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People feel strongly about many different issues, and they may be emotional and quite demonstrative about them, as well. For example, in the previous example of a woman's right to choose, the two sides are polar opposites and extremely emotional and sure that their decision is the right one. An "anti-choice" person may be highly prejudiced against a woman who has an abortion, but also against the doctors and nurses who perform the procedure. People cannot help being prejudiced; it is a part of human nature. Even the most devout and "Christian" are often prejudiced against other religions, believing they are the only ones who will go to Heaven and find their reward for life on earth. Prejudice usually conjures up visions of race relations and a misunderstanding of cultures, but prejudice is really intolerance of any one or anything, and so, everyone is intolerant of something, whether it is…
Editor. "Moral Values." AllAboutPhilosophy.org. 2008. 23 Feb. 2008. http://www.allaboutphilosophy.org/moral-values-faq.htm
Ursury, Danny. "Exploring Values, Rules and Principles." St. Edward's University. 2002. 23 Feb. 2008. http://www.stedwards.edu/ursery/values.htm
television on moral values has been extensively studied by social scientists. In 2007, a national cultural survey commissioned by the Culture and Media Institute (CMI) indicated that the news and entertainment media destructs the nation's values. A Gallup Poll on American's Confidence in Institutions (2007) confirmed some of these results. The CMI survey, reported that "74% of Americans believe the nation's moral values have declined over the past twenty years, and large majorities hold the media responsible for contributing to that decline" (Iyebote, 2007). It, further, observed that only 7% of those surveyed believed that the entertainment industry had a positive impact on values 73% believe that the moral impact is destructive, whilst 54% compared to 11% of Americans believe that the news portrayed by TV corrupts moral too (ibid.). Similarly, the National Cultural Survey affirmed that "large majorities of every significant demographic category of American adults believe the media…
Iyebote, F. July 3, 2007, 'Media Harm Nation's Moral Values'. Accuracy in Media. Web. http://www.aim.org/briefing/media-harm-nations-moral-values/
Munro, C.R. 1979. Television, Censorship and the Law. Saxon House, Teakfield Limited.
Paul II, J. 1994. Television and the Family: Guidelines for Good Viewing.[Online] Available at: http://www.latin-mass.org/television_and_the_family.htm
Spigel, L. (no date). Family on Television. [Online] Available at: http://www.museum.tv/archives/etv/FhtmlF/familyontel.htm
The principle of harmony's job is to take corrective actions when needed in order to create the balance of economic justice between the principles. For example, when the other two principles are violated by such things as unjust social barriers to either participation or distribution, the principle of harmony works to eradicate these barriers and thus restore economic harmony, or justice.
According to the Oxford English Dictionary, economic harmonies is defined as "laws of social adjustment under which the self-interest of one man or group of men, if given free play, will produce results offering the maximum advantage to other men and the community as a whole." In other words, whereas the other two principles are controlled by the free market, the principle of economic harmony is controlled by the government through laws and regulations aimed at controlling the negative effects of the free market. Examples of such controls are…
Bretzke, James T. A Morally Complex World: Engaging Contemporary Theology.
Curran, Charles. The Catholic Church, Morality and Politics. www.networklobby.org/resources/index.html.
Curran, Charles. The Catholic Moral Tradition Today. Center for Economic and Social Justice. www.cesj.org/thirdway/economicjustice-defined.htm
Elliott, Hanna. "Stereotypes of Religious Voters Don't Fit." Associated Baptist Press, 03 Nov. 2006.
Moral Criticisms of the Market
Moral Criticisms Market This assignment requires read article Ken S. Ewert (found eading & Study folder). Note article, Ewert defending free market "Christian Socialists." He states position a rebuttal
Moral criticisms of the market: A critique of Ewert's analysis
It is interesting to read Ken S. Ewert's 1989 criticisms of 'Christian socialists' in light of current debates on other types of economic policies today. Ewert portrays Christian, leftist defenders of socialism as impervious to logic, in contrast to other former critics of capitalism, who grew more acclimated to capitalist principles in light of the failure of the Soviet Union Similar criticisms are made of 21st century religious fundamentalists, who stress the need for private enterprise to address societal problems 'on principle,' even when public regulation might be helpful and who try to define science, including science education, in religious terms rather than in terms of…
Ewert, Kenneth. (1989). Moral criticisms of the market. FEE. Retrieved:
The line of legitimacy, separating socially approvable use of force from violence, cannot be effectively drawn without an agreement on what constitutes the optimum amount of force necessary to maintain social order and to protect human rights against encroachment. A society subscribing to infinite morality which condemns all use of force as immoral is doomed no less than a society accepting the absolute pragmatism of tyrants. "
As Oleg Zinam proposes, these two extreme social attitudes to morality are equally unprofitable to the societies that adopt them. The attitude of absolute pragmatism can easily lead to the acceptance of political assassinations, as long as such acts may help the final political purpose. An example of absolute pragmatism can be the regime initiated by Hitler, who ordered the extermination of all Jews in an attempt to "purify" the human race by excluding anyone who did not fill in the Arian ideal.…
Ben-Yehuda, Nachman. 1997. Political Assassination Events as a Cross- Cultural form of Alternative Justice.
International Journal of Comparative Sociology, Vol.38: 25-30.
Feliks, Gross. 1974. The Revolutionary Party. Essays in the Sociology of Politics. Westport: Greenwood
Moral Messages in Children's Literature
I chose four children's classics: Charlotte's web (1952) by E.B. White, and other three children's fairy tales, two by Jakob and Wilhelm Grimm (Cinderella and Snow white and the seven dwarfs) and one by Charles Perrault (Sleeping Beauty). These were among my personal childhood favorites. Looking back on all four as an adult, I see many similarities, but also many differences, in these books' inherent moral messages. All have been positively reviewed (e.g., have received awards or good critical reviews, and/or have stood the test of time). Each contains many distinct moral messages, some plain, others less so. Each also deals with situations that require moral decisions.
Charlotte's web is a story about eight-year-old Fern, who, while growing up on a farm, loves and nurtures a pet pig, Wilbur. Wilbur grows up (with help from Fern and various animal friends, including a wise…
Capital punishment, however, does reflect the retributive perspective and is the most obvious modern manifestation of Hammurabi's code. Even so, the moral righteousness of capital punishment is questionable for several reasons. First, capital punishment is illogical and hypocritical. If killing another human being is wrong, and if the state kills human beings, then the state is committing a wrongful act. Second, capital punishment can be considered cruel and unusual. Third, capital punishment precludes the state from promoting positive moral values in favor of a perceived increase in public safety. Whether public safety is increased by the use of capital punishment is also questionable. For the most part, capital punishment is used "solely for symbolic purposes," (Turow, cited by Stern, 2003). Capital punishment is the epitome of revenge-based, retributive justice. It would seem that even if revenge were morally just, that the state would have no justifiable role in exacting revenge.…
Primorac, I. (nd). Is Retributivism Analytic? The Royal Institute of Philosophy. Retrieved June 17, 2007 at http://www.royalinstitutephilosophy.org/articles/article.php?id=20
Stern, S. (2003). Discussing the morality of capital punishment. Christian Science Monitor. 12 Nov 2003. Retrieved June 17, 2007 at http://www.csmonitor.com/2003/1112/p16s01-usju.html
Townsend, C. (2005). The morality of punishment. Cambridge Papers. 31 May 2005. Retrieved June 17, 2007 at http://www.leaderu.com/humanities/moralityofpunishment.html
Values Portrayed eality TV
The modern day media has recently found out that profits can be higher if reality TV shows are produced. Based on these reasons, there is a long list of reality TV shows that are being produced. Not all of these shows are successful, but the one that are successful have achieved great deal of profits, cultural prominence and popularity. The question that arises here is that if these shows should be produced or should they be aired for the audience.
Many definitions have been given for reality TV but one of the most important definitions is a show that showcases situations that have actually happened. Apparently, there is no scripting in these shows as in the case of dramas and serials. A small group of people are showcased in these shows who are not trained actors but these are chosen as they face unusual situations.
Deery, J. (2004). Reality TV as Advertainment. Popular Communication: The International Journal of Media and Culture 2, pp. 1-20.
Murray, S., and Ouellette, L. (2009). Reality TV: Remaking Television Culture. Edition 2. NYU Press.
Olivera, M.B. (1994). Portrayals of crime, race, and aggression in "reality-based" police shows: A content analysis. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media 38, pp. 179-192.
Papacharissi, Z., & Mendelson, L.A. (2007). An Exploratory Study of Reality Appeal: Uses and Gratifications of Reality TV Shows. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media 51, pp. 355-370.
Because of religion, individuals learn that it is best for them to preserve the environment and that they should concentrate on doing everything they can in order for people living in the future to have access to the same resources that they have in the present. Religious leaders and activists as a whole are essential in influencing people to get actively engaged in saving the environment. Similar to how mostly every domain is linked to religion, religious teachings are very important when considering environmentalism and the effect it has on the masses.
In trying to understand religion people should ignore biased thoughts and extremist individuals and should focus more on the morality promoted by religion in general. If interpreted correctly, religion is probable to have a beneficial effect on people, regardless of their background.
Bissett Pratt, James, Eternal Values in Religion (New York: Macmillan, 1950)
Roothaan, Angela, "32…
Bissett Pratt, James, Eternal Values in Religion (New York: Macmillan, 1950)
Roothaan, Angela, "32 What Values Guide Our Oughts?," Is Nature Ever Evil? Religion, Science, and Value, ed. Willem B. Drees (London: Routledge, 2003)
Cooper, David E. And Palmer, Joy A. eds., Spirit of the Environment: Religion, Value, and Environmental Concern (London: Routledge, 1998)
Weber, Max, "Sociology of the World Religions: Introduction," Retrieved May 9, 2011, from the Asahi Website: http://www.ne.jp/asahi/moriyuki/abukuma/weber/world/intro/world_intro.html
Charlotte's eb: Field Research, Psycho-Social Research, and a Textual Summary and Analysis
Introduction and Field Research Background
My niece Ariel, age 11, agreed to read Charlotte's eb by E.B. hite with me, and to be my informant on this project (Shapiro, "Personal Interview"). Ariel is extremely bright (IQ over 140), and has already finished the 7th grade, having skipped second grade in elementary school (I bring this up not so much to brag about her, but because she may in fact be more advanced in her thinking and vocabulary skills than some of the other 9-11-year-old informants: arguably somewhere between Piaget's third (ages 7-11) and fourth (ages 11-15) concrete operational and formal operational stages of development). Ariel told me this was actually her second exposure to Charlotte's eb, though her first time reading the book on her own. Her third grade teacher had read it to her class, but Ariel…
Brynildssen, Shawna. "Character Education through Children's Literature."
ERIC Clearinghouse on Reading English and Communication. Bloomington,
IN: Family Learning Association Bloomington IN. March 2003. ED469929.
Hartman, Holly. "Charlotte's Web: Spotlight on a Children's Classic." Fact
McGurn suggests that even the highly complex modern economic markets and financial institutions reflect the values and morals of the community; collectively, they merely manifest the free will exercised by the individuals who control their operations and strategies. In that respect, McGurn reminds us that economic systems and institutions are inanimate and not capable of exercising either moral judgment or immoral exploitations. Rather, morality is a duty of individuals and of the human community to establish through appropriate social values. On the whole, McGurn argues that even the most disastrous economic catastrophes play a role in allowing corrective mechanisms to evolve internally; no interference from government is necessary.
Analysis and Criticism of the Religious Approach to Economic Market Regulation
In principle, the a priori assumption that religion is a beneficial perspective for human conduct and that of institutions is patently flawed. Secular moral theorists might argue (rightfully) that memorizing moral…
So, symbolically, Bobby is forced to the ground and treated like an animal, and when he rises he, and the group, have accepted this new animalistic nature.
All, of course, except Drew. Drew is the last moral holdout among the group, arguing that the men should not bury the slain attacker and should do the right thing and go to the police. He is a voice of peace and reason, and when he eventually falls from the boat into the water (presumably shot), it signifies the final moral collapse of the group. Not long after, Ed kills the second mountain man who the group believes is stalking them. In the cases of both the mountain man and Drew, the men weigh down the bodies so they will never resurface - in the case of Drew, the action is symbolic in that it shows the men's former sense of morality will…
Present, explain, and assess the thesis that only acts done from duty have moral worth
In his Groundwork for the Metaphysics of Morals, Immanuel Kant addresses the issue of how people can determine the moral value of actions. His central claim is that only acts that are done out of duty can be considered to have any moral value. Implicit in this topic is the need to reconcile the intent of one's actions with the result of their actions. Kant explores exactly where morality can be located when identifying the value of one's actions. At stake in Kant's argument is whether there is in fact an a priori framework for how people should behave, and where virtue is found.
At the beginning of the Groundwork, Kant explains the notion of logic and defines the terms that he deploys to explain his governing thesis. These terms include: good will,…
Kant, Immanuel. (2010). Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals. London: Cambridge University Press.
Values and Morals in the Accounting Industry
The important questions to be addressed are taken from the "…business ethics/corporate social responsibility literature, oriented towards business enterprises but also of relevance to professional bodies: whether being ethical 'pays' in financial terms; and whether formal codes are useful in promoting ethical behavior…" (Cowton, 2009, p. 177).
Accountants are charged with carrying out ethical and moral decisions in their everyday work, but judging from some of the scandals in recent years (Enron, orldCom, the Anderson Accountancy, etc.) not all accountants are up to speed with those ethical and moral decisions. This paper reviews the judgments that accountants should be making based on morality and ethical values, whether the accountant is working for a multinational corporation or for a small business with only half a dozen employees.
Accounting Students and Moral Decision-Making
Deborah Leitsch writes in the Journal of Business Ethics that auditors are…
Brown-Liburd, Helen L., and Porco, Barbara M. (2011). It's What's Outside that Counts:
Do Extracurricular Experiences Affect the Cognitive Moral Development of Undergraduate Accounting Students? Issues in Accounting Education, 26(2), 439-454.
Cooper, Barry J., Leung, Philomena, Dellaportas, Steven, Jackling, Beverley, and Wong,
Grace. (2008). Ethics Education for Accounting Students -- a Toolkit Approach.
Values and Virtues
All of us have been sent to this world for a purpose; the invariable purpose of life on earth is doing good to each other. What defines the behavior of a person is his character and what shape the character of a person are his values and virtues. The perception of many people is that virtues and values are more or less the same things; however, in this paper we shall see how the two differ and see what the character of a person is in fact. Moreover, we shall also consider an ethical dilemma in clinical practice and see how the values and virtues are used to solve that dilemma.
There are basically six pillars that form the character of the person. These six pillars are the set of ethical values that a person must in order for him to become a man of good…
Ethics, Virtues, and Values: Knowing What Matters Most. U.S. Department of State.
Gray, Tim. (2000). "Real Men Choose Virtues." Lay Witness Magazine.
Teen Aid Inc. "Values vs. Virtues."
The Ethics Scoreboard. (2007). "Values, Virtues and Duties: The Foundation of Ethics."
Ayn Rand's The Ethics of Emergencies speaks about the value of selfishness or self-interest. Although "selfishness" might seem negative at first, Rand's explanation makes quite a bit of sense. Rand speaks about selfishness as a rational process in which a person sets his/her hierarchy of values and lives according to those values in order to achieve the moral purpose of life: one's own happiness.
Summary of The Ethics of Emergencies
According to Ayn Rand's The Ethics of Emergencies, the moral purpose of life is to achieve one's own happiness. Describing her belief in Objectivism in 1962, Rand stated, "Man -- every man -- is an end in himself, not the means to the ends of others. He must exist for his own sake, neither sacrificing himself to others nor sacrificing others to himself. The pursuit of his own rational self-interest and of his own happiness is the highest…
Dictionary.com LLC. (2012). Altruism. Retrieved on June 10, 2012 from thesaurus.com Web site: http://thesaurus.com/browse/altruism?s=t
Peikoff, L. (2012). Malevolent universe premise. Retrieved on June 10, 2012 from aynrandlexicon.com Web site: http://aynrandlexicon.com/lexicon/malevolent_universe_premise.html
Rand, A. (1964). The Ethics of Emergencies. In A. Rand, & N. Branden, The Virtue of Selfishness (pp. 49-56). New York, NY: New American Library, a division of Penguin Group (USA), Inc.
Rand, A. (2012). Introducing Objectivism. Retrieved on June 10, 2012 from aynrandlexicon.com Web site: http://aynrandlexicon.com/ayn-rand-ideas/introducing-objectivism.html
Values and Ethics
in the Workplace
Values and Ethics in the Workplace
Values and ethics in the workplace can be extremely different among various jobs, careers, companies and organizations, ages, races, and ethnic groups, cultures and parts of the world, office environments, and the individual employees themselves. For example, a secretary in the administrative office of a Catholic church, a poor and illiterate factory worker in India, and a stockbroker who works as a managing partner in a prestigious firm would all hold different and maybe even opposing morals. The secretary would probably be opposed to working on a Sunday so that she had the time to attend church, while the stockbroker would feel compelled to work even on Sunday so that he did not feel lazy and unmotivated, and the factory worker would not have the option of making such a decision as he would have to work every…
Darwall, Stephen. (2002) Consequentialism. Oxford: Blackwell.
Loptson, Peter. (2006) Theories of Human Nature. Peterborough, ON: Broadview.
Orend, Brian. (2000) War and International Justice: A Kantian Perspective. West Waterloo, Ontario: Wilfrid Laurier University Press.
Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. (October 15, 2004) Social Contract Theory. Retrieved on April 23, 2011 from http://www. iep.utm.edu/soc-cont/#SH3b.
Our society values tolerance, diversity, and the American Dream. Illegal immigration is not immoral, nor even unethical except for the fact that working illegally breaks the law. Following the law is usually considered a moral and ethical act. Firms that hire illegal immigrants may do so in spite of how the general culture feels about the behavior. A firm that values profit, for example, might hire illegal immigrants in order to pay them less than minimum wage and save labor costs. or, a firm that values human rights might help their illegal immigrant employees apply for residency. In either case, the firm's values do not necessarily correspond with those of the dominant culture. Basically, individuals and firms often act with self-interest in mind rather than obey the moral and ethical codes of the society.
ieselman, D. (2005). What are values? University of Cincinnati. etrieved July 4, 2007 at http://www.magazine.uc.edu/0805/whatarevalues.htm…
Rieselman, D. (2005). What are values? University of Cincinnati. Retrieved July 4, 2007 at http://www.magazine.uc.edu/0805/whatarevalues.htm
Values, Morals, and Ethics." Changing Minds. Retrieved July 4, 2007 at http://changingminds.org/explanations/values/values_morals_ethics.htm
Similarly, when a member of society becomes too feeble to contribute, leaving them in the snow is deemed the proper solution. Both practices are deemed proper, as they increase the survival chances of the tribe as a whole. Thus, while another society may cringe at the idea of infanticide and leaving the elderly to die, Eskimo societies see the survival of the tribe as the paramount concern.
There are many examples throughout history illustrating the difficulty of judging other cultures by one's own ethical yardstick. Thus, instead of being preoccupied with questions of whose society is superior, moral relativists believe that all actions should be judged within their cultural context. An action such as infanticide, no matter how abhorrent it may seem, may then be an ethical action in a society that values collective survival over the rights of one individual.
Therefore, our company's mission is to ensure that our customers receive the highest quality products, with similar services, while ensuring that our employees are satisfied and motivated on personal and financial levels. Our company is also determined to significantly engage in the life of the community of which we are part of.
Corporate Social esponsibility
In today's competitive market environment it does not suffice to provide high quality products and services. A company that intends to develop a sustainable position on the market must ensure that CS actions are being taken.
As a consequence, our company intends to make a difference in the eating style of people. Therefore, the company organizes seminars on this subject. People are invited to attend to these seminars held by authorities in the field that explain people the importance of a healthy eating style and the benefits of organic foods.
Also, the company is interested…
1. Smith, J. (2003). The Shareholders vs. Stakeholders Debate. MIT Sloan Management Review. Business Ethics and Public Policy, Leadership and Organizational Studies. Retrieved April 26, 2010 from http://sloanreview.mit.edu/the-magazine/articles/2003/summer/44411/the-shareholders-vs.-stakeholders-debate/ .
2. Phillips, R. (2004). Some key questions about stakeholder theory. IVEY Business Journal. Retrieved April 26, 2010 from http://www.iveybusinessjournal.com/view_article.asp?intArticle_ID=471 .
3. Deal and Kennedy's Cultural Model (2010). MindTools. Retrieved April 26, 2010 from http://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/newSTR_86.htm .
4. Cooke, R.A. & Szumal, J.L. (2000). Using the Organizational Culture Inventory to Understand the Operating Cultures of organizations. Handbook of Organizational Culture and Climate. Retrieved April 26, 2010 from http://books.google.ro/books?id=AUt1i9ZEa48C&pg=PA147&lpg=PA147&dq=robert+a+cooke+organizational+culture&source=bl&ots=ZRyk-MTlUj&sig=R9niqrhTVi1q-VNdWnvL-fB9lAg&hl=ro&ei=FcXVS93VJ8-ZOIy8vJ4O&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=4&ved=0CDAQ6AEwAw#v=onepage&q=robert%20a%20cooke%20organizational%20culture&f=false .
The "Safety First" scenario is even less cut-and-dry for me. If a company wants to increase its profit margin and include a high-end line of clothing, then it has the right to do so. I do not believe that a company can prevent or control crime through its pricing strategies. Shoplifting is not necessarily related to the presence of luxury goods. I feel that crime is a reflection of overarching social, economic, and political problems. As long as the company is acting ethically in other respects, then I don't see the problem with offering the high-end jacket. Offering a low-cost alternative to the high-end jacket in my opinion is not the best solution in this case either, because it undervalues the more expensive article of clothing and could prevent people from buying it. Instead, a win-win situation might be to firmly decide that the Daze line would become high-end and…
Universities provide an amazing opportunity for both growth and development in regards to academic development. Universities in particular provide a means of providing a stable and more robust income for individuals seeking a particular specialization. The University of Phoenix, in particular, has a unique method of teaching and providing a quality educational experience. Small class sizes, online specialization, and knowledgeable professors all make the university experience all the more manageable. However, I personally have experienced conflict of values that undermine the overall university experience. This conflict pertains mainly to the notion of academic honesty. I have encountered instances where many of the university values would be compromised by actions. Cheating is particularly important in a university setting. As such, having strong values and convictions regarding cheating is important within the overall university setting (Stuart, 2006).
The experience, looking back, was not unique to me. In fact, many students…
1) Stuart P. Green. (2006). Lying, Cheating, and Stealing: A Moral Theory of White Collar Crime. Oxford University Press.
Though the concepts of professional values and ethics are relatively simple and straightforward, the effects that the choices made with different values and ethics have are quite far reaching and complex. No matter what specific values or ethical systems are being applied to a given situation, there are certain limitations to the actions and behaviors that can be taken and the choices that can be made. For instance, the case of price fixing between two major soda manufacturers and distributors could have been handled in two ways, each with its own set of short- and long-term effects on te careers of the individuals involved. The decision to engage in price fixing led to the imprisonment of at least one of the men; though the short-term effects lived up to the promise of a more lucrative career, security for the executive's family, and other benefits, in the long-term his career was…
This term was coined by Abraham Zeleznik and refers to the misplaced focus on the leadership process instead of the people, ideas and emotions. Further, Sergiovanni argues that it is because of this managerial mystique that schools have been unable to capture, and build learning communities from, true leadership. Instead, schools have been obsessed with "doing things right at the expense of doing the right things." For example, school improvement plans became substitutes for improving outcomes. Teacher appraisal systems become substitutes for good teaching. in-service takes the place of changes in practice, congeniality substitutes for collegiality, cooperation moves in over commitment and compliance takes over for actual results. The result is that schools become trained in incapacity, or doing only ones job in isolation as opposed to working as a team and the loss of goals, which therefore leads to a standard of mediocrity.
According to Sergiovanni, the solution…
Sergiovanni, Thomas J. Moral Leadership: Getting to the Heart of School Improvement. New York: Wiley, John & Sons, Incorporated, 1996.
CEO's values influence on mission, vision, and members of an organization
Effective leadership relies on the ethics and morals of the leader. The values expressed by the leader are transposed by his or her actions and are reflected in the organization's results. The mission of the organization is constructed by the leader based on his or her values. Leaders can only run organizations whose mission is to satisfy the leader's values. In other words, the organization's values must be aligned with leaders' values. Otherwise, leaders will not have a sense of fulfillment, and they are likely to consider that the organization does not serve its best and most ethical purposes.
The vision of the organization is also strongly influenced by the leader's values. This is because the vision reflects how the organization's mission will be fulfilled. It is important that the leader constructs an organizational vision that relies…
1. Women Still Underrepresented on Corporate Boards. Stanford Graduate School of Business. Retrieved December 10, 2013 from http://www.gsb.stanford.edu/news/headlines/rhode_women_2011.html .
At the same time, optimized care is mandated by the medical code of ethics. If older people are therefore sufficiently able to function independently, access to care should be available to them, because this is their preference, and professionals have an obligation to honor these preferences.
In the medical profession, there are no simple solutions to the discrepancy between the fiscal limitations of health care and the ethical obligations of professionals to their clients. The best ideal is to use specific codes of ethics in order to find an acceptable solution that satisfies both the drive to remain financially viable and the obligation to provide all clients with the optimal care.
As mentioned, above, the dilemma involves Mrs. DN, an elderly woman who suffered from a debilitating stroke that left her in a wheel chair. Because she was generally at home, she had the right to home care according…
Bevir, M. (2002). SidneyWebb: Utilitarianism, Positivism, and Social Democracy. Journal of Modern History, No. 74. Retrieved from http://escholarship.org/uc/item/7vm01529.pdf
Bevir, M. And O'Brien, D. (2003, Jan 1). From Idealism to Communitarianism: The Inheritance and Legacy of John Macmurray. History of Political Thought, No. 24. Retrieved from http://escholarship.org/uc/item/95m6q13r.pdf
Carroll, M.J. (2007, Dec). Physical Therapists' Perception of Risk of Violating Laws and Rules Governing the Practice of Physical Therapy and/or Their Personal Moral and Ethical Values when Failing to Provide Treatment for an Uninsured or Underinsured Patient. Graduate College of Bowling Green. Retrieved from http://etd.ohiolink.edu/send-pdf.cgi/Carroll%20Mark%20J.pdf-acc_num=bgsu1193091796
De Sousa e Brito, J. (2008, Aug 8). From Utilitarianism To Kantism: Bentham's Proof of Utilitarianism, Mill and Kant. ISUS X, Tenth Conference of the International Society for Utilitarian Studies. Retrieved from http://escholarship.org/uc/item/4zn812s7.pdf
Moral Skepticism and Knowledge
Moral Skepticism and Moral Knowledge
Morality is a much debated philosophical idea, wherein the arguments range from ethical egoism being the perfect sample of moral ethics to altruism being the perfect -- and otherwise opposite -- viewpoint. Both ideas have strong followings, and ethical egoism along is broadened to even more branches within philosophical studies. There is still much reconciliation to be done between the various problems of philosophical thought and ethical egoism or lack thereof.
Ethical egoism is a particular form of egoism where one who is moral "ought" to do what is in one's self-interest. The morality behind egoism generally points toward the idea of self-interest; that a moral being's moral path is by focusing on one's self. This type of egoism should not be mistaken for psychological egoism, however. Psychological egoism makes a claim that beings act only in their self-interest.…
Blackburn, Simon. The Oxford Dictionary of Philosophy. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1994. Print.
Hume, David. A Treatise of Human Nature,. London: J.M. Dent & Sons, 1911. Print.
Jefferson, Thomas. "Letter from Jefferson to Thomas Law." The Founding Faith Archive. 13 June 1814. Web. 20 Apr. 2011. .
Rand, Ayn, and Leonard Peikoff. Atlas Shrugged. New York, NY: Signet, 2007. Print.
Seeing how the Prime Directive should no longer apply, Picard was free to do whatever was necessary in order to save his crewman. However, the advanced technology employed by the aliens forced Picard to argue for the life of Wesley Crusher. His argument centers around the idea that this conflict is over whether or not moral universalism, or moral relativism would apply in the case of Wesley Crusher. Picard argues that the Federation does not interfere with other cultures because they believe that all cultures have equally value and the capacity for development. However, they are dealing with an alien race that is violating that principle. The aliens have decided that their moral universalism is correct for the Edo, and by extension, anyone who visits their planet. But Picard argues, correctly, that each culture must respect the rights of other cultures to develop in their own way. And the Prime…
Value of Moral Ethics in the Life of Ex-President Clinton
In today's world, working in organizations means working in an environment with people from multicultural backgrounds. If one were asked what type of organization they would like to work in, the chances are the reply will be "ethical organizations." So what exactly is an ethical organization and how positively does the 'code of ethics' apply in a professional working environment? Are they really functioning to benefit the workplace such as the government, which was constantly plagued by lawsuits of sexual harassment, especially during the terms of the Clinton administration or are they just operational in the documents where they rest for the staff to read on new employment?
In today's political world, leaders are looked up to for creating a healthy social environment that is a pre-requisite for a healthy governing environment. More over, a growing population of the working…
Terry L. Cooper, The Responsible Administrator, 4th edition.
NANCY BENAC, Former intern's account gains credibility with Clinton's admission, The Associated Press, Tuesday 18 August, 1998, Website: http://www.slam.ca/CNEWSClinton/aug18_lewinsky.html
Linda K.Trevino, Katherine A.Nelson, Managing Business Ethics, 2nd edition, pp.12
Stuart Taylor Jr., The Case -- For and Against, The National Journal, January 31, 1998
The pro-life arguments state that a fetus is in fact a real-life person in the making. Is true there's no supporting scientific evidence for the beginning of personhood, but what if an unborn child has a soul and can actually feel pain? Isn't then artificial abortion a crime? Just because we are not sure, we should take the most radical solution that we can and are allowed to by law?
This is the first solid argument to sustain the moral impermissibility of induced abortion. Because having an abortion equals the death of a life growing inside, as a natural result of unprotected sexual intercourse. It is therefore considered that the new life, the fetus, did not have a choice. And having an artificial abortion furthermore deprives him/her of the right to chose (whether to live or not). So, if it's about the right to chose and the freedom to decide…
Abortion." Wikipedia. 2007. Wikimedia Foundation Inc. 21 April 2007. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abortion
Abortion debate." Wikipedia. 2007. Wikimedia Foundation Inc. 22 April 2007.
Social control can be maintained through proper guidelines and laws. If there will come a time that the multicultural society of Australia may be in need of change, there is always a room for social construction and re-construction as this is always part of the country's initiatives to develop and grow as a country for the people and by the people.
It appears that the Australian government is currently having an exaggerated moral panic over its asylum seekers. Based on a number of reports, this moral panic is just used as part of the propaganda of the new government to get the attention of the people. In fact, neither deviance nor lowering social control is not a problem and should not be considered as one.
Australia has been known for its humanitarian programs for asylum seekers from the very beginning. It was once the refuge of migrants wanting to…
Australian National Audit Office. (2001). Management Framework for Preventing Unlawful Entry into Australian Territory. Report No. 57.
Canberra: Department of Immigration and Multicultural Affairs. (2001). Refugee and humanitarian issues: Australia's response.
Jewkes, Y and Letherby G. (2002). Criminology: A Reader. SAGE Publications Ltd.McMaster, Don (2002). "Asylum Seekers: Australia's Response to Refugees." Melbourne; Melbourne University Press, pp 60
Picketing, Sharon. (2001). "Common Sense and Original Deviancy: News Discourses and Asylum Seekers in Australia," Journal of Refugee Studies, 14(2): 169-86.
Values and Ethics
A person's worldview is shaped in many ways starting from birth. The values held by his family, friends and community are impressed upon him during the first years of his life, and form the basis by which he interacts with the world and through which he understands his experiences. hile many people remain truest to the ethics developed in childhood, and only develop complexity in their ethical standards as they age, others choose to stay true to the values that call to them most clearly and build up their values around a new pattern of beliefs. My values were rooted in my family of birth and developed through the influence of my friends and community, but they crystalized during the nearly two decades I spent serving in the U.S. Marine Corps. Among my core values are the Marine Corp ethical goals of honor, courage and commitment, and…
Merriam-Webster. 2011. "Definition: Honorable." Retrieved June 4, 2011 from http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/honorable
MOAL DEVELOPMENT & GENDE CAE |
Moral Development and Gender Care Theories
Moral development in humans occurs naturally together with physical, social and mental development. Individually as well as in social settings, mankind evolves a developed moral character and conscience in spite of numerous social and psychological barriers, which temporarily retard or disturb the process. In axiology, concepts of moral development give rise to feelings of being an active and developing entity. Through potential self-realization or perfection, a grand innate legacy is inherited, to be fulfilled in one's individual character and via the community, revealing one's unseen but tremendous intrinsic value (Fieser & Dowden, 2016).
Kohlberg's Six Stages of Moral Development
Crain (2015) holds that the child development scholar and moral philosopher, Lawrence Kohlberg, noted that kids progress across distinct moral development stages similar to the way they progress across cognitive development stages (defined by Piaget). Kohlberg observed…
Crain, W. C. (2015). KOHLBERG'S STAGES OF MORAL DEVELOPMENT. Theories of Development, 118-136. Retrieved from http://www.cs.umb.edu/
Fieser, J., & Dowden, B. (2016). Care Ethics. Retrieved October 18, 2016, from Internet Encylopedia of Philosophy: http://www.iep.utm.edu/care-eth/
Fieser, J., & Dowden, B. (2016). Moral Development. Retrieved October 19, 2016, from Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy: http://www.iep.utm.edu/moraldev/
Hetherington, M. E., & Parke, R. D. (2003). Gender Roles and Gender Differences. In M. E. Parke, Child Psychology: A Contemporary Viewpoint. New York: Mcgraw-Hill Global Education.
I have a clear written mandate that guides this decision. The other alternatives do not have the same clear, written mandate as the one that I made. hile a utilitarian approach may have yielded a different decision, in my position as a safeguard of public safety I am not obligated to undertake a utilitarian position unless I can do so without compromising my primary mandate. This is something I was able to do with generic drugs that I cannot do with biosimilars, even though it would be expedient for me to ignore the differences between the two products.
There are certainly those who would object with this decision. A utilitarian in particular would have a strong argument that total health outcomes depend not only on drug safety but on availability as well. I would argue, however, that this objection is invalid for a couple of reasons. The most important of…
Van Arnum, P. (2010). Healthcare reform draws mixed reviews from pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries. PharmTech.com. Retrieved December 8, 2010 from http://pharmtech.findpharma.com/pharmtech/Regulation/Healthcare-Reform-Draws-Mixed-Reviews-from-Pharmac/ArticleStandard/Article/detail/662434?contextCategoryId=48563
Like Midgley, Bailey would expect the company to conduct its opeations and make the same decisions that would be equied in its native society. Moe impotantly, Bailey would likely also ague that the company has a moal duty to espond to the situation even if it wee the case that its native society ecognized no such moal obligation.
Both Bailey and Midgley would pobably equie the company to conside the natue of the hams caused by its poduct and to take easonable measues to pevent those hams completely iespective of any obligation o expectation in that egad by any society. Thei view would be that moality is a matte of objective pinciple and not subjective values and that allowing the types of hams descibed as a esult of pofit-making entepises is always immoal and always imposes a moal obligation, by objective pinciple, on the manufactue to take appopiate measues to…
references to standards of health and well-being (p. 261) to apply the UN principles to this case.
Application of Berlin's Moral Perspective
Berlin offers a perspective that is decidedly unhelpful to the prospect of recognizing objective moral principles. He suggests that wherever two individuals espouse diametrically opposite positions on an issue, it does not necessarily follow that the truth of one view means that the other is untrue (p. 266). Berlin seems to offer a complex justification for moral relativism, largely by focusing on the types of cases where (admittedly) a perfect solution is most difficult. However, he seems not to recognize that these can be regarded as exceptions to general principles that provide the morally preferable (if not necessarily perfect) solution. Therefore, Berlin might argue that nobody likes the idea of street children being harmed by their misuse of the company's product but that virtually any solution to that dilemma would impose harmful consequences on the company, such as by limiting its rights to conduct business manufacturing a legal product.
I would applaud the UN Declaration for its intention, disregard Benedict's, Bailey's, and Berlin's positions, and apply the arguments of Midgley. Certainly, the "perfect" solution may often be impossible, as it might very well be in this case, as pointed out by Berlin. However, it is possible (as demonstrated by the UN Declaration) to recognize and uphold objective moral principles that transcend the facts of any specific case considered in isolation. I would apply the same conceptual approach of the UN Declaration with respect to fundamental rights and freedoms and apply it to two other moral issues: First, that entities may not pursue or perpetuate activities in foreign societies that are expressly prohibited (or that trigger moral obligations reflected in law) in their nations. Second, that entities causing unnecessary harm to any human beings be held morally accountable for those harms and responsible for mitigating them, compensating victims, or, where appropriate, ceasing those activities altogether in light of the magnitude of the harms with which they are associated.
This moral sense is often bigger and more powerful than us. Some people could call it psychological effect, others might term it differently but the fact remains that if we are doing something wrong, this moral sense would keep nagging us to the point that we would no longer be able to enjoy what we are doing and might eventually starting harming ourselves.
In order to protect ourselves from such negative consequences, its best to make a decision that is free of guilt. In this way, we can enjoy the fruits of our success and live a more happy life in general. This is really what is in our best interest though we might fail to see it at first.
It also pays to study the offer from an objective viewpoint. If someone else were offered this job: what would you suggest? Would you allow the person to take the…
Richard Garrett, the GOLDEN RULE. Presented to the Starr King School for the Ministry, University of California at Berkeley April 12, 2002
Mill, John Stuart. Excerpts from "Utilitarianism" in Philosophical Problems, an annotated anthology by Laurence BonJour and Ann Baker, editors, Pearson education (2005)
Mill, p. 590
Moral Criticism of the Market
I disagree with the author's major premise and conclusion. He contradicts himself by suggesting that the basis of his support for a free market is that it depends on offering something of value to others and that the problem with the dynamics of commercial advertising lies primarily with the individual. The reality of the advertising industry is hardly that it merely increases public "awareness" of available products. In fact, the main effort of commercial advertising is precisely to create the perception of need, even (or specifically) where it is illusory. To use the author's example, by the time someone covets a Mercedes that he sees driving past him on the street, he has already been inundated by years of explicit and implicit messages that the Mercedes symbolizes respect and achievement.
The fashion industry provides an even better example because it no longer exists to fill…
S. has a greater crime problem than other nations would, if it were sufficiently bad, also justify torture by the author's criteria. o my mind, the relevant issue is that many countries impose much more barbaric sanctions, such as cutting off limbs, stoning, and other brutal forms of cruel capital punishment. I would regard humane capital punishment as morally preferable, particularly in conjunction with the U.S. constitutional protections.
I would strongly disagree with the author's position that the death penalty is no longer (especially in 1985) routinely imposed in error, as well as with the author's position that the death penalty is no longer imposed in a discriminatory manner. Specifically, since this essay was written, the field of DNA science has demonstrated time and again that there is a definite risk of wrongful imposition and that is, perhaps, the strongest of all possible objections, especially given the profound importance of…
The author rejects the opposition to the death penalty on the basis of the fact that the U.S. is the only democracy to impose it through a rationale with which I disagree although I accept the conclusion. In that regard, the point that the U.S. has a greater crime problem than other nations would, if it were sufficiently bad, also justify torture by the author's criteria. To my mind, the relevant issue is that many countries impose much more barbaric sanctions, such as cutting off limbs, stoning, and other brutal forms of cruel capital punishment. I would regard humane capital punishment as morally preferable, particularly in conjunction with the U.S. constitutional protections.
I would strongly disagree with the author's position that the death penalty is no longer (especially in 1985) routinely imposed in error, as well as with the author's position that the death penalty is no longer imposed in a discriminatory manner. Specifically, since this essay was written, the field of DNA science has demonstrated time and again that there is a definite risk of wrongful imposition and that is, perhaps, the strongest of all possible objections, especially given the profound importance of the presumption of innocence in this country. Similarly, while overt racial and social discrimination are no longer tolerated within the criminal justice system, the author ignores the fact that poor and minority individuals are more likely to find themselves in circumstances where they may become involved in crime and that once in the system, they are less likely to be represented by high-quality defense counsel. In that sense, the criminal justice system is still discriminatory in its effects if not in its design or intent.
I would agree with the author that capital punishment does not necessarily cheapen human life provided it is imposed and implemented ethically in relation to the other issues, and that that biblical prohibitions are irrelevant by virtue of the concept of separation of church and state as well as by virtue of the author's correct distinction between "murder" and "killing" in the Bible. Finally, I would agree with the author that the death penalty is not "state-sanctioned" murder except perhaps where it is imposed in a discriminatory manner or on innocent individuals.
Such differences may lead us to question whether there are any universal moral principles or whether morality is merely a matter of "cultural taste" (Velasquez, Andre, Shanks and Meyer: 1).
If there is no transcendent ethical or moral standard, then cultural relativists argue that culture becomes the ethical norm for determining whether an action is right or wrong. This ethical system is known as cultural relativism. Cultural relativism is the view that all ethical truth is relative to a specific culture. hatever a cultural group approves is considered right within that culture. Conversely, whatever a cultural group condemns is wrong (Relativism: 2).
The key to the doctrine of "cultural relativism" is that right and wrong can only be judged relative to a specified society. There is no ultimate standard of right and wrong by which to judge culture. Proponents of cultural relativism believe this cultural diversity proves that culture alone…
Anderson, Kerby. "Cultural Relativism." (2004):1-5.
Accessed 1 April 2012.
"Argument by Morality: Axiological Argument." 2002. Accessed 7 April 2012.
The ideas of Thomas Hobbes, the influential English philosopher who lived in the late 1500s to middle 1600s, are still considered important today. Hobbes is best remembered for his ideas on political philosophy. While Hobbes throughout his life championed the idea of absolutism for the sovereign he also is responsible for many of the fundamentals of Western political thought such as equality of men, individual rights, and the idea that all justifiable political power must be representative of the people (Edwards, 2002).
Hobbes also believed that human nature was such that people acted out of selfish-interests and if left to their own devices would do anything to get what they wanted or to acquire more power at the expense of others. Governments are then formed to shield people from their own selfishness; however he understood that even a King left unchecked would also act in a selfish manner…
Action in America. (2012). Drug war cost clock updated 2011. Retrieved on February 10, 2010
from http://actionamerica.org/drugs/wodclock.shtml .
Appel, D. (2004). Why can immorality be legislated more easily than morality in America
Free Leadership Thoughts. Retrieved February 5, 2012, from http://authenticleadershipinc.com/free.html
Drug Policies the Legacy of Outdated Moral Values and Moral Panics
A disinterested alien observer who came down to the planet Earth and saw the difference in how legal drugs such as alcohol and cigarettes were treated under the law when compared to illegal drugs would be hard pressed to explain the differential treatment. After all, alcohol and cigarettes cause or contribute to far more deaths, injuries, health problems, and social problems than illegal drugs. In fact, some illegal drugs, such as cannabis, are relatively free of side-effects when compared to those two legal substances. Furthermore, even some of the highly villianized hard drugs, such as heroin, are considered less addictive than nicotine. Therefore, it is difficult to understand why some substances are illegal and others are not. The reasons are not scientific or social; therefore, one must look at the history of drug policy in the Western world and…
Maguire, M., Morgan, R., & Reiner, R. (Eds.). (2007). The Oxford handbook of criminology.
Oxford: Oxford University Press.
The published codes of ethics for different professions try to make it clear that "professional" in that occupation will not misuse that power, and especially that the use will not be made for personal gain. Of course, in totality, the codes of ethics should provide guidance about the values to be upheld in the profession, specific ethical principles and specific standards. (Professional code of Ethics)
Since there is a wide variation in codes for different professions, it is required that codes from some professions be looked at to decide the ethical standards of a profession. However, studying ethical codes does not mean that the individual will be following the codes and behaving in an ethical manner. This is mentioned clearly in the code for National Association of Social Work as "a code of ethics cannot resolve all ethical issues or disputes or capture the richness and complexity involved in striving…
An Overview of Morality and ethical systems" Retrieved at http://faculty.ncwc.edu/toconnor/415/415lect01.htm. Accessed on 30 July, 2005
Dean, John. W. (26 March, 2004) "A Closer Look at the Case from Which Justice Scalia Has
Refused To Rescue Himself." Retrieved at http://writ.news.findlaw.com/dean/20040326.html . Accessed on 30 July, 2005
Etzioni, Amitai. (4 August, 2004) "When It Comes to Ethics, B-Schools Get an F" Retrieved from http://www.washingtonpost.com/ac2/wp-dyn?pagename=article&contentId=A38323-2002Aug2¬Found=true . Accessed on 30 July, 2005
Family Affluence and Morality
Famine, Affluence, Morality by Peter Singer
Peter Singer's article has been reviewed with the intention of understanding his basic ideas about poverty and hunger alleviation. Simultaneously the many criticisms associated with his arguments have also been highlighted with a view to rebutting them and proving the feasibility of Singer's noble ideas.
"Famine, Affluence, Morality" is a famous dissertation scripted by Peter Singer in 1971. It aims to modify the standard estern culture by urging people to perform acts of charity. It articulates that more affluent individuals are morally and ethically obligated to donate as much as they can to the people who need resources the most. It is as such, an essay that is considered a humanitarian doctrine of sorts which authentically argues over the reasons as to why one ought to give more. It is based on the less than favorable conditions of Bangladesh's ar…
Coope, C.M. (2003, October). Peter Singer In Retrospect. The Philosophical Quarterly, 53. Retrieved February 2013, from http://www.jstor.org/stable/3542922
Singer, P. (1972). Famine, Affluence, Morality. Philosophy and Public Affairs. Retrieved February 2013
Singer, P. (1999). The Solution to World Poverty. The New York Times Magazine. Retrieved February 2013
Deontological theory might criticize Guido's choice if the initial assumptions included the rule prohibiting lying. However, deontological analysis is only as useful as the underlying rules with respect to which it is applied. Therefore, the solution to the deontological issues raised by the issue presented by the movie is simply to reformulate a less restrictive rule that is incapable of being applied to every situation. Instead of proposing the rule that prohibits lying, the better rule might be to prohibit only lying for immoral purposes.
In fact, the blind adherence to rules under deontological principles often produces distinctly immoral results: it is difficult to imagine the moral purpose of informing a dying patient that a loved one was also killed in the same accident; nor is there a moral purpose for informing a child who is to young to understand the concept that he was adopted. In Guido's case, the…
Philosophy and Morality
INSTRUCTIONS The exam consists essays. Please essays document. Please plagiarize. Be paraphrase verbatim language authors putting quotation marks. You document sources, -text citation ( footnotes) a reference page.
John Arthur's "Morality, Religion, and Conscience,"
A concern on the relationship between morality and religion is an ancient argument that continues in philosophy in the present times. The argument is mainly on whether morality emanates from an institution or religious background. Theologians in their numbers provide unwavering support the argument that a unifying absolute force or God provides universal moral guidance. The importance of observing morality and religion as independent on one another but related in some way has been argued by other philosophers (Lyons 479). John Arthur argues that morality and religion are not interlocking in relevant manners. Arthur argues that morality in independent from religion and religion does not influence moral action. It is his contention…
Arthur, J. "Morality, Religion, and Conscience." In Morality and Moral Controversies: Readings in Moral, Social, and Political Philosophy. Ed. edition, by John Arthur. Seventh. Upper Saddle River, N.J.:: Pearson Prentice Hall:, 2005. Print.
Hare, R.M. Moral Thinking: Its Levels, Method and Point. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1981. Print.
Lyons, William. "Conscience - an Essay in Moral Psychology." Philosophy 84.330 (2009): 477-94. Print.
Merle, Jean-Christophe. "A Kantian Critique of Kant's Theory of Punishment." Law and Philosophy 19.3 (2000): 311-38. Print.
elativity of Moral Truth
The viewpoints on moral truth are varied within circles of philosophic thought. Moral ethics are, for the most part, relative, though on what grounds of relative truth is a subject of much discussion. Three positions will be discussed in this paper: the topic of the Divine Command Theory, uth Benedict's beliefs in cultural relativism, and Thomas Nagel's morality of rational consistency. Of the three, Nagel's relative moral philosophy outweighs the philosophies of the former positions; Nagel further examines the prospect of human nature as an individual, as opposed to the Divine Command Theory's reliance on metaphysical beliefs and Benedict's cultural thought with respects to a dubious collective "culture."
Divine Command Theory presupposes that ethical and moral truths have been brought upon by the demand of God. This belief has dated as far back as Socrates and Euthyphro in Ancient Greek philosophy, and is further strengthened by…
Austin, Michael W. (2006). Divine Command Theory. Internet encyclopedia of philosophy. Retrieved March 23, 2011, from http://www.iep.utm.edu/divine-c/
Blackburn, Simon. (2005). The oxford dictionary of philosophy. Oxford: Oxford UP.
Li, X. (2007). 7 A Cultural Critique of Cultural Relativism. American Journal of Economics & Sociology, 66(1), 151-171. doi:10.1111/j.1536-7150.2007.00502.x
Mulhall, S. (2007). Luck, Mystery and Supremacy D.Z. Phillips Reads Nagel and Williams on Morality. Philosophical Investigations, 30(3), 266-284. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9205.2007.00323.x
His impetuous style however drove him in a series of aviation accidents that often caused the concern of his close ones. In this sense, he experienced three close calls from having a plane crash, once during practice run in Texas, the second time because of flying too low in Spain, and the third one in Virginia. Although these experiences point out a sense of carelessness, they are also relevant for a courageous and free spirit.
There are certain moments that are defining for establishing the true nature of one's character. Often these moments come at a time of great need and suffering and underline the best qualities in an individual. The early adulthood of John McCain was deeply marked by the war in Vietnam, as that of many young people in the 1970s America. Due to his abilities as a good aviator, he became involved in the war, motivated by…
Keepandshare. John McCain biography. 2007. Accessed 23 February 2008, at http://www.keepandshare.com/doc/view.php?u=63650
McCain. Ready from day one. 2008. Accessed 23 February 2008, at http://www.johnmccain.com/About/
McCain, John. Why Courage Matters? New York: Random House, 2004.
McCain, John, Character is Destiny. New York: Random House, 2005.
Criminal Justice Policy Practice Determine Morality
Higher Than Utilitarianism
The passing and reformation of the Anti-Drug Abuse Act, also known as the so-called "crack law," is one of the most controversial pieces of legislation to be considered within the criminal justice system and its policy during the past two years. There are several aspects of this legal mandate that present a plethora of interesting situations and questions in regards to the morality of this particular issue, which has been at the forefront of mass media outlets ever since there were significant amendments passed to it in 2010. Interestingly enough, a fair amount of those changes may be attributed to the notion of morality revolving around this legal code, which was largely responsible for the rapid and prolonged imprisonment of minorities -- particularly African-Americans and Latino offenders. One of the most efficacious means of determining whether such a law may be…
Bentham, Jeremy. "Offenses Against One's Self: Paederasty Part 1." Journal of Homosexuality. Volume 3 (4). 389-406. 1978. Print.
Benthan, Jeremy. An Introduction To The Principles Of Morals And Legislation. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Kosman, Maxwell Alie Halpern. "Falling Through The Crack: How Courts Have Struggled to Apply The Crack Amendment To "Nominal Career" And "Plea Bargain" Defendants." Michigan Law Review. Volume 109. 785-812. 2011. Web. http://www.michiganlawreview.org/assets/pdfs/109/5/kosman.pdf
Hartley, Richard., Maddan, Sean., Spahn, Cassia. "Prosecutorial Discretion: An Examination of Substantial Assistance Departures in Federal Crack-Cocaine and Powder-Cocaine Cases." Volume 23. Issue 3 382-407. 2007. Web. http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/07418820701485379
People have different views and values regarding what is right and wrong. This is all based on our personal values. A counselor might believe that it is okay to discuss about a client provided they do not disclose their name and any personal information. Ethically speaking this is wrong since they are divulging information shared in confidence. If it were ethically correct, the counselor would have sought the client's approval for them to share the information.
Barnes, F.P., & Murdin, L. (2001). Values and ethics in the practice of psychotherapy and counselling: Open University Press.
Cottone, .. (2001). A social constructivism model of ethical decision making in counseling. Journal of counseling & Development, 79(1), 39-45.
Daniels, J.A. (2001). Managed care, ethics, and counseling. Journal of counseling & Development, 79(1), 119-122.
Forester-Miller, H., Davis, T.E., Association, a.C., & Alexandria, V. (1995). A practitioner's guide to ethical decision making: American Counseling…
Barnes, F.P., & Murdin, L. (2001). Values and ethics in the practice of psychotherapy and counselling: Open University Press.
Cottone, R.R. (2001). A social constructivism model of ethical decision making in counseling. Journal of counseling & Development, 79(1), 39-45.
Daniels, J.A. (2001). Managed care, ethics, and counseling. Journal of counseling & Development, 79(1), 119-122.
Forester-Miller, H., Davis, T.E., Association, a.C., & Alexandria, V. (1995). A practitioner's guide to ethical decision making: American Counseling Association Alexandria, VA.
Hawthorne clearly stepped away from the Puritan ethic by consistently alluding to the existence of the earthly supernatural. Though this was a fear of the Puritans, clearly it was associated with Satan and possession of the living. In Hawthorne's works the supernatural was associated with less grand sources, such as those seen in Young Goodman Brown. (Hoeltje 39-40) Hawthorne allows his characters to explore concepts that would have been those deemed heretical within the Puritan settings of the works.
In The Birth-Mark, Hawthorne associates the active expulsion of character traits of humanity clearly results in the death of the whole.
The line of divergence in "The Birth Mark" is indicated by its name. e all have our birth-marks, -- traits of character, which may be temporarily suppressed, or relegated to the background, but which cannot be eradicated and are certain to reappear at unguarded moments, or on…
Hawthorne, Nathaniel." The Columbia Encyclopedia. 6th ed. 2004.
Emmett, Paul J. "Narrative Suppression: Sin, Secrecy and Subjectivity in "The Minister's Black Veil." Journal of Evolutionary Psychology 25.1-2 (2004): 101+. Questia. 16 Jan. 2005 http://www.questia.com/ .
Gartner, Matthew. "The Scarlet Letter' and the Book of Esther: Scriptural Letter and Narrative Life." Studies in American Fiction 23.2 (1995): 131+. Questia. 16 Jan. 2005
S. (Levine, 2008).
One of the paradoxes of modern medical science and technology is the blurring of the line between life and death, something that was never an issue before modern medicine (Griniezakis, 2007; Levine, 2008). That was the case even before the most recent revelations in 2009 that many patients previously diagnosed as being in long-term persistent vegetative states actually remained conscious throughout their ordeal and that several patients considered to be brain dead according to accepted criteria eventually recovered consciousness (Halpern, az, Kohn, et al., 2010). The obvious concern is that inaccurate diagnoses of persistent vegetative states and the premature declaration of death could result in the procurement of organs for transplant from patients who could still recover from their medical predicament. That issue, unlike religious objections to scientific research remains a valid bioethics concern.
The other principal ethical issue in relation to organ transplantation is in connection…
Griniezakis AM. "Legal and ethical issues associated with brain death." Issues in Law & Medicine (September 22, 2007).
Harrison TR, Morgan, SE, and Di Corcia MJ. "Effects of information, education, and communication training about organ donation for gatekeepers: clerks at the Department of Motor Vehicles and organ donor registries" Progress in Transplantation (December 1, 2008).
Halpern SD, Raz a, Kohn R, Rey M. Asch DA, and Reese P. "Regulated Payments for Living Kidney Donation: An Empirical Assessment of the Ethical Concerns"
Annals of Internal Medicine (March 16, 2010).
Role of Memory in Shaping Morality
Oscar Wilde once wrote that, "The man with a clear conscience probably has a poor memory." The role of memory and remembering in shaping moral decisions is a concept that is central to sections of Hannah Arendt's Responsibility and Judgment and Friedrich Nietzsche's On the Genealogy of Morals as both texts wrestle with how one knows that an action is morally wrong. It is a question that goes back to the earliest days of philosophical inquiry under Socrates: Does the understanding of morality come inherently from something within man or is it merely inculcated by society and thereby remembered. Drawing from her own experiences as a German Jewish refugee and after World War II as a reported at the Nuremberg Trials, Arendt argues that morality must exist beyond the scale of the individual as there is too much variability within humanity's perspective on moral…
In this sense, his parent's influence was obvious. Since his early childhood he would listen to stories from the war period without any practical consideration of the actual facts those stories conveyed. However, his parents would later choose for him by guiding him towards the military education. In this sense, "in the early years of his life, Johnny's parents made one decision about which they would be unwavering: When Johnny grew up, he would follow the family model and attend the Naval Academy and would then enter the navy (...) the first demonstrative move Jack and Roberta made toward realizing their goal came in September 1946; they enrolled Johnny, then 10 years old, in St. Stephen's School in Alexandria, Virginia" as part of a higher type of academic preparation that would make him eligible for the Navy Academy later on.
In the current society, the one in which the idea…
Alexander, Paul. Man of the People: The Life of John McCain. Wiley: Hoboken, 2003.
Feinberg, Barbara Jane John McCain: Serving his country. New York: Lerner Publishing Group, 2000.
Kaczor, Bill. McCain Divorce Settlement Outlined. Associated Press, 2000, accessed 29 February 2008, available at http://www.usvetdsp.com/mcaindiv.htm
Kissinger, Henry, Diplomacy. London: Simon & Schuster, 1995.
Religion and Abortion
hen a hospital's moral and ethical decision making process comes into conflict with the source that provides funds for the hospital -- or goes against the grain of the values of the funding source -- the results can expected to be controversial at best and harmful to humans at the worst. Indeed, to be specific, when the Roman Catholic Church provides funds for a hospital, the Church expects that its tenets, canons, codes of belief and moral values will be reflected in the policies of that hospital. Is this fair to the doctors and nurses in the hospital who have their own oaths to guide their professional actions? And is it fair to the patients who come to the hospital with urgent healthcare needs that to them, supersede any spiritual values or creeds that hospital funding sources might expect to be followed? The answer to both of…
American Civil Liberties Union. "Tamesha Means v. United States Conference of Catholic
Bishops." Retrieved December 13, 2013, from http://www.aclu.org . 2013.
Eckholm, Erik. "Bishops Sued Over Anti-Abortion Policies at Catholic Hospitals." The New
York Times. Retrieved December 13, 2013, from http://www.nytimes.com .
Moreover, caring for her mother, the other option, would surely: a) create a feeling of being "unfulfilled" which brings with it depression and resentfulness; b) leave her with nothing to look forward to but the dark day when her mother actually passes away; and c) realize after a short time that she is not "a Mother Teresa" and that her live would be diminished (Stuart, 25).
hat does Stuart believe is the right choice for Alice? Stuart asserts that the virtue that carries the most weight in this instance is having Alice care for her mother. Giving up her career for her mother would outweigh the "…virtues of perseverance, love of truth…and self-knowledge" should she decide to go forward with her dissertation (26).
hat Stuart also mentions -- and this is a prime reason for this writer to believe Alice should find a competent person to be a caregiver for…
Hill, T.E.. "Assessing Moral Rules: Utilitarian and Kantian Perspectives." Philosophical Issues,
15(1), (2005): 158-178
Mautner, Thomas. "Act-Utilitarianism." The Penguin Dictionary of Philosophy. Retrieved June 12, 2013, from http://utilitarianism.org . 2008.
Rivera, Lisa. "Sacrifices, Aspirations and Morality: Williams Reconsidered." Ethical Theory and Moral Practice. 10.1 (2007): 69-87.
morality still exist if God did not exist?
Is something pious because it is loved by the gods -- or do the gods love all that is pious? This is the central question asked in Plato's dialogue the Euthyphro (Ross 2012). The dialogue revolves around a young man who has elected to bring charges against his father for killing a slave. To complicate matters still further, the slave was accused of murder himself before he was killed. The question is never answered in the dialogue, but this raises the question: if something is only moral because the gods approve of it, what if there is no God? Is there then no morality?
Socrates seems to suggest that morality is intrinsic to actions themselves, given his largely deflationary view of traditional myths of the Greek gods. This is one of the reasons that he was charged with impiety under Athenian law.…
Byrne, Peter. "Moral Arguments for the Existence of God." The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Spring 2012 Edition). Edward N. Zalta (ed.). [11 Oct 2012] .
Ross, Kelley. "Comments on the Euthyphro." [11 Oct 2012]
moral and not belief in God?
Humanity encompasses all aspects about exemplification of life and the utmost being. The origin of man is detrimental to the subsequent behaviours and codes of living among these human beings. In most cases, many researchers have shown that human existence is based on the origin and existence of God. God is regarded as a supreme being who gives and takes life. Nonetheless, human behaviour and character is dictated by what takes place in the multilingual conglomerates and thoughts within the human mind. In fact, humanity is obviously inexistent without the existence and intervention of God. Nonetheless, I support the opinion that believing in God changes human characters and behaviours. The impairment of morals and sensible approaches of handling life come with assurance of living in the presence of God. With God being an assurance to a moral sustenance of human life, one can be…
Dorff, E.N. (2007). For the love of God and people: A philosophy of Jewish law.
Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society.
Fuchs, J. (1983). Personal responsibility and Christian morality. Washington, D.C:
Moreland, J.P., & Craig, W.L. (2004). Philosophical foundations for a Christian worldview.
Moral Luck" by admitting defeat: he informs the reader that he will be assessing "a fundamental problem about moral responsibility to which we possess no satisfactory solution" (450). The problem is essentially one about ethical judgment, and he begins it with an illustration from Kant. Kant's view of the ethical will, in the quotation offered by Nagel at the outset, is one in which goodness is not determined by "what it effects or accomplishes or because of its adequacy to achieve some proposed end" (449). In other words, goodness is to be located in process, rather than in results. The reader may find it ironic, then, that Nagel begins his paper by promising us no solution whatsoever -- in his critique of Kantian ethics, Nagel seemingly requires the reader to measure Nagel's own work as a philosopher by the Kantian criterion, of admiring Nagel's will to philosophize without judging him…
Nagel, Thomas. "Moral Luck." In Feinberg, Joel and Shafer-Landau, Russ (eds.) Reason and Responsibility. 12th Edition. Belmont: Wadsworth, 2004.
moral hazard in mergers, acquisitions and takeovers. The essay discusses the definition of moral hazard as well as related agency theory and the role of asymmetrical information in transactions. The essay also reviews insider trading from the perspective of insider trading.
In the context of economic theory, moral hazard describes the tendency of a party to take excessive risks because the costs associated with the unreasonable risk are not incurred by the party taking the risks. That is, when the behavior of one party to a transaction may result in detriment to another party after the transaction has taken place, moral hazard may be said to be present. Moral hazard occurs because an institution or individual does not bear the full responsibility or consequences of its actions, and as a result, there is a tendency to act less carefully than otherwise would be the case; this irresponsible behavior leaves the…
Carlton, Dennis W. And Daniel R. Fischel. "The Regulation of Insider Trading." Stanford Law Review. (1983) 35: 857 -- 895. Web. .
Heakal, Reem. "Defining Illegal Insider Trading." (September 25, 2010) n. pag. Web. .
Kleiman, Robert T. "Agency Theory." (2012): n. pag. Web. .
Stein, Jeremy C. "Takeover Threats and Managerial Myopia." Journal of Political Economy. (1988) 96.1: 61- 80. Web. .
Whether in business or other settings, Chinese people will often demonstrate a notable lack of contentiousness, preferring to say indirectly what an American would not hesitate to say frankly.
If one's professional or social senior in China errs in some way, the junior will seldom correct or criticize him. This is in part because doing so would cause the senior to lose face, which is undesirable. One does not want to be the reason another loses face. Others take a dim view of someone who caused another to lose face in this way.
When constructive criticism is invoked by a senior, or even by an equal, the response from a Chinese person will probably not be very candid. An articulate Chinese person will attempt to use polite conversation to lead the person requesting the criticism to arrive at the same opinion as is felt by the person of whom the…
Barker, Thomas S., Cobb, Steven L. (2000). Survey of Ethics and Cultural Dimensions of MNCs. Competitiveness Review, 10(2), 123-129.
Chen, Charles P. (2004). Transforming Career in Cross-Cultural Transition: The Experience of Non-Western Culture. Counsellor Trainees. Counselling Psychology Quarterly, 17(2), 137-144.
Gries, Peter Hays. (1999). A 'China Threat'? World Affairs. 162(2), 63-75.
Hall, Edward, T., Hall, Mildren Reed. (1987). Nonverbal Communication for Educators. Theory Into Practice. 26(1), 364-367.