense of the moral systems or perceived lack thereof in terms of…Read Full Paper ❯
Family and Marriage
In the event you cannot honestly recommend him as an employee without lying to the new employer, you might consider explaining the truth of the situation to the new…Read Full Paper ❯
Price Beauty? 'For though beauty is seen and confessed by all, yet, from the many fruitless attempts to account for the cause of its being so, enquiries on this…Read Full Paper ❯
Mythology - Religion
An analysis of these words, if the analyst did not know the context, would indicate these words (although written in an archaic form) could refer to the modern-day social…Read Full Paper ❯
Sports - Drugs
Substance Abuse Introduction to the Characteristics and Extent of Alcohol, Tobacco or Other Drug Use. Addiction means physical dependence on a drug, with withdrawal symptoms when its use ceases,…Read Full Paper ❯